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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908416/suppression-of-the-brain-pituitary-testicular-axis-function-following-acute-arsenic-and-manganese-co-exposure-and-withdrawal-in-rats
#1
Isaac A Adedara, Amos O Abolaji, Ifeoluwa O Awogbindin, Ebenezer O Farombi
Despite the fact that most environmental exposures to metals do not occur in isolation, the combined effects of metal mixtures on brain-pituitary-gonadal axis are poorly known. The present study investigated the impacts of co-exposure to arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) on sperm characteristics, reproductive hormones and selected oxidative stress indices in the brain, testes and epididymis of rats following exposure for 15 consecutive days to 60mg/L of AsO2Na and 30mg/L of MnCl2 in drinking water. The results showed that while the brain weight remained unaffected, the fluid intake and the weights of testes and epididymis significantly (p<0...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890531/short-term-effects-of-diabetes-on-neurosteroidogenesis-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#2
Simone Romano, Nico Mitro, Silvia Diviccaro, Roberto Spezzano, Matteo Audano, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, Donatella Caruso, Roberto Cosimo Melcangi
Diabetes may induce neurophysiological and structural changes in the central nervous system (i.e., diabetic encephalopathy). We here explored whether the levels of neuroactive steroids (i.e., neuroprotective agents) in the hippocampus may be altered by short-term diabetes (i.e., one month). To this aim, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry we observed that in the experimental model of the rat raised diabetic by streptozotocin injection, one month of pathology induced changes in the levels of several neuroactive steroids, such as pregnenolone, progesterone and its metabolites (i...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888546/sex-differences-in-depolarizing-actions-of-gabaa-receptor-activation-in-rat-embryonic-hypothalamic-neurons
#3
Franco R Mir, Hugo F Carrer, María J Cambiasso
GABAA receptor activation exerts trophic actions in immature neurons through depolarization of resting membrane potential. The switch to its classical hyperpolarizing role is developmentally regulated. Previous results suggest that a hormonally biased sex difference exists at the onset of the switch in hypothalamic neurons. The aim of this work was to evaluate sex differences in GABAA receptor function of hypothalamic neurons before brain masculinization by gonadal hormones. Hypothalamic cells were obtained from embryonic day 16 male and female rat foetuses, 2 days before the peak of testosterone production by the foetal testis, and grown in vitro for 9 days...
November 5, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881754/neuroendocrine-correlates-of-sex-role-reversal-in-barred-buttonquails
#4
Cornelia Voigt
Sex differences in brain structure and behaviour are well documented among vertebrates. An excellent model exploring the neural mechanisms of sex differences in behaviour is represented by sex-role-reversed species. In the majority of bird species, males compete over access to mates and resources more strongly than do females. It is thought that the responsible brain regions are therefore more developed in males than in females. Because these behaviours and brain regions are activated by androgens, males usually have increased testosterone levels during breeding...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872000/is-testosterone-a-food-for-the-brain
#5
REVIEW
Giacomo Ciocca, Erika Limoncin, Eleonora Carosa, Stefania Di Sante, Giovanni L Gravina, Daniele Mollaioli, Daniele Gianfrilli, Andrea Lenzi, Emmanuele A Jannini
INTRODUCTION: Testosterone is fundamental for psychological, sexological, cognitive, and reproductive aspects, and its lack or reduction largely impacts the quality of life in males and females. AIM: Therefore, the aim of this review is to describe the role of testosterone in the neurophysiology of the brain and related aspects regarding the quality of general and sexual life. METHODS: We listed and discussed the principal studies on the role of testosterone in the brain regarding sexual health, psychopathological conditions, and the elderly...
January 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871670/convergence-of-sex-differences-and-the-neuroimmune-system-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
REVIEW
Margaret M McCarthy, Christopher L Wright
The male bias in autism spectrum disorder incidence is among the most extreme of all neuropsychiatric disorders, yet the origins of the sex difference remain obscure. Developmentally, males are exposed to high levels of testosterone and its byproduct, estradiol. Together these steroids modify the course of brain development by altering neurogenesis, cell death, migration, differentiation, dendritic and axonal growth, synaptogenesis, and synaptic pruning, all of which can be deleteriously impacted during the course of developmental neuropsychiatric disorders...
