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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093793/the-sex-dependent-effects-of-letrozole-on-anxiety-in-middle-aged-rats
#1
Veronika Borbélyová, Emese Domonkos, Melinda Csongová, Mária Kačmárová, Daniela Ostatníková, Peter Celec, Július Hodosy
Aromatase catalyzes the conversion of testosterone to estradiol and is involved in physiological effects of sex hormones on brain functions. Animal experiments have shown that the aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, can induce anxiety in young ovariectomized females that are used as a model of aging. Whether or not these effects would be similar in intact middle-aged animals is unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze the effects of letrozole on anxiety in middle-aged rats of both sexes. Fifteen months old male and female rats were treated daily with either letrozole or vehicle for 2 weeks...
January 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070912/role-of-testosterone-and-y-chromosome-genes-for-the-masculinization-of-the-human-brain
#2
Ivanka Savic, Louise Frisen, Amirhossein Manzouri, Anna Nordenstrom, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg
: Women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) have a male (46,XY) karyotype but no functional androgen receptors. Their condition, therefore, offers a unique model for studying testosterone effects on cerebral sex dimorphism. We present MRI data from 16 women with CAIS and 32 male (46,XY) and 32 female (46,XX) controls. METHODS: FreeSurfer software was employed to measure cortical thickness and subcortical structural volumes. Axonal connections, indexed by fractional anisotropy, (FA) were measured with diffusion tensor imaging, and functional connectivity with resting state fMRI...
January 10, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057567/prenatal-administration-of-letrozole-reduces-sdn-and-scn-volume-and-cell-number-independent-of-partner-preference-in-the-male-rat
#3
Sandra Olvera-Hernández, Miguel Tapia-Rodríguez, Dick F Swaab, Alonso Fernández-Guasti
During development, the exposure to testosterone, and its conversion to estradiol by an enzyme complex termed aromatase, appears to be essential in adult male rats for the expression of typical male sexual behavior and female-sex preference. Some hypothalamic areas are the supposed neural bases of sexual preference/orientation; for example, male-oriented rams have a reduced volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN), while in homosexual men this nucleus does not differ from that of heterosexual men. In contrast, homosexual men showed a larger number of vasopressinergic cells in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
January 3, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040552/chemoprotective-role-of-quercetin-in-manganese-induced-toxicity-along-the-brain-pituitary-testicular-axis-in-rats
#4
Isaac A Adedara, Temitayo I Subair, Valerie C Ego, Oluwasetemi Oyediran, Ebenezer O Farombi
Reproductive dysfunction in response to manganese exposure has been reported in humans and animals. Quercetin, a bioflavonoid widely distributed in fruits, vegetables and beverages has been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities in different experimental model systems. However, there is dearth of scientific information on the influence of quercetin on manganese-induced reproductive toxicity. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of quercetin on manganese-induced functional alterations along the brain-pituitary- testicular axis in rats...
December 28, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007657/aging-and-estradiol-effects-on-gene-expression-in-the-medial-preoptic-area-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-and-posterodorsal-medial-amygdala-of-male-rats
#5
Victoria L Nutsch, Margaret R Bell, Ryan G Will, Weiling Yin, Andrew Wolfe, Ross Gillette, Juan M Dominguez, Andrea C Gore
Studies on the role of hormones in male reproductive aging have traditionally focused on testosterone, but estradiol (E2) also plays important roles in the control of masculine physiology and behavior. Our goal was to examine the effects of E2 on the expression of genes selected for E2-sensitivity, involvement in behavioral neuroendocrine functions, and impairments with aging. Mature adult (MAT, 5 mo) and aged (AG, 18 mo) Sprague-Dawley male rats were castrated, implanted with either vehicle or E2 subcutaneous capsules, and euthanized one month later...
December 20, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999413/neuroprotection-via-reduction-in-stress-altered-menstrual-patterns-as-a-marker-for-stress-and-implications-for-long-term-neurologic-health-in-women
#6
REVIEW
David Prokai, Sarah L Berga
Individuals under chronic psychological stress can be difficult to identify clinically. There is often no outwardly visible phenotype. Chronic stress of sufficient magnitude not only impacts reproductive function, but also concomitantly elicits a constellation of neuroendocrine changes that may accelerate aging in general and brain aging in particular. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a phenotypically recognizable form of stress, is due to stress-induced suppression of endogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984812/sex-specific-associations-of-testosterone-with-prefrontal-hippocampal-development-and-executive-function
#7
Tuong-Vi Nguyen, Jimin Lew, Matthew D Albaugh, Kelly N Botteron, James J Hudziak, Vladimir S Fonov, D Louis Collins, Simon Ducharme, James T McCracken
Testosterone is thought to play a crucial role in mediating sexual differentiation of brain structures. Examinations of the cognitive effects of testosterone have also shown beneficial and potentially sex-specific effects on executive function and mnemonic processes. Yet these findings remain limited by an incomplete understanding of the critical timing and brain regions most affected by testosterone, the lack of documented links between testosterone-related structural brain changes and cognition, and the difficulty in distinguishing the effects of testosterone from those of related sex steroids such as of estradiol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)...
