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Traumatic brain injury review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666570/role-of-caspase-8-and-fas-in-cell-death-after-spinal-cord-injury
#1
REVIEW
Daniel Sobrido-Cameán, Antón Barreiro-Iglesias
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes the death of neurons and glial cells due to the initial mechanical forces (i.e., primary injury) and through a cascade of secondary molecular events (e.g., inflammation or excitotoxicity) that exacerbate cell death. The loss of neurons and glial cells that are not replaced after the injury is one of the main causes of disability after SCI. Evidence accumulated in last decades has shown that the activation of apoptotic mechanisms is one of the factors causing the death of intrinsic spinal cord (SC) cells following SCI...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666199/does-magnesium-sulfate-have-a-role-in-the-management-of-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-in-civilian-and-military-populations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Marc W H Lyons, W J Blackshaw
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of combat morbidity. Currently, the medical management of TBI is limited to supportive critical care. Magnesium sulfate has been studied as a potentially beneficial therapeutic agent. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken, examining the role of magnesium in the management of severe TBI in adults. The primary outcome of the study was all-cause mortality, with secondary outcomes of Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) and GCS...
April 17, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665763/neuroimaging-radiological-interpretation-system-niris-for-acute-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi
#3
Max Wintermark, Ying Li, Victoria Y Ding, Yingding Xu, Bin Jiang, Robyn L Ball, Michael Zeineh, Alisa Gean, Pina Sanelli
To develop an outcome-based NeuroImaging Radiological Interpretation System (NIRIS) for acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients that would standardize the interpretation of non-contrast head CTs and consolidate imaging findings into ordinal severity categories that would inform specific patient management actions and that could be used as a clinical decision support tool. We retrospectively identified all patients transported to our emergency department by ambulance or helicopter, for whom a trauma alert was triggered per established criteria and who underwent a non-contrast head CT due to suspicion of TBI, between November 2015 and April 2016...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663451/association-of-prolonged-qtc-interval-with-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-a-neurocardiac-syndrome-inside-the-mystery-of-the-insula-of-reil
#4
REVIEW
Vincenzo Marafioti, Giulia Turri, Vincenzo Carbone, Salvatore Monaco
The Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is often considered autochthonous to the heart, although the primary problem may be not in the heart muscle itself. Instead, similar to several Takotsubo-like cardiac pathologies seen in acute neurological diseases, it may reflect the capacity of the nervous system to injure the heart. Persuasive evidence exists that shocking emotional stress promotes direct heart injuries. Moreover, clinical and laboratory research shows that cardiac structural damage can occur in the presence of a normal heart, especially in the context of seizures, stroke, and traumatic brain injury or under conditions of psychological stress...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663285/exosomes-in-acquired-neurological-disorders-new-insights-into-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Nicole Osier, Vida Motamedi, Katie Edwards, Ava Puccio, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Kimbra Kenney, Jessica Gill
Exosomes are endogenous nanovesicles that play critical roles in intercellular signaling by conveying functional genetic information and proteins between cells. Exosomes readily cross the blood-brain barrier and have promise as therapeutic delivery vehicles that have the potential to specifically deliver molecules to the central nervous system (CNS). This unique feature also makes exosomes attractive as biomarkers in diagnostics, prognostics, and therapeutics in the context of multiple significant public health conditions, including acquired neurological disorders...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660967/a-call-for-implementing-preferred-practices-for-brain-injury-screening-in-youth-to-improve-transition
#6
Drew A Nagele, Melissa McCart, Stephen R Hooper
BACKGROUND: It is vital to engage in systematic screening to identify and serve children who may have sustained an acquired brain injury (ABI) - either traumatic or non-traumatic, so they can be successfully transitioned between environments and life stages. This is particularly important for children and adolescents given the impact an ABI can have on learning and social functioning over the course of the neurodevelopmental process. A pattern of repeated, undiagnosed mild brain injuries may lead to mood or behavior disorders, learning problems...
April 7, 2018: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660966/community-based-interventions-for-adolescents-following-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review
#7
Betony Clasby, Nathan Hughes, Cathy Catroppa, Elle Morrison
BACKGROUND: Chronic impairment following childhood traumatic brain injury has the potential to increase risk of negative outcomes. This highlights potential value of community-based rehabilitation programs. OBJECTIVES: To identify research studies examining existing intervention programmes available in community-based rehabilitation to adolescents following TBI to assist with the transition back into the community. METHODS: A systematic review of community-based interventions was conducted across different national contexts...
