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Lateral hypothalamus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046316/evidence-for-the-presence-in-rainbow-trout-brain-of-amino-acid-sensing-systems-involved-in-the-control-of-food-intake
#1
Sara Comesana, Cristina Velasco, Rosa M Ceinos, Marcos A Lopez-Patiño, Jesus M Miguez, Sofia Morais, Jose L Soengas
To assess the existence of central amino acid sensing systems in fish we carried out two experiments in rainbow trout. In the first one, we injected ICV two different branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), leucine and valine, and assessed food intake up to 48 h later. Leucine decreased and valine increased food intake. In a second experiment, 6h after similar ICV treatment we determined changes in parameters related to putative amino acid sensing systems. Amino acid sensing systems respond to leucine in hypothalamus and telencephalon, and to valine in telencephalon...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044802/differential-and-complementary-roles-of-medial-and-lateral-septum-in-the-orchestration-of-limbic-oscillations-and-signal-integration
#2
Marian Tsanov
Anatomical differences between the medial and lateral septum have associated these nuclei with dissimilar functional roles and behaviors. While the medial septum has been implicated, predominantly, in theta rhythm generation along the septo-hippocampal axis, the lateral septum has mainly been investigated in the context of septo-hypothalamic dialogue. Recent advances suggest that medial and lateral septum are more closely functionally-related than previously appreciated. Here, we explore the hypothesis that the medial septum mediates ascending septo-hippocampal theta propagation, while the lateral septum processes a descending hippocampo-septal and septo-hypothalamic reinforcement signal that mediates navigation during motivated behavior...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042271/blockade-of-the-orexin-receptors-in-the-ca1-region-of-hippocampus-decreased-the-lateral-hypothalamic-induced-antinociceptive-responses-in-the-model-of-orofacial-formalin-test-in-the-rats
#3
Amir Haghparast, Iman Shafiei, Amir-Mohammad Alizadeh, Somayeh Ezzatpanah, Abbas Haghparast
The role of hippocampus and lateral hypothalamus (LH) in modulation of formalin-induced nociception has been established. The present study aims to examine the role of orexin receptors in the Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) region of hippocampus in modulation of the LH-induced antinociception in the orofacial formalin test. Male Wistar rats were unilaterally implanted with two cannulae into the LH and CA1. Intra-LH microinjection of carbachol was done 5min after intra-CA1 administration of SB-334867 (OX1R antagonist) or TCS OX2 29 (OX2R antagonist)...
October 14, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041862/impact-of-chronic-maternal-stress-during-early-gestation-on-maternal-fetal-stress-transfer-and-fetal-stress-sensitivity-in-sheep
#4
Michelle Dreiling, Rene Schiffner, Sabine Bischoff, Sven Rupprecht, Nasim Kroegel, Harald Schubert, Otto W Witte, Matthias Schwab, Florian Rakers
Acute stress-induced reduction of uterine blood flow (UBF) is an indirect mechanism of maternal-fetal stress transfer during late gestation. Effects of chronic psychosocial maternal stress (CMS) during early gestation, as may be experienced by many working women, on this stress signaling mechanism are unclear. We hypothesized that CMS in sheep during early gestation augments later acute stress-induced decreases of UBF, and aggravates the fetal hormonal, cardiovascular, and metabolic stress responses during later development...
October 18, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038792/neuroanatomical-relationships-between-orexin-hypocretin-containing-neurons-nerve-fibers-and-nicotine-induced-c-fos-activated-cells-of-the-reward-addiction-neurocircuitry
#5
Ozra Dehkordi, Jed E Rose, Martha I Dávila-García, Richard M Millis, Samar Ali Mirzaei, Kebreten F Manaye, Annapurni Jayam-Trouth
Orexin/hypocretin-containing neurons in lateral hypothalamus (LH) are implicated in the neurobiology of nicotine addiction. However, the neuroanatomical relationships between orexin-neurons/nerve fibers and nicotine-activated cells within the reward-addiction neurocircuitry is not known. In the present study in mice, we first used c-Fos immunohistochemistry to identify CNS cells stimulated by an acute single injection of nicotine (NIC, 2 mg/kg, IP). Sequential double-labelling was then performed to identify the location of orexin-containing neurons and nerve fibers with respect to NIC-induced c-Fos activated cells and/or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive (IR) cells of the mesocorticolimbic reward-addiction pathways...
