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Ji Young Bang, Udayakumar Navaneethan, Muhammad K Hasan, Robert Hawes, Shyam Varadarajulu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Outcomes of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) evaluation vary with technique, needles, and methods of specimen evaluation. We performed a direct comparison of diagnostic yields of EUS-FNA samples collected using different gauge needles (22- vs 25-gauge), with or without suction. METHODS: We performed a randomized controlled study of 352 patients with suspected pancreatic masses, referred for EUS-FNA at a tertiary referral center...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Qian Zhou, Xinghui Li, Menglin Geng, Haifei Hu, Kai Ni, Lunchao Zhong, Peng Yan, Xiaohao Wang
We propose a new technique to fabricate a highly specialized optical element, a hybrid planar Grating/Fresnel lens (G-Fresnel), which is particularly useful to improve or enable more-affordable miniature/portable spectrometers. Both the Fresnel and the grating surface are fabricated simultaneously by sandwiching soft PDMS between a hard grating and a pre-replicated negative Fresnel surface. Several adhesion reduction techniques are also investigated that help improve both fabrication and cost efficiency (by reducing the solidification time) as well as the lifetime of the mold...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
David L Diehl, Shaffer R S Mok, Harshit S Khara, Amitpal S Johal, H Lester Kirchner, Fan Lin
Background and study aims:  Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) or biopsy (FNB) is an indispensable diagnostic tool. Improvements in needling technique have led to increasing tissue yields. Blood clogging of the needle can cause difficulties with specimen handling and stylet passage, which improves when the needle is primed with heparin before use. However, the effect of heparin on cytology, histology or immunochemistry (IHC) of FNA and FNB specimens is unknown...
March 2018: Endoscopy International Open
C Jamsranjav, R S Reid, M E Fernández-Giménez, A Tsevlee, B Yadamsuren, M Heiner
Livestock-caused rangeland degradation remains a major policy concern globally and the subject of widespread scientific study. This concern persists in part because it is difficult to isolate the effects of livestock from climate and other factors that influence ecosystem conditions. Further, degradation studies seldom use multiple plant and soil indicators linked to a clear definition of and ecologically grounded framework for degradation assessment that distinguishes different levels of degradation. Here, we integrate two globally applicable rangeland degradation frameworks and apply them to a broad-scale empirical data set for the country of Mongolia...
March 6, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Ta C Chang, Linda Y Huang, Kara M Cavuoto
Purpose: We describe a case of secondary open-angle glaucoma due to mucin-producing congenital iris stromal cyst in a 4 year old patient. Observations: A 4-year old female patient with a history of unilateral congenital iris stromal cyst presented with sudden-onset eye pain and redness, with markedly elevated intraocular pressure and evidence of early optic nerve damage. During the examination under anesthesia, the anterior chamber angle was open and there was no evidence of pupillary block...
April 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Norihiko Yoshida, Takashi Kojima, Sho Yokoyama, Rie Horai, Kazuo Ichikawa
We report a new surgical technique of intrascleral posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL) fixation using a newly developed hook-shaped haptic IOL (NX-70CH) and a 25-gauge loop-shaped haptic manipulator. Previous techniques of intrascleral PC IOL fixation had 2 major technical challenges; that is, externalization of the haptic and fixation of the haptic into the scleral tunnel. The new IOL and manipulator can facilitate externalization and secure fixation of the IOL haptic and can be used for suture fixation or implantation in the capsular bag in cases with presumed subluxated lens...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Guodong Zhang, Yulong Zhao, Yun Zhao, Xinchen Wang, Xueyong Wei, Wei Ren, Hui Li, You Zhao
With the development of energetic materials (EMs) and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) initiating explosive devices, the measurement of detonation pressure generated by EMs in the microscale has become a pressing need. This paper develops a manganin thin film ultra-high pressure sensor based on MEMS technology for measuring the output pressure from micro-detonator. A reliable coefficient is proposed for designing the sensor's sensitive element better. The sensor employs sandwich structure: the substrate uses a 0...
