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Lateral hypothalamus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819863/effects-of-testosterone-treatment-on-hypothalamic-neuroplasticity-in-female-to-male-transgender-individuals
#1
Georg S Kranz, Andreas Hahn, Ulrike Kaufmann, Martin Tik, Sebastian Ganger, René Seiger, Allan Hummer, Christian Windischberger, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is used to measure gray matter tissue density and white matter fiber organization/directionality. Recent studies show that DWI also allows for assessing neuroplastic adaptations in the human hypothalamus. To this end, we investigated a potential influence of testosterone replacement therapy on hypothalamic microstructure in female-to-male (FtM) transgender individuals. 25 FtMs were measured at baseline, 4 weeks, and 4 months past treatment start and compared to 25 female and male controls...
August 17, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809797/optogenetic-investigation-of-arousal-circuits
#2
REVIEW
Susan M Tyree, Luis de Lecea
Modulation between sleep and wake states is controlled by a number of heterogeneous neuron populations. Due to the topological proximity and genetic co-localization of the neurons underlying sleep-wake state modulation optogenetic methods offer a significant improvement in the ability to benefit from both the precision of genetic targeting and millisecond temporal control. Beginning with an overview of the neuron populations mediating arousal, this review outlines the progress that has been made in the investigation of arousal circuits since the incorporation of optogenetic techniques and the first in vivo application of optogenetic stimulation in hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus...
August 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798153/characterization-of-the-central-neural-projections-to-brown-white-and-beige-adipose-tissue
#3
Nicole M Wiedmann, Aneta Stefanidis, Brian J Oldfield
The functional recruitment of classic brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inducible brown-like or beige fat is, to a large extent, dependent on intact sympathetic neural input. Whereas the central neural circuits directed specifically to BAT or white adipose tissue (WAT) are well established, there is only a developing insight into the nature of neural inputs common to both fat types. Moreover, there is no clear view of the specific central and peripheral innervation of the browned component of WAT: beige fat. The objective of the present study is to examine the neural input to both BAT and WAT in the same animal and, by exposing different cohorts of rats to either thermoneutral or cold conditions, define changes in central neural organization that will ensure that beige fat is appropriately recruited and modulated after browning of inguinal WAT (iWAT)...
August 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794459/multiple-excitatory-actions-of-orexins-upon-thalamo-cortical-neurons-in-dorsal-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-implications-for-vision-modulation-by-arousal
#4
Lukasz Chrobok, Katarzyna Palus-Chramiec, Anna Chrzanowska, Mariusz Kepczynski, Marian Henryk Lewandowski
The orexinergic system of the lateral hypothalamus plays a crucial role in maintaining wakefulness and mediating arousal in a circadian time-dependent manner. Due to the extensive connections of orexinergic neurons, both orexins (OXA and OXB) exert mainly excitatory effects upon remote brain areas, including the thalamus. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (DLG) is a relay thalamic centre for the visual system. Its thalamo-cortical (TC) neurons convey photic information from the retina to the primary visual cortex...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791699/restricted-co-localization-of-glutamate-and-dopamine-in-neurons-of-the-adult-sea-lamprey-brain
#5
B Fernández-López, D Sobrido-Cameán, R Anadón, M C Rodicio, A Barreiro-Iglesias
Co-localization of dopamine with other classical neurotransmitters in the same neuron is a common phenomenon in the brain of vertebrates. In mammals, some dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area and the hypothalamus have a glutamatergic co-phenotype. However, information on the presence of this type of dopaminergic neurons in other vertebrate groups is very scant. Here, we aimed to provide new insights on the evolution of this neuronal co-phenotype by studying the presence of a dual dopaminergic/glutamatergic neuron phenotype in the central nervous system of lampreys...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782536/immunolesion-of-melanopsin-neurons-causes-gonadal-regression-in-pekin-drakes-anas-platyrhynchos-domesticus
#6
H Potter, E Alenciks, K Frazier, A Porter, G S Fraley
Several light sensitive receptors have been described in the avian brain that are thought to regulate the reproductive axis independently from the eyes and pineal gland.Recently, our lab has described the presence of three of these photoneuroendocrine systems in the Pekin duck: opsin, opsin 5, & melanopsin. We set out to test the hypothesis that melanopsin receptive neurons are necessary to maintain seasonal reproductive status along with growth and development in the Pekin drake. To accomplish these goals we first investigated 50-week-old Pekin drakes that were housed in the aviary at Hope College under long day length (18 hrs lights on) conditions in floor pens...
August 4, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782535/alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-induced-anorexia-in-japanese-quail-coturnix-japonica-likely-involves-the-ventromedial-hypothalamus-and-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus
#7
Taylor Lear, Lingbin Liu, Madison O'Donnell, Betty R McConn, D Michael Denbow, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) reduces food intake in birds and mammals. The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of α-MSH on food and water intake, and hypothalamic c-Fos immunoreactivity and appetite-associated factor mRNA in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), a species that has not undergone the same artificial selection for growth-related traits as the chicken. At 7days post-hatch, 3-h-fasted quail were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected into the lateral ventricle with 0 (vehicle), 0...
