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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770362/study-of-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-levels-in-patients-with-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1-preliminary-results
#1
Manuela Ergoli, Massimo Venditti, Raffaele Dotolo, Esther Picillo, Sergio Minucci, Luisa Politano
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 is a multisystemic disorder characterized by myotonia, muscle weakness and involvement of several organs and apparatus such as heart, lungs, eye, brain and endocrine system. Hypogonadism and reproductive abnormalities are frequently reported. A progressive testicular atrophy occurs in about 80% in the affected males leading to Leydig cell hyperproliferation and elevated basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) - a dimeric glycoprotein belonging to the super-family of transforming grow factor beta (TGF-beta) - is the earliest Sertoli cell hormone secreted in males and, together with inhibin B and FSH, is an important indicator of Sertoli cell function...
December 2017: Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770127/temporal-expression-patterns-of-genes-related-to-sex-steroid-action-in-sexually-dimorphic-nuclei-during-puberty
#2
Moeko Kanaya, Masahiro Morishita, Shinji Tsukahara
Sex steroids play a major role in sexually dimorphic brain development during not only the perinatal period but also the pubertal period. We previously showed that, in male mice, the estrogen receptor-α ( Esr1 ) and aromatase ( Cyp19a1 ) genes are essential to the sexually dimorphic formation of the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTp), but the estrogen receptor-β ( Esr2 ) gene is not necessary. We also showed that the androgen receptor ( Ar ) gene is essential to the sexually dimorphic formation of the BNSTp...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770113/aggression-in-women-behavior-brain-and-hormones
#3
REVIEW
Thomas F Denson, Siobhan M O'Dean, Khandis R Blake, Joanne R Beames
We review the literature on aggression in women with an emphasis on laboratory experimentation and hormonal and brain mechanisms. Women tend to engage in more indirect forms of aggression (e.g., spreading rumors) than other types of aggression. In laboratory studies, women are less aggressive than men, but provocation attenuates this difference. In the real world, women are just as likely to aggress against their romantic partner as men are, but men cause more serious physical and psychological harm. A very small minority of women are also sexually violent...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769663/endogenous-testosterone-and-exogenous-oxytocin-influence-the-response-to-baby-schema-in-the-female-brain
#4
Sarah K C Holtfrerich, Roland Pfister, Alexander T El Gammal, Eugen Bellon, Esther K Diekhof
Nurturing behavior may be critically influenced by the interplay of different hormones. The neuropeptide oxytocin is known to promote maternal behavior and its reduction has been associated with postpartum depression risk and child neglect. Contrariwise, the observed decrease in testosterone level during early parenthood may benefit caretaking behavior, whereas increased testosterone may reduce attention to infants. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the interactive influence of testosterone and oxytocin on selective attention to and neural processing of the baby schema (BS)...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753248/embryonic-exposure-to-benzo-a-pyrene-inhibits-reproductive-capability-in-adult-female-zebrafish-and-correlation-with-dna-methylation
#5
Dongxu Gao, Jing Lin, Kunlin Ou, Ying Chen, Hongbin Li, Qinhua Dai, Zhenni Yu, Zhenghong Zuo, Chonggang Wang
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of embryonic short-term exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, on ovarian development and reproductive capability in adult female zebrafish. In 1-year-old fish after embryonic exposure to BaP for 96 h, the gonadosomatic indices and the percentage of mature oocytes were significantly decreased in the 0.5, 5 and 50 nmol/L treatments. The spawned egg number, the fertilization rate and the hatching success were significantly reduced, while the malformation rate of the F1 unexposed larvae were increased...
May 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750970/bdnf-infusion-into-the-mpn-mag-is-sufficient-to-restore-copulatory-behavior-in-the-castrated-syrian-hamster
#6
Joe C Brague, Christine N Lenchur, Julia M Hayden, Rachel H Davidson, Kelly Corrigan, Garrett T Santini, Jennifer M Swann
Testosterone plays a key role in the expression of male sex behavior by influencing cellular activity and synapses within the magnocellular medial preoptic nucleus (MPN mag), a sub-nucleus of the medial preoptic area (MPOA) in the Syrian hamster. Although the mechanisms underlying hormonally-induced synaptic plasticity in this region remain elusive, the data suggests that an increase in synaptic density may mediate testosterone's effects on copulation. As brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an integral role in regulating synaptic plasticity and gonadal steroids regulate the levels of BDNF, we hypothesize that BDNF may mediate the effects of gonadal hormones on copulatory behavior...
