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testosterone brain

Chunxiao Qi, Xiaoming Ji, Guoliang Zhang, Yunxiao Kang, Yuanxiang Huang, Rui Cui, Shuangcheng Li, Huixian Cui, Geming Shi
The purpose of present study was to infer the potential effects of testosterone increase in some male-based childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorders, such as Tourette syndrome. Thus, the influence of early postnatal androgen exposure upon the neurobehaviors and its possible neural basis were investigated in the study. Male pup rats received consecutive 14-day testosterone propionate (TP) subcutaneous injection from postnatal day (PND) 7. The TP treatment produced the hyperactive motor behavior and grooming behavior as well as the increased levels of dopamine, tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter in the mesodopaminergic system and the elevated levels of serotonin in the nucleus accumbens, without affecting the levels of glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, norepinephrine and histamine in the caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens of PND21 and PND49 rats...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Marija Glisic, Lyda Z Rojas, Eralda Asllanaj, Kris G Vargas, Maryam Kavousi, M Arfan Ikram, Bart C J M Fauser, Joop S E Laven, Taulant Muka, Oscar H Franco
BACKGROUND: Amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) has a well-documented prognostic value for cardiovascular disease and sex-hormones are suggested to modulate NT-proBNP levels. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether endogenous sex-hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) are associated with NT-proBNP levels in postmenopausal women free of clinical cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: Total estradiol (E2 ), total testosterone (TT), androstenedione (AD), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and NT-proBNP were assessed in 4112 postmenopausal women free of cardiovascular diseases from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Matthew S Panizzon, Richard L Hauger, Hong Xian, Kristen Jacobson, Michael J Lyons, Carol E Franz, William S Kremen
Animal and human research suggests that testosterone is associated with hippocampal structure and function. Studies examining the association between testosterone and either hippocampal structure or hippocampal-mediated cognitive processes have overwhelmingly focused on the effects of testosterone alone, without considering the interaction of other neuroendocrine factors. The aim of the present study was to examine the interactive effects of testosterone and cortisol in relation to hippocampal volume and episodic memory in a sample of late-middle aged men from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging...
March 9, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Lara M Wierenga, Marieke G N Bos, Elisabeth Schreuders, Ferdi Vd Kamp, Jiska S Peper, Christian K Tamnes, Eveline A Crone
The onset of adolescence in humans is marked by hormonal changes that give rise to secondary sexual characteristics, noted as puberty. It has, however, proven challenging to unravel to what extent pubertal changes may have organizing effects on the brain beyond chronological age, as reported in animal studies. The present longitudinal study aimed to characterize the unique effects of age and puberty on subcortical brain volumes and included three waves of data collection at two-year intervals and 680 T1-weighted MRI scans of 271 participants (54% females) aged between 8 and 29 years old...
March 8, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Laura J Mosher, Sean C Godar, Marc Morissette, Kenneth M McFarlin, Simona Scheggi, Carla Gambarana, Stephen C Fowler, Thérèse Di Paolo, Marco Bortolato
The enzyme steroid 5α-reductase 2 (5αR2) catalyzes the conversion of testosterone into the potent androgen 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Previous investigations showed that 5αR2 is expressed in key brain areas for emotional and socio-affective reactivity, yet the role of this enzyme in behavioral regulation remains mostly unknown. Here, we profiled the behavioral characteristics of 5αR2 heterozygous (HZ) and knockout (KO) mice, as compared with their wild-type (WT) littermates. While male 5αR2 KO mice displayed no overt alterations in motoric, sensory, information-processing and anxiety-related behaviors, they exhibited deficits in neurobehavioral correlates of dominance (including aggression against intruders, mating, and tube dominance) as well as novelty-seeking and risk-taking responses...
