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Lateral hypothalamus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902666/effects-of-testosterone-administration-on-threat-and-escape-anticipation-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex
#1
Sarah J Heany, Richard A I Bethlehem, Jack van Honk, Peter A Bos, Dan J Stein, David Terburg
Recent evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone can decrease the functional coupling between orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and amygdala. Theoretically this decoupling has been linked to a testosterone-driven increase of goal-directed behaviour in case of threat, but this has never been studied directly. Therefore, we placed twenty-two women in dynamically changing situations of escapable and inescapable threat after a within-subject placebo controlled testosterone administration. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we provide evidence that testosterone activates the left lateral OFC (LOFC) in preparation of active goal-directed escape and decouples this OFC area from a subcortical threat system including the central-medial amygdala, hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray...
May 30, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902478/orexin-signaling-during-social-defeat-stress-influences-subsequent-social-interaction-behaviour-and-recognition-memory
#2
Darrell Eacret, Laura A Grafe, Jane Dobkin, Anthony L Gotter, John J Rengerb, Christopher J Winrow, Seema Bhatnagar
Orexins are neuropeptides synthesized in the lateral hypothalamus that influence arousal, feeding, reward pathways, and the response to stress. However, the role of orexins in repeated stress is not fully characterized. Here, we examined how orexins and their receptors contribute to the coping response during repeated social defeat and subsequent anxiety-like and memory-related behaviors. Specifically, we used Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) to stimulate orexins prior to each of five consecutive days of social defeat stress in adult male rats...
June 11, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894514/electrophysiological-properties-and-projections-of-lateral-hypothalamic-parvalbumin-positive-neurons
#3
Alexandre Kisner, Julia E Slocomb, Sarah Sarsfield, Maria Laura Zuccoli, Justin Siemian, Jay F Gupta, Arvind Kumar, Yeka Aponte
Cracking the cytoarchitectural organization, activity patterns, and neurotransmitter nature of genetically-distinct cell types in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is fundamental to develop a mechanistic understanding of how activity dynamics within this brain region are generated and operate together through synaptic connections to regulate circuit function. However, the precise mechanisms through which LH circuits orchestrate such dynamics have remained elusive due to the heterogeneity of the intermingled and functionally distinct cell types in this brain region...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868463/persistent-hypothermia-and-excessive-sweating-following-intrathecal-morphine-administration-in-a-teenage-boy-a-case-report
#4
Sara Ferraz, Telma Caria, Aline Vaz Da Silva, Maria Jose Candeias, Teresa Cenicante
Introduction: Opioids are used intrathecally to manage surgical pain. There are few reports of hypothermia after spinal morphine injection, none in the pediatric population. We present a teenager's case of mild hypothermia. Case Presentation: A 15-year-old boy was scheduled for elective abdominal laparotomy. General anesthesia was combined with spinal anesthesia, using levobupivacaine and morphine. In the recovery room, he presented a decreased tympanic temperature (34...
February 2018: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848222/gestational-folic-acid-content-alters-the-development-and-function-of-hypothalamic-food-intake-regulating-neurons-in-wistar-rat-offspring-post-weaning
#5
Neil Victor Yang, Emanuela Pannia, Diptendu Chatterjee, Ruslan Kubant, Mandy Ho, Rola Hammoud, Zdenka Pausova, G Harvey Anderson
BACKGROUND: Folic acid plays an important role in early brain development of offspring, including proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells known to impact the function of food intake regulatory pathways. Excess (10-fold) intakes of folic acid in the gestational diet have been linked to increased food intake and obesity in male rat offspring post-weaning. OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the effects of folic acid content in gestational diets on the development and function of two hypothalamic neuronal populations, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), within food intake regulatory pathways of male Wistar rat offspring at birth and post-weaning...
May 30, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843980/functional-analysis-reveals-differential-effects-of-glutamate-and-mch-neuropeptide-in-mch-neurons
#6
Marc Schneeberger, Keith Tan, Alexander R Nectow, Luca Parolari, Caner Caglar, Estefania Azevedo, Zhiying Li, Ana Domingos, Jeffrey M Friedman
OBJECTIVES: Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) regulate food intake and body weight, glucose metabolism and convey the reward value of sucrose. In this report, we set out to establish the respective roles of MCH and conventional neurotransmitters in these neurons. METHODS: MCH neurons were profiled using Cre-dependent molecular profiling technologies (vTRAP). MCHCre mice crossed to Vglut2fl/fl mice or to DTRfl/fl were used to identify the role of glutamate in MCH neurons...
