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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214680/exploring-the-role-of-testosterone-in-the-cerebellum-link-to-neuroticism-from-adolescence-to-early-adulthood
#1
Dennis J L G Schutter, Rosa Meuwese, Marieke G N Bos, Eveline A Crone, Jiska S Peper
Previous research has found an association between a smaller cerebellar volume and higher levels of neuroticism. The steroid hormone testosterone reduces stress responses and the susceptibility to negative mood. Together with in vitro studies showing a positive effect of testosterone on cerebellar gray matter volumes, we set out to explore the role of testosterone in the relation between cerebellar gray matter and neuroticism. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired, and indices of neurotic personality traits were assessed by administering the depression and anxiety scale of the revised NEO personality inventory and Gray's behavioural avoidance in one hundred and forty-nine healthy volunteers between 12 and 27 years of age...
January 29, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212445/long-term-effects-of-fetal-undernutrition-on-rat-heart-role-of-hypertension-and-oxidative-stress
#2
Pilar Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Angel L López de Pablo, Concha F García-Prieto, Beatriz Somoza, Begoña Quintana-Villamandos, José J Gómez de Diego, Perla Y Gutierrez-Arzapalo, David Ramiro-Cortijo, M Carmen González, Silvia M Arribas
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fetal undernutrition is a risk factor for heart disease in both genders, despite the protection of women against hypertension development. Using a rat model of maternal undernutrition (MUN) we aimed to assess possible sex differences in the development of cardiac alterations and the implication of hypertension and cardiac oxidative stress. METHODS: Male and female offspring from rats fed ad libitum (control) or with 50% of the normal daily intake during the second half of gestation (MUN) were used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208233/neonatal-exposure-to-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-impair-learning-behaviour-by-disrupting-hippocampal-organization-in-male-swiss-albino-mice
#3
Rakesh Bhaskar, Ashish K Mishra, Banalata Mohanty
Hippocampus is highly susceptible to endocrine disrupting chemicals exposure particularly during the critical phase of brain development. In the present study, mice offspring were exposed to endocrine disruptors mancozeb (MCZ) and imidacloprid (IMI) individually (40 mg MCZ and 0.65 mg IMI/kg/day) as well as to their equimixture (40 mg MCZ + 0.65 mg IMI/kg/day) through the diet of lactating mothers from post-natal day (PND) 1 to PND 28. Half of the randomly selected male offspring were killed at PND 29 and the rest half were left unexposed and killed at PND 63...
February 16, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202650/contrasting-effects-of-increased-yolk-testosterone-content-on-development-and-oxidative-status-in-gull-embryos
#4
Marco Parolini, Andrea Romano, Cristina Daniela Possenti, Manuela Caprioli, Diego Rubolini, Nicola Saino
Hormone-mediated maternal effects generate variation in offspring phenotype. In birds, maternal egg testosterone (T) exerts differential effects on offspring traits after hatching, suggesting that mothers experience a trade-off between contrasting T effects. However, there is very little information on T pre-natal effects. In the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis), we increased yolk T concentration within physiological limits and measured the effects on development and oxidative status of late-stage embryos...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196668/effects-of-sex-hormone-treatment-on-white-matter-microstructure-in-individuals-with-gender-dysphoria
#5
Georg S Kranz, Rene Seiger, Ulrike Kaufmann, Allan Hummer, Andreas Hahn, Sebastian Ganger, Martin Tik, Christian Windischberger, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Sex steroid hormones such as estradiol and testosterone are known to have organizing, as well as activating effects on neural tissue in animals and humans. This study investigated the effects of transgender hormone replacement therapy on white matter microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging. Female-to-male and male-to-female transgender participants were measured at baseline, four weeks and four months past treatment start and compared to female and male controls. We observed androgenization-related reductions in mean diffusivity and increases in fractional anisotropy...
February 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185881/the-association-between-endogenous-testosterone-level-and-behavioral-flexibility-in-young-men-evidence-from-stimulus-outcome-reversal-learning
#6
Esther K Diekhof, Susanne Kraft
The capacity to flexibly adapt responding to unexpected changes in the environment is crucial for survival. Several neurotransmitters have been implicated in stimulus-outcome reversal learning. Yet, it remains an open question whether inter-individual differences in the neuroactive hormone testosterone may also be related to this type of behavioral flexibility. In this study we assessed the association between endogenous testosterone level and reversal learning in young healthy men. We used an observer reversal learning task, in which subjects viewed computer-based decisions between two stimuli, of which one was currently rewarded while the other one was punished...