August 4, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776199/contribution-of-vesicular-glutamate-transporters-to-stress-response-and-related-psychopathologies-studies-in-vglut3-knockout-mice
#8
REVIEW
Hanga Réka Horváth, Csilla Lea Fazekas, Diána Balázsfi, Subodh Kumar Jain, József Haller, Dóra Zelena
Maintenance of the homeostasis in a constantly changing environment is a fundamental process of life. Disturbances of the homeostatic balance is defined as stress response and is induced by wide variety of challenges called stressors. Being the main excitatory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system glutamate is important in the adaptation process of stress regulating both the catecholaminergic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Data are accumulating about the role of different glutamatergic receptors at all levels of these axes, but little is known about the contribution of different vesicular glutamate transporters (VGluT1-3) characterizing the glutamatergic neurons...
August 3, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771712/organization-of-alpha-transducin-immunoreactive-system-in-the-brain-and-retina-of-larval-and-young-adult-sea-lamprey-petromyzon-marinus-and-their-relationship-with-other-neural-systems
#9
Antón Barreiro-Iglesias, Blanca Fernández-López, Daniel Sobrido-Cameán, Ramón Anadón
We employed an anti-transducin antibody (Gαt-S), in combination with other markers, to characterize the Gαt-S-immunoreactive (ir) system in the CNS of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. Gαt-S immunoreactivity was observed in some neuronal populations and numerous fibers distributed throughout the brain. Double Gαt-S- and opsin-ir neurons (putative photoreceptors) are distributed in the hypothalamus (postoptic commissure nucleus, dorsal and ventral hypothalamus) and caudal diencephalon, confirming results of García-Fernández et al...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760600/hypothalamic-mitochondrial-abnormalities-occur-downstream-of-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obesity
#10
Rodrigo S Carraro, Gabriela F Souza, Carina Solon, Daniela S Razolli, Bruno Chausse, Roberta Barbizan, Sheila C Victorio, Licio A Velloso
Hypothalamic dysfunction is a common feature of experimental obesity. Studies have identified at least three mechanisms involved in the development of hypothalamic neuronal defects in diet-induced obesity: i, inflammation; ii, endoplasmic reticulum stress; and iii, mitochondrial abnormalities. However, which of these mechanisms is activated earliest in response to the consumption of large portions of dietary fats is currently unknown. Here, we used immunoblot, real-time PCR, mitochondrial respiration assays and transmission electron microscopy to evaluate markers of inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial abnormalities in the hypothalamus of Swiss mice fed a high-fat diet for up to seven days...
July 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738312/habitual-sleep-quality-and-diurnal-rhythms-of-salivary-cortisol-and-dehydroepiandrosterone-in-postmenopausal-women
#11
Tianyi Huang, Elizabeth M Poole, Celine Vetter, Kathryn M Rexrode, Laura D Kubzansky, Eva Schernhammer, Nicolas Rohleder, Frank B Hu, Susan Redline, Shelley S Tworoger
Dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as a potential mechanism linking sleep and cardiometabolic disorders. However, the associations of two primary outputs of the HPA axis, cortisol and its antagonist dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), with sleep are less well studied. In the Nurses' Health Study II, 233 postmenopausal women provided five timed saliva samples over one day (immediately upon waking, 45min, 4h, and 10h after waking, and prior to going to sleep) to measure cortisol and DHEA...
October 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734870/elucidation-of-the-neural-circuits-activated-by-a-gabab-receptor-positive-modulator-relevance-to-anxiety
#12
REVIEW
Riccardo Pizzo, Olivia F O'Leary, John F Cryan
Although there is much evidence for a role of GABAB receptors in the pathophysiology of anxiety, the underlying neuronal mechanisms are largely unclear. The GABAB receptor allosteric positive modulator, GS39783, exerts anxiolytic effects without interfering with GABAB-mediated modulation of body temperature, cognitive performance and locomotor activity thus offering advantages over GABAB receptor agonists. However, the precise neural circuits underlying the anxiolytic effects of GS39783 are unknown. The aim of the present study was to identify brain structures and associated neuronal circuits that are modulated by GS39783 under either basal or mild stress conditions...
