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Traumatic brain injury review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223144/role-of-carbon-monoxide-in-neurovascular-repair-processing
#1
REVIEW
Yoon Kyung Choi
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous molecule produced from heme by heme oxygenase (HO). Endogenous CO production occurring at low concentrations is thought to have several useful biological roles. In mammals, especially humans, a proper neurovascular unit comprising endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes, microglia, and neurons is essential for the homeostasis and survival of the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, the regeneration of neurovascular systems from neural stem cells and endothelial precursor cells after CNS diseases is responsible for functional repair...
December 8, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222564/primary-blast-brain-injury-mechanisms-current-knowledge-limitations-and-future-directions
#2
Elizabeth Fievisohn, Zachary Bailey, Allison Guettler, Pamela VandeVord
Mild blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) accounts for the majority of brain injury in United States service members and other military personnel worldwide. The mechanisms of primary blast brain injury continue to be disputed with little evidence to support one or a combination of theories. The main hypotheses addressed in this review are blast wave transmission through the skull orifices, direct cranial transmission, skull flexure dynamics, thoracic surge, acceleration, and cavitation. Each possible mechanism is discussed using available literature with the goal of focusing research efforts to address limitations and challenges that exist in blast injury research...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219873/efficacy-and-harms-of-pharmacological-interventions-for-neurobehavioral-symptoms-in-post-traumatic-amnesia-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#3
Amelia J Hicks, Fiona J Clay, Malcolm Hopwood, Mahesh Jayaram, Rachel Batty, Jennie L Ponsford
The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness and harms of pharmacotherapy as compared to all types of comparators for the management of neurobehavioral symptoms in post-traumatic amnesia in adults aged 16 years and over who have sustained a traumatic brain injury. This review forms part of a larger project which aims to gather the evidence for the pharmacological treatment of neurobehavioral symptoms post traumatic brain injury as a prelude to the development of a clinical guideline...
December 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219009/micrornas-as-potential-prognosticators-of-neurological-outcome-in-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-patients
#4
Sarah S Gul, Karl Huesgen, Kevin K Wang, Joseph A Tyndall
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival rates have increased due to advancement in resuscitative measures, yet approximately 90% of survivors ultimately die or have severe neurologic dysfunction caused by ischemic injury. Currently, there are few early prognostic indicators of which patients have possibility of meaningful recovery. This leads to uncertainty for families and clinicians, as well as aggressive, invasive and expensive treatments despite medical futility. Several biomarkers investigated in traumatic brain injury have shown prognostication potential in ischemic brain injury...
December 8, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213487/traumatic-brain-injury-an-eeg-point-of-view
#5
REVIEW
J├ęssica Natuline Ianof, Renato Anghinah
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a silent epidemic. Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) causes brain injury that results in electrophysiologic abnormalities visible on electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. The purpose of this brief review was to discuss the importance of EEG findings in traumatic brain injury. Relevant articles published during the 1996-2016 period were retrieved from Medline (PubMed). The keywords were in English and included "traumatic brain injury", "EEG" and "quantitative EEG". We found 460 articles, analyzed 52 and selected 13 articles...
January 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212462/pharmacological-targeting-of-secondary-brain-damage-following-ischemic-or-hemorrhagic-stroke-traumatic-brain-injury-and-bacterial-meningitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Thomas Beez, Hans-Jakob Steiger, Nima Etminan
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of pharmacological strategies exclusively targeting secondary brain damage (SBD) following ischemic stroke, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, aSAH, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), traumatic brain injury (TBI) and bacterial meningitis is unclear. This meta-analysis studied the effect of SBD targeted treatment on clinical outcome across the pathological entities. METHODS: Randomized, controlled, double-blinded trials on aforementioned entities with 'death' as endpoint were identified...