April 7, 2018: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660965/a-clinically-focused-systematic-review-of-social-communication-in-pediatric-tbi
#8
Angela Hein Ciccia, Leah Beekman, Emily Ditmars
BACKGROUND: Social communication is a persistent area of need after pediatric traumatic brain injury; however, it continues to be misunderstood, under-recognized, and under-treated. Clinicians must have a working understanding of current evidence and practice recommendations to support practice. OBJECTIVES: 1) To analyze recent evidence in social communication published in the last ten years, which is specific to pediatric TBI and 2) To translate these findings for clinicians...
April 7, 2018: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660958/immersive-virtual-reality-in-traumatic-brain-injury-rehabilitation-a-literature-review
#9
Jared Aida, Brian Chau, Justin Dunn
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States with its sequelae often affecting individuals long after the initial injury. Innovations in virtual reality (VR) technology may offer potential therapy options in the recovery from such injuries. However, there is currently no consensus regarding the efficacy of VR in the setting of TBI rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to evaluate and summarize the current literature regarding immersive VR in the rehabilitation of those with TBI...
April 7, 2018: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660377/apathy-following-traumatic-brain-injury-a-review
#10
Andrew Worthington, Rodger Ll Wood
Apathy is a common problem after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and can have a major impact on cognitive function, psychosocial outcome and engagement in rehabilitation. For scientists and clinicians it remains one of the least understood aspects of brain-behaviour relationships encompassing disturbances of cognition, motivation, emotion and action, and is variously an indication of organic brain disease or psychiatric disorder. Apathy can be both sign and symptom and has been proposed as a diagnosis in its own right as well as a secondary feature of other conditions...
April 13, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659050/continuous-electroencephalography-predicts-delayed-cerebral-ischemia-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-prospective-study-of-diagnostic-accuracy
#11
Eric S Rosenthal, Siddharth Biswal, Sahar F Zafar, Kathryn L O'Connor, Sophia Bechek, Apeksha V Shenoy, Emily J Boyle, Mouhsin M Shafi, Emily J Gilmore, Brandon P Foreman, Nicolas Gaspard, Thabele M Leslie-Mazwi, Jonathan Rosand, Daniel B Hoch, Cenk Ayata, Sydney S Cash, Andrew J Cole, Aman B Patel, M Brandon Westover
OBJECTIVE: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a common, disabling complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Preventing DCI is a key focus of neurocritical care, but interventions carry risk and cannot be applied indiscriminately. While retrospective studies have identified continuous EEG (cEEG) measures associated with DCI, no study has characterized the accuracy of cEEG with sufficient rigor to justify using it to triage patients to interventions or clinical trials. We therefore prospectively assessed the accuracy of cEEG for predicting DCI, following the Standards for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy Studies...
April 16, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648976/adherence-to-brain-trauma-foundation-guidelines-for-management-of-traumatic-brain-injury-patients-and-its-effect-on-outcomes-systematic-review
#12
Yahya Khormi, Ibrahim Gosadi, Sandy Campbell, Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan, Cian O'Kelly, David Zygun
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) management based on Brain Trauma Foundation (BTF) guidelines is widely accepted and thought to improve outcome. The objectives of this study are to provide an overview of adherence to BTF guidelines and to explore which factors influence adherence. We conducted a search of relevant electronic bibliographic databases. Twenty articles met inclusion/exclusion criteria out of 666 papers screened. All were cohort studies. Wide variation in adherence to BTF guidelines was observed with a median of 66...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648972/randomized-controlled-trials-in-adult-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-on-the-use-and-reporting-of-clinical-outcome-assessments
#13
Lindsay Horton, Jonathan Rhodes, Lindsay Wilson
As part of efforts to improve study design, the use of outcome measures in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is receiving increasing attention. This review aimed to assess how clinical outcome assessments (COAs) have been used and reported in RCTs in adult TBI. Systematic literature searches were conducted to identify medium to large (n ≥ 100) acute and post-acute TBI trials published since 2000. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers using a set of structured templates...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628012/blunt-pharyngoesophageal-injuries-current-management-strategies
#14
G Barmparas, P H Navsaria, D Serna-Gallegos, A J Nicol, S Edu, A A Sayari, D R Margulies, E J Ley
BACKGROUND: Blunt pharyngoesophageal injuries pose a management challenge to the trauma surgeon. The purpose of this study was to explore whether these injuries can be managed expectantly without neck exploration. METHODS: The National Trauma Databank datasets 2007-2011 were reviewed for blunt trauma patients who sustained a pharyngeal injury, including an injury to the cervical esophagus. Patients who survived over 24 h and were not transferred from other institutions were divided into two groups based on whether a neck exploration was performed...