August 2017: Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037912/early-emergence-of-altered-5-ht2a-receptor-evoked-behavior-neural-activation-and-gene-expression-following-maternal-separation
#6
Ankit Sood, Sthitapranjya Pati, Amrita Bhattacharya, Karina Chaudhari, Vidita A Vaidya
The early stress of Maternal Separation (MS) contributes to the establishment of adult psychopathology. The serotonergic (5-HT) system is implicated during this temporal window in mediating the development of mood-related behaviors. MS is reported to evoke altered 5-HT2A receptor function in adulthood. However, the ontogeny of altered 5-HT2A receptor responsivity following MS remains unknown. Here, we examined 5-HT2A receptor agonist, DOI (1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane) (2mg/kg) evoked responses, namely stereotypical head-twitch behaviors in control and MS Sprague-Dawley rat pups at postnatal day 21 (P21)...
October 14, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030576/genetic-induction-of-hypometabolism-by-ablation-of-mc4r-does-not-suppress-als-like-phenotypes-in-the-g93a-mutant-sod1-mouse-model
#7
Shachee Doshi, Preetika Gupta, Robert G Kalb
Dysfunction and death of motor neurons leads to progressive paralysis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Recent studies have reported organism-level metabolic dysfunction as a prominent but poorly understood feature of the disease. ALS patients are hypermetabolic with increased resting energy expenditure, but if and how hypermetabolism contributes to disease pathology is unknown. We asked if decreasing metabolism in the mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mouse model of ALS (G93A SOD1) would alter motor function and survival...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030455/optimal-deep-brain-stimulation-site-and-target-connectivity-for-chronic-cluster-headache
#8
Harith Akram, Sarah Miller, Susie Lagrata, Marwan Hariz, John Ashburner, Tim Behrens, Manjit Matharu, Ludvic Zrinzo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of action of deep brain stimulation for refractory chronic cluster headache and the optimal target within the ventral tegmental area. METHODS: Seven patients with refractory chronic cluster headache underwent high spatial and angular resolution diffusion MRI preoperatively. MRI-guided and MRI-verified electrode implantation was performed unilaterally in 5 patients and bilaterally in 2. Volumes of tissue activation were generated around active lead contacts with a finite-element model...
October 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024175/mapping-the-sequence-of-brain-events-in-response-to-disgusting-food
#9
Jesus Pujol, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Ramón Coronas, Susanna Esteba-Castillo, Mercedes Rigla, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Joan Deus, Ramón Novell, Assumpta Caixàs
Warning signals indicating that a food is potentially dangerous may evoke a response that is not limited to the feeling of disgust. We investigated the sequence of brain events in response to visual representations of disgusting food using a dynamic image analysis. Functional MRI was acquired in 30 healthy subjects while they were watching a movie showing disgusting food scenes interspersed with the scenes of appetizing food. Imaging analysis included the identification of the global brain response and the generation of frame-by-frame activation maps at the temporal resolution of 2 s...
October 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017795/long-term-effects-of-sleep-deprivation-on-neuronal-activity-in-four-hypothalamic-areas
#10
Karim Fifel, Johanna H Meijer, Tom Deboer
Lack of adequate sleep has become increasingly common in our 24/7 society. Unfortunately diminished sleep has significant health consequences including metabolic and cardiovascular disease and mental disorders including depression. The pathways by which reduced sleep adversely affects physiology and behavior are unknown. We found that 6h of sleep deprivation in adult male rats induces changes in neuronal activity in the lateral hypothalamus, the paraventricular nucleus, the arcuate nucleus and the mammillary bodies...