December 7, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212411/geriatric-traumatic-brain-injury-epidemiology-outcomes-knowledge-gaps-and-future-directions
#7
Raquel C Gardner, Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Molly Rose Morrissey, Geoffrey Manley
This review of the literature on traumatic brain injury (TBI) in older adults focuses on incident TBI sustained in older adulthood ("geriatric TBI") rather than on the separate, but related, topic of older adults with a history of earlier-life TBI. We describe the epidemiology of geriatric TBI, the impact of comorbidities and pre-injury function on TBI risk and outcomes, diagnostic testing, management issues, outcomes, and critical directions for future research. The highest incidence of TBI-related emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths occur in older adults...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211026/a-review-of-chronic-pain-and-cognitive-mood-and-motor-dysfunction-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-complex-comorbid-and-or-overlapping-conditions
#8
REVIEW
Ramesh Grandhi, Samon Tavakoli, Catherine Ortega, Maureen J Simmonds
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is commonly encountered in clinical practice. While the cognitive ramifications of mTBI are frequently described in the literature, the impact of mTBI on emotional, sensory, and motor function is not as commonly discussed. Chronic pain is a phenomenon more prevalent among patients with mTBI compared to those with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury. Chronic pain can become a primary disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) expressed as widespread pain, and cognitive, mood, and movement dysfunction...
December 6, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209266/current-opportunities-for-clinical-monitoring-of-axonal-pathology-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
REVIEW
Parmenion P Tsitsopoulos, Sami Abu Hamdeh, Niklas Marklund
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a multidimensional and highly complex disease commonly resulting in widespread injury to axons, due to rapid inertial acceleration/deceleration forces transmitted to the brain during impact. Axonal injury leads to brain network dysfunction, significantly contributing to cognitive and functional impairments frequently observed in TBI survivors. Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a clinical entity suggested by impaired level of consciousness and coma on clinical examination and characterized by widespread injury to the hemispheric white matter tracts, the corpus callosum and the brain stem...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207908/a-scoping-review-of-pain-in-children-following-traumatic-brain-injury-is-there-more-than-headache
#10
Vivian Kwan, Mai Vo, Melanie Noel, Keith Owen Yeates
AIM: Headache is a common source of pain in children following traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, relatively little is known about non-headache pain in this pediatric population. The present review seeks to map the extant literature to determine the prevalence, characteristics, and impact of non-headache pain in children following TBI of all severities. RESULTS: Of 109 studies published on pain in children following a TBI, 95 (87%) were focused exclusively on headache pain and only 14 (13%) reported on non-headache pain or overall pain, with half (n = 7) in the form of case studies...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207487/diffuse-axonal-injury-and-oxidative-stress-a-comprehensive-review
#11
REVIEW
Alessandro Frati, Daniela Cerretani, Anna Ida Fiaschi, Paola Frati, Vittorio Gatto, Raffaele La Russa, Alessandro Pesce, Enrica Pinchi, Alessandro Santurro, Flavia Fraschetti, Vittorio Fineschi
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the world's leading causes of morbidity and mortality among young individuals. TBI applies powerful rotational and translational forces to the brain parenchyma, which results in a traumatic diffuse axonal injury (DAI) responsible for brain swelling and neuronal death. Following TBI, axonal degeneration has been identified as a progressive process that starts with disrupted axonal transport causing axonal swelling, followed by secondary axonal disconnection and Wallerian degeneration...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204022/impact-of-road-traffic-injury-to-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-in-southern-thailand
#12
Thara Tunthanathip, Nakornchai Phuenpathom
Background: Motor vehicle is a major transportation in Southern Thailand as the result of road traffic injury and death. Consequently, severe disability and mortality in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) were observed from traffic accident, particularly motorcycle accident. To identify the risk of intracranial injury in children, the association of treatment outcome with various factors including mechanisms of injury, clinical characteristics, and intracranial pathology can be assessed...
October 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201843/clinical-features-and-outcomes-of-bilateral-decompression-surgery-for-immediate-contralateral-hematoma-after-craniectomy-following-acute-subdural-hematoma
#13
Young Hwan Choi, Tea Kyoo Lim, Sang Gu Lee
Objective: Immediate contralateral epidural hematoma (EDH) and traumatic intracerebral hematoma (T-ICH) after craniectomy for traumatic subdural hematoma (SDH) are rare but devastating post-operative complications. Their clinical features and outcomes are not well studied. In this report, we present the clinical features and outcomes of immediate contralateral acute hematoma cases requiring a second operation. Methods: This study includes 10 cases of immediate contralateral EDH and T-ICH following bilateral craniectomy for the evacuation of traumatic SDH and contralateral hematoma between 2004 and 2015...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201836/traumatic-cerebrospinal-fluid-leak-diagnosis-and-management
#14
REVIEW
Ji-Woong Oh, So-Hyun Kim, Kum Whang
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are one of the common complications after traumatic brain injuries (TBI). The risks of CSF leaks can be detrimental to the outcomes of the patients. Early diagnosis and proper management is imperative for it is strongly associated with a better long-term prognosis of the patients. Diagnostic tools for CSF leaks are still under debate. Nevertheless, many reports of successful treatments for CSF leaks have been published with introduction of various repair techniques for leakage sites even though it is surgically challenging...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197614/an-anatomical-and-physiological-basis-for-the-cardiovascular-autonomic-nervous-system-consequences-of-sport-related-brain-injury
#15
Michael F La Fountaine
Concussion is defined as a complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain that is induced by the application or transmission of traumatic biomechanical forces to the head. The result of the impact is the onset of transient symptoms that may be experienced for approximately 2weeks in most individuals. However, in some individuals, symptoms may not resolve and persist for a protracted period and a chronic injury ensues. Concussion symptoms are generally characterized by their emergence through changes in affect, cognition, or multi-sensory processes including the visual and vestibular systems...
