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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916760/discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-cocaine-levamisole-combinations-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#1
Zachary J Zimmermann, David V Gauvin, Alan Poling
BACKGROUND: Levamisole (LVM) is a common adulterant in clandestinely manufactured cocaine (COC), with a range of well-documented deleterious health effects. Although the prevalence of LVM in COC has been widely noted, the subjective effects related to concomitant COC-LVM administration are poorly understood. AIMS: The present study sought to compare the subjective effects of LVM alone and in combination with COC in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats trained to discriminate COC from vehicle injections...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916734/polymeric-injectable-intravitreal-hydrogel-devices-for-posterior-segment-applications-and-interventions
#2
Muhammed Anwary, Pradeep Kumar, Lisa C du Toit, Yahya E Choonara, Viness Pillay
Posterior segment diseases are commonly implicated in the occurrence of curable as well as incurable diseases which could lead to blindness. An example of one such disease is age-related macular degeneration, which would require chronic treatment over an extended period and as such the development of an intravitreal drug delivery system that would optimize patient outcomes is essential. The major contributor of the difficulty in treating diseases in the posterior segment is the structure of the eye, particularly the blood-ocular barriers...
June 19, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916550/epigallocatechin-gallate-improves-airway-inflammation-through-tgf%C3%A2-%C3%AE-1-signaling-pathway-in-asthmatic-mice
#3
Lishen Shan, Xinyuan Kang, Fen Liu, Xuxu Cai, Xiaohua Han, Yunxiao Shang
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on airway inflammation in mice with bronchial asthma, and the regulatory mechanism of transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β1 signaling pathway, so as to provide theoretical basis for research and development of a novel drug for clinical treatment. Mouse models of bronchial asthma were established and injected with dexamethasone and EGCG via the caudal vein. 7 days later, bronchoalveolar tissue was collected for hematoxylin and eosin staining...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916218/pharmacogenetic-algorithm-for-individualized-controlled-ovarian-stimulation-icos-in-assisted-reproductive-technology-cycles
#4
Matheus Roque, Bianca Bianco, Denise M Christofolini, Emerson B Cordts, Fabia L Vilarino, Waldemar Carvalho, Marcello Valle, Marcos Sampaio, Selmo Geber, Sandro C Esteves, Caio P Barbosa
Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) is crucial for optimizing in vitro fertilization (IVF) / intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) success. Multiple factors influence the ovarian response to COS, making predictions about oocyte yields not so straightforward. As a result, the ovarian response may be poor or suboptimal, or even excessive, all of which have negative consequences for the affected patient. There is a group of patients that present with a suboptimal response to COS despite normal biomarkers of ovarian reserve, such as AFC and AMH...
June 14, 2018: Panminerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915923/pharmacokinetics-and-clinical-implications-of-semaglutide-a-new-glucagon-like-peptide-glp-1-receptor-agonist
#5
REVIEW
Sylvie Hall, Diana Isaacs, Jennifer N Clements
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) came to market in the year 2005, as a new therapeutic classification, for clinical use in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Since 2005, there have been six approved products on the market, with the newest product being semaglutide (Novo Nordisk). Several studies have been conducted and completed evaluating its pharmacokinetics as a once-weekly subcutaneous injection. As a dose of 0.5 or 1 mg, semaglutide has a half-life of 7 days; therefore, it would reach steady state in 4-5 weeks...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915504/effects-of-intratesticular-injection-of-zinc-based-solution-in-rats-in-combination-with-anti-inflammatory-and-analgesic-drugs-during-chemical-sterilization
#6
Simone Regina Barros de Macêdo, Luiz André Rodrigues de Lima, Sandra Maria de Torres, Vinícius Vasconcelos Gomes de Oliveira, Rosana Nogueira de Morais, Christina Alves Peixoto, Bruno Mendes Tenorio, Valdemiro Amaro da Silva Junior
Aim: Chemical sterilization is a non-surgical method of contraception based on compounds injected into the testis to induce infertility. However, these injections can cause discomfort and pain able to impair the recovery of animals after this treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate if anti-inflammatories or pain relievers inhibited the sterilizing effect of zinc gluconate-based solution on the testis. Materials and Methods: Adult rats were treated in groups: G1 (control), G2 (dimethyl sulfoxide + dipyrone); G3 (dipyrone/zinc); G4 (dipyrone + celecoxib/zinc); G5 (dipyrone + meloxicam/zinc), and G6 (dipyrone + dexamethasone/zinc) in a single dose per day during 7 days...
