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Lateral hypothalamus

D L McCue, J M Kasper, J D Hommel
BACKGROUND: Motivation for high-fat food is thought to contribute to excess caloric intake in obese individuals. A novel regulator of motivation for food may be Neuromedin U (NMU), a highly-conserved neuropeptide which influences food intake. Although these effects of NMU have primarily been attributed to signaling in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), NMU has also been found in other brain regions involved in both feeding behavior and motivation. We investigate the effects of NMU on motivation for food and food intake, and identify the brain regions mediating these effects...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Amanda C Sharko, Jim R Fadel, Kris F Kaigler, Marlene A Wilson
Identifying the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie differential sensitivity to stress is critical for understanding the development and expression of stress-induced disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Preclinical studies have suggested that rodents display different phenotypes associated with extinction of Pavlovian conditioned fear responses, with some rodent populations being resistant to extinction. An emerging literature also suggests a role for orexins in the consolidation processes associated with fear learning and extinction...
October 13, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Vanessa S Goodwill, Christopher Terrill, Ian Hopewood, Arthur D Loewy, Mark M Knuepfer
In some patients, renal nerve denervation has been reported to be an effective treatment for essential hypertension. Considerable evidence suggests that afferent renal nerves (ARN) and sodium balance play important roles in the development and maintenance of high blood pressure. ARN are sensitive to sodium concentrations in the renal pelvis. To better understand the role of ARN, we infused isotonic or hypertonic NaCl (308 or 500mOsm) into the left renal pelvis of conscious rats for two 2hours while recording arterial pressure and heart rate...
September 22, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Noriko Horii-Hayashi, Takayo Sasagawa, Mayumi Nishi
The hypothalamus controls metabolism, stress responses, and instinctive behaviors for individual survival and species preservation. Recent studies suggest that hypothalamic neurons retain plasticity throughout adulthood, which enables these neurons to respond to various kinds of changes in environment, nutrients, and fluctuating hormones. One of the mechanisms underlying the regulation of neural plasticity is the formation of a stable extracellular matrix (ECM) structure called perineuronal nets (PNNs). PNNs are large aggregates of heterogeneous ECM molecules such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), hyaluronan, their link proteins, and tenascin-R...
October 6, 2016: Anatomical Science International
J Alex Strahan, William H Walker, Taylor R Montgomery, Nancy G Forger
Minocycline, an antibiotic of the tetracycline family, inhibits microglia in many paradigms and is among the most commonly used tools for examining the role of microglia in physiological processes. Microglia may play an active role in triggering developmental neuronal cell death, although findings have been contradictory. To determine whether microglia influence developmental cell death, we treated perinatal mice with minocycline (45 mg/kg) and quantified effects on dying cells and microglial labeling using immunohistochemistry for activated caspase-3 (AC3) and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), respectively...
October 5, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Olga Dergacheva, Akihiro Yamanaka, Alan R Schwartz, Vsevolod Y Polotsky, David Mendelowitz
Orexin neurons are known to augment the sympathetic control of cardiovascular function, however the role of orexin neurons in parasympathetic cardiac regulation remains unclear. To test the hypothesis that orexin neurons contribute to parasympathetic control we selectively expressed channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in orexin neurons in orexin-Cre transgenic rats and examined postsynaptic currents in cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). Simultaneous photostimulation and recording in ChR2-expressing orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus resulted in reliable action potential firing as well as large whole-cell currents suggesting a strong expression of ChR2 and reliable optogenetic excitation...
September 28, 2016: Neuroscience
Amita R Somalwar, Gajanan P Shelkar, Nishikant K Subhedar, Dadasaheb M Kokare
Rats with electrode implanted in the lateral hypothalamus (LH)-medial forebrain bundle (MFB) area actively engage in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). However, the neuronal substrate that translates the electrical pulses into the neural signals, and integrates the information with mesolimbic reward system, has remained elusive. We test the hypothesis that the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neurons in the LH-MFB area may support this function. The ICSS activity via an electrode in LH-MFB area was facilitated by CART (55-102) peptide stereotaxically injected in the lateral ventricle or posterior ventral tegmental area (pVTA), but attenuated by CART antibody...