March 1, 2018: Sensors
Boya Abudu, David P Duncan, Elliot Deyoung, Gerant Rivera-Sanfeliz
Paracentesis is a common procedure used in the diagnostic evaluation of peritoneal fluid as well as the therapeutic removal of high-volume ascites. Although generally regarded as a safe procedure, complications may arise from arterial injury, including hematomas and pseudoaneurysms. Transcatheter embolization and surgery are first-line interventions for injuries refractory to conservative management. We present a case where a patient failed conventional therapies for hemoperitoneum following a paracentesis which resolved after thrombin injection into the subcutaneous tissues, a novel use for thrombin...
February 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Pradeep Kumar, Vinod Kumar, Raghav Ravani, Sahil Agarwal
A young male presented with diminution of vision left eye, attributable to full-thickness macular hole, and submacular hemorrhage, following closed globe injury 2 weeks ago. The patient was managed successfully with 25-gauge vitrectomy, subretinal injection of tissue plasminogen activator and aspiration of liquefied blood through the macular hole, internal limiting membrane peeling, short-acting gas tamponade, and prone positioning. This resulted in good visual improvement, type 1 macular hole closure, and restoration of foveal architecture...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Takayo Tada, Paul Moritoshi, Kanae Sato, Takayo Kawakami, Yuko Kawakami
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of an adapted simulated patient (SP) intervention on self-efficacy in nutrition care process skills. DESIGN: A repeated-measures design using a 25-item survey divided into 7 nutrition professional practice competencies (PPCs) employing a 5-point self-efficacy scale (1 = lowest to 5 = highest) administered immediately before and after the intervention. SETTING: A private Japanese university. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety Japanese third-year dietetics undergraduates aged 20-38 years...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Saif Uddin, Montaha Behbehani
This study focuses on creating a baseline for40 K,210 Pb,137 Cs,90 Sr,226 Ra,228 Ra,238 U,235 U,234 U,239+240 Pu and238 Pu in marine sediments in the northwestern Gulf. The respective measured concentration ranges were 386-489, 32.3-48.8, 1.5-2.9, 4.53-5.42, 18.3-23.1, 18.8-23.0, 22.3-30.5, 0.99-1.33, 25.6-34.8, 0.30-0.93, and 0.0008-0.00018Bqkg-1 . The levels of these radionuclides are generally comparable to values reported for other marine waters in the northern hemisphere. The137 Cs activity in the Gulf sediments offshore Kuwait is an order of magnitude lower compared to sediments from northeastern Iran...
February 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
José Anchieta C C Nunes, Yuri Costa, Daniel T Blumstein, Antoine O H C Leduc, Antônio C Dorea, Larissa J Benevides, Cláudio L S Sampaio, Francisco Barros
Escape behaviors have a great potential as an indicator of the efficacy of management. For instance, the degree of fear perceived by fishes targeted by fisheries is frequently higher in unprotected marine areas than in areas where some protection is provided. We systematically reviewed the literature on how fear, which we define as variation in escape behavior, was quantified in reef fishes. In the past 25 years, a total of 33 studies were identified, many of which were published within the last five years and nearly 40% of those (n = 13) focused on Indo-Pacific reefs, showing that there are still many geographical gaps...
February 12, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Eric A Schmidt, Fabien Despas, Anne Pavy-Le Traon, Zofia Czosnyka, John D Pickard, Kamal Rahmouni, Atul Pathak, Jean M Senard
Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure within the cranium . ICP rise compresses brain vessels and reduces cerebral blood delivery. Massive ICP rise leads to cerebral ischemia, but it is also known to produce hypertension, bradycardia and respiratory irregularities due to a sympatho-adrenal mechanism termed Cushing response. One still unresolved question is whether the Cushing response is a non-synaptic acute brainstem ischemic mechanism or part of a larger physiological reflex for arterial blood pressure control and homeostasis regulation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Mihori Kita, Yukiko Fujii, Sachiyo Hama
PURPOSE: To report 4 cases undergoing 25-gauge endoscopic vitrectomy for the treatment of proliferative vitreoretinopathy with severe corneal opacity in which a transpupillary view of the fundus was not possible. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective interventional case series. METHODS: The main outcomes measured were postoperative anatomic status of the retina and subjective improvement of vision. RESULTS: Postoperative reattachment of the retina and subjective improvement of vision were achieved in all 4 eyes...
