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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615901/varicella-zoster-virus-infection-of-the-central-nervous-system-10-year-experience-from-a-tertiary-hospital-in-south-india
#1
Ronald Albert Benton Carey, Vignesh Kumar Chandiraseharan, Anitha Jasper, Tunny Sebastian, Chrusolitha Gujjarlamudi, Sowmya Sathyendra, Anand Zachariah, Asha Mary Abraham, Thambu David Sudarsanam
INTRODUCTION: Varicella zoster virus is an exclusively human neurotrophic virus. The primary infection with the virus causes varicella. The virus remains latent in nervous tissue and upon secondary activation causes a variety of syndromes involving the central nervous system (CNS) including meningoencephalitis and cerebellitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we looked at the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory features, and outcomes of patients who were admitted with varicella zoster of the CNS from 2005 to 2014...
April 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577289/immunoglobulin-responsive-chikungunya-encephalitis-two-case-reports
#2
Stephanie Suzanne de O Scott, Pedro Braga-Neto, Lícia Pacheco Pereira, Paulo Ribeiro Nóbrega, Francisco de Assis Aquino Gondim, Manoel Alves Sobreira-Neto, Claudia Carvalho Mendes Schiavon
Chikungunya virus is an alphavirus transmitted by the mosquito Aedes, mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, that can cause acute illness, mostly self-limited, characterized by fever, maculopapular rash, and disabling polyarthritis/arthralgia, with an incubation period of 1 to 12 days. Chikungunya was largely regarded as a non-fatal and self-limited disease, but recently, serious cases have been reported including some with severe involvement of the nervous system, such as meningoencephalitis, myelitis, polyradiculitis, and polyradiculoneuropathy...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560630/diplopia-as-isolated-presentation-of-varicella-zoster-central-nervous-system-reactivation
#3
Cosmo Del Borgo, Valeria Belvisi, Maria Beatrice Valli, Antonio Currà, Irene Pozzetto, Massimiliano Sepe, Claudio Maria Mastroianni
Here, we report a patient who developed diplopia secondary to a right cranial nerve III and IV palsy, as well as fever and headache. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis (CSF) showed high varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-DNA viral load (>300,000,000 copies/ml). VZV antibodies in CSF was ≥1:16. Diagnosis of neurological reactivation of VZV infection was made without the presence of characteristic vesicular rash. Quantitative real-time PCR for VZV and intrathecal dosage of VZV IgM and IgG should be performed in cases suspected for viral encephalitis and also in all patients with not otherwise attributable cranial nerve lesions...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489127/genotype-1-of-human-parvovirus-b19-in-clinical-cases
#4
Maria Isabel de Oliveira, Ana Maria Sardinha Afonso, Suely Pires Curti, Patrícia Evelin Silva, Tamyris Fernanda Barbosa, Elian Reis Silva, Cristina Adelaide Figueiredo
Introduction: Virus surveillance strategies and genetic characterization of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) are important tools for regional and global control of viral outbreak. In São Paulo, Brazil, we performed a study of B19V by monitoring the spread of this virus, which is an infectious agent and could be mistakenly reported as a rash and other types of infection. Method: Serum samples were subjected to enzyme immunoassay, real time polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing...
March 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460866/an-unusual-presentation-of-varicella-zoster-virus-with-acute-cerebellitis-and-siadh-without-a-rash
#5
Michal Lubomski, Lauren Brown, Romesh Markus
We report a case of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection with acute cerebellitis and encephalitis with associated Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH) in an elderly man presenting with acute cerebellar ataxia without antecedent rash. Cerebrospinal fluid examination (CSF) revealed a mononuclear pleocytosis, high protein, normal glucose, positive for VZV polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Early acyclovir treatment is beneficial for acute VZV cerebellitis. Clinicians should consider infectious Central Nervous System (CNS) causes for presentations of acute cerebellar ataxia in adult patients, particularly if there is an accompanying clouded sensorium...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417331/use-of-high-dose-oral-valacyclovir-during-an-intravenous-acyclovir-shortage-a-retrospective-analysis-of-tolerability-and-drug-shortage-management
#6
Milena M McLaughlin, Sarah H Sutton, Ashley O Jensen, John S Esterly
INTRODUCTION: In late 2011, a shortage of IV acyclovir led to the need to empirically substitute high-dose oral valacyclovir (HDVA) to conserve IV acyclovir for patients with confirmed herpes simplex virus (HSV) meningitis or encephalitis. This report describes the management of the most recent national IV acyclovir shortage by the Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP) at Northwestern Memorial Hospital (NMH), Chicago, IL, USA, and the use of HDVA. Secondarily, we assessed the safety and tolerability of HDVA as an alternate to IV acyclovir during this shortage...
