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Traumatic brain injury review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035978/use-of-blood-biomarkers-in-the-assessment-of-sports-related-concussion-a-systematic-review-in-the-context-of-their-biological-significance
#1
Brendan OʼConnell, Áine M Kelly, David Mockler, Matej Orešič, Karl Denvir, Garreth Farrell, Damir Janigro, Fiona Wilson
OBJECTIVES: To critically review current knowledge on the positive and negative predictive value of blood biomarkers for concussion; to illustrate the clinical and biological contexts that help evaluate the use of these markers in sport-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). METHODS: This systematic review was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. We reviewed the measurement, clinical utility, endpoint, and biological significance of blood biomarkers in concussion...
October 12, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033888/concussion-as-a-multi-scale-complex-system-an-interdisciplinary-synthesis-of-current-knowledge
#2
REVIEW
Erin S Kenzie, Elle L Parks, Erin D Bigler, Miranda M Lim, James C Chesnutt, Wayne Wakeland
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been called "the most complicated disease of the most complex organ of the body" and is an increasingly high-profile public health issue. Many patients report long-term impairments following even "mild" injuries, but reliable criteria for diagnosis and prognosis are lacking. Every clinical trial for TBI treatment to date has failed to demonstrate reliable and safe improvement in outcomes, and the existing body of literature is insufficient to support the creation of a new classification system...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031551/neuroinflammation-and-neurosteroidogenesis-reciprocal-modulation-during-injury-to-the-adult-zebra-finch-brain
#3
Alyssa L Pedersen, Jenna L Brownrout, Colin J Saldanha
Estrogens like estradiol (E2) via its receptors are pluripotent steroid hormones that exert a profound influence on the developing and adult brain in many vertebrates. In songbirds and mammals, acute brain injury resulting from mechanical damage, anoxia and ischemia rapidly upregulates aromatase and E2 synthesis. Interestingly, this E2 provision occurs due to the induction of aromatase expression in reactive astrocytes in areas surrounding brain injury. The resultant increase in E2 is neuroprotective with established influences on apoptosis, gliosis, cytogenesis, neurogenesis and neuroinflammation...
October 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030415/comorbidity-and-outcomes-in-traumatic-brain-injury-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-on-functional-status-and-risk-of-death
#4
Tatyana Mollayeva, Chen Xiong, Sara Hanafy, Vincy Chan, Zheng Jing Hu, Mitchell Sutton, Michael Escobar, Angela Colantonio
INTRODUCTION: Reports on the association between comorbidity and functional status and risk of death in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been inconsistent; it is currently unknown which additional clinical entities (comorbidities) have an adverse influence on the evolution of outcomes across the lifespan of men and women with TBI. The current protocol outlines a strategy for a systematic review of the current evidence examining the impact of comorbidity on functional status and early-term and late-term mortality, taking into account known risk factors of these adverse outcomes (ie, demographic (age and sex) and injury-related characteristics)...
October 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028764/the-prognostic-value-of-mri-in-moderate-and-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Hourmazd Haghbayan, Amélie Boutin, Mathieu Laflamme, François Lauzier, Michèle Shemilt, Lynne Moore, Ryan Zarychanski, Vincent Douville, Dean Fergusson, Alexis F Turgeon
OBJECTIVES: Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of death and disability, yet many predictors of outcome are not precise enough to guide initial clinical decision-making. Although increasingly used in the early phase following traumatic brain injury, the prognostic utility of MRI remains uncertain. We thus undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the predictive value of acute MRI lesion patterns for discriminating clinical outcome in traumatic brain injury...
October 12, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028220/pediatric-brain-repair-from-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-of-the-subventricular-zone
#6
REVIEW
Yusuke Niimi, Steven W Levison
There is great interest in the regenerative potential of the neural stem cells and progenitors that populate the germinal zones of the immature brain. Studies using animal models of pediatric brain injuries have provided a clearer understanding of the responses of these progenitors to injury. In this review we have compared and contrasted the responses of the endogenous neural stem cells and progenitors of the subventricular zone in animal models of neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, neonatal stroke, congenital cardiac disease and pediatric traumatic brain injury...
October 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026884/review-of-the-potential-use-of-blood-neuro-biomarkers-in-the-diagnosis-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
REVIEW
Alastair Jones, Paul Jarvis
Head injury is a common presenting complaint amongst emergency department patients. To date, there has been no widespread utilization of neuro-biomarkers to aid the diagnosis of traumatic brain injury. This review article explores which neuro-biomarkers could be used in the emergency department in aiding the clinical diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury. Based on the available evidence, the most promising neuro-biomarkers appear to be Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase Isozyme L1 (UCH-L1) as these show significant rises in peripheral blood levels shortly after injury and these have been demonstrated to correlate with long-term clinical outcomes...