July 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729827/lateral-hypothalamic-control-of-the-ventral-tegmental-area-reward-evaluation-and-the-driving-of-motivated-behavior
#13
REVIEW
Susan M Tyree, Luis de Lecea
The lateral hypothalamus (LH) plays an important role in many motivated behaviors, sleep-wake states, food intake, drug-seeking, energy balance, etc. It is also home to a heterogeneous population of neurons that express and co-express multiple neuropeptides including hypocretin (Hcrt), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and neurotensin (NT). These neurons project widely throughout the brain to areas such as the locus coeruleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the amygdala and the ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727208/differential-expression-of-appetite-regulating-genes-in-avian-models-of-anorexia-and-obesity
#14
Jiaqing Yi, Jingwei Yuan, Elizabeth R Gilbert, Paul B Siegel, Mark A Cline
Chickens from lines that have been selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) juvenile body weight for more than 57 generations provide a unique model to research appetite regulation. The LWS display different severities of anorexia while all HWS become obese. Herein we measured mRNA abundance of various factors in appetite-associated nuclei in the hypothalamus. The lateral hypothalamus (LHA), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial nucleus (DMN), and arcuate nucleus (ARC) were collected from 5 day-old chicks that were fasted for 180 minutes or provided continuous access to food...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713816/effect-of-the-camelid-s-seminal-plasma-ovulation-inducing-factor-%C3%AE-ngf-a-kisspeptin-target-hypothesis
#15
REVIEW
Khalid El Allali, Najlae El Bousmaki, Hassan Ainani, Valérie Simonneaux
Female mammals are classified into spontaneous and induced ovulators based on the mechanism eliciting ovulation. Ovulation in spontaneous species (e.g., human, sheep, cattle, horse, pigs, and most rodents) occurs at regular intervals and depends upon the circulating estradiol. However, in induced ovulators (e.g., rabbits, ferrets, cats, and camelids), ovulation is associated with coitus. In the later, various factors have been proposed to trigger ovulation, including auditory, visual, olfactory, and mechanic stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690111/lateral-hypothalamic-gabaergic-neurons-encode-reward-predictions-that-are-relayed-to-the-ventral-tegmental-area-to-regulate-learning
#16
Melissa J Sharpe, Nathan J Marchant, Leslie R Whitaker, Christopher T Richie, Yajun J Zhang, Erin J Campbell, Pyry P Koivula, Julie C Necarsulmer, Carlos Mejias-Aponte, Marisela Morales, James Pickel, Jeffrey C Smith, Yael Niv, Yavin Shaham, Brandon K Harvey, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
Eating is a learned process. Our desires for specific foods arise through experience. Both electrical stimulation and optogenetic studies have shown that increased activity in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) promotes feeding. Current dogma is that these effects reflect a role for LH neurons in the control of the core motivation to feed, and their activity comes under control of forebrain regions to elicit learned food-motivated behaviors. However, these effects could also reflect the storage of associative information about the cues leading to food in LH itself...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684238/involvement-of-central-nesfatin-1-neurons-on-oxytocin-induced-feeding-suppression-in-rats
#17
Reiko Saito, Satomi Sonoda, Hiromichi Ueno, Yasuhito Motojima, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Takashi Maruyama, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Kentaro Tanaka, Yukiyo Yamamoto, Koichi Kusuhara, Yoichi Ueta
Peripheral anorectic hormones, such as peptide YY (PYY) and oxytocin (OXT), suppress food intake. A newly identified anorectic neuropeptide, nesfatin-1, is synthesized in both peripheral tissue and the central nervous system, particularly by various nuclei in the hypothalamus and brainstem. Here, we examined the effects of intraperitoneal (ip) administration of PYY3-36, OXT, and OXT analog, on nesfatin-1-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the rat hypothalamus and brainstem, using Fos double fluorescence-immunohistochemistry...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683170/noradrenergic-modulation-of-gonadotropin-inhibitory-hormone-gene-expression-in-the-brain-of-japanese-quail
#18
Yasuko Tobari, Norio Kansaku, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release in birds and mammals. In Japanese quail, GnIH neurons express the noradrenergic receptor and receive noradrenergic innervation. Treatment with noradrenaline (NA) stimulates GnIH release from diencephalic tissue blocks in vitro. However, the effects of NA on hypothalamic GnIH gene expression have not been determined. We investigated noradrenergic regulation of GnIH gene expression in the brain of male quail using the selective noradrenergic neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP-4)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671956/a-multiscale-cerebral-neurochemical-connectome-of-the-rat-brain
#19
Hamid R Noori, Judith Schöttler, Maria Ercsey-Ravasz, Alejandro Cosa-Linan, Melinda Varga, Zoltan Toroczkai, Rainer Spanagel
Understanding the rat neurochemical connectome is fundamental for exploring neuronal information processing. By using advanced data mining, supervised machine learning, and network analysis, this study integrates over 5 decades of neuroanatomical investigations into a multiscale, multilayer neurochemical connectome of the rat brain. This neurochemical connectivity database (ChemNetDB) is supported by comprehensive systematically-determined receptor distribution maps. The rat connectome has an onion-type structural organization and shares a number of structural features with mesoscale connectomes of mouse and macaque...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665507/participation-of-hypothalamic-cb1-receptors-in-reproductive-axis-disruption-during-immune-challenge
#20
Pablo Nicolás Surkin, María Emilia Di Rosso, Fernando Correa, Juan Carlos Elverdin, Ana María Genaro, Andrea De Laurentiis, Javier Fernández-Solari
It is known that immune challenge inhibits reproductive function and that endocannabinoids (eCB) modulate sexual hormones. However, no studies have been performed to assess whether the endocannabinoid system mediates the inhibition of hormones that control reproduction due to immune system activation during systemic infections. For that reason, we evaluated the participation of the hypothalamic cannabinoid receptor CB1 on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis activity in rats submitted to immune challenge...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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