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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245104/who-goes-first-understanding-hepatitis-c-risk-among-injecting-networks-in-the-prison-setting
#1
Lise Lafferty, Jake Rance, Carla Treloar
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C (HCV) is a blood-borne virus that is most commonly transmitted through shared injecting equipment. Due to the criminalisation of injecting drug use, HCV is highly prevalent among those incarcerated. Using a risk environment framework, this qualitative study sought to understand the role of HCV risk within injecting networks in the prison setting. METHODS: Thirty-two adult prisoners (n=24 men; n=8 women) with a history of injecting drug use participated in this qualitative sub-study...
December 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245072/phloretin-attenuates-mucus-hypersecretion-and-airway-inflammation-induced-by-cigarette-smoke
#2
Hao Wang, Ting Yang, Tao Wang, Nanya Hao, Yongchun Shen, Yanqiu Wu, Zhicheng Yuan, Lei Chen, Fuqiang Wen
BACKGROUNDS: Cigarette smoke (CS)-induced airway mucus hypersecretion and inflammation are the prominent features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As an anti-inflammatory flavonoid, phloretin was found to be involved in various inflammatory disorders such as sepsis. In this study, the effects of phloretin on CS-induced airway mucin secretion and inflammation were investigated in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: Phloretin dissolved in 1% DMSO was daily injected intraperitoneally to mice, which were then exposed to CS for four weeks...
December 12, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244851/inhibition-of-merozoite-invasion-and-transient-de-sequestration-by-sevuparin-in-humans-with-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria
#3
Anna M Leitgeb, Prakaykaew Charunwatthana, Ronnatrai Rueangveerayut, Chirapong Uthaisin, Kamolrat Silamut, Kesinee Chotivanich, Patima Sila, Kirsten Moll, Sue J Lee, Maria Lindgren, Erik Holmer, Anna Färnert, Mpungu S Kiwuwa, Jens Kristensen, Christina Herder, Joel Tarning, Mats Wahlgren, Arjen M Dondorp
SEVERE MALARIA: Even with the best available treatment, the mortality from severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains high. Typical features at death are high parasite loads and obstructed micro- vasculature. Infected erythrocytes (IE) containing mature parasites bind to the host receptor heparan sulfate, which is also an important receptor for merozoite invasion. To block merozoite invasion has not previously been proposed as an adjunctive therapeutic approach but it may preclude the early expansion of an infection that else leads to exacerbated sequestration and death...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244747/ophthalmic-formulation-containing-nilvadipine-nanoparticles-prevents-retinal-dysfunction-in-rats-injected-with-streptozotocin
#4
Saori Deguchi, Hiroko Otake, Yosuke Nakazawa, Noriko Hiramatsu, Naoki Yamamoto, Noriaki Nagai
Retinopathy leads to irreparable vision loss via capillary closure and areas of nonperfusion. However, the current instillation systems do not allow a sufficient amount of drug required to treat retinopathy to reach the posterior segment (retina); therefore, a new formulation targeting the posterior segment is expected as therapy for retinopathy. We prepared ophthalmic formulations containing nilvadipine nanoparticles (NILnano), and demonstrated whether the instillation of NILnano can prevent retinal dysfunction in rats injected with excessive streptozotocin (STZ rats) in this study...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244729/comparative-evaluation-of-u-s-brand-and-generic-intravenous-sodium-ferric-gluconate-complex-in-sucrose-injection-in-vitro-cellular-uptake
#5
Min Wu, Dajun Sun, Katherine Tyner, Wenlei Jiang, Rodney Rouse
Iron deficiency anemia is a common clinical consequence for people who suffer from chronic kidney disease, especially those requiring dialysis. Intravenous (IV) iron therapy is a widely accepted safe and efficacious treatment for iron deficiency anemia. Numerous IV iron drugs have been approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), including a single generic product, sodium ferric gluconate complex in sucrose. In this study, we compared the cellular iron uptake profiles of the brand (Ferrlecit®) and generic sodium ferric gluconate (SFG) products...