May 8, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802523/prolactin-induced-and-neuronal-activation-in-the-brain-of-mother-mice
#7
Szilvia Oláh, Melinda Cservenák, Dávid Keller, Emese A Fazekas, Éva Renner, Péter Lőw, Arpád Dobolyi
Nursing has important consequences on mothers. To separate the prolactin-mediated and the neuronally-mediated actions of nursing, neurons directly affected by prolactin were visualized using pSTAT5 immunohistochemistry in relation to Fos-expressing neurons in suckled mother mice. In response to pup exposure following 22-h pup deprivation, we found a markedly elevated number of pSTAT5-containing neurons in several brain regions, including the lateral septum, medial amygdaloid nucleus, subparafascicular area, caudal periaqueductal gray, dorsal raphe, lateral parabrachial nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, and the periventricular, medial preoptic, paraventricular, arcuate and ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus...
May 25, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790260/endogenous-glp-1-alters-postprandial-functional-connectivity-between-homeostatic-and-reward-related-brain-regions-involved-in-the-regulation-of-appetite-in-healthy-lean-males-a-pilot-study
#8
Anne Christin Meyer-Gerspach, Huynh Giao Ly, Stefan Borgwardt, Patrick Dupont, Christoph Beglinger, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Bettina K Wölnerhanssen
AIMS: Peripheral infusion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) can affect brain activity in areas involved in the regulation of appetite, including hypothalamic and reward-related brain regions. In contrast, the physiological role of endogenous GLP-1 in the central regulation of appetite has hardly been investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed as randomized, cross-over trial. Twelve healthy volunteers received an intragastric (ig) glucose (gluc) load with or without intravenous (iv) exendin9-39 (ex9-39; specific GLP-1 receptor antagonist)...
May 22, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787578/mth1-driven-expression-of-htdp-43-results-in-typical-als-ftld-neuropathological-symptoms
#9
Barbara Scherz, Roland Rabl, Stefanie Flunkert, Siegfried Rohler, Joerg Neddens, Nicole Taub, Magdalena Temmel, Ute Panzenboeck, Vera Niederkofler, Robert Zimmermann, Birgit Hutter-Paier
Transgenic mouse models are indispensable tools to mimic human diseases and analyze the effectiveness of related new drugs. For a long time amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) research depended on only a few mouse models that exhibit a very strong and early phenotype, e.g. SOD1 mice, resulting in a short treatment time window. By now, several models are available that need to be characterized to highlight characteristics of each model. Here we further characterized the mThy1-hTDP-43 transgenic mouse model TAR6/6 that overexpresses wild type human TARDBP, also called TDP-43, under control of the neuronal Thy-1 promoter presented by Wils and colleagues, 2010, by using biochemical, histological and behavioral readouts...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759045/neuropathological-developments-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome
#10
Fiona M Bright, Robert Vink, Roger W Byard
A wide variety of neuropathological abnormalities have been investigated in infants who have died of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Issues which detracted from early studies included failure to use uniform definitions of SIDS and lack of appropriately matched control populations. Development of the triple risk model focused attention on the concept of an inherent susceptibility to unexpected death in certain infants, with research demonstrating a role for the neurotransmitter serotonin within the brainstem...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748957/circadian-alignment-in-a-foster-mother-improves-the-offspring-s-pathological-phenotype
#11
Lucie Olejníková, Lenka Polidarová, Michal Behuliak, Martin Sládek, Alena Sumová
KEY POINTS: In mammals, the mother-offspring interaction is essential for health later in adulthood. The impact of altered timing and quality of maternal care on the offspring's circadian system was assessed using a cross-strain fostering approach. Better maternal care facilitated the development of amplitudes of Bmal1 clock gene expression in the central clock, as well as the clock-driven activity/rest rhythm, and also its entrainment to the external light/dark cycle. Worse maternal care impaired entrainment of the central clock parameters in the Wistar rat during the early developmental stages...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742135/domestication-affects-exploratory-behaviour-of-pikeperch-sander-lucioperca-l-during-the-transition-to-pelleted-food
#12
Tamás Molnár, Adrienn Csuvár, Ildikó Benedek, Marcell Molnár, Péter Kabai
Genetic selection for body size during domestication of animal species can inadvertently affect a number of physiological and behavioural traits. The pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) hypothesis predicts that domestication in an artificial environment lacking predators and providing abundant resources prefers proactive individuals with strong feeding motivation, high levels of aggression and risk taking, with low hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness. In the present experiment we weaned fingerling pike-perch from live feed and habituated them to formulated feed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740277/hedonic-eating-and-the-delicious-circle-from-lipid-derived-mediators-to-brain-dopamine-and-back
#13
REVIEW
Roberto Coccurello, Mauro Maccarrone
Palatable food can be seductive and hedonic eating can become irresistible beyond hunger and negative consequences. This is witnessed by the subtle equilibrium between eating to provide energy intake for homeostatic functions, and reward-induced overeating. In recent years, considerable efforts have been devoted to study neural circuits, and to identify potential factors responsible for the derangement of homeostatic eating toward hedonic eating and addiction-like feeding behavior. Here, we examined recent literature on "old" and "new" players accountable for reward-induced overeating and possible liability to eating addiction...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735274/effects-of-intrathecal-administration-of-orexin-1-receptor-antagonist-on-antinociceptive-responses-induced-by-chemical-stimulation-of-lateral-hypothalamus-in-an-animal-model-of-tonic-nociception
#14
Laleh Rezaee, Saeideh Karimi-Haghighi, Soheila Fazli-Tabaei, Abbas Haghparast
Orexins are produced in the restricted regions of the lateral hypothalamus (LH). However, orexinergic receptors and projections are localized in wide regions like nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, periaqueductal gray area and spinal cord which are involved in the pain modulation. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of intrathecal administration of orexin-1 receptor antagonist (SB-334867) in the spinal antinociception induced by intra-LH administration of carbachol (cholinergic receptor agonist) in both early and late phases of pain related behaviors in formalin test...