February 19, 2018: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
Patricia A Thistlethwaite, Jonathan R Gower, Moises Hernandez, Yu Zhang, Andrew C Picel, Anne C Roberts
BACKGROUND: Lung nodules that are small and deep within lung parenchyma, and have semisolid characteristics are often challenging to localize with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). We describe our cumulative experience using needle localization of small nodules before surgical resection. We report procedural tips, operative results, and lessons learned over time. METHODS: A retrospective review of all needle localization cases between July 1, 2006, and December 30, 2016, at a single institution was performed...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Francois Bethoux, Jonathan S Varsanik, Timothy W Chevalier, Elkan F Halpern, Darlene Stough, Zebadiah M Kimmel
BACKGROUND: Walking speed is an important measure of gait impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). The clinical assessment of walking speed requires dedicated time, space, and personnel, and may not accurately gauge real-world performance. The term "Ambient Measurement System" (AMS) refers to a new class of device that passively measures walking speed at home, without the need for dedicated space or specialized setup. This study compared an AMS, Echo5D, versus in-clinic standard measures of walking speed on a straight path...
February 8, 2018: Gait & Posture
Mario R Romano, Gilda Cennamo, Chiara Comune, Michela Cennamo, Mariantonia Ferrara, Luca Rombetto, Giovanni Cennamo
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the use of a three-dimensional heads-up microscope (3DM) during 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) compared with a traditional ophthalmic microscope (TM) in terms of efficacy, safety, and teaching and learning satisfaction. METHODS: Prospective comparative interventional study. Fifty eyes affected by one of the following diseases: rhegmatogenous or tractional retinal detachment, epiretinal membrane, full-thickness macular hole, vitreous hemorrhage, or dropped lens...
February 15, 2018: Eye
Faiza Khalid, Sofiya Rehman, Rania AbdulRahman, Shikha Gupta
A 76--year--old male cigarette smoker presented with a 2-week history of cough and haemoptysis. Chest CT on admission revealed multiple new lung nodules concerning for malignancy. CT--guided biopsy of the nodule in left lower lobe was attempted in prone oblique position for tissue diagnosis. Local anaesthetic (lidocaine) was administered using a 25--gauge (1.5-inch) needle to anaesthetise the skin and subcutaneous tissue. This was followed by insertion of a 25-gauge (3.5-inch) Whitacre needle to anaesthetise deeper tissues and parietal pleura...
February 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Iltaf Shah, Bayan Al-Dabbagh, Salah Gariballa, Asma Al-Menhali, Neak Muhammad, Javed Yasin, S Salman Ashraf
Research shows that immunoassay techniques are not the best choice for the estimation of vitamin D in human blood samples. The main reasons are that some immunoassays are not able to distinguish between 25-OHD3 and 25-OHD2 vitamin D metabolites. Furthermore, immunoassays cannot differentiate between 25OHD and inactive epimers of vitamin D. Vitamin D epimers and isobars have been known to overlap with the 25OHD signals and give false positives when tested. Liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) can differentiate between 25OHD3 and 25OHD2...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Motohiro Sekino, Hiroyuki Funaoka, Shuntaro Sato, Kyoko Okada, Haruka Inoue, Rintaro Yano, Sojiro Matsumoto, Taiga Ichinomiya, Ushio Higashijima, Shuhei Matsumoto, Tetsuya Hara
A correlation between sublingual and intestinal mucosa microcirculation, and ischemic necrosis of the tongue as a sign of poor prognosis has been reported. However, an association between tongue ischemia and intestinal health and subsequent outcome has never been studied. This preliminary prospective observational study evaluated the association between macroscopic tongue ischemia and enterocyte injury and poor outcome in patients with septic shock. In this study, 57 adults with septic shock on mechanical ventilators were enrolled...
February 9, 2018: Shock
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