December 15, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244724/rlj-rgd3-suppresses-the-growth-of-heya8-cells-in-nude-mice
#6
Yuanyuan Zheng, Li Lv, Longda Yi, Rui Wu, Rong Xiao, Jihong Wang
In the previous study, rLj-RGD3, a recombinant toxin protein which contains three RGD motifs, was reported to not only inhibit the proliferation of an ovarian cancer cell line, HeyA8 cells, by inducing apoptosis, but also block their adhesion, migration and invasion processes. However, whether rLj-RGD3 could also suppress the tumor growth in HeyA8 xenografted mice has not been reported yet. In the present study, rLj-RGD3 was intraperitoneally injected in the nude mice bearing HeyA8 tumors. Compared with the control group (normal saline), rLj-RGD3 inhibited the tumor growth significantly in the HeyA8 xenografted mice in a dose-dependent manner without affecting their body weights...
December 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244005/ghost-global-hepatitis-outbreak-and-surveillance-technology
#7
Atkinson G Longmire, Seth Sims, Inna Rytsareva, David S Campo, Pavel Skums, Zoya Dimitrova, Sumathi Ramachandran, Magdalena Medrzycki, Hong Thai, Lilia Ganova-Raeva, Yulin Lin, Lili T Punkova, Amanda Sue, Massimo Mirabito, Silver Wang, Robin Tracy, Victor Bolet, Thom Sukalac, Chris Lynberg, Yury Khudyakov
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C is a major public health problem in the United States and worldwide. Outbreaks of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections associated with unsafe injection practices, drug diversion, and other exposures to blood are difficult to detect and investigate. Effective HCV outbreak investigation requires comprehensive surveillance and robust case investigation. We previously developed and validated a methodology for the rapid and cost-effective identification of HCV transmission clusters...
December 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243803/effect-of-metformin-on-fibrosarcoma-in-hamsters
#8
D J Popović, D Lalošević, D Miljković, K J Popović, I Čapo, J K Popović
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of metformin on an in vivo solid tumor model of fibrosarcoma in hamsters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 33 Syrian golden hamsters of both sexes, weighing approximately 100 g, were randomly allocated to 3 experimental and 2 control groups. 2 x 106 BHK-21/C13 cells in 1 ml were injected subcutaneously into the animals' back in 4 groups. The first experimental group (7 animals) started peroral treatment with metformin 500 mg/kg daily via a gastric probe 7 days before tumor inoculation, the second (8 animals) 3 days before inoculation and the third (6 animals) immediately after inoculation...
December 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242941/physical-therapy-in-the-management-of-frozen-shoulder
#9
Hui Bin Yvonne Chan, Pek Ying Pua, Choon How How
Frozen shoulder, also known as adhesive capsulitis, is a common presentation in the primary care setting and can be significantly painful and disabling. The condition progresses in three stages: freezing (painful), frozen (adhesive) and thawing, and is often self-limiting. Common conservative treatments include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, oral glucocorticoids, intra-articular glucocorticoid injections and/or physical therapy. However, many physicians may find themselves limited to prescribing medications for treatment...
December 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242561/hepatitis-b-virus-persistence-in-mice-reveals-il-21-and-il-33-as-regulators-of-viral-clearance
#10
Zhongliang Shen, Huijuan Yang, Sisi Yang, Wei Wang, Xiaoxian Cui, Xian Zhou, Wei Liu, Shaokun Pan, Yanfeng Liu, Junqi Zhang, Jiming Zhang, Youhua Xie, Jing Liu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) generally causes self-limiting infection in immunocompetent adults, but establishes chronic infection in some adults and in most maternally infected infants. Factors determining clearance versus persistence are not fully understood. Hydrodynamic injection (HDI) of HBV replicon plasmid via tail vein generally results in quick clearance in immunocompetent adult mice. Here, we report the identification of strain-specific persistence of HBV in mice: one genotype B strain, designated BPS, persisted up to 33 weeks in ~50% of HDI mice...