October 11, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870444/sex-differences-and-estrogen-regulation-of-bdnf-gene-expression-but-not-propeptide-content-in-the-developing-hippocampus
#7
Katherine E Kight, Margaret M McCarthy
Sex differences in adult brain function are frequently determined developmentally through the actions of steroid hormones during sensitive periods of prenatal and early postnatal life. In rodents, various cellular end points of the developing brain are affected by estradiol that is derived from the aromatization of circulating testosterone and/or synthesized within the brain. We have previously described a sex difference in neurogenesis in the hippocampus of neonatal rats that is modulated by estradiol. In this report, we examined a potential downstream regulator of the effects of estradiol on hippocampal cell proliferation by measuring gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophin (BDNF) in male and female neonatal rats in response to estradiol...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870443/sex-differences-in-depression-during-pregnancy-and-the-postpartum-period
#8
REVIEW
Inger Sundström Poromaa, Erika Comasco, Marios K Georgakis, Alkistis Skalkidou
Women have a lifetime risk of major depression double that of men but only during their reproductive years. This sex difference has been attributed partially to activational effects of female sex steroids and also to the burdens of pregnancy, childbirth, and parenting. Men, in contrast, have a reproductive period difficult to delineate, and research on the mental health of men has rarely considered the effects of fatherhood. However, the couple goes through a number of potentially stressing events during the reproductive period, and both mothers and fathers are at risk of developing peripartum depression...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870425/sex-and-the-development-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Christian J Pike
Men and women exhibit differences in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The factors underlying the sex differences in AD are not well understood. This Review emphasizes the contributions of sex steroid hormones to the relationship between sex and AD. In women, events that decrease lifetime exposure to estrogens are generally associated with increased AD risk, whereas estrogen-based hormone therapy administered near the time of menopause may reduce AD risk. In men, estrogens do not exhibit age-related reduction and are not significantly associated with AD risk...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852030/-a-case-of-pol-iii-related-leukodystrophy-with-homozygous-mutation-in-polr3a
#10
Tomoaki Shima, Takeshi Fujimoto, Teiichiro Miyazaki, Fumiaki Nonaka
We describe a 27-year-old man with mental retardation, symptomatic epilepsy, myopia, and cerebellar ataxia without spontaneous puberty whose brain magnetic resonance imaging showed hypomyelination. He had child-like facial appearance, with thin facial hair. He had no underarm and pubic hairs, and his penis was small. Laboratory tests showed low levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and testosterone. Brain MRI showed diffuse hypomyelination, atrophy of the cerebellum and brainstem, and hypoplastic corpus callosum...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845378/sex-specific-effects-of-testosterone-on-the-sexually-dimorphic-transcriptome-and-epigenome-of-embryonic-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#11
Matthew S Bramble, Lara Roach, Allen Lipson, Neerja Vashist, Ascia Eskin, Tuck Ngun, Jason E Gosschalk, Steven Klein, Hayk Barseghyan, Valerie A Arboleda, Eric Vilain
The mechanisms by which sex differences in the mammalian brain arise are poorly understood, but are influenced by a combination of underlying genetic differences and gonadal hormone exposure. Using a mouse embryonic neural stem cell (eNSC) model to understand early events contributing to sexually dimorphic brain development, we identified novel interactions between chromosomal sex and hormonal exposure that are instrumental to early brain sex differences. RNA-sequencing identified 103 transcripts that were differentially expressed between XX and XY eNSCs at baseline (FDR = 0...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833908/exploratory-analysis-of-the-links-among-food-consumption-profiles-prenatal-androgens-and-selected-measures-of-quality-of-life
#12
Klaudia Modlinska, Wojciech Pisula
Prenatal sex steroids play a vital role in the development of the whole organism, and therefore also the brain. Exposure of the fetus to testosterone seems to be of special importance both for typical development and pathology. The key factor impacting offspring development (including prenatal androgen levels) appears to be diet, both in terms of shortage and excessive intake of certain food products. Prenatal steroid levels are measured using the ratio of the lengths of the second and fourth fingers (2D:4D)...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826060/dynamic-changes-in-social-dominance-and-mpoa-gnrh-expression-in-male-mice-following-social-opportunity
#13
Cait M Williamson, Russell D Romeo, James P Curley
Social competence - the ability of animals to dynamically adjust their social behavior dependent on the current social context - is fundamental to the successful establishment and maintenance of social relationships in group-living species. The social opportunity paradigm, where animals rapidly ascend a social hierarchy following the removal of more dominant individuals, is a well-established approach for studying the neural and neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying socially competent behavior. In the current study, we demonstrate that this paradigm can be successfully adapted for studying socially competent behavior in laboratory mice...
November 5, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816780/adolescent-neural-response-to-reward-is-related-to-participant-sex-and-task-motivation
#14
Gabriela Alarcón, Anita Cservenka, Bonnie J Nagel
Risky decision making is prominent during adolescence, perhaps contributed to by heightened sensation seeking and ongoing maturation of reward and dopamine systems in the brain, which are, in part, modulated by sex hormones. In this study, we examined sex differences in the neural substrates of reward sensitivity during a risky decision-making task and hypothesized that compared with girls, boys would show heightened brain activation in reward-relevant regions, particularly the nucleus accumbens, during reward receipt...