February 16, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Yuko Arita, Michael Kirk, Neha Gupta, Ramkumar Menon, Darios Getahun, Morgan R Peltier
OBJECTIVE: Tributyltin (TBT) is a persistent pollutant but its effects on placental function are poorly understood as are its possible interactions with infection. We hypothesized that TBT alters the production of sex hormones and biomarkers for inflammation and neurodevelopment in an infection-dependent manner. METHODS: Placental explant cultures were treated with 0-5000 nM TBT in the presence and absence of Escherichia coli. A conditioned medium was harvested and concentrations of steroids (progesterone, P4; testosterone, T and estradiol, E2) as well as biomarkers of inflammation [interleukin (IL)-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-10, IL-6, soluble glycoprotein 130 (sgp-130) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)], oxidative stress [8-iso-prostaglandin (8-IsoP)] and neurodevelopment [brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)] were quantified...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Kristen M Culbert, Elaine B Sinclair, Britny A Hildebrandt, Kelly L Klump, Cheryl L Sisk
Exposure to testosterone early in life may contribute to sex differences and pubertal changes in risk for eating pathology (i.e., females > males, after pubertal onset). Specifically, perinatal testosterone permanently alters brain structure/function and drives the masculinization of several sex-differentiated behaviors. However, the effects of perinatal testosterone are often not evident until puberty when increases in gonadal hormones activate the expression of sex typical behavior, including eating behaviors (e...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Kathy Keyvani, Yvonne Münster, Nirup K Kurapati, Sebastian Rubach, Andreas Schönborn, Emre Kocakavuk, Mohamed Karout, Pia Hammesfahr, Ya-Chao Wang, Dirk M Hermann, Sarah Teuber-Hanselmann, Arne Herring
Women seem to have a higher vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the underlying mechanisms of this sex dichotomy are not well understood. Here, we first determined the influence of sex on various aspects of Alzheimer's pathology in transgenic CRND8 mice. We demonstrate that beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaque burden starts to be more severe around P180 (moderate disease stage) in female transgenics when compared to males and that aging aggravates this sex-specific difference. Further we show that female transgenics suffer from higher levels of neurovascular dysfunction around P180, resulting in impaired Aβ peptide clearance across the blood-brain-barrier at P360...
March 5, 2018: Brain Pathology
Rune Rasmussen, Mette Midttun, Tine Kolenda, Anne-Mette Ragle, Thea Winther Sørensen, Anders Vinther, Bo Zerahn, Maria Pedersen, Karsten Overgaard
BACKGROUND: Fall accidents are a major cause of mortality among the elderly and the leading cause of traumatic brain injury. After a fall, many elderly people never completely recover and need help in coping with everyday life. Due to the increasing older population in the world, injuries, disabilities, and deaths caused by falls are a growing worldwide problem. Muscle weakness leads to greatly increased risk of falling, decreased quality of life, and decline in functional capacity. Muscle mass and muscle power decrease about 40% from age 20 to 80 years, and the level of testosterone decreases with age and leads to impaired muscle mass...
March 2, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
José M Guzmán, J Adam Luckenbach, Denis A M da Silva, Edward S Hayman, Gina M Ylitalo, Frederick W Goetz, Penny Swanson
Pituitary-hormone signaling plays critical roles in the onset and progression of gametogenesis in vertebrates. This study characterized expression patterns of pituitary gonadotropin beta-subunits (fshb and lhb), brain-type aromatase (cyp19a1b), androgen (ar1, ar2) and estrogen receptors (esr1, esr2a, esr2b), and changes in plasma steroid levels by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry in wild sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria, order Scorpaeniformes) during a complete reproductive cycle. Transcripts for fshb increased during early gametogenesis and peaked in late vitellogenic females and late recrudescent males, while expression of lhb reached maximum levels in periovulatory and spermiating fish...
February 26, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Surang Chomphoo, Sawetree Pakkarato, Tarinee Sawatpanich, Hiroyuki Sakagami, Hisatake Kondo, Wiphawi Hipkaeo
EFA6 (exchange factor for ARF6) activates Arf6 (ADP ribosylation factor 6) by exchanging ADP to ATP and the resulting activated form of Arf6 is involved in the membrane trafficking and actin remodeling of cells. Our previous study has shown the selective expression/localization of EFA6D in steroidogenic adrenocortical cells in situ of adult mice. In view of the previous finding, the present study was undertaken to examine its localization in mouse Leydig cells representing another steroidogenic cell species in order to further support the possible involvement of the EFA6/Arf6 cascade via membrane trafficking in the regulation of steroidogenesis and/or secretion...
February 26, 2018: Acta Histochemica
Alexandre Hohl, Fernando Areas Zanela, Gabriela Ghisi, Marcelo Fernando Ronsoni, Alexandre Paim Diaz, Marcelo Liborio Schwarzbold, Alcir Luiz Dafre, Benjamin Reddi, Kátia Lin, Felipe Dal Pizzol, Roger Walz
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide core public health problem affecting mostly young male subjects. An alarming increase in incidence has turned TBI into a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young adults as well as a tremendous resource burden on the health and welfare sector. Hormone dysfunction is highly prevalent during the acute phase of severe TBI. In particular, investigation of the luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels during the acute phase of severe TBI in male has identified a high incidence of low testosterone levels in male patients (36...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Xiao Guo, Huifen Guo, Lei Zhao, Yao-Hua Zhang, Jian-Xu Zhang
Background: In rats, urine-borne male pheromones comprise organic volatile compounds and major urinary proteins (MUPs). A number of volatile pheromones have been reported, but no MUP pheromones have been identified in rat urine. Results: We used sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), isoelectric focusing electrophoresis (IEF), nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS) after in gel digestion of the proteins and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT - PCR) and showed that the levels of two MUPs, odorant - binding protein 3 (OBP3) (i...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
D Joshi, S K Singh
Orexin A, a hypothalamic neuropeptide, regulates food intake and sleep-wake cycle by binding to orexin receptor 1. Besides brain, orexin A and orexin receptor 1 are also present in peripheral organs. In our earlier studies, localization and expression of orexin A and orexin receptor 1 have been shown in adult mouse testis, and further their role in testicular development in neonatal mouse was also demonstrated. In this study, role of orexin A and orexin receptor 1 in the testis of adult mouse by blocking binding of orexin A to orexin receptor 1 using an orexin receptor 1 antagonist, SB-334867, was investigated under in vivo and ex vivo conditions...