May 8, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744800/trait-and-state-patterns-of-basolateral-amygdala-connectivity-at-rest-are-related-to-endogenous-testosterone-and-aggression-in-healthy-young-women
#7
Macià Buades-Rotger, Christin Engelke, Ulrike M Krämer
The steroid hormone testosterone (T) has been suggested to influence reactive aggression upon its action on the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a key brain region for threat detection. However, it is unclear whether T modulates resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the BLA, and whether this predicts subsequent aggressive behavior. Aggressive interactions themselves, which often induce changes in T concentrations, could further alter BLA rsFC, but this too remains untested. Here we investigated the effect of endogenous T on rsFC of the BLA at baseline as well as after an aggressive encounter, and whether this was related to behavioral aggression in healthy young women (n = 39)...
May 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740398/neurosteroids-in-adult-hippocampus-of-male-and-female-rodents-biosynthesis-and-actions-of-sex-steroids
#8
REVIEW
Yasushi Hojo, Suguru Kawato
The brain is not only the target of steroid hormones but also is able to locally synthesize steroids de novo . Evidence of the local production of steroids in the brain has been accumulating in various vertebrates, including teleost fish, amphibia, birds, rodents, non-human primates, and humans. In this review, we mainly focus on the local production of sex steroids in the hippocampal neurons of adult rodents (rats and mice), a center for learning and memory. From the data of the hippocampus of adult male rats, hippocampal principal neurons [pyramidal cells in CA1-CA3 and granule cells in dentate gyrus (DG)] have a complete system for biosynthesis of sex steroids...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733874/diffuse-noxious-inhibitory-controls-and-brain-networks-are-modulated-in-a-testosterone-dependent-manner-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#9
Joyce T Da Silva, Youping Zhang, Jamila Asgar, Jin Y Ro, David A Seminowicz
Diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC), which involves endogenous pain modulation, has been investigated as a potential mechanism for the differences in pain modulation observed between men and women, though the literature shows contradictory findings. We used a capsaicin-induced DNIC behavioral assay and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to assess the effect of testosterone on pain modulation and related brain circuitry in rats. We hypothesized that testosterone is required for DNIC that leads to efficient pain inhibition by increasing descending pain modulation...
May 4, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730039/the-neoteny-helper-hypothesis-when-to-expect-and-when-not-to-expect-endocrine-mechanisms-to-regulate-allo-parental-care
#10
Carsten Schradin, Pauline Vuarin, Rebecca Rimbach
Family groups with helpers occur in several species of fish, birds and mammals. In such cooperatively breeding species all group members help with raising the offspring, i.e. parents and offspring from previous litters. While the ecological reasons and ultimate consequences of allo-parental care have been studied in detail, we know little about its physiological regulation. We propose three alternative hypotheses for the endocrine regulation of allo-parental care. 1. The neoteny-helper hypothesis predicts that helpers that did not undergo adolescence yet show helping behavior without any endocrine mechanisms activating it, as helping is the default response towards infant stimuli...
May 2, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730038/the-neurobiology-of-human-allomaternal-care-implications-for-fathering-coparenting-and-children-s-social-development
#11
Eyal Abraham, Ruth Feldman
Allomothering, the caregiving to offspring by adults other than the biological mother including fathers and other group members, has characterized human societies throughout hominin evolution. Allomothering is common across the animal kingdom and carries long-term fitness benefits to offspring. Guided by our biobehavioral synchrony conceptual frame, we present research from our lab and others addressing the behavioral, hormonal, and neural systems that underpin human allomaternal care by fathers and studies on the coparental bond...
May 2, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720962/sex-differences-in-medium-spiny-neuron-excitability-and-glutamatergic-synaptic-input-heterogeneity-across-striatal-regions-and-evidence-for-estradiol-dependent-sexual-differentiation
#12
REVIEW
Jinyan Cao, Jaime A Willett, David M Dorris, John Meitzen
Steroid sex hormones and biological sex influence how the brain regulates motivated behavior, reward, and sensorimotor function in both normal and pathological contexts. Investigations into the underlying neural mechanisms have targeted the striatal brain regions, including the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens core (AcbC), and shell. These brain regions are of particular interest to neuroendocrinologists given that they express membrane-associated but not nuclear estrogen receptors, and also the well-established role of the sex steroid hormone 17β-estradiol (estradiol) in modulating striatal dopamine systems...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713310/kisspeptin-and-metabolism-the-brain-and-beyond
#13
REVIEW
Monika Dudek, Kamil Ziarniak, Joanna H Sliwowska
Apart from the well-established role of kisspeptin (Kp) in the regulation of reproductive functions, recent data described its action in the control of metabolism. Of particular interest for the review is the population of Kp neurons localized in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus, the site of the brain where reproductive and metabolic cross talk occurs. However, within the hypothalamus Kp does not work alone, but rather interacts with other neuropeptides, e.g., neurokinin B, dynorphin A, proopiomelanocortin, the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, agouti-related peptide, and neuropeptide Y...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702443/immediate-and-delayed-neuroendocrine-responses-to-social-exclusion-in-males-and-females
#14
S Radke, E M Seidel, R N Boubela, H Thaler, H Metzler, I Kryspin-Exner, E Moser, U Habel, B Derntl
Social exclusion is a complex phenomenon, with wide-ranging immediate and delayed effects on well-being, hormone levels, brain activation and motivational behavior. Building upon previous work, the current fMRI study investigated affective, endocrine and neural responses to social exclusion in a more naturalistic Cyberball task in 40 males and 40 females. As expected, social exclusion elicited well-documented affective and neural responses, i.e., increased anger and distress, as well as increased exclusion-related activation of the anterior insula, the posterior-medial frontal cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex...