December 8, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942448/brain-connectivity-aberrations-in-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-users
#8
Lars T Westlye, Tobias Kaufmann, Dag Alnæs, Ingunn R Hullstein, Astrid Bjørnebekk
Sustained anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use has adverse behavioral consequences, including aggression, violence and impulsivity. Candidate mechanisms include disruptions of brain networks with high concentrations of androgen receptors and critically involved in emotional and cognitive regulation. Here, we tested the effects of AAS on resting-state functional brain connectivity in the largest sample of AAS-users to date. We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 151 males engaged in heavy resistance strength training...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933170/growth-of-a-progesterone-receptor-positive-meningioma-in-a-female-patient-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#9
T O'Shea, R K Crowley, M Farrell, S MacNally, P Govender, J Feeney, J Gibney, M Sherlock
: Meningioma growth has been previously described in patients receiving oestrogen/progestogen therapy. We describe the clinical, radiological, biochemical and pathologic findings in a 45-year-old woman with congenital adrenal hyperplasia secondary to a defect in the 21-hydroxylase enzyme who had chronic poor adherence to glucocorticoid therapy with consequent virilisation. The patient presented with a frontal headache and marked right-sided proptosis. Laboratory findings demonstrated androgen excess with a testosterone of 18...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924836/endogenous-testosterone-is-associated-with-lower-amygdala-reactivity-to-angry-faces-and-reduced-aggressive-behavior-in-healthy-young-women
#10
Macià Buades-Rotger, Christin Engelke, Frederike Beyer, Brian G Keevil, Georg Brabant, Ulrike M Krämer
Testosterone and cortisol have been proposed to influence aggressive behavior by altering the neural processing of facial threat signals. However, this has not been investigated in direct social interactions. Here, we explored the joint impact of testosterone, cortisol, and brain reactivity to anger expressions on women's reactive aggression in the Social Threat Aggression Paradigm (STAP). The STAP is a competitive reaction time task in which the purported opponent displays either an angry or a neutral facial expression at the beginning of each trial and delivers increasingly loud sound blasts to the participants, successfully provoking them...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916394/hypoactive-sexual-desire-disorder-international-society-for-the-study-of-women-s-sexual-health-isswsh-expert-consensus-panel-review
#11
REVIEW
Irwin Goldstein, Noel N Kim, Anita H Clayton, Leonard R DeRogatis, Annamaria Giraldi, Sharon J Parish, James Pfaus, James A Simon, Sheryl A Kingsberg, Cindy Meston, Stephen M Stahl, Kim Wallen, Roisin Worsley
The objective of the International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health expert consensus panel was to develop a concise, clinically relevant, evidence-based review of the epidemiology, physiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), a sexual dysfunction affecting approximately 10% of adult women. Etiologic factors include conditions or drugs that decrease brain dopamine, melanocortin, oxytocin, and norepinephrine levels and augment brain serotonin, endocannabinoid, prolactin, and opioid levels...
January 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908416/suppression-of-the-brain-pituitary-testicular-axis-function-following-acute-arsenic-and-manganese-co-exposure-and-withdrawal-in-rats
#12
Isaac A Adedara, Amos O Abolaji, Ifeoluwa O Awogbindin, Ebenezer O Farombi
Despite the fact that most environmental exposures to metals do not occur in isolation, the combined effects of metal mixtures on brain-pituitary-gonadal axis are poorly known. The present study investigated the impacts of co-exposure to arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) on sperm characteristics, reproductive hormones and selected oxidative stress indices in the brain, testes and epididymis of rats following exposure for 15 consecutive days to 60mg/L of AsO2Na and 30mg/L of MnCl2 in drinking water. The results showed that while the brain weight remained unaffected, the fluid intake and the weights of testes and epididymis significantly (p<0...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890531/short-term-effects-of-diabetes-on-neurosteroidogenesis-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#13
Simone Romano, Nico Mitro, Silvia Diviccaro, Roberto Spezzano, Matteo Audano, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, Donatella Caruso, Roberto Cosimo Melcangi
Diabetes may induce neurophysiological and structural changes in the central nervous system (i.e., diabetic encephalopathy). We here explored whether the levels of neuroactive steroids (i.e., neuroprotective agents) in the hippocampus may be altered by short-term diabetes (i.e., one month). To this aim, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry we observed that in the experimental model of the rat raised diabetic by streptozotocin injection, one month of pathology induced changes in the levels of several neuroactive steroids, such as pregnenolone, progesterone and its metabolites (i...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888546/sex-differences-in-depolarizing-actions-of-gabaa-receptor-activation-in-rat-embryonic-hypothalamic-neurons
#14
Franco R Mir, Hugo F Carrer, María J Cambiasso
GABAA receptor activation exerts trophic actions in immature neurons through depolarization of resting membrane potential. The switch to its classical hyperpolarizing role is developmentally regulated. Previous results suggest that a hormonally biased sex difference exists at the onset of the switch in hypothalamic neurons. The aim of this work was to evaluate sex differences in GABAA receptor function of hypothalamic neurons before brain masculinization by gonadal hormones. Hypothalamic cells were obtained from embryonic day 16 male and female rat foetuses, 2 days before the peak of testosterone production by the foetal testis, and grown in vitro for 9 days...