September 2017: Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025849/the-association-between-adverse-childhood-experiences-and-traumatic-brain-injury-concussion-in-adulthood-a-scoping-review-protocol
#8
Zechen Ma, Mark T Bayley, Laure Perrier, Priya Dhir, Lana Dépatie, Paul Comper, Lesley Ruttan, Sarah Ep Munce
INTRODUCTION: Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is a significant risk factor for physical and mental illnesses later in life. Concussion or traumatic brain injury is a challenging condition where preinjury factors may interact to affect recovery. The association between ACEs and traumatic brain injury/concussion is not well mapped in any previous reviews of the literature. Using a scoping review methodology, the research question that will be addressed is: what is known from the existing literature about the association between ACEs and traumatic brain injury/concussion in adults? METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The methodological frameworks outlined by Arksey and O'Malley and Levac et al will be used...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025454/an-audit-of-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi-in-a-busy-developing-world-trauma-service-exposes-a-significant-deficit-in-resources-available-to-manage-severe-tbi
#9
Ellen Jerome, Grant L Laing, John L Bruce, Ben Sartorius, Petra Brysiewicz, Damian L Clarke
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects large numbers of patients, both adults and children, and significant resources are needed to manage it. OBJECTIVE: To determine the burden of TBI and the adequacy of available resources to manage in the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service (PMTS). METHODS: All patients with a TBI were identified from the hybrid electronic medical registry at Grey's and Edendale hospitals in Pietermaritzburg (PMB), KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
June 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025157/chronic-pain-after-traumatic-brain-injury-pathophysiology-and-pain-mechanisms
#10
Karen-Amanda Irvine, J David Clark
Background: Traumatic brain injury refers to a broad range of neurological, cognitive, and emotional factors that result from the application of an external force to the head. Individuals recovering from traumatic brain injury will frequently experience acute and chronic pain. Objective: The objective of this paper is to discuss the pathophysiological changes resulting from traumatic brain injury and how these may be involved in the development and persistence of pain after injury...
August 29, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020853/blood-based-protein-biomarkers-for-the-management-of-traumatic-brain-injuries-in-adults-presenting-with-mild-head-injury-to-emergency-departments-a-living-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Stefania Mondello, Abayomi Sorinola, Endre Czeiter, Zoltán Vámos, Krisztina Amrein, Anneliese Synnot, Emma L Donoghue, János Sándor, Kevin K W Wang, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Ewout W Steyerberg, David Menon, Andrew Maas, Andras Buki
Accurate diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is critical to effective management and intervention, but can be challenging in patients with mild TBI. A substantial number of studies have reported the use of circulating biomarkers as signatures for TBI, capable of improving diagnostic accuracy and clinical decision-making beyond current practice standards. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to comprehensively and critically evaluate the existing body of evidence for the use of blood protein biomarkers (S100B, GFAP, NSE, UCH-L1, Tau and Neurofilament proteins) for diagnosis of intracranial lesions on CT following mild TBI...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994623/exploring-functional-outcomes-and-allied-health-staffing-levels-in-an-inpatient-paediatric-rehabilitation-unit
#12
Penelope J Ireland, Amanda Francis, Shani Jackman, Kim McLennan
PURPOSE: This study provides data from a paediatric tertiary hospital on the length of stay, functional improvement and allied health workload for children and adolescents on active inpatient rehabilitation programs. METHODS: An audit was conducted of records of patients managed through an inpatient rehabilitation program at a 359 bed tertiary children's hospital in Brisbane, Australia between December 2014 and December 2015. Data relating to diagnosis, length of stay, functional change, occasions of allied health service and hours of patient attributable allied health professional time were collected...
October 10, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991499/outcome-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-patients-on-antiplatelet-agents-a-retrospective-20-year-observational-study-in-a-single-neurosurgery-unit
#13
Kyoko Sumiyoshi, Takanori Hayakawa, Hiroshi Yatsushige, Keigo Shigeta, Toshiya Momose, Masaya Enomoto, Shin Sato, Yoshio Takasato
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcomes after Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in patients taking Antiplatelet Agents (APAs). METHODS: We reviewed the clinical records of 934 patients with TBI between 1995 and 2014. Multivariate analysis was performed to correlate patient outcome with various factors, including pre-injury APA intake. Cause of death was compared among groups stratified according to APA dose. RESULTS: Increasing doses of APAs were positively associated with mortality rates, however, differences were primarily due to non-traumatic causes...