April 3, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722327/structural-neural-connectivity-of-the-vestibular-nuclei-in-the-human-brain-a-diffusion-tensor-imagings-study
#15
Sung Ho Jang, Mi Young Lee, Sang Seok Yeo, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
Many animal studies have reported on the neural connectivity of the vestibular nuclei (VN). However, little is reported on the structural neural connectivity of the VN in the human brain. In this study, we attempted to investigate the structural neural connectivity of the VN in 37 healthy subjects using diffusion tensor tractography. A seed region of interest was placed on the isolated VN using probabilistic diffusion tensor tractography. Connectivity was defined as the incidence of connection between the VN and each brain region...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713268/lateral-hypothalamus-as-a-motivation-cognition-interface-in-the-control-of-feeding-behavior
#16
REVIEW
Gorica D Petrovich
Converging evidence for an essential function of the lateral hypothalamus (LHA) in the control of feeding behavior has been accumulating since the classic work conducted almost 80 years ago. The LHA is also important in reward and reinforcement processes and behavioral state control. A unifying function for the LHA across these processes has not been fully established. Nonetheless, it is considered to integrate motivation with behavior. More recent work has demonstrated that the LHA is also required when cognitive processes, such as associative learning and memory control feeding behavior, suggesting it may serve as a motivation-cognition interface...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706935/neonatal-overnutrition-increases-testicular-size-and-expression-of-luteinizing-hormone-%C3%AE-subunit-in-peripubertal-male-rats
#17
Pilar Argente-Arizón, David Castro-González, Francisca Díaz, María J Fernández-Gómez, Miguel A Sánchez-Garrido, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Jesús Argente, Julie A Chowen
Proper nutrition is important for growth and development. Maturation of the reproductive axis and the timing of pubertal onset can be delayed when insufficient nutrition is available, or possibly advanced with nutritional abundance. The childhood obesity epidemic has been linked to a secular trend in advanced puberty in some populations. The increase in circulating leptin that occurs in association with obesity has been suggested to act as a signal that an adequate nutritional status exists for puberty to occur, allowing activation of central mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704424/the-role-of-corticostriatal-hypothalamic-neural-circuits-in-feeding-behaviour-implications-for-obesity
#18
REVIEW
Rachel E Clarke, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia, Zane B Andrews
Emerging evidence from human imaging studies suggests that obese individuals have altered connectivity between the hypothalamus, the key brain region controlling energy homeostasis, and cortical regions involved in decision making and reward processing. Historically, animal studies have demonstrated that the lateral hypothalamus is the key hypothalamic region involved in feeding and reward. The lateral hypothalamus is a heterogeneous structure comprised of several distinct types of neurons which are scattered throughout...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704225/neural-substrates-of-fear-induced-hypophagia-in-male-and-female-rats
#19
C J Reppucci, G D Petrovich
Cessation of eating under fear is an adaptive response that aids survival by prioritizing the expression of defensive behaviors over feeding behavior. However, this response can become maladaptive when persistent. Thus, accurate mediation of the competition between fear and feeding is important in health and disease; yet, the underlying neural substrates are largely unknown. The current study identified brain regions that were recruited when a fear cue inhibited feeding in male and female rats. We used a previously established behavioral paradigm to elicit hypophagia with a conditioned cue for footshocks, and Fos imaging to map activation patterns during this behavior...
April 27, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689132/alcohol-delays-the-onset-of-puberty-in-the-female-rat-by-altering-key-hypothalamic-events
#20
Vinod K Srivastava, Jill K Hiney, William L Dees
BACKGROUND: Because alcohol (ALC) delays signs of pubertal development, we assessed the time course of events associated with the synthesis of critical hypothalamic peptides that regulate secretion of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), the peptide that drives the pubertal process. METHODS: Immature female rats were administered either lab chow or Bio-Serve isocaloric control or ALC liquid diets from 27 through 33 days of age. On days 28, 29, 31 and 33 animals were killed by decapitation and tissue blocks containing the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) and the rostral hypothalamic area (RHA) were isolated and stored frozen until assessed by Western blot analysis...
April 24, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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