February 26, 2018: Andrology
Ari L Mendell, Beryl Y T Chung, Carolyn E Creighton, Bettina E Kalisch, Craig D C Bailey, Neil J MacLusky
Gonadal steroid hormones exert neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects on the brain. Recent work suggests potential neuroprotective roles for the 3α-hydroxy, 5α-reduced metabolites of these hormones. Two such metabolites are 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol (3α-diol) and 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (allopregnanolone; Allo), which may contribute to the overall protection conferred by their precursors (testosterone and progesterone, respectively) through mechanisms including potentiation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor (GABAA R) activity...
February 22, 2018: Brain Research
Daphné Capela, Carlos Dombret, Kevin Poissenot, Manon Poignant, Aude Malbert-Colas, Isabelle Franceschini, Matthieu Keller, Sakina Mhaouty-Kodja
The neural circuitry processing male sexual behavior is tightly regulated by testosterone and its neural metabolite estradiol. The present study evaluated the effects of adult exposure to low doses of nonylphenol (NP), a widespread environmental contaminant, on the neuroendocrine regulation of testosterone and expression of sexual behavior. Oral exposure of C57BL/6J males to NP (0.5, 5 or 50 μg/kg/day) for 4 weeks did not affect circulating levels of testosterone or the kisspeptin system, a key regulator of the gonadotropic axis...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sarah Delmas, Robert Porteous, Dave H Bergin, Allan E Herbison
The roles of kisspeptin signaling outside the hypothalamus in the brain are unknown. We examined here the impact of Kiss1r-deletion on hippocampus-related behaviors of anxiety and spatial learning in adult male mice using two mouse models. In the first, global Kiss1r-null and control mice were gonadectomized (GDX KISS1R-KO). In the second, KISS1R signalling was rescued selectively in gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons to generate Kiss1r-null mice with normal testosterone levels (intact KISS1R-KO). Intact KISS1R-KO rescue mice were found to spend twice as much time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze (EPM) compared to controls (P < 0...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Devin P Merullo, Jeremy A Spool, Changjiu Zhao, Lauren V Riters
Animals communicate in distinct social contexts to convey information specific to those contexts, such as sexual or agonistic motivation. In seasonally-breeding male songbirds, seasonal changes in day length and increases in testosterone stimulate sexually-motivated song directed at females for courtship and reproduction. Dopamine and testosterone may act in the same brain regions to stimulate sexually-motivated singing. The neuropeptide neurotensin, acting at the neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1), can strongly influence dopamine transmission...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Elaheh Mohammadi, Soghra Mehri, Hasan Badie Bostan, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Objective: Aging is a multifactorial phenomenon, which attribute to different diseases and abnormalities in living systems. Oxidative stress, which is an important factor in aging, exacerbates this process via different mechanisms. Crocin (CR), one of the active components of saffron showed strong antioxidant effects. In the present study, anti-aging property of crocin was investigated in mice. Materials and Methods: The model of aging was induced using administration of d-galactose (500 mg/kg, s...
January 2018: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Su Kang Kim, Il GyuKo, Hae Jeong Park, Joo-Ho Chung, Kyu Bong Cho, Oh Young Kwon, Kyeong Hun Park, Young Sub Ahn, Chun Geon Park, Young Ock Kim
The prostatic hyperplasia in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) leads to obstructive micturition symptoms. Previous studies showed that pontine micturition center (PMC), ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), and medial preopticnucleus (MPA) regions in the brain have been known to regulate the urinary bladder function. The present study shows the influences of Panax ginseng on nerve growth factor (NGF) expressions in PMC, vlPAG, and MPA regions in the brain. Wistar rats were used for the present study. The rats split into four groups; 4 groups ( n  = 6) in control group, BPH-induced group, BPH-induced and P...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
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