November 5, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881754/neuroendocrine-correlates-of-sex-role-reversal-in-barred-buttonquails
#15
Cornelia Voigt
Sex differences in brain structure and behaviour are well documented among vertebrates. An excellent model exploring the neural mechanisms of sex differences in behaviour is represented by sex-role-reversed species. In the majority of bird species, males compete over access to mates and resources more strongly than do females. It is thought that the responsible brain regions are therefore more developed in males than in females. Because these behaviours and brain regions are activated by androgens, males usually have increased testosterone levels during breeding...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872000/is-testosterone-a-food-for-the-brain
#16
REVIEW
Giacomo Ciocca, Erika Limoncin, Eleonora Carosa, Stefania Di Sante, Giovanni L Gravina, Daniele Mollaioli, Daniele Gianfrilli, Andrea Lenzi, Emmanuele A Jannini
INTRODUCTION: Testosterone is fundamental for psychological, sexological, cognitive, and reproductive aspects, and its lack or reduction largely impacts the quality of life in males and females. AIM: Therefore, the aim of this review is to describe the role of testosterone in the neurophysiology of the brain and related aspects regarding the quality of general and sexual life. METHODS: We listed and discussed the principal studies on the role of testosterone in the brain regarding sexual health, psychopathological conditions, and the elderly...
January 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871670/convergence-of-sex-differences-and-the-neuroimmune-system-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
REVIEW
Margaret M McCarthy, Christopher L Wright
The male bias in autism spectrum disorder incidence is among the most extreme of all neuropsychiatric disorders, yet the origins of the sex difference remain obscure. Developmentally, males are exposed to high levels of testosterone and its byproduct, estradiol. Together these steroids modify the course of brain development by altering neurogenesis, cell death, migration, differentiation, dendritic and axonal growth, synaptogenesis, and synaptic pruning, all of which can be deleteriously impacted during the course of developmental neuropsychiatric disorders...
October 11, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870444/sex-differences-and-estrogen-regulation-of-bdnf-gene-expression-but-not-propeptide-content-in-the-developing-hippocampus
#18
Katherine E Kight, Margaret M McCarthy
Sex differences in adult brain function are frequently determined developmentally through the actions of steroid hormones during sensitive periods of prenatal and early postnatal life. In rodents, various cellular end points of the developing brain are affected by estradiol that is derived from the aromatization of circulating testosterone and/or synthesized within the brain. We have previously described a sex difference in neurogenesis in the hippocampus of neonatal rats that is modulated by estradiol. In this report, we examined a potential downstream regulator of the effects of estradiol on hippocampal cell proliferation by measuring gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophin (BDNF) in male and female neonatal rats in response to estradiol...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870443/sex-differences-in-depression-during-pregnancy-and-the-postpartum-period
#19
REVIEW
Inger Sundström Poromaa, Erika Comasco, Marios K Georgakis, Alkistis Skalkidou
Women have a lifetime risk of major depression double that of men but only during their reproductive years. This sex difference has been attributed partially to activational effects of female sex steroids and also to the burdens of pregnancy, childbirth, and parenting. Men, in contrast, have a reproductive period difficult to delineate, and research on the mental health of men has rarely considered the effects of fatherhood. However, the couple goes through a number of potentially stressing events during the reproductive period, and both mothers and fathers are at risk of developing peripartum depression...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870425/sex-and-the-development-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
REVIEW
Christian J Pike
Men and women exhibit differences in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The factors underlying the sex differences in AD are not well understood. This Review emphasizes the contributions of sex steroid hormones to the relationship between sex and AD. In women, events that decrease lifetime exposure to estrogens are generally associated with increased AD risk, whereas estrogen-based hormone therapy administered near the time of menopause may reduce AD risk. In men, estrogens do not exhibit age-related reduction and are not significantly associated with AD risk...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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