October 9, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987174/raised-intracranial-pressure-and-brain-edema
#14
Ville Leinonen, Ritva Vanninen, Tuomas Rauramaa
Acutely increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is a life-threatening neurosurgical emergency. Optimal management strategy is selected according to the causative process. Typical causes are intracranial bleeds like traumatic subdural, epidural, or intracerebral hematoma (ICH); spontaneous ICH, intraventricular hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus. When occurring without significant brain injury and treated effectively before herniation, a full recovery can be expected. In intraparenchymal injuries a full recovery is unlikely since dead cells in the central nervous system leave an "empty hole," to be replaced by cerebrospinal fluid...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986865/nmda-receptors-in-the-central-nervous-system
#15
Kasper B Hansen, Feng Yi, Riley E Perszyk, Frank S Menniti, Stephen F Traynelis
NMDA-type glutamate receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate a major component of excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS). They are widely distributed at all stages of development and are critically involved in normal brain functions, including neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. NMDA receptors are also implicated in the pathophysiology of numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, mood disorders, and schizophrenia...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986740/integrated-health-care-management-of-moderate-to-severe-tbi-in-older-patients-a-narrative-review
#16
REVIEW
Rahel Schumacher, René M Müri, Bernhard Walder
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Traumatic brain injuries are common, especially within the elderly population, which is typically defined as age 65 and older. This narrative review aims at summarizing and critically evaluating important aspects of their health care management in covering the entire pathway from prehospital care to rehabilitation and beyond. RECENT FINDINGS: The number of older patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is increasing, and there seem to be differences in all aspects of care along their pathway when compared to younger patients...
October 7, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986230/machine-learning-and-neurosurgical-outcome-prediction-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Joeky T Senders, Patrick C Staples, Aditya V Karhade, Mark M Zaki, William B Gormley, Marike L D Broekman, Timothy R Smith, Omar Arnaout
OBJECTIVE: Accurate measurement of surgical outcomes is highly desirable to optimize surgical decision-making. An important element of surgical decision making is identification of the patient cohort that will benefit from surgery prior to the intervention. Machine learning (ML) enables computers to learn from previous data to make accurate predictions on new data. In this systematic review, we evaluate the potential of ML for neurosurgical outcome prediction. METHODS: A systematic search in the Pubmed and Embase databases was performed to identify all potential relevant studies up to January 1, 2017...
October 3, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985897/head-trauma
#18
REVIEW
Kendon W Kuo, Lenore M Bacek, Amanda R Taylor
Head trauma is a common cause of significant morbidity and mortality in dogs and cats. Traumatic brain injury may occur after head trauma. Understanding the pathophysiology of primary and secondary injury after head trauma is essential for management. This article reviews the pathophysiology of head trauma, patient assessment and diagnostics, and treatment recommendations.
October 3, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985560/ferroptosis-a-regulated-cell-death-nexus-linking-metabolism-redox-biology-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Brent R Stockwell, José Pedro Friedmann Angeli, Hülya Bayir, Ashley I Bush, Marcus Conrad, Scott J Dixon, Simone Fulda, Sergio Gascón, Stavroula K Hatzios, Valerian E Kagan, Kay Noel, Xuejun Jiang, Andreas Linkermann, Maureen E Murphy, Michael Overholtzer, Atsushi Oyagi, Gabriela C Pagnussat, Jason Park, Qitao Ran, Craig S Rosenfeld, Konstantin Salnikow, Daolin Tang, Frank M Torti, Suzy V Torti, Shinya Toyokuni, K A Woerpel, Donna D Zhang
Ferroptosis is a form of regulated cell death characterized by the iron-dependent accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides to lethal levels. Emerging evidence suggests that ferroptosis represents an ancient vulnerability caused by the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into cellular membranes, and cells have developed complex systems that exploit and defend against this vulnerability in different contexts. The sensitivity to ferroptosis is tightly linked to numerous biological processes, including amino acid, iron, and polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, and the biosynthesis of glutathione, phospholipids, NADPH, and coenzyme Q10...
October 5, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985200/cellular-therapy-for-traumatic-neurological-injury
#20
REVIEW
Charles S Cox
Neurological injury is the primary lethal mechanism of injury in children, and the primary etiology of long-term disability after trauma. Laboratories and clinical/translational teams have sought to develop stem/progenitor cell therapies to improve recovery in a clinical setting in which there is no significant reparative option. While none of these treatments are currently standard therapeutics, Phase 2b clinical trials are underway in both adults and children in severe traumatic brain injury and Phase 1/2a trials in spinal cord injury...
October 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
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