November 29, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196247/early-and-late-post-traumatic-epilepsy-in-the-setting-of-traumatic-brain-injury-a-review-of-anti-epileptic-management
#16
Christopher D Wilson, Josh D Burks, Richard B Rodgers, Robert M Evans, Adewale A Bakare, Sam Safavi-Abbasi
INTRODUCTION: Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury confers increased risk of early and late post-traumatic seizures (PTS). Early PTS are diagnosed when seizures develop within 7 days following injury, whereas initial seizures in late PTS occur later. Traditionally, patients have been treated with phenytoin (PHT) to prevent early PTS, and more recently with levetiracetam (LEV). Various regimens have been tried in patients to prevent late PTS with variable success. In this meta-analysis, we assessed and compared effectiveness of these drugs on early and late PTS prevention...
November 28, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193309/converging-early-responses-to-brain-injury-pave-the-road-to-epileptogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Eric J Neuberger, Akshay Gupta, Deepak Subramanian, Akshata A Korgaonkar, Vijayalakshmi Santhakumar
Epilepsy, characterized by recurrent seizures and abnormal electrical activity in the brain, is one of the most prevalent brain disorders. Over two million people in the United States have been diagnosed with epilepsy and 3% of the general population will be diagnosed with it at some point in their lives. While most developmental epilepsies occur due to genetic predisposition, a class of "acquired" epilepsies results from a variety of brain insults. A leading etiological factor for epilepsy that is currently on the rise is traumatic brain injury (TBI), which accounts for up to 20% of all symptomatic epilepsies...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192867/reduction-of-hyperthermia-in-pediatric-patients-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-quality-improvement-initiative
#18
Marlina E Lovett, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Onsy Ayad, Nicole O'Brien
OBJECTIVE Severe traumatic brain injury remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. Providers focus on reducing secondary brain injury by avoiding hypoxemia, avoiding hypotension, providing normoventilation, treating intracranial hypertension, and reducing cerebral metabolic demand. Hyperthermia is frequently present in patients with severe traumatic brain injury, contributes to cerebral metabolic demand, and is associated with prolonged hospital admission as well as impaired neurological outcome...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191488/introduction-to-neuroimaging
#19
REVIEW
Elizabeth George, Jeffrey P Guenette, Thomas C Lee
Primary care physicians are often tasked with evaluating neurologic symptoms and imaging plays a critical role in neurologic diagnoses. Neuroradiology routinely employs advanced imaging modalities and hence, determination of the appropriate imaging test and interpretation of findings in the clinical context can understandably be overwhelming. In this review article, we introduce resources that can guide physicians in the selection of neuroimaging tests and summarize guidelines on contrast agent administration...
November 27, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188026/is-temperature-an-important-variable-in-recovery-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
REVIEW
Coleen M Atkins, Helen M Bramlett, W Dalton Dietrich
With nearly 42 million mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) occurring worldwide every year, understanding the factors that may adversely influence recovery after mTBI is important for developing guidelines in mTBI management. Extensive clinical evidence exists documenting the detrimental effects of elevated temperature levels on recovery after moderate to severe TBI. However, whether elevated temperature alters recovery after mTBI or concussion is an active area of investigation. Individuals engaged in exercise and competitive sports regularly experience body and brain temperature increases to hyperthermic levels and these temperature increases are prolonged in hot and humid ambient environments...
2017: F1000Research
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