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p. aeruginosa latin america

Wright W Nichols, Boudewijn L M de Jonge, Krystyna M Kazmierczak, James A Karlowsky, Daniel F Sahm
Broth microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for ceftazidime-avibactam and comparator agents against 7,062 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa collected from 2012 to 2014 in four geographic regions (Europe, Asia/South Pacific, Latin America, Middle East/Africa) as part of the International Network for Optimal Resistance Monitoring (INFORM) global surveillance program. The majority of isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime-avibactam, with the proportions susceptible differing marginally across the four regions (MIC90, 8 to 16 μg/ml; 88...
August 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Krystyna M Kazmierczak, Douglas J Biedenbach, Meredith Hackel, Sharon Rabine, Boudewijn L M de Jonge, Samuel K Bouchillon, Daniel F Sahm, Patricia A Bradford
The Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), first described in the United States in 1996, is now a widespread global problem in several Gram-negative species. A worldwide surveillance study collected Gram-negative pathogens from 202 global sites in 40 countries during 2012 to 2014 and determined susceptibility to β-lactams and other class agents by broth microdilution testing. Molecular mechanisms of β-lactam resistance among carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were determined using PCR and sequencing...
August 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Bertinellys Teixeira, Hectorina Rodulfo, Numirin Carreño, Militza Guzmán, Elsa Salazar, Marcos De Donato
The enzymatic modification of aminoglycosides by aminoglycoside-acetyltransferases (AAC), aminoglycoside-adenyltransferases (AAD), and aminoglycoside-phosphotransferases (APH), is the most common resistance mechanism in P. aeruginosa and these enzymes can be coded on mobile genetic elements that contribute to their dispersion. One hundred and thirty seven P. aeruginosa isolates from the University Hospital, Cumana, Venezuela (HUAPA) were evaluated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method and theaac, aadB and aph genes were detected by PCR...
2016: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Sue C Kehl, Michael J Dowzicky
The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (TEST) was designed to monitor susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobial agents among important pathogens. We report here on susceptibility among Gram-negative pathogens collected globally from pediatric patients between 2004 and 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using guidelines published by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Most Enterobacteriaceae showed high rates of susceptibility (>95%) to amikacin, tigecycline, and the carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem); 90...
April 2015: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Jaime A Labarca, Mauro José Costa Salles, Carlos Seas, Manuel Guzmán-Blanco
Increasing prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii strains in the nosocomial setting in Latin America represents an emerging challenge to public health, as the range of therapeutic agents active against these pathogens becomes increasingly constrained. We review published reports from 2002 to 2013, compiling data from throughout the region on prevalence, mechanisms of resistance and molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii...
2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Robert K Flamm, Helio S Sader, David J Farrell, Ronald N Jones
Ceftazidime-avibactam, a combination of ceftazidime and the non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam, is in advanced clinical development. In this study, we report results of in vitro testing of ceftazidime-avibactam and comparator agents against a collection of urinary tract infection (UTI) isolates from the United States (USA), Europe and Mediterranean region (EMR), Latin America (LATAM), and the Asia-Pacific/South Africa regions (APAC). Clinical isolates (1 per patient episode) were collected from patients with a UTI during 2011...
November 2014: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Eitan N Berezin, Fortino Solórzano
In order to review the epidemiology of Gram-negative infections in the pediatric and neonatal intensive care units (PICUs and NICUs) of Latin America a systematic search of PubMed and targeted search of SciELO was performed to identify relevant articles published since 2005. Independent cohort data indicated that overall infection rates were higher in Latin American PICUs and NICUs versus developed countries (range, 5%-37% vs 6%-15%, respectively). Approximately one third of Latin American patients with an acquired PICU or NICU infection died, and crude mortality was higher among extremely low-birth-weight infants and those with an infection caused by Gram-negative bacteria...
August 2014: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Marin H Kollef, Jean Chastre, Jean-Yves Fagon, Bruno François, Michael S Niederman, Jordi Rello, Antoni Torres, Jean-Louis Vincent, Richard G Wunderink, Kerry W Go, Christine Rehm
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients at risk for ventilator-associated pneumonia and to describe risk factors for P. aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: ICUs at 56 sites in 11 countries across four regions: the United States (n = 502 patients), Europe (n = 495), Latin America (n = 500), and Asia Pacific (n = 376)...
October 2014: Critical Care Medicine
Adamantia Liapikou, Eva Polverino, Catia Cilloniz, Paulo Peyrani, Julio Ramirez, Rosario Menendez, Antoni Torres
BACKGROUND: Nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) is the leading cause of death among long-term care patients and the second most common cause of transfers to acute care facilities. The aim of this study was to characterize the incidence, microbiology, and outcomes for hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and NHAP. METHODS: A secondary analysis of 5,160 patients from the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization database was performed. World regions were defined as the United States and Canada (I), Latin America (II), and Europe (III)...
July 2014: Respiratory Care
Juan J Maya, Sory J Ruiz, Victor M Blanco, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Manuel Guzman-Blanco, Jaime Labarca, Mauro Salles, John P Quinn, Maria V Villegas
Enterobacteriaceae and non fermenting Gram-negative bacilli have become a threat to public health, in part due to their resistance to multiple antibiotic classes, which ultimately have led to an increase in morbidity and mortality. β-lactams are currently the mainstay for combating infections caused by these microorganisms, and β-lactamases are the major mechanism of resistance to this class of antibiotics. Within the β-lactamases, carbapenemases pose one of the gravest threats, as they compromise one of our most potent lines of defense, the carbapenems...
