keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Lateral hypothalamus

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729827/lateral-hypothalamic-control-of-the-ventral-tegmental-area-reward-evaluation-and-the-driving-of-motivated-behavior
#1
REVIEW
Susan M Tyree, Luis de Lecea
The lateral hypothalamus (LH) plays an important role in many motivated behaviors, sleep-wake states, food intake, drug-seeking, energy balance, etc. It is also home to a heterogeneous population of neurons that express and co-express multiple neuropeptides including hypocretin (Hcrt), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and neurotensin (NT). These neurons project widely throughout the brain to areas such as the locus coeruleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the amygdala and the ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727208/differential-expression-of-appetite-regulating-genes-in-avian-models-of-anorexia-and-obesity
#2
Jiaqing Yi, Jingwei Yuan, Elizabeth R Gilbert, Paul B Siegel, Mark A Cline
Chickens from lines that have been selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) juvenile body weight for more than 57 generations provide a unique model to research appetite regulation. The LWS display different severities of anorexia while all HWS become obese. Herein we measured mRNA abundance of various factors in appetite-associated nuclei in the hypothalamus. The lateral hypothalamus (LHA), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial nucleus (DMN), and arcuate nucleus (ARC) were collected from 5 day-old chicks that were fasted for 180 minutes or provided continuous access to food...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713816/effect-of-the-camelid-s-seminal-plasma-ovulation-inducing-factor-%C3%AE-ngf-a-kisspeptin-target-hypothesis
#3
REVIEW
Khalid El Allali, Najlae El Bousmaki, Hassan Ainani, Valérie Simonneaux
Female mammals are classified into spontaneous and induced ovulators based on the mechanism eliciting ovulation. Ovulation in spontaneous species (e.g., human, sheep, cattle, horse, pigs, and most rodents) occurs at regular intervals and depends upon the circulating estradiol. However, in induced ovulators (e.g., rabbits, ferrets, cats, and camelids), ovulation is associated with coitus. In the later, various factors have been proposed to trigger ovulation, including auditory, visual, olfactory, and mechanic stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690111/lateral-hypothalamic-gabaergic-neurons-encode-reward-predictions-that-are-relayed-to-the-ventral-tegmental-area-to-regulate-learning
#4
Melissa J Sharpe, Nathan J Marchant, Leslie R Whitaker, Christopher T Richie, Yajun J Zhang, Erin J Campbell, Pyry P Koivula, Julie C Necarsulmer, Carlos Mejias-Aponte, Marisela Morales, James Pickel, Jeffrey C Smith, Yael Niv, Yavin Shaham, Brandon K Harvey, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
Eating is a learned process. Our desires for specific foods arise through experience. Both electrical stimulation and optogenetic studies have shown that increased activity in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) promotes feeding. Current dogma is that these effects reflect a role for LH neurons in the control of the core motivation to feed, and their activity comes under control of forebrain regions to elicit learned food-motivated behaviors. However, these effects could also reflect the storage of associative information about the cues leading to food in LH itself...
July 1, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684238/involvement-of-central-nesfatin-1-neurons-on-oxytocin-induced-feeding-suppression-in-rats
#5
Reiko Saito, Satomi Sonoda, Hiromichi Ueno, Yasuhito Motojima, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Takashi Maruyama, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Kentaro Tanaka, Yukiyo Yamamoto, Koichi Kusuhara, Yoichi Ueta
Peripheral anorectic hormones, such as peptide YY (PYY) and oxytocin (OXT), suppress food intake. A newly identified anorectic neuropeptide, nesfatin-1, is synthesized in both peripheral tissue and the central nervous system, particularly by various nuclei in the hypothalamus and brainstem. Here, we examined the effects of intraperitoneal (ip) administration of PYY3-36, OXT, and OXT analog, on nesfatin-1-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the rat hypothalamus and brainstem, using Fos double fluorescence-immunohistochemistry...