November 2, 2016: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813048/neuroactive-steroids-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-association-with-cognitive-functional-and-neurological-outcomes
#15
S Casas, M C Gonzalez Deniselle, G M Gargiulo-Monachelli, A F Perez, M Tourreilles, M Mattiazzi, C Ojeda, D G Lotero Polesel, A F De Nicola
Despite several scientific and technological advances, there is no single neuroprotective treatment that can reverse the brain damage after acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Neuroactive steroids are cholesterol-derived hormones that have the ability to modulate the normal and pathologic nervous system employing genomic and nongenomic mechanisms. In this work, we first investigated if AIS affects the plasma concentration of 5 neuroactive steroids (cortisol, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and 3α-androstenediol glucuronide)...
November 3, 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805753/dehydroepiandrosterone-dhea-heightens-aggression-and-increases-androgen-receptor-and-aromatase-mrna-expression-in-the-brain-of-a-male-songbird
#16
Douglas W Wacker, Sahar Khalaj, Lindsey J Jones, Tara L Champion, Jason E Davis, Simone L Meddle, John C Wingfield
Dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA, is a testosterone/estrogen precursor and known modulator of vertebrate aggression. Male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia morphna) show high aggression during breeding and non-breeding life history stages when circulating DHEA levels are high, and low aggression during molt when DHEA levels are low. We previously showed that androgen receptor and aromatase mRNA expression are higher during breeding and/or non-breeding in brain regions associated with reproductive and aggressive behavior, but DHEA's potential role in mediating these seasonal changes remained unclear...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802175/neurotransmitter-alteration-in-a-testosterone-propionate-induced-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-rat-model
#17
Nirja K Chaudhari, Laxmipriya P Nampoothiri
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), one of the leading causes of infertility seen in women, is characterized by anovulation and hyperandrogenism, resulting in ovarian dysfunction. In addition, associations of several metabolic complications like insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia and psychological co-morbidities are well known in PCOS. One of the major factors influencing mood and the emotional state of mind is neurotransmitters. Also, these neurotransmitters are very crucial for GnRH release...
October 29, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788452/effects-of-alkylphenols-on-the-biotransformation-of-diuron-and-enzymes-involved-in-the-synthesis-and-clearance-of-sex-steroids-in-juvenile-male-tilapia-oreochromus-mossambica
#18
Andréia A Felício, Jordan Crago, Lindley A Maryoung, Eduardo A Almeida, Daniel Schlenk
Previous studies using in vivo bioassay guided fractionation indicated that the herbicide diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) and alkylphenol (AP)-containing surfactants were detected in fractions of extracts that induced the estrogenic biomarker, vitellogenin in fish exposed to surface water extracts from the United States. However, when the compounds were evaluated individually using in vivo estrogenic assays or in vitro estrogen receptor assays, estrogenic activity was not observed. Since APs have been shown to alter activity and content of cytochrome P450s (CYP) which convert diuron to potential estrogenic metabolites, the hepatic biotransformation of diuron was measured with and without a 7day pretreatment of p-Octylphenol (OP) and p-Nonylphenol (NP) at low (OP 13ng/L+NP 91ng/L), and high concentrations (OP 65ng/L+NP 455ng/L) in juvenile male Nile tilapia (Oreochromus niloticus)...
October 22, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788270/testicular-steroidogenesis-and-locomotor-activity-are-regulated-by-gonadotropin-inhibitory-hormone-in-male-european-sea-bass
#19
José A Paullada-Salmerón, Mairi Cowan, María Aliaga-Guerrero, José F López-Olmeda, Evaristo L Mañanós, Silvia Zanuy, José A Muñoz-Cueto
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a neurohormone that suppresses reproduction by acting at both the brain and pituitary levels. In addition to the brain, GnIH may also be produced in gonads and can regulate steroidogenesis and gametogenesis. However, the function of GnIH in gonadal physiology has received little attention in fish. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of peripheral sbGnih-1 and sbGnih-2 implants on gonadal development and steroidogenesis during the reproductive cycle of male sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785334/modulatory-influence-of-parkia-biglobosa-protein-isolate-on-testosterone-and-biomarkers-of-oxidative-stress-in-brain-and-testes-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-male-rats
#20
Bolajoko Idiat Ogunyinka, Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye, Foluso Oluwagbemiga Osunsanmi, Andrew Rowland Opoku, Abidemi Paul Kappo
Parkia biglobosa seed an important household spice commonly consumed in Nigeria is believed to possess antioxidant activity that may exert modulatory effects in diabetes and diabetic complications. This study investigated the modulatory potential of Parkia biglobosa protein isolate (PBPi) on serum testosterone (sTT) level as well as its influence on biomarkers of oxidative stress in brain and testes of streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. Animals were made diabetic by single intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg body weight)...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
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