July 2013: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Ana C Gales, Mariana Castanheira, Ronald N Jones, Hélio S Sader
This study updates the frequency and resistance rates of Gram-negative bacilli isolated from Latin American medical centers enrolled in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. A total of 12,811 bacterial organisms, including 5704 Gram-negative bacilli (44.5%), were consecutively collected (1 per patient) between January 2008 and December 2010 from 10 Latin American medical centers located in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and interpreted by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method at a central laboratory...
August 2012: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Daniel J Curcio
The intensive care units (ICUs) are often considered as the epicenters of antibiotic resistance. Therefore, the total antibiotic consumption is approximately ten fold greater in ICU wards than in general hospital wards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current use of antibiotics in Latin American ICUs. Three cross-sectional (one-day point) prevalence studies were undertaken in 43 Latin American ICUs. Of 1644 patients admitted, 688 received antibiotic treatment on the days of the study (41.8 %) and, 392 cases (57 %) were due to nosocomial-acquired infections...
July 2011: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Xavier Bertrand, Michael J Dowzicky
BACKGROUND: The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial is an antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance program that collects gram-positive and gram-negative organisms globally. OBJECTIVE: This analysis reports on antimicrobial susceptibility among 23,918 gram-negative isolates collected from intensive care units globally between 2004 and 2009. METHODS: MICs and susceptibility were determined according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (US Food and Drug Administration breakpoints were applied against tigecycline)...
January 2012: Clinical Therapeutics
Stephen P Hawser, Samuel K Bouchillon, Daryl J Hoban, Robert E Badal
BACKGROUND: The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) is an ongoing surveillance study to monitor worldwide resistance trends among aerobic and facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacilli isolated from intra-abdominal infections (IAIs). Results from SMART in 2002 through 2005 have been reported; this report summarizes aggregated data from SMART 2002-2007 to identify epidemiologic trends over time. METHODS: A cumulative total of 446 sites were involved, of which 119, 166, 66, 28, and 67 were in Asia/Pacific, Europe, Latin America, Middle East/Africa, and North America, respectively...
August 2010: Surgical Infections
Ronald N Jones, Matthew G Stilwell, Paul R Rhomberg, Helio S Sader
We evaluated the susceptibility rates for piperacillin/tazobactam tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from the Asia-Pacific (APAC), Europe (EU), Latin America (LA), and North America (NA) for 1997 to 2007. A total of 25 460 isolates were tested originating from APAC (4441), EU (7695), LA (4277), and NA (9047). All testing was performed by reference broth microdilution methods. The samples were collected from >110 medical centers and samples averaging >30 nations/year. For this analysis, results from 1997 to 2007, 1997 to 1999, 2005 to 2007, APAC, EU, LA, and NA were assessed against several broad-spectrum beta-lactams, including cefepime, ceftazidime, imipenem, meropenem, and piperacillin alone, for a total of 12 agents overall...
November 2009: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Mariana Castanheira, Ronald N Jones, David M Livermore
The in vitro activity of doripenem against prevalent nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli and Aeromonas spp. was evaluated. The collection comprised 14979 nonduplicate clinical isolates submitted during a global Doripenem Surveillance Program conducted from 2003 through 2007. Susceptibility tests were performed using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute reference broth microdilution method and the susceptibility criteria of the US Food and Drug Administration. Doripenem (MIC(90), 8 and 4 microg/mL) was 2-fold more potent than imipenem (MIC(90), >8 and 8 microg/mL) and meropenem (MIC(90), >8 and 8 microg/mL) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Pseudomonas spp...
April 2009: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Thomas R Fritsche, Helio S Sader, Ronald N Jones
Ceftobiprole is a 1st-in-class anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) extended-spectrum cephalosporin currently in clinical trials for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) and nosocomial pneumonia. This agent is also active against other prominent Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, making it an attractive candidate for broad-spectrum therapy. We evaluated the in vitro potency of ceftobiprole tested against the most commonly occurring bacterial pathogens as part of a global surveillance study for the years 2005 to 2006 (>60 medical centers in North America, Latin America, and Europe)...
May 2008: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
A F Martins, A P Zavascki, P B Gaspareto, A L Barth
BACKGROUND: Metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) is an emerging resistance mechanism among Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The prevalence of this mechanism is particularly high in Latin America. We aimed to describe the prevalence and molecular characteristics of SPM-1-like, IMP-1-like and VIM type MBLs among ceftazidime and/or imipenem-resistant nosocomial P. aeruginosa isolates. METHODS: Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates resistant to ceftazidime and/or imipenem recovered from hospitalized patients from two teaching hospitals from Porto Alegre, Brazil, were prospectively selected...
December 2007: Infection
Ralf Rene Reinert, Donald E Low, Flávia Rossi, Xiaojiang Zhang, Chand Wattal, Michael J Dowzicky
OBJECTIVES: To describe antimicrobial susceptibility among bacterial isolates associated with hospital infections collected from 266 centres in Asia/Pacific Rim (n = 1,947), North America (n = 24,283), Latin America (n = 1,957) and Europe (n = 8,796). METHODS: Isolates were collected from blood, respiratory tract, urine, skin, wound, body fluids and other defined sources between January 2004 and August 2006. Only one isolate per patient was accepted. In vitro MICs for the isolates were determined according to the CLSI (formerly NCCLS) guidelines...
November 2007: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Thomas R Fritsche, Helio S Sader, Ronald N Jones
The spectrum and potency of garenoxacin, a novel des-F(6)-quinolone, against a large international collection (11723 strains) of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that cause skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) were evaluated for the years 1999 to 2004. Consecutive nonduplicate bacterial isolates were collected from patients with documented community-acquired or nosocomial SSTI in >70 medical centers participating in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program in North America (37...
May 2007: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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