May 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915156/disposition-of-methamphetamine-and-major-metabolites-in-mice-role-of-organic-cation-transporter-3-oct3-in-tissue-selective-accumulation-of-para-hydroxymethamphetamine
#7
David J Wagner, Laura M Shireman, Sojung Ahn, Danny D Shen, Joanne Wang
Methamphetamine is one of the most widely abused illicit drugs. While human intoxication and multiple tissue toxicities frequently occur in abusers, little is known about the distribution of methamphetamine or its primary metabolites, amphetamine and para -hydroxymethamphetamine ( p -OHMA), to their sites of toxicity. This study determined the pharmacokinetics, tissue exposure, and partition ratios of methamphetamine and major metabolites in various mouse tissues and investigated the impact of organic cation transporter 3 (Oct3) following intravenous injection of methamphetamine to male Oct3 +/+ and Oct3 -/- mice...
June 18, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914596/tuberculosis-infection-and-disease-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-countries-with-low-tuberculosis-incidence
#8
J R Winter, A L Adamu, R K Gupta, H R Stagg, V Delpech, I Abubakar
In countries with low tuberculosis (TB) incidence, TB is concentrated in vulnerable populations, including people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV), who have a substantially greater risk of TB than people without HIV. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science for studies evaluating the risk factors for latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) or active TB in PLHIV in countries with TB incidence 10 per 100 000 population. Due to the number of risk factors evaluated and heterogeneity in study designs, we present summary data and a narrative synthesis...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914381/a-qualitative-assessment-of-the-acceptability-of-hepatitis-c-remote-self-testing-and-self-sampling-amongst-people-who-use-drugs-in-london-uk
#9
Andy Guise, T Charles Witzel, Sema Mandal, Caroline Sabin, Tim Rhodes, Anthony Nardone, Magdalena Harris
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C (HCV) diagnosis and care is a major challenge for people who use illicit drugs, and is characterised by low rates of testing and treatment engagement globally. New approaches to fostering engagement are needed. We explored the acceptability of remote forms of HCV testing including self-testing and self-sampling among people who use drugs in London, UK. METHODS: A qualitative rapid assessment was undertaken with people who use drugs and stakeholders in London, UK...
June 19, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914270/understanding-women-and-men-s-acceptability-of-current-and-new-hiv-prevention-technologies-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#10
Eliza Govender, Quarraisha Abdool Karim
Despite significant advances to the HIV epidemic, prevention remains a challenge globally. Adolescent girls and young women in southern and Eastern Africa are still at high risk of acquiring HIV infection with limited prevention options. The expanding product pipeline of novel drugs and delivery approaches has highlighted the importance of acceptability and uptake of these anti-retroviral based products to realize their full prevention potential. Community engagement is now imperative to inform both product development and uptake; with research directed to understand what potential users are willing to use given the broader cultural-gender context in which HIV prevention product choices are made/negotiated...
June 18, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913996/the-attenuation-of-pain-behaviour-and-serum-interleukin-6-concentration-by-nimesulide-in-a-rat-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#11
Taraneh Moini Zanjani, Masoumeh Sabetkasaei, Behnaz Karimian, Farzaneh Labibi, Babak Farokhi, Nariman Mossafa
Background Evidence for a role of immune system in hyperalgesic pain states is increasing. Recent work in neuroimmunology suggests that the immune system does more than simply perform its well known functions of recognizing and removing invading pathogens and tumors. Interest in neuroinflammation and neuroimmune activation has grown rapidly in recent years with the recognition of the role of central nervous system inflammatiom and immune responses in the aetiology of pain states. Among various theories, the role of inflammatory responses of the injured nerve has recently received attention...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913911/buprenorphine-clinically-useful-but-often-misunderstood
#12
Stephen Butler
Background There are a number of false myths about buprenorphine based on unconfirmed animal data, even from isolated animal organs, and early clinical research. These myths came into textbooks on pharmacology and pain about 30 years ago and have been difficult to eradicate. Animal models of pain and pain relief are notoriously unreliable as predictors of human clinical effects. The fact is that in clinical practice there is NO bell-shaped dose-response curve, there is NO plateau on the dose-response curve, and there is NO antagonist effect from buprenorphine on other mu-opioid agonists...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913715/repeated-sinomenine-administration-alleviates-chronic-neuropathic-pain-like-behaviours-in-rodents-without-producing-tolerance
#13
Tianle Gao, Tiansheng Shi, Dan-Qiao Wang, Zsuzsanna Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Xiao-Jun Xu
Background and aims We have previously reported that systemic administration of sinomenine produced antinociception in various experimental pain conditions in rodents, particularly in models of neuropathic pain. In the present study we assessed the effects of repeated administration of sinomenine in two rodent models of neuropathic pain in order to study the development of tolerance. Methods The analgesic effect of sinomenine was tested in female Sprague-Dawley rats that exhibited mechanical and cold hypersensitivity following ischaemic injury to the spinal cord and in male C57/BL6 mice that developed mechanical hypersensitivity after ischaemic injury to the sciatic nerve...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913637/on-the-pharmacological-effects-of-two-lidocaine-concentrations-tested-on-spontaneous-and-evoked-pain-in-human-painful-neuroma-a-new-clinical-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#14
Adriana Miclescu, Björn Hägglöf, Martin Schmelz, Torsten Gordh
Aims Spontaneous and evoked pains are key symptoms of patients with neuropathic pain and there is a current discussion on the predictive value of evoked pain read outs for the reduction of spontaneous pain. Here we describe a new clinical model of neuropathic pain that may be useful for evaluation of new drugs. We also report the effects of lidocaine in this model as reference values. Methods In a randomized double-blind experiment, the analgesic effects of local lidocaine were investigated separately for spontaneous pain and for stimulus-evoked allodynia and hyperalgesia in sixteen patients with painful neuromas after traumatic nerve injuries in the upper extremities...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913447/perioperative-anaphylaxis-including-kounis-syndrome-due-to-selective-cefazolin-allergy
#15
Inês Mota, Ângela Gaspar, Mário Morais-Almeida
BACKGROUND: Perioperative use of cefazolin has been associated with severe allergic reactions, and patients are usually labelled as allergic to penicillin afterwards. The aim of our study was to describe a group of patients with immediate reactions to cefazolin, with proven selective hypersensitivity reactions. METHODS: Systematic review of all patients followed at our drug centre with cefazolin-related reactions, between January 2012 and December 2016. All patients were investigated according to the European Network for Drug Allergy (ENDA) recommendations through skin testing (major and minor penicillin determinants, penicillin, amoxicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime and ceftriaxone) and oral challenges tests...
