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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941299/considering-the-role-of-adolescent-sex-steroids-in-schizophrenia
#1
REVIEW
Samantha J Owens, Caitlin E Murphy, Tertia D Purves-Tyson, Thomas W Weickert, Cynthia Shannon Weickert
Schizophrenia is a disabling illness that is typically first diagnosed during late adolescence to early adulthood, has an unremitting course, and is often treatment resistance. Many clinical aspects of the illness suggest that sex steroid-nervous system interactions may contribute to the onset and course of symptoms and the cognitive impairment displayed by men and women with schizophrenia. Here, we discuss the actions of estrogen and testosterone on the brain during adolescent development and in schizophrenia from the perspective of experimental studies in animals, human post-mortem studies, magnetic resonance imaging studies in living humans, and clinical trials of sex steroid based treatments...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935582/3%C3%AE-hsd-expression-in-the-cns-of-a-manakin-and-finch
#2
Joy Eaton, Devaleena S Pradhan, Julia Barske, Leonida Fusani, Virginie Canoine, Barney A Schlinger
The prohormone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) circulates in vertebrate blood with the potential for actions on target tissues including the central nervous system (CNS). Many actions of DHEA require its conversion into more active products, some of which are catalyzed by the enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase/isomerase (3β-HSD). Studies of birds show both expression and activity of 3β-HSD in brain and its importance in regulating social behavior. In oscine songbirds, 3β-HSD is expressed at reasonably high levels in brain, possibly linked to their complex neural circuitry controlling song...
September 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934376/managing-menopausal-symptoms-and-associated-clinical-issues-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#3
Richard J Santen, Cynthia A Stuenkel, Susan R Davis, JoAnn V Pinkerton, Anne Gompel, Mary Ann Lumsden
Objective: Review evidence to guide the management of menopausal signs and symptoms in women after breast cancer and make recommendations accordingly. Evidence: Randomized controlled clinical trials, observational studies, evidence- based guidelines, and expert opinion from professional societies. Background: Several symptoms and clinical problems associated with estrogen depletion -sleep disorders, vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA), vasomotor symptoms (VMS), mood changes, depressive symptoms, cardiovascular disease, osteopenia and osteoporosis- confront the estimated 9...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919451/biphasic-modulation-of-neuro-and-interrenal-steroidogenesis-in-juvenile-african-sharptooth-catfish-clarias-gariepinus-exposed-to-waterborne-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate
#4
Augustine Arukwe, Oju R Ibor, Aina O Adeogun
Receptor (i.e. genomic) and non-receptor (or non-genomic) effects of endocrine toxicology have received limited or almost non-existent attention for tropical species and regions. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on neuro- and interrenal steroidogenesis of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) using molecular, immunochemical and physiological approaches. Juvenile fish (mean weight and length: 5.6±0.6g and 8.2±1.2cm, respectively), were randomly distributed into ten 120L rectangular glass tanks containing 60L of dechlorinated tap water, at 50 fish per exposure group...
September 14, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916140/an-integrative-interdisciplinary-perspective-on-social-dominance-hierarchies
#5
REVIEW
Chen Qu, Romain Ligneul, Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst, Jean-Claude Dreher
In the course of evolution, social dominance has been a strong force shaping the organization of social systems in many species. Individuals with a better ability to represent social dominance relationships and to adapt their behavior accordingly usually achieve better access to resources, hence providing benefits in terms of reproduction, health, and wellbeing. Understanding how and to what extent our brains are affected by social dominance requires interdisciplinary efforts. Here, we integrate findings from social neuroscience, evolutionary biology, and developmental psychology to highlight how social hierarchies are learned and represented in primates...
September 12, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911135/is-it-me-or-my-hormones-neuroendocrine-activation-profiles-to-visual-food-stimuli-across-the-menstrual-cycle
#6
Yardena Arnoni-Bauer, Atira Bick, Noa Raz, Tal Imbar, Shoshana Amos, Orly Agmon, Limor Marko, Netta Levin, Ram Weiss
Context: Homeostatic energy balance is controlled via the hypothalamus, whereas regions controlling reward and cognitive decision-making are critical for hedonic eating. Eating varies across the menstrual cycle peaking at the midluteal phase. Objective: To test responses of females with regular cycles during midfollicular and midluteal phase and of users of monophasic oral contraception pills (OCPs) to visual food cues. Design: Participants performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging while exposed to visual food cues in four time points: fasting and fed conditions in midfollicular and midluteal phases...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893567/molecular-basis-of-androgen-action-on-human-sexual-desire
#7
REVIEW
Daniele Santi, Giorgia Spaggiari, Lisa Gilioli, Francesco Potì, Manuela Simoni, Livio Casarini
Reproduction is a fundamental process for the species maintenance and the propagation of genetic information. The energy expenditure for mating is overtaken by motivational stimuli, such as orgasm, finely regulated by steroid hormones, gonadotropins, neurotransmitters and molecules acting in the brain and peripheral organs. These functions are often investigated using animal models and translated to humans, where the androgens action is mediated by nuclear and membrane receptors converging in the regulation of both long-term genomic and rapid non-genomic signals...
