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Encephalitis and rash

D B Kadam, Sonali Salvi, Ajay Chandanwale
The World Health Organization (WHO) has coined the term expanded dengue to describe cases which do not fall into either dengue shock syndrome or dengue hemorrhagic fever. This has incorporated several atypical findings of dengue. Dengue virus has not been enlisted as a common etiological agent in several conditions like encephalitis, Guillain Barre syndrome. Moreover it is a great mimic of co-existing epidemics like Malaria, Chikungunya and Zika virus disease, which are also mosquito-borne diseases. The atypical manifestations noted in dengue can be mutisystemic and multifacetal...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Geoffrey C Halling, Charles Grose
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Raffaella Greco, Lara Crucitti, Maddalena Noviello, Sara Racca, Daniele Mannina, Alessandra Forcina, Francesca Lorentino, Veronica Valtolina, Serena Rolla, Roee Dvir, Mara Morelli, Fabio Giglio, Maria Chiara Barbanti, Maria Teresa Lupo Stanghellini, Chiara Oltolini, Luca Vago, Paolo Scarpellini, Andrea Assanelli, Matteo G Carrabba, Sarah Marktel, Massimo Bernardi, Consuelo Corti, Massimo Clementi, Jacopo Peccatori, Chiara Bonini, Fabio Ciceri
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is increasingly recognized as a potentially life-threatening pathogen in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). We retrospectively evaluated 54 adult patients who developed positivity to HHV-6 after alloSCT. The median time from alloSCT to HHV-6 reactivation was 34 days. HHV-6 was present in plasma samples from 31 patients, in bone marrow (BM) of 9 patients, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and liver or gut biopsy specimens from 33 patients, and in cerebrospinal fluid of 7 patients...
September 30, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
M Levy, M-T Abi-Warde, A-C Rameau, S Fafi-Kremer, Y Hansmann, M Fischbach, L Higel
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an arbovirus induced by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) transmitted by tick bite. The disease is rare in France (two to three cases per year) but endemic zones extend from Western Europe to the east coast of Asia (10,000-15,000 cases per year). An 8-year-old boy was admitted to our pediatric ward in Strasbourg (France) for febrile headache with diplopia. Four days after a tick bite, he declared a febrile headache together with maculopapular rash on the elbows, knees, and cheeks...
October 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Sai-Zhen Zeng, Bing Zhang, Yan Zhang, Le-Yun Xie, Jie Xiong, Tian Yu, Zhi-Ping Xie, Han-Chun Gao, Zhao-Jun Duan
Twelve cases of acute measles encephalitis without rash were identified from October 2011 to July 2013 in Changsha city, China; 5 were found to be genotype H1 and 2 were B3. Our data suggest that screening for measles virus is necessary in children with viral encephalitis, to eliminate the disease.
September 6, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Antonio Carlos Bandeira, Gubio Soares Campos, Silvia Ines Sardi, Veronica França Diniz Rocha, Guilherme Cesar Mendes Rocha
PURPOSE: To report the first case of Chikungunya encephalitis acquired in the perinatal period during the current outbreak in Brazil. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A male neonate with 3500 g developed macular erythematous rash, hypoactivity and fever progressing to generalized seizures. His mother had experienced a disseminated rash and fever before delivery. EEG showed diffuse slowing and cranial NMR was suggestive of encephalitis. Rt-PCR for Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was positive in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, urine and saliva...
2016: IDCases
Paul A Rota, William J Moss, Makoto Takeda, Rik L de Swart, Kimberly M Thompson, James L Goodson
Measles is an infectious disease in humans caused by the measles virus (MeV). Before the introduction of an effective measles vaccine, virtually everyone experienced measles during childhood. Symptoms of measles include fever and maculopapular skin rash accompanied by cough, coryza and/or conjunctivitis. MeV causes immunosuppression, and severe sequelae of measles include pneumonia, gastroenteritis, blindness, measles inclusion body encephalitis and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Case confirmation depends on clinical presentation and results of laboratory tests, including the detection of anti-MeV IgM antibodies and/or viral RNA...
2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
S Aswathyraj, G Arunkumar, E K Alidjinou, D Hober
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious viral disease and mainly affects infants and young children. The main manifestations are fever, vesicular rashes on hand, feet and buttocks and ulcers in the oral mucosa. Usually, HFMD is self-limiting, but a small proportion of children may experience severe complications such as meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis and neurorespiratory syndrome. Historically, outbreaks of HFMD were mainly caused by two enteroviruses: the coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and the enterovirus 71 (EV-A71)...
October 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Kendall G Byler, Jasmine T Collins, Ifedayo Victor Ogungbe, William N Setzer
Alphaviruses such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), O'Nyong-Nyong virus (ONNV), Ross River virus (RRV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), are mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause fevers, rash, and rheumatic diseases (CHIKV, ONNV, RRV) or potentially fatal encephalitis (EEEV, VEEV, WEEV) in humans. These diseases are considered neglected tropical diseases for which there are no current antiviral therapies or vaccines available...
June 21, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
A Bouafsoun, N Hannachi, H Smaoui, S H Boubaker, K Kazdaghli, D Laabidi, J Boukadida, A Kechrid
The aim of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of specific antibodies anti-human parvovirus B19 (PVB19) immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG in children with fever and rash. This study involved 257 children aged from 7 months to 15 years with febrile rash unrelated to measles and rubella (seronegative for IgM). The sera were examined by immunoenzymatic assay. Detection of antibodies of PVB19 was done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa). In our study, prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM were 44 and 11...