October 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991183/orexin-receptor-multimerization-versus-functional-interactions-neuropharmacological-implications-for-opioid-and-cannabinoid-signalling-and-pharmacogenetics
#11
Miles D Thompson, Takeshi Sakurai, Innocenzo Rainero, Mary C Maj, Jyrki P Kukkonen
Orexins/hypocretins are neuropeptides formed by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor peptide, which are produced by neurons found in the lateral hypothalamus. The G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for these ligands, the OX₁ and OX₂ orexin receptors, are more widely expressed throughout the central nervous system. The orexin/hypocretin system has been implicated in many pathways, and its dysregulation is under investigation in a number of diseases. Disorders in which orexinergic mechanisms are being investigated include narcolepsy, idiopathic sleep disorders, cluster headache and migraine...
October 8, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986299/reversible-inactivation-of-the-lateral-hypothalamus-reversed-high-reward-choices-in-cost-benefit-decision-making-in-rats
#12
Sara Karimi, Azam Mesdaghinia, Zahra Farzinpour, Gholamali Hamidi, Abbas Haghparast
The Lateral hypothalamus (LH) is an important component of the networks underlying the control of feeding and other motivated behaviors. Cost-benefit decision-making is mediated largely by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) which strongly innervates the LH. Therefore, in the current study, we conducted a series of experiments to elucidate the role of the perifornical area of the lateral hypothalamus (PeF-LH) in effort and/or delay-based decision-making. We trained different groups of rats in a delay-based and/or an effort-based form of cost-benefit T-maze decision- making task in which they could either choose to pay the cost to obtain a high reward in one arm or could obtain a low reward in the other arm with no cost...
October 3, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985965/ghrelin-projection-from-the-lateral-hypothalamus-area-to-the-dorsal-vagal-complex-and-its-regulation-of-gastric-motility-in-cisplatin-treated-rats
#13
Yanling Gong, Yang Liu, Yaoyao Guo, Manqing Su, Yifan Zhong, Luo Xu, Feifei Guo, Shengli Gao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate ghrelin projection from the lateral hypothalamus area (LHA) to the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and its regulation of gastric motility in cisplatin-treated rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, the protein and mRNA expression of ghrelin and its receptor GHSR-1a were measured by Western blot and PCR, respectively. The ghrelin fiber projections arising from the LHA and projecting to the DVC were investigated by retrograde tracing combined with fluoro-immunohistochemical staining...
September 28, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983255/the-regulatory-effects-of-lateral-hypothalamus-area-gabab-receptor-on-gastric-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#14
Lin Gao, Huiru Zhao, Tao Zhu, Yeliu Liu, Li Hu, Zhenguo Liu, Hai Huang, Fuxue Chen, Zhenxu Deng, Dechang Chu, Dongshu Du
HIGHLIGHTS The aim of the research was to determine the functional effects and molecular mechanisms of GABAB receptor on ischemia reperfusion-induced gastric injury in rats.The lateral hypothalamus area GABAB receptor attenuated the ischemia reperfusion-induced gastric injury by up-regulating the production of GABA, GABABR, and down-regulating P-GABABR in the brain.This work would provide a new therapeutic strategy for acute gastric injury. Gastric ischemia-reperfusion (GI-R) injury progression is largely associated with excessive activation of the greater splanchnic nerve (GSN)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977596/bisphenol-s-alters-the-lactating-mammary-gland-and-nursing-behaviors-in-mice-exposed-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#15
Charlotte D LaPlante, Mary C Catanese, Ruby Bansal, Laura N Vandenberg
High doses of estrogenic pharmaceuticals were once prescribed to women to halt lactation. Yet, the effects of low-level xenoestrogens on lactation remain poorly studied. We investigated the effects of bisphenol S (BPS), an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist, on the lactating mammary gland; the arcuate nucleus, a region of the hypothalamus important for neuroendocrine control of lactational behaviors; and nursing behavior in CD-1 mice. Female mice were exposed to vehicle, 2 or 200 µg BPS/kg/d from pregnancy day 9 until lactational day (LD) 20, and tissues were collected on LD21...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977524/regional-specific-modulation-of-stress-induced-neuronal-activation-associated-with-the-psd95-nos-interaction-inhibitor-zl006-in-the-wistar-kyoto-rat