July 3, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683170/noradrenergic-modulation-of-gonadotropin-inhibitory-hormone-gene-expression-in-the-brain-of-japanese-quail
#6
Yasuko Tobari, Norio Kansaku, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release in birds and mammals. In Japanese quail, GnIH neurons express the noradrenergic receptor and receive noradrenergic innervation. Treatment with noradrenaline (NA) stimulates GnIH release from diencephalic tissue blocks in vitro. However, the effects of NA on hypothalamic GnIH gene expression have not been determined. We investigated noradrenergic regulation of GnIH gene expression in the brain of male quail using the selective noradrenergic neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP-4)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671956/a-multiscale-cerebral-neurochemical-connectome-of-the-rat-brain
#7
Hamid R Noori, Judith Schöttler, Maria Ercsey-Ravasz, Alejandro Cosa-Linan, Melinda Varga, Zoltan Toroczkai, Rainer Spanagel
Understanding the rat neurochemical connectome is fundamental for exploring neuronal information processing. By using advanced data mining, supervised machine learning, and network analysis, this study integrates over 5 decades of neuroanatomical investigations into a multiscale, multilayer neurochemical connectome of the rat brain. This neurochemical connectivity database (ChemNetDB) is supported by comprehensive systematically-determined receptor distribution maps. The rat connectome has an onion-type structural organization and shares a number of structural features with mesoscale connectomes of mouse and macaque...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665507/participation-of-hypothalamic-cb1-receptors-in-reproductive-axis-disruption-during-immune-challenge
#8
Pablo Nicolás Surkin, María Emilia Di Rosso, Fernando Correa, Juan Carlos Elverdin, Ana María Genaro, Andrea De Laurentiis, Javier Fernández-Solari
It is known that immune challenge inhibits reproductive function and that endocannabinoids (eCB) modulate sexual hormones. However, no studies have been performed to assess whether the endocannabinoid system mediates the inhibition of hormones that control reproduction due to immune system activation during systemic infections. For that reason, we evaluated the participation of the hypothalamic cannabinoid receptor CB1 on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis activity in rats submitted to immune challenge...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665166/mild-traumatic-brain-injury-reduces-spine-density-of-projection-neurons-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-impairs-extinction-of-contextual-fear-memory
#9
Jing Zhao, Jonathan C Huynh, Michael J Hylin, John OMalley, Alec I Perez, Anthony N Moore, Pramod K Dash
Epidemiology studies have found that a comorbidity exists between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stress-related disorders. However, the anatomical and cellular bases for this association is poorly understood. An inability to extinguish the memory of a traumatic event lies at the core of many stress-related disorders. Experimental studies have shown that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), especially the infralimbic (IL) cortex, is required for extinction and for storing the memory of extinction. The output from the central nucleus of amygdala projects to lateral hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus and central grey to regulate heart rate, stress hormone release and freezing behavior, respectively...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661034/context-induced-relapse-to-cocaine-seeking-after-punishment-imposed-abstinence-is-associated-with-activation-of-cortical-and-subcortical-brain-regions
#10
Yann Pelloux, Jennifer K Hoots, Carlo Cifani, Sweta Adhikary, Jennifer Martin, Angelica Minier-Toribio, Jennifer M Bossert, Yavin Shaham
We recently developed a rat model of context-induced relapse to alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence to mimic relapse after self-imposed abstinence due to adverse consequences of drug use. Here, we determined the model's generality to cocaine and have begun to explore brain mechanisms of context-induced relapse to cocaine seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence, using the activity marker Fos. In exp. 1, we trained rats to self-administer cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/infusion, 6 hours/day, 12 days) in context A...
June 29, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659306/monoaminergic-integration-of-diet-and-social-signals-in-the-brains-of-juvenile-spadefoot-toads
#11
Sabrina S Burmeister, Verónica G Rodriguez Moncalvo, Karin S Pfennig
Social behavior often includes the production of species-specific signals (e.g., mating calls or visual displays) that evoke context-dependent behavioral responses from conspecifics. Monoamines are important neuromodulators that have been implicated in context-dependent social behavior yet we know little about development of the monoaminergic systems and whether they mediate the effects of early life experiences on adult behavior. We examined the effects of diet and social signals on monoamines early in development in the Plains spadefoot toad (Spea bombifrons), a species in which diet affects the developmental emergence of species recognition and body condition affects the expression of adult mating preferences...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658145/central-hypothyroidism-in-a-pediatric-case-of-primary-acute-monoblastic-leukemia-with-central-nervous-system-infiltration-a-case-report
#12
Yuya Sato, Satomi Koyama, Shigeko Kuwashima, Masaya Kato, Mayuko Okuya, Keitaro Fukushima, Hidemitsu Kurosawa, Osamu Arisaka
RATIONALE: Central nervous system (CNS) leukemia is a frequent diagnosis in pediatric acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) and includes neural symptoms. However, CNS leukemia is rarely associated with central hypsothyroidism. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: A 2-year-old female with AML with MLL rearrangement presented with CNS infiltration. Laboratory tests suggested the presence of central hypothyroidism (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH]: 0.48 mIU/ml, normal range 0...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646346/adenosine-and-sleep
#13
Michael Lazarus, Jiang-Fan Chen, Zhi-Li Huang, Yoshihiro Urade, Bertil B Fredholm
The classic endogenous somnogen adenosine promotes sleep via A1 and A2A receptors. In this chapter, we present an overview of the current knowledge regarding the regulation of adenosine levels, adenosine receptors, and available pharmacologic and genetic tools to manipulate the adenosine system. This is followed by a summary of current knowledge of the role of adenosine and its receptors in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. Despite strong data implicating numerous brain areas, including the basal forebrain, the tuberomammillary nucleus, the lateral hypothalamus, and the nucleus accumbens, in the adenosinergic control of sleep, the complete neural circuitry in the brain involved in the sleep-promoting effects of adenosine remains unclear...