December 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242159/an-implantable-depot-capable-of-in-situ-generation-of-micelles-to-achieve-controlled-and-targeted-tumor-chemotherapy
#11
Xiaoming Luo, Maohua Chen, Zhoujiang Chen, Songzhi Xie, Nan He, Tao Wang, Xiaohong Li
Camptothecin (CPT)-containing promicelle polymers (PMCPT) based on 4-armed poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were developed previously to self-assemble into folate-targeted and glutathione (GSH)-sensitive micelles (MCPT). To address severe systemic toxicity and lack of tumor specificity implicated in the intravenous administration of MCPT, a micelle-generating depot has been developed by blend electrospinning of PEG-poly(lactide) (PELA) copolymers, PMCPT and polyethylene oxide (PEO). Upon implantation of the depot onto the tumor, PMCPT are sustainably released to spontaneously form MCPT on the tumor site...
December 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242075/molecular-drug-resistance-profiles-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-sputum-specimens-using-ion-semiconductor-sequencing
#12
Joonhong Park, Woori Jang, Myungshin Kim, Yonggoo Kim, So Youn Shin, Kuhn Park, Myung Sook Kim, Soyoung Shin
The increasing burden of multidrug resistant (MDR)-TB, defined by resistance to rifampin (RFP) and isoniazid (INH), and extensively drug resistant-TB, defined by MDR-TB with additional resistance to fluoroquinolones (FQs) and more than one second-line injectable drug, is a serious impediment to global TB control. We evaluated the feasibility of full-length gene analysis including inhA, katG, rpoB, pncA, rpsL embB, eis, and gyrA using a semiconductor NGS with the Ion AmpliSeq TB panel to directly analyse 34 sputum specimens confirmed by phenotypic DST: INH, RFP, ethambutol (EMB), pyrazinamide (PZA), amikacin, kanamycin, streptomycin (SM), FQs including ofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and levofloxacin...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241884/the-use-of-decomposition-methods-in-real-world-treatment-benefits-evaluation-for-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-initiating-different-injectable-therapies-findings-from-the-initiator-study
#13
Lee Brekke, Erin Buysman, Michael Grabner, Xuehua Ke, Lin Xie, Onur Baser, Wenhui Wei
BACKGROUND: Determining characteristics of patients likely to benefit from a particular treatment could help physicians set personalized targets. OBJECTIVES: To use decomposition methodology on real-world data to identify the relative contributions of treatment effects and patients' baseline characteristics. METHODS: Decomposition analyses were performed on data from the Initiation of New Injectable Treatment Introduced after Antidiabetic Therapy with Oral-only Regimens (INITIATOR) study, a real-world study of patients with type 2 diabetes started on insulin glargine (GLA) or liraglutide (LIRA)...
December 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241428/state-targeted-funding-and-technical-assistance-to-increase-access-to-medication-treatment-for-opioid-use-disorder
#14
Amanda J Abraham, Christina M Andrews, Colleen M Grogan, Harold A Pollack, Thomas D'Aunno, Keith Humphreys, Peter D Friedmann
OBJECTIVE: As the United States grapples with an opioid epidemic, expanding access to effective treatment for opioid use disorder is a major public health priority. Identifying effective policy tools that can be used to expand access to care is critically important. This article examines the relationship between state-targeted funding and technical assistance and adoption of three medications for treating opioid use disorder: oral naltrexone, injectable naltrexone, and buprenorphine. METHODS: This study draws from the 2013-2014 wave of the National Drug Abuse Treatment System Survey, a nationally representative, longitudinal study of substance use disorder treatment programs...
December 15, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241143/perceptions-about-supervised-injection-facilities-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-philadelphia
#15
Robert E Harris, Jessica Richardson, Rosemary Frasso, Evan D Anderson
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for infectious diseases, skin and soft tissue infections, and overdose. However, these harms are all avoidable when sterile injection equipment, hygienic places to inject, and medical care are accessible. Unfortunately, many PWID in the U.S lack these resources. The most vulnerable are forced to inject in public spaces, where individual risks are high and communal harms are sometimes many. Supervised Injection Facilities (SIFs) are an established intervention for reducing these harms...