June 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365283/-epidemiological-and-clinical-characteristics-of-infants-admitted-to-hospital-due-to-human-parechovirus-infections-a-prospective-study-in-spain
#7
Fernando Martín Del Valle, Cristina Calvo, Inés Martinez-Rienda, Amaia Cilla, María P Romero, Ana Isabel Menasalvas, Leticia Reis-Iglesias, Diana Roda, María J Pena, Nuria Rabella, María Del Mar Portugués de la Red, Gregoria Megías, Antonio Moreno-Docón, Almudena Otero, María Cabrerizo
INTRODUCTION: Human parechovirus (HPeV) is one of the recently described picornaviridae viruses that have been associated with fever of unknown origin (FUO), clinical sepsis, gastroenteritis, meningitis, or encephalitis in very young infants. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of these viruses. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective multicentre 3-year study was conducted in 12 hospitals in Spain. Out of 850 specimens examined, 47 were positive (5...
March 29, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219154/-human-enterovirus-infection-status-and-clinical-characteristics-of-274-patients-with-viral-encephalitis-in-henan-province-2011-2012
#8
H X Ma, J J Pan, Y Li, K Kang, X Y Huang, A G You, B L Xu
Objective: To investigate human enterovirus (HEV) infection and clinical characteristics of viral encephalitis patients in Pingdingshan, Henan Province. Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid specimens and epidemiological information were collected from 274 viral encephalitis patients in the departments of pediatrics and neurology in hospitals in Pingdingshan, Henan Province, from April 2011 to August 2012. Patients with bacterial infections were excluded from the study. Demographic information was collected by questionnaires and clinical information was mainly obtained from hospital examinations...
February 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208912/chikungunya-and-myositis-a-case-report-in-brazil
#9
Hugo Andre Martins, Silvya Nery Bernardino, Camila Cordeiro Santos, Valdenilson Ribeiro Ribas
Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) is a well-described alpha virus that causes infection in humans. The main symptoms are fever, rash and arthralgia and recently neurological disorders have been reported, in particular encephalitis. It is uncertain whether neurological symptoms are due to persistence of the virus or an ineffective immune response. One rarely described neurologic syndrome is myositis. In this paper, we report the case of a 19-year-old woman with mental confusion and aggressiveness two days after complaints of fever and arthralgia...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141506/antiviral-activity-of-acid-beta-glucosidase-1-on-enterovirus-71-a-causative-agent-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#10
Keiko Nakata, Satoshi Takeda, Atsushi Tanaka, Jimmy Kwang, Jun Komano
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). EV71 causes fever, rash, diarrhoea and, in some cases, acute encephalopathy/encephalitis, which can be fatal. No specific treatment is currently available for EV71 infection. Here, we conducted a cDNA library screen and identified acid β-glucosidase 1 (GBA1; also known as β-glucocerebrosidase) as an EV71 resistance factor. The anti-EV71 function of GBA1 was verified by gene transduction and knockdown experiments. Cerezyme, a molecular drug used to treat Gaucher's disease and having recombinant human GBA1 as the active ingredient, protected against EV71 infection...
April 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135303/microrna-and-mrna-transcriptome-profiling-in-primary-human-astrocytes-infected-with-borrelia-burgdorferi
#11
Timothy Casselli, Humaira Qureshi, Elizabeth Peterson, Danielle Perley, Emily Blake, Bradley Jokinen, Ata Abbas, Sergei Nechaev, John A Watt, Archana Dhasarathy, Catherine A Brissette
Lyme disease is caused by infection with the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), which is transmitted to humans by deer ticks. The infection manifests usually as a rash and minor systemic symptoms; however, the bacteria can spread to other tissues, causing joint pain, carditis, and neurological symptoms. Lyme neuroborreliosis presents itself in several ways, such as Bell's palsy, meningitis, and encephalitis. The molecular basis for neuroborreliosis is poorly understood. Analysis of the changes in the expression levels of messenger RNAs and non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs, following Bb infection could therefore provide vital information on the pathogenesis and clinical symptoms of neuroborreliosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105556/chikungunya-infection-presenting-as-mild-encephalitis-with-a-reversible-lesion-in-the-splenium-a-case-report
#12
Kadam Nagpal, Puneet Agarwal, Amit Kumar, Rajashekhar Reddi
Chikungunya fever is an Aedes mosquito-transmitted infection caused by chikungunya virus, an RNA virus in the family Togaviridae. The disease is characteristically manifested as fever, arthralgia, and/or rash. Various neurological manifestations like meningoencephalitis, myelitis, and myeloneuropathy have been mentioned in various reports. We present a rare case of chikungunya fever presenting with mild encephalitis with a reversible lesion of the splenium (MERS), which showed complete clinical and radiological recovery...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069071/sporadic-cases-of-adult-measles-a-research-article
#13
Ranjan Premaratna, Nathasha Luke, Harsha Perera, Mahesh Gunathilake, Pubudu Amarasena, T G A Nilmini Chandrasena
BACKGROUND: Measles caused by a paramyxovirus, characterized by fever, malaise, cough, coryza conjunctivitis, a maculopapular rash is known to result in pneumonia, encephalitis and death. Fatal cases of measles in Sri Lanka are rare after implementation of the National Immunization Programme in 1984. Thereafter 0.1% case fatality rate was observed during October 1999-June 2000 which is a very low figure compared to other regional countries. Immunization guidelines were further revised in 2001, 2011 and in 2012 when additional immunization was recommended to age group 4-21 years; who are likely to have inadequate immunization, in order to achieve elimination of Measles by 2020...