June 24, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642284/excitation-of-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-triggers-immediate-transition-from-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-to-wakefulness-in-mice
#14
Shota Kodani, Shingo Soya, Takeshi Sakurai
Emotionally salient situations usually trigger arousal along with autonomic and neuroendocrine reactions. To examine whether the extended amygdala plays a role in sleep/wakefulness regulation, we examined the effects of optogenetic and pharmacogenetic excitation of GABAergic neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (GABA(BNST) neurons). Acute optogenetic excitation of these cells during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep resulted in immediate state transition to wakefulness, while stimulation during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep showed no effect on sleep/wakefulness states in male mice...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641706/delayed-onset-of-puberty-in-male-offspring-from-bisphenol-a-treated-dams-is-followed-by-the-modulation-of-gene-expression-in-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-testis-axis-in-adulthood
#15
Isabela M Oliveira, Renata M Romano, Patricia de Campos, Monica D Cavallin, Claudio A Oliveira, Marco A Romano
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic endocrine-disrupting chemical of high prevalence in the environment, which may affect the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testis (HPT) axis in adult rats. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether exposure to BPA during hypothalamic sexual differentiation at doses below the reproductive no observable adverse effect level of the World Health Organization causes changes in the regulation of the HPT axis. For this, 0.5 or 5mgkg-1 BPA was injected subcutaneously to the mothers from gestational day 18 to postnatal day (PND) 5...
June 23, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641510/recent-advances-on-the-role-of-neurogenesis-in-the-adult-brain-therapeutic-potential-in-parkinson-s-and-alzheimer-s-diseases
#16
Khaled Salman Radad, Rudolf Moldzio, Mubarak Al-Shraim, Barbara Kranner, Christopher Krewenka, Wolf-Dieter Rausch
Generation of nascent functional neurons from neural stem cells in the adult brain has recently become largely accepted by the neuroscience community. In adult mammals including humans, the process of neurogenesis has been well documented in two brain regions; the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Some evidence has indicated neurogenesis in other regions of the adult mammalian brain such as the neocortex, cerebellum, striatum, amygdala and hypothalamus...
June 22, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624585/contributions-of-the-lateral-habenula-to-circadian-timekeeping
#17
REVIEW
Beatriz Baño-Otálora, Hugh D Piggins
Over the past 20years, substantive research has firmly implicated the lateral habenula in myriad neural processes including addiction, depression, and sleep. More recently, evidence has emerged suggesting that the lateral habenula is a component of the brain's intrinsic daily or circadian timekeeping system. This system centers on the master circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus that is synchronized to the external world through environmental light information received directly from the eye...
June 15, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620314/orexin-system-the-key-for-a-healthy-life
#18
REVIEW
Sergio Chieffi, Marco Carotenuto, Vincenzo Monda, Anna Valenzano, Ines Villano, Francesco Precenzano, Domenico Tafuri, Monica Salerno, Nicola Filippi, Francesco Nuccio, Maria Ruberto, Vincenzo De Luca, Luigi Cipolloni, Giuseppe Cibelli, Maria P Mollica, Diego Iacono, Ersilia Nigro, Marcellino Monda, Giovanni Messina, Antonietta Messina
The orexin-A/hypocretin-1 and orexin-B/hypocretin-2 are neuropeptides synthesized by a cluster of neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and perifornical area. Orexin neurons receive a variety of signals related to environmental, physiological and emotional stimuli, and project broadly to the entire CNS. Orexin neurons are "multi-tasking" neurons regulating a set of vital body functions, including sleep/wake states, feeding behavior, energy homeostasis, reward systems, cognition and mood. Furthermore, a dysfunction of orexinergic system may underlie different pathological conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619276/arginine-vasopressin-relates-with-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-a-mouse-model-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3
#19
Hong-Bo Jiang, Ai-Lin Du, Hai-Yang Luo, Jun Yang, Xiao-Qiu Luo, Rui-Qing Ma, Chang-He Shi, Yu-Ming Xu
Spinocerebellar ataxia is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder that the most prevalent type is type 3 (SCA3). Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is released within the lateral septum for controlling the learning and memory. This communication studied the effect of AVP on the spatial learning and memory of SCA3 mice. The spatial learning and memory were analyzed by Morris water maze test (MWM), and AVP concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that (Alves et al., 2010) the swimming velocity, distance traveled and latency to the platform of MWM in SCA3 mice were reduced slower than those in WT mice over 4 training days (p<0...
June 6, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616754/sexually-dimorphic-distribution-of-prokr2-neurons-revealed-by-the-prokr2-cre-mouse-model
#20
Zaid Mohsen, Hosung Sim, David Garcia-Galiano, Xingfa Han, Nicole Bellefontaine, Thomas L Saunders, Carol F Elias
Prokineticin receptor 2 (PROKR2) is predominantly expressed in the mammalian central nervous system. Loss-of-function mutations of PROKR2 in humans are associated with Kallmann syndrome due to the disruption of gonadotropin releasing hormone neuronal migration and deficient olfactory bulb morphogenesis. PROKR2 has been also implicated in the neuroendocrine control of GnRH neurons post-migration and other physiological systems. However, the brain circuitry and mechanisms associated with these actions have been difficult to investigate mainly due to the widespread distribution of Prokr2-expressing cells, and the lack of animal models and molecular tools...
June 14, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
keyword
keyword
115071
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"