September 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891264/hormonal-and-genetic-factors-interact-to-control-aromatase-expression-in-the-developing-brain
#8
REVIEW
Carla Daniela Cisternas, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, María Julia Cambiasso
The brain expression of the enzyme P450-aromatase has been extensively studied. Since the aromatization hypothesis established brain aromatase as a key factor to convert gonadal testosterone to oestradiol, several studies have investigated the regulation of aromatase during the critical period of brain sexual differentiation. Here, we review previous and recent findings concerning regulation of aromatase. The role of gonadal hormones, sex chromosome genes and neurosteroids is analysed in term of their contribution to aromatase expression and the implications for the organizational effect of steroids during development...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888054/maternal-salivary-testosterone-in-pregnancy-and-fetal-neuromaturation
#9
Kristin M Voegtline, Kathleen A Costigan, Janet A DiPietro
Testosterone exposure during pregnancy has been hypothesized as a mechanism for sex differences in brain and behavioral development observed in the postnatal period. The current study documents the natural history of maternal salivary testosterone from 18 weeks gestation of pregnancy to 6 months postpartum, and investigates associations with fetal heart rate, motor activity, and their integration. Findings indicate maternal salivary testosterone increases with advancing gestation though no differences by fetal sex were detected...
September 9, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883857/postmenopausal-cognitive-changes-and-androgen-levels-in-the-context-of-apolipoprotein-e-polymorphism
#10
Iwona Bojar, Jarosław Pinkas, Mariusz Gujski, Alfred Owoc, Dorota Raczkiewicz, Kasia Gustaw-Rothenberg
INTRODUCTION: The focus of this study was to assess cognitive functions in relation to androgens and specifically testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in postmenopausal women as well as the correlation between cognitive functions and these two androgens according to polymorphism of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A group of 402 women was recruited to the study (minimum 2 years after the last menstruation, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) more than 30 U/ml and no dementia signs on Montreal Cognitive Assessment)...
August 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882473/age-related-changes-in-sexual-function-and-steroid-hormone-receptors-in-the-medial-preoptic-area-of-male-rats
#11
Victoria L Nutsch, Ryan G Will, Daniel J Tobiansky, Michael P Reilly, Andrea C Gore, Juan M Dominguez
Testosterone is the main circulating steroid hormone in males, and acts to facilitate sexual behavior via both reduction to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and aromatization to estradiol. The mPOA is a key site involved in mediating actions of androgens and estrogens in the control of masculine sexual behavior, but the respective roles of these hormones is not fully understood. As males age they show impairments in sexual function, and a decreased facilitation of behavior by steroid hormones compared to younger animals...
September 8, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875319/kisspeptin-expression-features-in-the-arcuate-and-anteroventral-periventricular-nuclei-of-hypothalamus-of-letrozole-induced-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-in-rats
#12
Elham Aliabadi, Mohammad Reza Namavar, Keywan Mortezaee, Heidar Toolee, Sara Keshtgar, Hossein Mirkhani, Mohammad Akbari, Tayebeh Rastegar, Somayeh Solhjoo
PURPOSE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of the reproductive system characterized by polycystic ovaries and androgen excess. Letrozole is a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor that is used in experimental research to induce PCOS. Kisspeptin is an essential protein in regulation of cyclicity. Kisspeptin receptor is expressed in the hypothalamus and pituitary glands, and kisspeptin containing neurons are affected from sex steroid hormones. We aimed to investigate the number of kisspeptin-positive cells in the arcuate (Arc) and anteroventral periventricular nuclei (AVPV) of hypothalamus in the letrozole-induced PCOS...
September 5, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852050/neurotransmitters-and-neuropeptides-in-gonadal-steroid-receptor-expressing-cells-in-medial-preoptic-area-subregions-of-the-male-mouse
#13
Yousuke Tsuneoka, Sachine Yoshida, Kenkichi Takase, Satoko Oda, Masaru Kuroda, Hiromasa Funato
Testosterone is involved in male sexual, parental and aggressive behaviors through the androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER) α expressed in the brain. Although several studies have demonstrated that ERα and AR in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) are required for exhibiting sexual and aggressive behaviors of male mice, the molecular characteristics of ERα- and AR-expressing cells in the mouse MPOA are largely unknown. Here, we performed in situ hybridization for neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, combined with immunohistochemistry for ERα and AR to quantitate and characterize gonadal steroid receptor-expressing cells in the MPOA subregions of male mice...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822779/molecular-characterization-of-kiss2-and-differential-regulation-of-reproduction-related-genes-by-sex-steroids-in-the-hypothalamus-of-half-smooth-tongue-sole-cynoglossus-semilaevis
#14
Bin Wang, Quan Liu, Xuezhou Liu, Yongjiang Xu, Xuesong Song, Bao Shi
Kisspeptin (Kiss) plays a critical role in mediating gonadal steroid feedback to the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in mammals. However, little information regarding the regulation of kisspeptin gene by sex steroids is available in teleosts. In this study, we examined the direct actions of estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) on hypothalamic expression of kisspeptin and other key factors involved in reproductive function of half-smooth tongue sole. As a first step, a partial-length cDNA of kiss2 was identified from the brain of tongue sole and kiss2 transcript levels were shown to be widely expressed in various tissues, notably in the ovary...