January 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924792/a-cost-effective-approach-to-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-acute-infectious-encephalitis
#14
Usha Kant Misra, Vinita Elizabeth Mani, Jayantee Kalita
SETTING: A tertiary care teaching hospital in India. OBJECTIVE: To report a syndromic approach to acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) and propose a cost-effective model. STUDY DESIGN: AES patients were categorized by the presence or absence of myalgia/rash into systemic and neurological AES. The patients with systemic AES were investigated for dengue, scrub typhus, leptospira, chikungunya, and malaria, and those with neurological AES were investigated for herpes and Japanese encephalitis (JE)...
2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901259/neurological-manifestations-of-chikungunya-and-zika-infections
#15
Talys J Pinheiro, Luis F Guimarães, Marcus Tulius T Silva, Cristiane N Soares
The epidemics of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been considered the most important epidemiological occurrences in the Americas. The clinical picture of CHIKV infection is characterized by high fever, exanthema, myalgia, headaches, and arthralgia. Besides the typical clinical picture of CHIKV, atypical manifestations of neurological complications have been reported: meningo-encephalitis, meningoencephalo-myeloradiculitis, myeloradiculitis, myelitis, myeloneuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome and others...
November 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870688/clinical-aspects-of-zika-virus
#16
Elysse N Grossi-Soyster, A Desiree LaBeaud
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused a sudden and explosive outbreak in South America and the Caribbean in the last year, and has been declared a public health emergency by the WHO. As ZIKV afflicts previously naive populations, more severe clinical presentations and sequelae have been observed. A specific emphasis has been placed on the neurological effects in infants resulting from viral exposure in utero. RECENT FINDINGS: Acute onset of ZIKV disease is seen in approximately 20% of cases, whereas most individuals (80%) exposed are asymptomatic...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826325/enterovirus-71-infection-and-neurological-complications
#17
REVIEW
Kyung Yeon Lee
Since the outbreak of the enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in Malaysia in 1997, large epidemics of EV71 have occurred in the Asia-Pacific region. Many children and infants have died from serious neurological complications during these epidemics, and EV71 infection has become a serious public health problem in these areas. EV71 infection causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children, and usually resolves spontaneously. However, EV71 occasionally involves the central nervous system (CNS), and induces diverse neurological complications such as brainstem encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, and acute flaccid paralysis...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759344/expanded-dengue
#18
REVIEW
D B Kadam, Sonali Salvi, Ajay Chandanwale
The World Health Organization (WHO) has coined the term expanded dengue to describe cases which do not fall into either dengue shock syndrome or dengue hemorrhagic fever. This has incorporated several atypical findings of dengue. Dengue virus has not been enlisted as a common etiological agent in several conditions like encephalitis, Guillain Barre syndrome. Moreover it is a great mimic of co-existing epidemics like Malaria, Chikungunya and Zika virus disease, which are also mosquito-borne diseases. The atypical manifestations noted in dengue can be mutisystemic and multifacetal...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748148/focal-herpes-zoster-encephalitis-without-a-rash-diagnostic-confusion-between-astrogliosis-and-low-grade-glioma
#19
Geoffrey C Halling, Charles Grose
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697585/human-herpesvirus-6-infection-following-haploidentical-transplantation-immune-recovery-and-outcome
#20
Raffaella Greco, Lara Crucitti, Maddalena Noviello, Sara Racca, Daniele Mannina, Alessandra Forcina, Francesca Lorentino, Veronica Valtolina, Serena Rolla, Roee Dvir, Mara Morelli, Fabio Giglio, Maria Chiara Barbanti, Maria Teresa Lupo Stanghellini, Chiara Oltolini, Luca Vago, Paolo Scarpellini, Andrea Assanelli, Matteo G Carrabba, Sarah Marktel, Massimo Bernardi, Consuelo Corti, Massimo Clementi, Jacopo Peccatori, Chiara Bonini, Fabio Ciceri
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is increasingly recognized as a potentially life-threatening pathogen in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). We retrospectively evaluated 54 adult patients who developed positivity to HHV-6 after alloSCT. The median time from alloSCT to HHV-6 reactivation was 34 days. HHV-6 was present in plasma samples from 31 patients, in bone marrow (BM) of 9 patients, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and liver or gut biopsy specimens from 33 patients, and in cerebrospinal fluid of 7 patients...
December 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
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