February 6, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179209/administration-of-anabolic-steroid-during-adolescence-induces-long-term-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-increases-susceptibility-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-adult-wistar-rats
#7
Fernando de Azevedo Cruz Seara, Raiana Andrade Quintanilha Barbosa, Dahienne Ferreira de Oliveira, Diorney Luiz Souza Gran da Silva, Adriana Bastos Carvalho, Andrea Claudia Freitas Ferreira, José Hamilton Matheus Nascimento, Emerson Lopes Olivares
Chronic administration of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in adult rats results in cardiac hypertrophy and increased susceptibility to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Molecular analyses demonstrated that hyperactivation of type 1 angiotensin II (AT1) receptor mediates cardiac hypertrophy induced by AAS and also induces down-regulation of myocardial ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP), resulting in loss of exercise-induced cardioprotection. Exposure to AAS during adolescence promoted long-term cardiovascular dysfunctions, such as dysautonomia...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176027/prenatal-influences-on-human-sexual-orientation-expectations-versus-data
#8
S Marc Breedlove
In non-human vertebrate species, sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by androgens such as testosterone organizing the brains of males in a masculine fashion early in life, while the lower levels of androgen in developing females organize their brains in a feminine fashion. These principles may be relevant to the development of sexual orientation in humans, because retrospective markers of prenatal androgen exposure, namely digit ratios and otoacoustic emissions, indicate that lesbians, on average, were exposed to greater prenatal androgen than were straight women...
February 7, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167441/effects-of-environmentally-relevant-concentrations-of-the-anti-inflammatory-drug-diclofenac-in-freshwater-fish-rhamdia-quelen
#9
Izonete Cristina Guiloski, Laercio Dante Stein Piancini, Ana Carolina Dagostim, Sabrina Loise de Morais Calado, Luis Fernando Fávaro, Suelen Lúcio Boschen, Marta Margarete Cestari, Cláudio da Cunha, Helena Cristina Silva de Assis
The presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment and its impact on humans and the ecosystem are emerging issues in environmental health. This study evaluated the potential biochemical, genetic and reproductive effects of the diclofenac by waterborne exposure, in a semi-static bioassay for 21 days. The fish Rhamdia quelen were exposed to environmental concentrations of diclofenac (0, 0.2, 2 and 20µg/L). The results showed that in the liver, diclofenac reduced the catalase and ethoxyresorufin- O- deethylase activities in fish exposed to 2µg/L, and superoxide dismutase in all exposed groups...
February 3, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163205/localization-pattern-of-visfatin-nampt-in-d-galactose-induced-aged-rat-testis
#10
Malsawmhriatzuala Jeremy, Guruswami Gurusubramanian, Vikas Kumar Roy
Aging is a complex irreversible process which leads to decline in body physiology including reproductive activity. Neurological and brain functions defects have been studied in the d-gal induced aging rodent model. However, there is dearth of literature on reproductive aging induced by d-gal treatment. Visfatin is an adipokine which regulates testicular steroidogenesis and its level increases under stress conditions to cope and extend longevity. To the best of our knowledge the expression and localization pattern of visfatin and histological evaluation of d-gal induced aged testis have not been investigated...
February 3, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141859/studies-of-hvc-plasticity-in-adult-canaries-reveal-social-effects-and-sex-differences-as-well-as-limitations-of-multiple-markers-available-to-assess-adult-neurogenesis
#11
Olesya T Shevchouk, Gregory F Ball, Charlotte A Cornil, Jacques Balthazart
In songbirds, neurogenesis in the song control nucleus HVC is sensitive to the hormonal and social environment but the dynamics of this process is difficult to assess with a single exogenous marker of new neurons. We simultaneously used three independent markers to investigate HVC neurogenesis in male and female canaries. Males were castrated, implanted with testosterone and housed either alone (M), with a female (M-F) or with another male (M-M) while females were implanted with 17β-estradiol and housed with a male (F-M)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135770/testosterone-induced-neuroendocrine-changes-in-the-medial-preoptic-area-precede-song-activation-and-plasticity-in-song-control-nuclei-of-female-canaries
#12
Olesya T Shevchouk, Samar Ghorbanpoor, Gregory F Ball, Charlotte A Cornil, Jacques Balthazart
Testosterone plays a key role in the control of seasonal changes in singing behavior and its underlying neural circuitry. After administration of exogenous testosterone, song quality and song control nuclei volumes change over the course of weeks, but song rate increases within days. The medial preoptic nucleus (POM) controls sexual motivation and testosterone action in POM increases sexually motivated singing. In this study, we investigated the time course of testosterone action in the song control nuclei and POM, at the gross anatomical and cellular level...
January 30, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125600/conjugated-linoleic-acid-administration-induces-amnesia-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats-and-exacerbates-recovery-from-functional-deficits-induced-by-a-controlled-cortical-impact-injury
#13
Rastafa I Geddes, Kentaro Hayashi, Quinn Bongers, Marlyse Wehber, Icelle M Anderson, Alex D Jansen, Chase Nier, Emily Fares, Gabrielle Farquhar, Amita Kapoor, Toni E Ziegler, Sivan VadakkadathMeethal, Ian M Bird, Craig S Atwood
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids like conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are required for normal neural development and cognitive function and have been ascribed various beneficial functions. Recently, oral CLA also has been shown to increase testosterone (T) biosynthesis, which is known to diminish traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced neuropathology and reduce deficits induced by stroke in adult rats. To test the impact of CLA on cognitive recovery following a TBI, 5-6 month old male Sprague Dawley rats received a focal injury (craniectomy + controlled cortical impact (CCI; n = 17)) or Sham injury (craniectomy alone; n = 12) and were injected with 25 mg/kg body weight of Clarinol® G-80 (80% CLA in safflower oil; n = 16) or saline (n = 13) every 48 h for 4 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119158/sources-of-variance-within-and-among-young-men-in-concentrations-of-17%C3%AE-estradiol-and-testosterone-in-axillary-perspiration
#14
Brittney Elliott, Cameron Muir, Denys deCatanzaro
The most potent estrogen, 17β-estradiol (E2), and its precursor, testosterone (T), play critical roles in mammalian reproductive processes. Evidence indicates that these steroids are present in bioactive form in the excretions of many male mammals. It has been demonstrated that small lipophilic steroids such as E2 can be absorbed by proximate females from male excretions, arriving in the uterus, brain, and other organs where there are estrogen receptors. We took repeated samples of axillary perspiration from men aged 20-30years during vigorous exercise...
