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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677385/identification-and-characterization-of-two-novel-c-type-lectins-from-the-larvae-of-housefly-musca-domestica-l
#1
Jing Zhou, Nai-Nai Fang, Ya Zheng, Kai-Yu Liu, Bin Mao, Li-Na Kong, Ya Chen, Hui Ai
Lectins and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are widely distributed in various insects and play crucial roles in primary host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Two AMPs (cecropin and attacin) have been identified and characterized in the larvae of housefly. In this study, two novel C-type lectins (CTLs) were obtained from Musca domestica, while their agglutinating and antiviral properties were evaluated. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the mRNA levels of four immune genes (MdCTL1, MdCTL2, Cecropin, and Attacin) from M...
April 20, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677369/targeted-drug-delivery-in-the-suprachoroidal-space-by-swollen-hydrogel-pushing
#2
Jae Hwan Jung, Patcharin Desit, Mark R Prausnitz
Purpose: The purpose is to target model drug particles to the posterior region of the suprachoroidal space (SCS) of the eye controlled via pushing by hydrogel swelling. Methods: A particle formulation containing 1% hyaluronic acid (HA) with fluorescent polymer particles and a hydrogel formulation containing 4% HA were introduced in a single syringe as two layers without mixing, and injected sequentially into the SCS of the rabbit eye ex vivo and in vivo using a microneedle...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677353/humoral-immune-response-after-intravitreal-but-not-after-subretinal-aav8-in-primates-and-patients
#3
Felix F Reichel, Tobias Peters, Barbara Wilhelm, Martin Biel, Marius Ueffing, Bernd Wissinger, Karl U Bartz-Schmidt, Reinhild Klein, Stylianos Michalakis, M Dominik Fischer
Purpose: To study longitudinal changes of anti-drug antibody (ADA) titers to recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (rAAV8) capsid epitopes in nonhuman primates (NHP) and patients. Methods: Three groups of six NHP each received subretinal injections (high dose: 1 × 1012 vector genomes [vg], low dose: 1 × 1011 vg, or vehicle only). Four additional animals received intravitreal injections of the high dose (1 × 1012 vg). Three patients received 1 × 1010 vg as subretinal injections...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677018/examining-the-efficacy-of-calcium-hydroxylapatite-filler-with-integral-lidocaine-in-correcting-volume-loss-of-the-jawline-a-pilot-study
#4
Margit L W Juhász, Ellen S Marmur
BACKGROUND: Patients seek 3-dimensional volume restoration of the jawline to obtain a "defined" line. Injection of filler into the jawline is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration; however, dermatologists have injected this area with positive results, minimal adverse events, and high patient satisfaction. OBJECTIVE: This study explores the efficacy of premixed calcium hydroxylapatite filler with integral lidocaine [CaHA(+)] to correct volume defects of the jawline...
April 19, 2018: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676653/tissue-targeted-nanocapsids-for-oral-insulin-delivery-via-drink
#5
Chun C Chen, Mo A Baikoghli, R Holland Cheng
For the past eight decades, subcutaneous injection has been the main route used for supplementing the suboptimal insulin secretion for administering insulin as a treatment for diabetes mellitus. Although this method is effective, subcutaneous injections are painful, inconvenient and carry a high risk of infections leading to poor patient compliance. The insulin-encapsulated hepatitis E virus nanoparticle, composed of the noninfectious hepatitis E viral capsid, is expected to deliver insulin from the GI tract to the liver after ingestion...
April 20, 2018: Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676212/pro-140-a-monoclonal-antibody-targeting-ccr5-as-a-long-acting-single-agent-maintenance-therapy-for-hiv-1-infection
#6
Kush Dhody, Nader Pourhassan, Kazem Kazempour, Derry Green, Shide Badri, Hana Mekonnen, Paul J Maddon, Denis Burger
Background PRO 140 is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting CCR5 with potent antiviral activity in patients with CCR5-tropic HIV-1 infection. In phase 2b studies, we evaluated the long-term efficacy, safety, and tolerability of PRO 140 monotherapy in maintaining viral suppression for over 24 months in patients who were stable on combination antiretroviral therapy on entry into the trials. Methods and Results Forty-one adult patients, infected exclusively with CCR5-tropic HIV-1 with viral loads <50 copies/mL, were switched from daily oral combination ART regimens to weekly PRO 140 monotherapy for 12 weeks...
April 20, 2018: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675625/multidetector-ct-of-iatrogenic-and-self-inflicted-vascular-lesions-and-infections-at-the-groin
#7
REVIEW
Massimo Tonolini, Anna Maria Ierardi, Gianpaolo Carrafiello, Domenico Laganà
The number and complexity of endovascular procedures performed via either arterial or venous access are steadily increasing. Albeit associated with higher morbidity compared to the radial approach, the traditional common femoral artery remains the preferred access site in a variety of cardiac, aortic, oncologic and peripheral vascular procedures. Both transarterial and venous cannulation (for electrophysiology, intravenous laser ablation and central catheterisation) at the groin may result in potentially severe vascular access site complications (VASC)...