#16
Eoin Sherwin, Aifric Lennon, Andrew Harkin
Background: To determine brain areas involved in the antidepressant-related behavioral effects of the selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 1-(2-Trifluoro-methyl-phenyl) imidazole (TRIM) and experimental test compound 4-((3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzyl)amino)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (ZL006), an inhibitor of the PSD of 95 kDa/neuronal nitric oxide synthase interaction in the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor signalling pathway, regional specific expression of the neuronal activation marker c-FOS was assessed following exposure to the forced swimming test in the Wistar Kyoto rat...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975007/the-medical-and-economic-burden-of-narcolepsy-implications-for-managed-care
#17
REVIEW
Michael J Thorpy, George Hiller
BACKGROUND: The neurologic disorder narcolepsy results from dysregulation of the sleep-wake cycle and is primarily characterized by chronic, severely excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, an emotionally induced muscle weakness. The prevalence of narcolepsy is approximately 0.05%, and onset generally occurs during the first 2 decades of life. Narcolepsy is believed to be an autoimmune disorder with destruction of hypocretin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. OBJECTIVES: To provide an enhanced understanding of narcolepsy and establish the need for early diagnosis and rapid initiation of effective treatment for patients with narcolepsy...
July 2017: American Health & Drug Benefits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965933/electroacupuncture-suppresses-morphine-reward-seeking-behavior-lateral-hypothalamic-orexin-neurons-implicated
#18
Xueqi Wang, Boyuan Zhang, Longzao Zhang, Sheng Liu
The orexin system specifically located in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) has been shown to play a unique role in reward seeking, drug relapse, and addiction. In this study, we investigated the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on morphine conditioned place preference (CPP), reinstatement of extinguished CPP, and the expression of orexin in the LH. A two-chamber CPP model was used to measure the rewarding properties of morphine. 2Hz EA at points BL23 and ST36 was carried out for 30min daily before morphine injection on three conditioning days...
September 28, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935440/effects-of-acute-restraint-and-unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress-on-brain-corticotrophin-releasing-factor-mrna-in-the-elevated-t-maze
#19
José S de Andrade, Isabel C Céspedes, Renata O Abrão, Joelcimar M da Silva, Ricardo Ceneviva, Daniel Araki Ribeiro, Jackson C Bittencourt, Milena B Viana
Corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) modulates stress/anxiety-related responses. Previous studies showed that exposure to acute restraint and unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) facilitates elevated T-maze (ETM) avoidance responses, an anxiogenic-like effect. This study verified the role of CRF in the modulation of ETM avoidance and escape reactions, in unstressed rats and in animals exposed to acute restraint or to UCMS, by quantifying CRF mRNA concentrations in stress/anxiety-related brain regions, through semiquantitative in situ hybridization...
September 19, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917185/ghrelin-and-hypothalamic-npy-agrp-expression-in-mice-are-affected-by-chronic-early-life-stress-exposure-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#20
K Y Yam, S R Ruigrok, I Ziko, S N De Luca, P J Lucassen, S J Spencer, A Korosi
Early-life stress (ES) is a risk factor for metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity) with a notoriously higher prevalence in women compared to men. However, mechanisms underlying these effects remain elusive. The development of the hypothalamic feeding and metabolic regulatory circuits occurs mostly in the early sensitive postnatal phase in rodents and is tightly regulated by the metabolic hormones leptin and ghrelin. We have previously demonstrated that chronic ES reduces circulating leptin and alters adipose tissue metabolism early and later in life similarly in both sexes...
September 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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