August 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813252/oxytocin-a-parenting-hormone
#15
REVIEW
Ruth Feldman, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
In non-human mammals mothering is hormone-dependent, with crucial roles for oxytocin and prolactin. While human parenting is not hormone-dependent, hormonal changes in oxytocin, vasopressin, prolactin, testosterone, and cortisol prime and accompany the expression of parenting. In the following we focus on oxytocin (OT) as a key hormone in human parenting. OT is a nine-amino-acid neuropeptide hormone which evolved from the ancient vasotocin molecule approximately 650 MYO. OT is implicated in sociality across vertebrate evolution and substantial research has pinpointed its role in birth, lactation, and maternal care in mammals...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801581/bpifcl-modulates-kiss2-expression-under-the-influence-of-11-ketotestosterone-in-female-zebrafish
#16
Shogo Moriya, Nabila Tahsin, Ishwar S Parhar
The bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPI) fold-containing (BPIF) superfamily of genes expressed in the brain are purportedly involved in modulating brain function in response to stress, such as inflammation. Kisspeptin, encoded by kiss, is affected by inflammation in the brain; therefore, BPIF family genes might be involved in the modulation of kisspeptin in the brain. In this study, we investigated the expression of BPIF family C, like (bpifcl) in zebrafish brain and its involvement in kiss2 regulation...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797804/a-game-of-two-gene-expression-analysis-of-brain-cyp19a1b-and-gonadal-cyp19a1a-aromatase-in-females-of-a-neotropical-cichlid-fish-through-the-parental-care-period-and-removal-of-the-offspring
#17
Martín R Ramallo, Renato M Honji, Agustina Birba, Leonel Morandini, María L Varela, Griselda Genovese, Renata G Moreira, Gustavo M Somoza, Matías Pandolfi
For many species parental behavior is essential for the survival of the offspring. While the ultimate causes of teleost parental behavior have been widely studied, comparatively little is known about its proximate causes. The aim of this study was to analyze the yet unexplored, potential dual role of brain and gonadal aromatases, the enzymes responsible for the conversion of androgens to estrogens in the brains and gonads of teleosts, respectively, on the different stages of the maternal care period of the biparental cichlid Cichlasoma dimerus, locally known as chanchita...
October 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782547/early-life-stress-increases-testosterone-and-corticosterone-and-alters-stress-physiology-in-zebra-finches
#18
J Bayley Zito, Angy Hanna, Nora Kadoo, Michelle L Tomaszycki
Early life stress has enduring effects on behavior and physiology. However, the effects on hormones and stress physiology remain poorly understood. In the present study, parents of zebra finches of both sexes were exposed to an increased foraging paradigm from 3 to 33days post hatching. Plasma and brains were collected from chicks at 3 developmental time points: post hatching days 25, 60 and adulthood. Plasma was assayed for testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), and corticosterone (CORT). The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus was assessed for corticotrophin releasing factor (CRH) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression...
August 15, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780570/sex-steroids-differentially-regulate-fshb-lhb-and-gnrhr-expression-in-atlantic-cod-gadus-morhua
#19
Kristine von Krogh, Gunnveig Toft Bjørndal, Rasoul Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Kjetil Hodne, Erik Ropstad, Trude Marie Haug, Finn-Arne Weltzien
Depending on the stage of gonad maturation, as well as other factors, gonadal steroids can exert either a positive or negative feedback at the brain and pituitary level. While this has been demonstrated in many teleost species, little is known about the nature of steroid feedback in Gadiform fish. Using an optimized in vitro model system of the Atlantic cod pituitary, the present study investigated potential effects of two physiologically relevant doses of estradiol, testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on cell viability and gene expression of gonadotropin subunits (fshb/lhb) and two suggested reproduction relevant gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (gnrhr1b/gnrhr2a) during three stages of sexual maturity...
August 5, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779857/hormonal-changes-over-the-spawning-cycle-in-the-female-three-spined-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus
#20
Chrysoula Roufidou, Monika Schmitz, Ian Mayer, Marion Sebire, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Yi Ta Shao, Bertil Borg
Female three-spined sticklebacks are batch spawners laying eggs in a nest built by the male. We sampled female sticklebacks at different time points, when they were ready to spawn and 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours post-spawning (hps) with a male. Following spawning, almost all females (15 out of 19) had ovulated eggs again at Day 3 post-spawning (72hps). At sampling, plasma, brain and pituitaries were collected, and the ovary and liver were weighed. Testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) were measured by radioimmunoassay...
August 2, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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