April 19, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674240/the-impact-of-antipsychotics-as-a-risk-factor-for-thromboembolism
#8
REVIEW
Ewa A Ogłodek, Marek J Just, Anna D Grzesińska, Aleksander Araszkiewicz, Adam R Szromek
Patients with schizophrenia are predisposed toward developing cardiovascular disease. Although neuroleptics affect the cardiovascular system, it is also important to consider the consequences of the disease itself such as lower physical activity due to living on disability pension, inadequate nutrition, and/or nicotine addiction, being more common among patients with schizophrenia versus the general population. All these factors combined lead to an increased risk of death caused by cardiovascular conditions in schizophrenic patients...
December 15, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673847/challenges-in-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes-among-native-women-in-the-united-arab-emirates
#9
Walaa Abuelmagd, Bachar Afandi, Helle Håkonsen, Seham Khmidi, Else-Lydia Toverud
AIM: To investigate type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management in native female patients in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). METHODS: Ninety women from the outpatient diabetes clinic at Tawam Hospital, UAE, were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure, lipid panel, weight and body mass index (BMI) were extracted from medical records. RESULTS: Mean age was 57.5 (SD:12.7) years. Forty-five participants (50...
April 16, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673329/comparison-of-electroencephalographic-changes-in-response-to-acute-electrical-and-thermal-stimuli-with-the-tail-flick-and-hot-plate-test-in-rats-administered-with-opiorphin
#10
Preet Singh, Kavitha Kongara, David Harding, Neil Ward, Venkata Sayoji Rao Dukkipati, Craig Johnson, Paul Chambers
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare the changes in the electroencephalogram (EEG) in response to noxious stimuli with tail flick and hot plate responses of rats administered opiorphin. METHODS: Female Sprague -Dawley rats (n = 8 per group) randomly received intravenous (IV) injection of morphine (1 mg/kg,) or opiorphin (2 mg/kg,) or saline (0.5 ml,) in each of the three testing methods (EEG, tail flick and hot plate). Each type of test (n = 24 per test) was conducted in different population of rats on separate occasions...
April 19, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672844/longitudinal-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-glial-cell-activation-in-a-mouse-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-toward-identification-of-optimal-treatment-windows
#11
Duc-Loc Nguyen, Catriona Wimberley, Charles Truillet, Benoit Jego, Fabien Caillé, Géraldine Pottier, Raphaël Boisgard, Irène Buvat, Viviane Bouilleret
OBJECTIVE: Mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy is the most common type of drug-resistant partial epilepsy, with a specific history that often begins with status epilepticus due to various neurological insults followed by a silent period. During this period, before the first seizure occurs, a specific lesion develops, described as unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS). It is still challenging to determine which drugs, administered at which time point, will be most effective during the formation of this epileptic process...
April 19, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672189/abrogation-of-hepatic-damage-induced-by-anticancer-drug-methotrexate-by-zobo-hibiscus-sabdariffa-extract-supplementation-via-targeting-oxidative-hepatotoxicity-in-rats
#12
Ademola C Famurewa, Abiola M Folawiyo, Michael A Epete, Emeka C Igwe, Paul I Okike, Ekenechukwu K Maduagwuna
Clinical use of methotrexate (MTX) in cancer chemotherapy is limited due to its side effects, notably associated with increased oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity. Zobo is an aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa known to contain natural antioxidants. The present study investigated the hepatoprotective effect of zobo drink (ZD) on MTX-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats randomized to control group received distilled water orally; MTX group received intraperitoneal (ip) injection of MTX (20 mg/kg) on day 11; ZD + MTX group was administered ZD (10 ml/kg) for 14 days and was injected with MTX on day 11...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672144/efficacy-of-communication-training-of-community-health-workers-on-service-delivery-to-people-who-inject-drugs-in-vietnam-a-clustered-randomized-trial
#13
Li Li, Nguyen Tran Hien, Li-Jung Liang, Chunqing Lin, Chiao-Wen Lan, Sung-Jae Lee, Nguyen Anh Tuan, Le Anh Tuan, Duong Cong Thanh, Nguyen Thi Thanh Ha
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of an intervention targeted to commune health workers (CHWs) who deliver services to people who inject drugs (PWID) in Vietnam. METHODS: From 2014 to 2016, we conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial of 300 CHWs and 900 PWID in 60 communes in 2 provinces of Vietnam. Intervention CHWs participated in training sessions to enhance their communication skills. Trained CHWs were asked to deliver individual sessions to PWID. We assessed the outcomes at baseline and at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-ups...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672108/a-greater-tendency-for-representation-mediated-learning-in-a-ketamine-mouse-model-of-schizophrenia
#14
Ming Teng Koh, Paige S Ahrens, Michela Gallagher
Representation mediated learning is a behavioral paradigm that could be used to potentially capture psychotic symptoms including hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenia. In studies of mediated learning, representations of prior experience can enter into current associations. Using a ketamine model of schizophrenia, we investigated whether mice exposed to ketamine during late adolescence subsequently showed an increased tendency to use a representation of a prior gustatory experience to form associations in learning...