April 19, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700836/the-effect-of-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents-on-rat-testis
#15
F Beyazal Celiker, L Tumkaya, T Mercantepe, G Turan, A Yılmaz, M Beyazal, A Turan, M F Inecikli, M Kösem
Previous studies have reported that repeated administrations of linear gadolinium-based contrast agents lead to their accumulation in the brain and other tissues in individuals with normal renal functions. The purpose of this prospective animal study was to investigate the effect of multiple administrations of macrocyclic ionic (gadoteric acid) and linear nonionic (gadodiamide) gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) on rat testis tissue and to compare these molecules in terms of tissue damage. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were kept without drugs for 5 weeks after administration of 0...
April 26, 2018: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695991/sex-hormones-and-processing-of-facial-expressions-of-emotion-a-systematic-literature-review
#16
Flávia L Osório, Juliana M de Paula Cassis, João P Machado de Sousa, Omero Poli-Neto, Rocio Martín-Santos
Background: We systematically reviewed the literature to determine the influence of sex hormones on facial emotion processing (FEP) in healthy women at different phases of life. Methods: Searches were performed in PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, LILACS , and SciELO . Twenty-seven articles were included in the review and allocated into five different categories according to their objectives and sample characteristics (menstrual cycle, oral contraceptives, pregnancy/postpartum, testosterone, and progesterone)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689300/2d-4d-and-spatial-abilities-from-rats-to-humans
#17
N Müller, S Campbell, M Nonaka, T M Rost, G Pipa, B N Konrad, A Steiger, M Czisch, G Fernández, M Dresler, L Genzel
Variance in spatial abilities are thought to be determined by in utero levels of testosterone and oestrogen, measurable in adults by the length ratio of the 2nd and 4th digit (2D:4D). We confirmed the relationship between 2D:4D and spatial performance using rats in two different tasks (paired-associate task and watermaze) and replicated this in humans. We further clarified anatomical and functional brain correlates of the association between 2D:4D and spatial performance in humans.
April 21, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688563/prenatal-exposure-to-dehp-induces-neuronal-degeneration-and-neurobehavioral-abnormalities-in-adult-male-mice
#18
Radwa Barakat, Po-Ching Lin, Chan Jin Park, Catherine Best-Popescu, Hatem H Bakery, Mohamed E Abosalum, Nabila M Abdelaleem, Jodi A Flaws, CheMyong Ko
Phthalates are a family of synthetic chemicals that are used in producing a variety of consumer products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is an widely used phthalate and poses a public health concern. Prenatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to induce premature reproductive senescence in animal studies. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to DEHP impairs neurobehavior and recognition memory in her male offspring and we investigated one possible mechanism-oxidative damage in the hippocampus...
April 23, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679614/the-regulation-of-birdsong-by-testosterone-multiple-time-scales-and-multiple-sites-of-action
#19
REVIEW
Beau A Alward, Charlotte A Cornil, Jacques Balthazart, Gregory F Ball
Sex steroid hormones act during early development to shape the circuitry upon which these same hormones act in adulthood to control behavioral responses to various stimuli. The "organizational" vs. "activational" distinction was proposed to explain this temporal difference in hormone action. In both of these cases steroids were thought to act genomically over a time-scale of days to weeks. However, sex steroids can affect behavior over short (e.g., seconds or minutes) time-scales. Here, we discuss how testosterone controls birdsong via actions at different sites and over different time-scales, with an emphasis on this process in canaries (Serinus canaria)...
April 18, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666640/investigating-the-interactive-effects-of-sex-steroid-hormones-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-during-adolescence-on-hippocampal-nmda-receptor-expression
#20
Cushla R McCarthny, Xin Du, YeeWen Candace Wu, Rachel A Hill
Sex steroid hormones have neuroprotective properties which may be mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This study sought to determine the interactive effects of preadolescent hormone manipulation and BDNF heterozygosity (+/- ) on hippocampal NMDA-R expression. Wild-type and BDNF+/- mice were gonadectomised, and females received either 17 β -estradiol or progesterone treatment, while males received either testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment. Dorsal (DHP) and ventral hippocampus (VHP) were dissected, and protein expression of GluN1, GluN2A, GluN2B, and PSD-95 was assessed by Western blot analysis...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
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