December 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241085/salting-out-assisted-liquid-liquid-extraction-coupled-with-hydrophilic-interaction-chromatography-for-the-determination-of-biguanides-in-biological-and-environmental-samples
#16
Anas Alshishani, Salizawati Muhamad Salhimi, Bahruddin Saad
A new salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) sample preparation method for the determination of the polar anti-diabetic biguanide drugs (metformin, buformin and phenformin) in blood plasma, urine and lake water samples were developed. The SALLE was performed by mixing samples (plasma (0.2mL), urine or lake water (1.0mL)) with acetonitrile (0.4mL for plasma, 0.5mL for urine or lake water), sodium hydroxide powder was then added for the phase separation. The effects of type of salting-out reagent, type of extraction solvent, volumes of acetonitrile and sample, amount of sodium hydroxide, vortexing and centrifugation times on the extraction efficiency were investigated...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240903/declining-mortality-rates-in-hiv-infected-people-who-inject-drugs-during-a-seek-and-treat-initiative-in-vancouver-canada-1996-2014-a-prospective-cohort-study
#17
Kanna Hayashi, Huiru Dong, Thomas Kerr, Sabina Dobrer, Silvia Guillemi, Rolando Barrios, Julio S G Montaner, Evan Wood, M-J Milloy
We estimated rates and predictors of death among a community-recruited prospective cohort of 961 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people who inject drugs in Vancouver, Canada, between 1996 and 2014. The results demonstrated significant declines in age-adjusted all-cause and HIV-related mortality rates since 2010, coincident with the scale-up of a community-wide "seek-and-treat" campaign.
December 12, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240867/management-of-late-onset-recurrent-facial-nodular-reaction-after-poly-l-lactic-plla-injections
#18
Gerald O'Daniel
<p>Despite a well-established safety profile for poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), known complications of nodules, papules and granulomas can occur. The author presents a case of late-onset facial nodules after treatment with PLLA dermal filler for facial volumization. The late-onset nodules appeared 16 months post-initial injection and were initially treated with intralesional steroids followed by 5-fluorouracil, and oral corticosteroids. It took over a year of treatment with oral corticosteroids and periodic intralesional steroid injections for the nodules to resolve...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240860/cost-per-additional-responder-associated-with-ixekizumab-and-etanercept-in-the-treatment-of-moderate-to-severe-psoriasis
#19
Steven R Feldman, Shonda A Foster, Baojin Zhu, Russel Burge, Sarah Al Sawah, Orin M Goldblum
<p>BACKGROUND: Newer psoriasis treatments can achieve greater levels of effcacy than older systemic therapies; however, current pso-riasis costs are substantial. We sought to estimate costs per additional responder associated with ixekizumab and etanercept, versus placebo, using effcacy data from phase 3 clinical trials (UNCOVER-2 and UNCOVER-3).</p> <p>METHODS: In UNCOVER-2/UNCOVER-3, patients received subcutaneous placebo, etanercept 50 mg twice weekly (BIW), or ixekizumab one 80 mg injection every 2 weeks (Q2W) after a 160-mg starting dose...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240757/rct-of-an-integrated-cbt-hiv-intervention-on-depressive-symptoms-and-hiv-risk
#20
Karin Tobin, Melissa A Davey-Rothwell, Bareng A S Nonyane, Amy Knowlton, Lawrence Wissow, Carl A Latkin
Depression and depressive symptoms mediate the association between drug use and HIV risk. Yet, there are few interventions that target depressive symptoms and HIV risk for people who use drugs (PWUD). This study was a randomized controlled trial of an integrated cognitive behavioral therapy and HIV prevention intervention to reduce depressive symptoms, injection risk behaviors and increase condom use in a sample of urban people who used heroin or cocaine in the prior 6 months. A total of 315 individuals aged 18-55, who self-reported at least one HIV drug and sex risk behavior and scored ≥16 and <40 on the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale were randomized using a two-block design, stratified by sex to ensure equivalent numbers, to a 10 session intervention arm (n = 162) or a single session control arm (n = 153)...
2017: PloS One
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