September 27, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Shel Hwa Yeo, Victoria Kyle, Paul G Morris, Sophie Jackman, Lydia Sinnett-Smith, Maria Schacker, Chen Chen, William H Colledge
Kisspeptin neuropeptides are encoded by the Kiss1 gene and play a critical role in the regulation of the mammalian reproductive axis. Kiss1 neurons are found in two locations in the rodent hypothalamus; one in the arcuate (ARC) and another in the RP3V region which includes the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus. Detailed mapping of the fibre distribution of Kiss1 neurons will help in understanding the action of these neurons in other regions of the brain. We have generated a transgenic mouse in which the Kiss1 coding region has been disrupted by a CRE-GFP transgene so that expression of the CRE recombinase protein is driven from the Kiss1 promoter...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Olena Santangeli, Henna Lehtikuja, Eeva Palomäki, Henna-Kaisa Wigren, Tiina Paunio, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Adverse early-life events induce behavioral psychopathologies and sleep changes in adulthood. In order to understand the molecular level mechanisms by which the maltreatment modifies sleep, valid animal models are needed. Changing pups between mothers at early age (cross-fostering) may satisfyingly model adverse events in human childhood. METHODS: Cross-fostering (CF) was used to model mild early-life stress in male and female Wistar rats. Behavior and BDNF gene expression in the basal forebrain (BF), cortex, and hypothalamus were assessed during adolescence and adulthood...
September 9, 2016: Sleep
Raphaël Bernard-Valnet, Lidia Yshii, Clémence Quériault, Xuan-Hung Nguyen, Sébastien Arthaud, Magda Rodrigues, Astrid Canivet, Anne-Laure Morel, Arthur Matthys, Jan Bauer, Béatrice Pignolet, Yves Dauvilliers, Christelle Peyron, Roland S Liblau
Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a rare and severe sleep disorder caused by the destruction of orexinergic neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. The genetic and environmental factors associated with narcolepsy, together with serologic data, collectively point to an autoimmune origin. The current animal models of narcolepsy, based on either disruption of the orexinergic neurotransmission or neurons, do not allow study of the potential autoimmune etiology. Here, we sought to generate a mouse model that allows deciphering of the immune mechanisms leading to orexin(+) neuron loss and narcolepsy development...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Takuyuki Katabami, Satoshi Ishii, Ryusei Obi, Shiko Asai, Yasushi Tanaka
Unilateral and/or predominant uptake on adrenocortical scintigraphy (ACS) may be related to autonomous cortisol overproduction in patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS). However, there is no information regarding whether increased tracer uptake on the tumor side or decreased uptake on the contralateral side on ACS is more greatly associated with inappropriate cortisol production. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between quantitative (131)I-6β-iodomethyl-norcholesterol ((131)I-NP-59) uptake in both adrenal glands and parameters of autonomic cortisol secretion and attempted to set a cut off for SCS detection...
September 10, 2016: Endocrine Journal
Huan Wang, Ruidong Zhang, Shengzhou Zhang, Yongkang Zhou, Xiaobing Wu
In this study, the regional distribution and histological localization of somatostatin (SS) immunoreactive (IR) perikarya and fibers was investigated for the first time in the brain of adult Chinese alligator by immunohistochemical method. The results showed SS-IR perikarya and fibers were widely distributed in various parts of the brain except for olfactory bulbs. In the telencephalon, SS-IR perikarya were predominantly located in the cellular layer and deep plexiform layer of dorsomedial and medial cortex, less in the dorsal and lateral cortex, while SS-IR fibers were found in all layers of the cerebral cortex...
September 12, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
P S Kulkarni, N P Gramapurohit
Corticosterone (CORT), a principal glucocorticoid in amphibians, is known to regulate diverse physiological processes including growth and metamorphosis of anuran tadpoles. Environmental stressors activate the neuroendocrine stress axis (hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis, HPI) leading to an acute increase in CORT, which in turn, helps in coping with particular stress. However, chronic increase in CORT can negatively affect other physiological processes such as growth and metamorphosis. Herein, we studied the effect of exogenous CORT on larval growth, antipredator behaviour and metamorphic traits of Hylarana indica...
September 6, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Javier Vargas, Mariana Junco, Carlos Gomez, Naima Lajud
Early-life stress is associated with depression and metabolic abnormalities that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Such associations could be due to increased glucocorticoid levels. Periodic maternal separation in the neonate and rearing in social isolation are potent stressors that increase hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Moreover, social isolation promotes feed intake and body weight gain in rats subjected to periodic maternal separation; however, its effects on metabolic risks have not been described...