January 21, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111254/neonatal-blockade-of-gaba-a-receptors-alters-behavioral-and-physiological-phenotypes-in-adult-mice
#15
Ali-Akbar Salari, Mohammad Amani
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays an inhibitory role in the mature brain, and has a complex and bidirectional effect in different parts of the immature brain which affects proliferation, migration and differentiation of neurons during development. There is also increasing evidence suggesting that activation or blockade of the GABA-A receptors during early life can induce brain and behavioral abnormalities in adulthood. We investigated whether neonatal blockade of the GABA-A receptors by bicuculline can alter anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, body weight, food intake, corticosterone and testosterone levels in adult mice (postnatal days 80-95)...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108667/effects-on-circulating-steroid-hormones-and-gene-expression-along-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal-axis-in-adult-japanese-quail-exposed-to-17%C3%AE-trenbolone-across-multiple-generations
#16
Natalie K Karouna-Renier, Yu Chen, Paula F P Henry, Catherine M Maddox, Daniel T Sprague
We investigated the effects of the androgenic growth promoter 17ß-trenbolone (17βTB) on adult Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) exposed across three generations. The F0 generation was exposed after sexual maturity to 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppm through feed. The F1 generation was exposed in ovo by maternal transfer and through feed at the same doses as their parents. The F2 generation was exposed in ovo only. Levels of plasma sex steroids, gonadal Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA and select brain neuroendocrine peptide mRNAs were measured...
January 20, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093793/the-sex-dependent-effects-of-letrozole-on-anxiety-in-middle-aged-rats
#17
Veronika Borbélyová, Emese Domonkos, Melinda Csongová, Mária Kačmárová, Daniela Ostatníková, Peter Celec, Július Hodosy
Aromatase catalyzes the conversion of testosterone to estradiol and is involved in physiological effects of sex hormones on brain functions. Animal experiments have shown that the aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, can induce anxiety in young ovariectomized females that are used as a model of aging. Whether or not these effects would be similar in intact middle-aged animals is unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze the effects of letrozole on anxiety in middle-aged rats of both sexes. Fifteen months old male and female rats were treated daily with either letrozole or vehicle for 2 weeks...
January 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070912/role-of-testosterone-and-y-chromosome-genes-for-the-masculinization-of-the-human-brain
#18
Ivanka Savic, Louise Frisen, Amirhossein Manzouri, Anna Nordenstrom, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg
: Women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) have a male (46,XY) karyotype but no functional androgen receptors. Their condition, therefore, offers a unique model for studying testosterone effects on cerebral sex dimorphism. We present MRI data from 16 women with CAIS and 32 male (46,XY) and 32 female (46,XX) controls. METHODS: FreeSurfer software was employed to measure cortical thickness and subcortical structural volumes. Axonal connections, indexed by fractional anisotropy, (FA) were measured with diffusion tensor imaging, and functional connectivity with resting state fMRI...
January 10, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057567/prenatal-administration-of-letrozole-reduces-sdn-and-scn-volume-and-cell-number-independent-of-partner-preference-in-the-male-rat
#19
Sandra Olvera-Hernández, Miguel Tapia-Rodríguez, Dick F Swaab, Alonso Fernández-Guasti
During development, the exposure to testosterone, and its conversion to estradiol by an enzyme complex termed aromatase, appears to be essential in adult male rats for the expression of typical male sexual behavior and female-sex preference. Some hypothalamic areas are the supposed neural bases of sexual preference/orientation; for example, male-oriented rams have a reduced volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN), while in homosexual men this nucleus does not differ from that of heterosexual men. In contrast, homosexual men showed a larger number of vasopressinergic cells in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
January 3, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040552/chemoprotective-role-of-quercetin-in-manganese-induced-toxicity-along-the-brain-pituitary-testicular-axis-in-rats
#20
Isaac A Adedara, Temitayo I Subair, Valerie C Ego, Oluwasetemi Oyediran, Ebenezer O Farombi
Reproductive dysfunction in response to manganese exposure has been reported in humans and animals. Quercetin, a bioflavonoid widely distributed in fruits, vegetables and beverages has been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities in different experimental model systems. However, there is dearth of scientific information on the influence of quercetin on manganese-induced reproductive toxicity. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of quercetin on manganese-induced functional alterations along the brain-pituitary- testicular axis in rats...
February 1, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
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