April 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Surgery: SJS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627943/therapeutic-potential-of-vitamin-e-and-its-derivatives-in-traumatic-brain-injury-associated-dementia
#15
Jan Dobrovolny, Martin Smrcka, Julie Bienertova-Vasku
Traumatic brain injury is one of the most common causes for intervention in neurosurgery. Apart from its acute consequence, it can represent a further burden on individuals as well as society by being associated with significant comorbidity-mainly early-onset dementia. Oxidative stress is one of the crucial mechanisms conferring the damage to nervous tissue, and it is believed it could be, to some extent, influenced by dietary composition, largely by antioxidants contained in the diet. Under stressful conditions, cell-derived reactive oxygen species in the brain can induce the formation of lipid peroxides and the shifting of redox homeostasis...
April 7, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627171/comparison-of-nicardipine-with-clevidipine-in-the-management-of-hypertension-in-acute-cerebrovascular-diseases
#16
Zachary Rosenfeldt, Katelyn Conklen, Breck Jones, Don Ferrill, Maithili Deshpande, Fazeel M Siddiqui
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In acute stroke, hypertension worsens outcomes. Guidelines do not mention a preferred antihypertensive agent. This present study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of nicardipine and clevidipine in acute stroke. METHODS: This retrospective review compared nicardipine with clevidipine for hypertension in acute stroke patients from March 17, 2015 to December 23, 2016. Ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke types were evaluated. Patients were excluded if under 18 years, had traumatic brain injury, had intracranial neoplasm, were on dialysis, had both study drugs during the stroke admission, or the study drug was infused for less than 1 hour...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623028/a-comparison-of-pathophysiology-in-humans-and-rodent-models-of-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#17
REVIEW
Jenna L Leclerc, Joshua M Garcia, Matthew A Diller, Anne-Marie Carpenter, Pradip K Kamat, Brian L Hoh, Sylvain Doré
Non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) affects an estimated 30,000 people each year in the United States, with an overall mortality of ~30%. Most cases of SAH result from a ruptured intracranial aneurysm, require long hospital stays, and result in significant disability and high fatality. Early brain injury (EBI) and delayed cerebral vasospasm (CV) have been implicated as leading causes of morbidity and mortality in these patients, necessitating intense focus on developing preclinical animal models that replicate clinical SAH complete with delayed CV...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618972/an-inflammation-centric-view-of-neurological-disease-beyond-the-neuron
#18
REVIEW
Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso, Pietro Giusti
Inflammation is a complex biological response fundamental to how the body deals with injury and infection to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury and effect repair. Unlike a normally beneficial acute inflammatory response, chronic inflammation can lead to tissue damage and ultimately its destruction, and often results from an inappropriate immune response. Inflammation in the nervous system ("neuroinflammation"), especially when prolonged, can be particularly injurious. While inflammation per se may not cause disease, it contributes importantly to disease pathogenesis across both the peripheral (neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia) and central [e...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613957/health-care-utilization-and-the-cost-of-post-traumatic-ards-care
#19
Anamaria J Robles, Lucy Z Kornblith, Carolyn M Hendrickson, Benjamin M Howard, Amanda S Conroy, Farzad Moazed, Carolyn S Calfee, Mitchell J Cohen, Rachael A Callcut
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and longer hospitalizations. The relationship between post-traumatic ARDS severity and financial burden has not been previously studied. We hypothesized that increasing severity is associated with incrementally higher health care costs. METHODS: Adults arriving as the highest level of trauma activation were enrolled in an ongoing prospective cohort study...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609574/utility-of-serum-igf-1-for-diagnosis-of-growth-hormone-deficiency-following-traumatic-brain-injury-and-sport-related-concussion
#20
Kirstie Lithgow, Alex Chin, Chantel T Debert, Gregory A Kline
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a potential consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), including sport-related concussion (SRC). GH stimulation testing is required for definitive diagnosis; however, this is resource intensive and can be associated with adverse symptoms or risks. Measurement of serum IGF-1 is more practical and accessible, and pituitary tumour patients with hypopituitarism and low serum IGF-1 have been shown to have a high probability of GHD. We aimed to evaluate IGF-1 measurement for diagnosing GHD in our local TBI population...
April 2, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
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