June 18, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913323/association-between-injection-in-public-places-and-hiv-hcv-risk-behavior-among-people-who-use-drugs-in-ukraine
#16
Alyona Mazhnaya, Karin E Tobin, Jill Owczarzak
BACKGROUND: In Eastern Europe and Central Asia new HIV infections occur at a high rate among people who inject drugs (PWID). Injection risk behavior may be associated with injecting in public places. However, there is a lack of studies exploring this association in Ukraine, which has an HIV prevalence 21-42% among PWID. METHODS: Data came from a baseline survey of PWID recruited to participate in a behavioral HIV prevention intervention. The association between HIV/HCV injection risk behavior and place of injection (private vs...
June 8, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913243/spinal-inhibition-of-p2xr-or-p38-signaling-disrupts-hyperalgesic-priming-in-male-but-not-female-mice
#17
Candler Paige, Gayathri Batchalli Maruthy, Galo Mejia, Gregory Dussor, Theodore Price
Recent studies have demonstrated sexual dimorphisms in the mechanisms contributing to the development of chronic pain. Here we tested the hypothesis that microglia might preferentially regulate hyperalgesic priming in male mice. We based this hypothesis on evidence that microglia preferentially contribute to neuropathic pain in male mice via ionotropic purinergic receptor (P2XR) or p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38) signaling. Mice given a single priming injection of the soluble human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6r) and then a second injection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), which unmasks hyperalgesic priming, show a significant increase in levels of activated microglia at 3h following the PGE2 injection in both male and female mice...
June 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913189/tb-efi-a-novel-18-plex-microbead-based-method-for-prediction-of-second-line-drugs-and-ethambutol-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#18
Bernice J Klotoe, Barbara Molina-Moya, Harrison Magdinier Gomes, Michel K Gomgnimbou, Lorenna Oliveira Suzarte, Maria H Féres Saad, Sajid Ali, José Dominguez, Edita Pimkina, Elena Zholdybayeva, Christophe Sola, Guislaine Refrégier
Several diagnostic tests are being developed to detect drug resistance in tuberculosis. In line with previous developments detecting rifampicin and isoniazid resistance using microbead-based systems (spoligoriftyping and TB-SPRINT), we present here an assay called TB-EFI detecting mutations involved in resistance to ethambutol, fluoroquinolones and the three classical injectable drugs (kanamycin, amikacin and capreomycin) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The proposed test includes both wild-type and mutant probes for each targeted locus...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912998/safety-of-once-weekly-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#19
Juan P Frias
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) have been found efficacious in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D), demonstrating the ability to lower HbA1c, and having the potential for inducing weight loss and reducing the risk of hypoglycemia, compared with other antihyperglycemic agents. Currently, 4 once-weekly (OW) GLP-1 RAs are approved: albiglutide, dulaglutide, exenatide ER, and recently, semaglutide. This review compares the relative safety of OW GLP-1 RAs, as well as their safety in comparison to other antihyperglycemic agents, using safety data reported in key sponsor-led phase 3 studies of the 4 OW GLP-1 RAs...
June 2018: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912995/an-overview-of-the-burden-of-illness-and-the-role-of-once-weekly-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#20
Stephen A Brunton
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a debilitating condition and more people are being diagnosed each year. T2D increases patients' risk of developing disabling micro- and macrovascular complications, significantly reduces patients' quality of life, and is a substantial global economic burden. The efficacy and safety of antihyperglycemic therapies have improved over the years and have increased the lifespan for these patients. Consequently, patients are living longer with the condition and the associated comorbidities, but with a lowered quality of life...
June 2018: Journal of Family Practice
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