April 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671690/application-of-a-novel-murine-ear-vein-model-to-evaluate-the-effects-of-a-vascular-radioprotectant-on-radiation-induced-vascular-permeability-and-leukocyte-adhesion
#15
Kathleen A Ashcraft, Kingshuk Roy Choudhury, Sam R Birer, Hansford C Hendargo, Pranalee Patel, Gary Eichenbaum, Mark W Dewhirst
Vascular injury after radiation exposure contributes to multiple types of tissue injury through a cascade of events. Some of the earliest consequences of radiation damage include increased vascular permeability and promotion of inflammation, which is partially manifested by increased leukocyte-endothelial (L/E) interactions. We describe herein a novel intravital imaging method to evaluate L/E interactions, as a function of shear stress, and vascular permeability at multiple time points after local irradiation to the ear...
April 19, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671656/interferon-beta-injection-site-reactions-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Martina Maurelli, Roberto Bergamaschi, Ambra Antonini, Maria Concetta Fargnoli, Elisa Puma, Giulia Mallucci, Rocco Totaro, Giampiero Girolomoni
Interferon-beta (IFNβ) are effective treatments for relapsing multiple sclerosis. IFNβ treatment includes subcutaneous (sc) IFNβ-1b, intramuscular and sc IFNβ-1a, and sc pegylated IFNβ-1a (PEG-IFNβ-1a). PEG-IFNβ-1a offers the advantage of a prolonged duration of action with a less frequent administration (every 2 weeks) and a higher patient adherence. However, the use of subcutaneous interferons could be characterized by potential skin toxicity. Injection site reactions (ISRs), featured by erythema, edema, pain and pruritus, are the most common adverse reactions...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671497/osteoarthritis-rapid-evidence-review
#17
Mark H Ebell
Osteoarthritis (OA) should be suspected in patients with pain in the fingers, shoulders, hips, knees, or ankles, especially if they are older than 40 years. Patients older than 50 years who have joint pain, minimal morning stiffness, and functional impairment likely have OA. Radiography can confirm the diagnosis and may be helpful before surgical referral, but findings generally do not correlate well with symptoms. Exercise, physical therapy, knee taping, and tai chi are beneficial for knee OA. Medical therapy provides modest benefits in pain reduction and functional improvement; however, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tramadol, and other opioids have significant potential harms...
April 15, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671365/queering-the-evidence-remaking-homosexuality-and-hiv-risk-to-end-aids-in-kenya
#18
Eileen Moyer, Emmy Igonya
Until recently, HIV in Africa was presumed to be driven by poverty, gender inequality and poor governance. The last decade has seen a shift in global and national public health discourses, especially in eastern Africa where new statistical evidence is used to justify prevention efforts to target Key Populations, i.e. men who have sex with men (MSM), injecting drug users, and sex workers. In this article, we focus on Kenya to examine state, NGO and community HIV treatment and prevention efforts targeting MSM, specifically male sex workers...
April 19, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671219/ceftazidime-avibactam-a-review-in-the-treatment-of-serious-gram-negative-bacterial-infections
#19
Matt Shirley
Ceftazidime-avibactam (Zavicefta® ) is an intravenously administered combination of the third-generation cephalosporin ceftazidime and the novel, non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam. In the EU, ceftazidime-avibactam is approved for the treatment of adults with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs) [including pyelonephritis], complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs), hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) [including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)], and other infections caused by aerobic Gram-negative organisms in patients with limited treatment options...
April 18, 2018: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671074/assessment-of-forces-in-intradermal-injection-devices-hydrodynamic-versus-human-factors
#20
Stijn Verwulgen, Koen Beyers, Timothi Van Mulder, Thomas Peeters, Steven Truijen, Francis Dams, Vanessa Vankerckhoven
PURPOSE: The force that has to be exerted on the plunger for administering a given amount of fluid in a given time, has an important influence on comfort for the subject and usability for the administrator in intradermal drug delivery. The purpose of this study is to model those forces that are subject-independent, by linking needle and syringe geometry to the force required for ejecting a given fluid at a given ejection rate. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We extend the well-known Hagen-Poiseuille formula to predict pressure drop induced by a fluid passing through a cylindrical body...
April 18, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
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