2016: PloS One
Daniel L Albaugh, Andrew Salzwedel, Nathalie Van Den Berge, Wei Gao, Garret D Stuber, Yen-Yu Ian Shih
Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens (NAc-DBS) is an emerging therapy for diverse, refractory neuropsychiatric diseases. Although DBS therapy is broadly hypothesized to work through large-scale neural modulation, little is known regarding the neural circuits and networks affected by NAc-DBS. Using a healthy, sedated rat model of NAc-DBS, we employed both evoked- and functional connectivity (fc) MRI to examine the functional circuit and network changes achieved by electrical NAc stimulation. Optogenetic-fMRI experiments were also undertaken to evaluate the circuit modulation profile achieved by selective stimulation of NAc neurons...
2016: Scientific Reports
Xiaoxiao Gao, Kaifa Zhang, Min Song, Xiumei Li, Lei Luo, Yuan Tian, Yunhai Zhang, Yunsheng Li, Xiaorong Zhang, Yinghui Ling, Fugui Fang, Ya Liu
Nesfatin-1 is an important molecule in the regulation of reproduction. However, its role in the reproductive axis in male animals remains to be understood. Here, we found that nesfatin-1 was mainly distributed in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), periventricular nucleus (PeN), and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of the hypothalamus; adenohypophysis and Leydig cells in male rats. Moreover, the concentrations of serum nesfatin-1 and its mRNA in hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA) vary with the age of the male rat...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ramalingam Vetrivelan, Dong Kong, Loris L Ferrari, Elda Arrigoni, Joseph C Madara, Sathyajit S Bandaru, Bradford B Lowell, Jun Lu, Clifford B Saper
Currently available evidence indicates that neurons containing melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) in the lateral hypothalamus are critical modulators of sleep-wakefulness, but their precise role in this function is not clear. Studies employing optogenetic stimulation of MCH neurons have yielded inconsistent results, presumably due to differences in the optogenetic stimulation protocols, which do not approximate normal patterns of cell firing. In order to resolve this discrepancy, we (1) selectively activated the MCH neurons using a chemogenetic approach (Cre-dependent hM3Dq expression) and (2) selectively destroyed MCH neurons using a genetically targeted diphtheria toxin deletion method, and studied the changes in sleep-wake in mice...
November 12, 2016: Neuroscience
Georgia Coleman, John Gigg, Maria Mercè Canal
The postnatal light environment that a mouse experiences during the critical first 3 postnatal weeks has long-term effects on both its circadian rhythm output and clock gene expression. Furthermore, data from our lab suggest that postnatal light may also impact the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is a key regulator of stress. To test the effect of postnatal light exposure on adult stress responses and circadian rhythmicity, we raised mice under either 24-h light-dark cycles (LD), constant light (LL) or constant dark (DD) during the first 3 postnatal weeks...
September 3, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
M V Alvarado, A Servili, G Molés, M M Gueguen, M Carrillo, O Kah, A Felip
Kisspeptins are well known as mediators of the coordinated communication between the brain-pituitary axis and the gonads in many vertebrates. To test the hypothesis that gonadal steroids regulate kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA expression in European sea bass (a teleost fish), we examined the brains of gonad-intact (Control) and castrated animals, as well as castrated males (GDX) and females (OVX) that received testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) replacement, respectively, during recrudescence. In GDX males, low expression of kiss1 mRNA is observed by in situ hybridization in the caudal hypothalamus (CH) and the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH), although hypothalamic changes in kiss1 mRNA levels were not statistically different among the groups as revealed by real-time PCR...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Marie Barbier, Christophe Houdayer, Gabrielle Franchi, Fabrice Poncet, Pierre-Yves Risold
The claustrum is a small, elongated nucleus close to the external capsule and deep in the insular cortex. In rodents, this nucleus is characterized by a dense cluster of parvalbumin labeling. The claustrum is connected with the cerebral cortex. It does not project to the brainstem, but brainstem structures can influence this nucleus. To identify some specific projections from the lateral hypothalamus and midbrain, we analyzed the distribution of projections labeled with antibodies against tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and hypocretin (Hcrt) in the region of the claustrum...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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