August 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
Anna Grahn, Tomas Bergström, Jim Runesson, Marie Studahl
OBJECTIVES: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a common viral agent causing central nervous system (CNS) infections, normally diagnosed by detection of VZV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Our aim was to investigate trends in VZV DNAemia in VZV CNS infections, which could potentially contribute to diagnosis and secondly, correlate the amount of VZV DNA in serum to severity of disease. METHODS: Seventy-two patients with VZV CNS infections diagnosed by detection of VZV DNA in CSF and concomitant neurological symptoms were included...
September 2016: Journal of Infection
Candice D Jordan, Frederick Korley, Bachar Hamade
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 20, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Zhe-Feng Yuan, Jue Shen, Shan-Shan Mao, Yong-Lin Yu, Lu Xu, Pei-Fang Jiang, Feng Gao, Zhe-Zhi Xia
BACKGROUND: Clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) is a clinico-radiological syndrome characterized by transient mild symptoms of encephalopathy and a reversible lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is often triggered by infection. The common pathogens of MERS are viruses, especially influenza virus. However, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M.pneumoniae) are relatively rare pathogens for MERS. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report two paediatric cases of M...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Hiroshi Ureshino, Takero Shindo, Hiroyoshi Nishikawa, Nobukazu Watanabe, Eri Watanabe, Natsuko Satoh, Kazutaka Kitaura, Hiroaki Kitamura, Kazuko Doi, Kotaro Nagase, Hiromi Kimura, Makoto Samukawa, Susumu Kusunoki, Masaharu Miyahara, Tadasu Shin-I, Ryuji Suzuki, Shimon Sakaguchi, Shinya Kimura
The regulatory T cells (Treg) with the most potent immunosuppressive activity are the effector Tregs (eTreg) with a CD45RA(-)Foxp3(++)CCR4(+) phenotype. Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells often share the Treg phenotype and also express CCR4. Although mogamulizumab, a monoclonal antibody to CCR4, shows marked antitumor effects against ATL and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, concerns have been raised that it may induce severe autoimmune immunopathology by depleting eTregs. Here, we present case reports for two patients with ATL who responded to mogamulizumab but developed a severe skin rash and autoimmune brainstem encephalitis...
August 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
Lale Ozisik, Mine Durusu Tanriover, Esen Saka
Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a severe drug hypersensitivity reaction characterized by rash, fever and multi-organ failure. Limbic encephalitis (LE) is a rare disorder characterized by cognitive dysfunction with memory disturbance, seizures and psychiatric symptoms. We herein present an unusual case of DRESS syndrome due to lamotrigine with reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus, which developed autoimmune LE and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Discontinuation of lamotrigine, administration of methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin led to improvement...
2016: Internal Medicine
Abdullah Al-Qayoudhi, Hanan Al-Kindi, Nabil Meki, Amal Al-Maani
The introduction of measles vaccination programs and broad coverage worldwide has meant this infection a rare encounter for pediatricians. In Oman, with almost 100% measles vaccination coverage for children, this infection disappeared from the list of fever and rash differential diagnoses. Encephalitis is a well-known complication of measles infection and sometimes can be the only manifestation especially in adults. We report a seven-year-old Syrian immigrant who was admitted to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, with acute encephalitis secondary to wild measles infection...
March 2016: Oman Medical Journal
Li-Fang Feng, Xiao-Hong Chen, Dong-Xiao Li, Yuan Ding, Ying Jin, Jin-Qing Song, Yan-Ling Yang
A one-year-old girl visited the hospital due to limb torsion and developmental regression for one month after hand, foot and mouth disease. At the age of 11 months, she visited a local hospital due to fever for 5 days and skin rash with frequent convulsions for 2 days and was diagnosed with severe hand, foot and mouth disease, viral encephalitis, and status epilepticus. Brain MRI revealed symmetric abnormal signals in the bilateral basal ganglia, bilateral thalamus, cerebral peduncle, bilateral cortex, and hippocampus...
May 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Concetta Ilenia Palermo, Carmela Maria Costanzo, Concetta Franchina, Giacomo Castiglione, Loretta Giuliano, Raffaela Russo, Alessandro Conti, Vito Sofia, Guido Scalia
Human Parvovirus B19 (PVB19), the etiological agent of the fifth disease, is associated with a large spectrum of pathologies, among which is encephalitis. Since it has been detected from the central nervous system in children or in immunocompromised patients, its causative role in serious neurological manifestations is still unclear. Here we report the case of an 18-year-old healthy boy who developed encephalitis complicated by prolonged status epilepticus. The detection of PVB19 DNA in his serum and, subsequently, in his cerebrospinal fluid supports the hypothesis that this virus could potentially play a role in the pathogenesis of neurological complications...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Josie Delisle, Nicole L Mendell, Annica Stull-Lane, Karen C Bloch, Donald H Bouyer, Abelardo C Moncayo
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is the most common tick-borne disease in Tennessee. However, Rickettsia rickettsii has rarely been isolated from endemic ticks, suggesting rickettsioses may be caused by other species. A total of 56 human serum samples that were serologically positive for exposure to Rickettsia were obtained from commercial laboratories in 2010 and 2011. In addition, 20 paired sera from patients with encephalitis and positive Rickettsia serology were obtained from the Tennessee Unexplained Encephalitis Surveillance (TUES) study...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Roger E Kelley, Joseph R Berger, Brian P Kelley
PURPOSE: We report a previously healthy middle aged woman who developed West Nile virus meningo-encephalitis within two weeks of unprotected vaginal intercourse with her husband. SUBJECT: This patient's husband had serologically confirmed West Nile virus infection manifested by a flu-like illness and rash with the sexual contact one day before the onset of his symptoms. RESULT: This well documented neuroinvasive West Nile virus infection in our patient was within the incubation period of transmission and there was no reported mosquito bite exposure...
January 2016: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
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