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Traumatic brain injury review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449041/biomechanical-simulation-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-rat
#1
REVIEW
John D Finan
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury poses an enormous clinical challenge. Rats are the animals most widely used in pre-clinical experiments. Biomechanical simulations of these experiments predict the distribution of mechanical stress and strain across key tissues. It is in theory possible to dramatically increase our understanding of traumatic brain injury pathophysiology by correlating stress and strain with histological and functional injury outcomes. This review summarizes the state of the art in biomechanical simulation of traumatic brain injury in the rat...
January 31, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441170/management-of-traumatic-brain-injury-patients
#2
REVIEW
Hari Hara Dash, Siddharth Chavali
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been called the 'silent epidemic' of modern times, and is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children and young adults in both developed and developing nations worldwide. In recent years, the treatment of TBI has undergone a paradigm shift. The management of severe TBI is ideally based on protocol-based guidelines provided by the Brain Trauma Foundation. The aims and objectives of its management are prophylaxis and prompt management of intracranial hypertension and secondary brain injury, maintenance of cerebral perfusion pressure, and ensuring adequate oxygen delivery to injured brain tissue...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439117/the-pericyte-glia-interface-at-the-blood-brain-barrier
#3
REVIEW
Patrizia Giannoni, Jerome Badaut, Cyril Dargazanli, Alexis Fayd'Herbe De Maudave, Wendy Klement, Vincent Costalat, Nicola Marchi
The cerebrovasculature is a multicellular structure with varying rheological and permeability properties. The outer wall of the brain capillary endothelium is enclosed by pericytes and astrocyte end feet, anatomically assembled to guarantee barrier functions. We, here, focus on the pericyte modifications occurring in disease conditions, reviewing evidence supporting the interplay amongst pericytes, the endothelium, and glial cells in health and pathology. Deconstruction and reactivity of pericytes and glial cells around the capillary endothelium occur in response to traumatic brain injury, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative disorders, impacting vascular permeability and participating in neuroinflammation...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436856/chondroitinase-abc-for-neurological-recovery-after-acute-brain-injury-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses-of-preclinical-studies
#4
Chan Hee Koh, Savva Pronin, Mark Hughes
OBJECTIVES: Damage to critical brain regions causes deficits in important neurological functions. Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) has been shown to promote neuroplasticity and may ameliorate neurological deficits caused by disease or trauma. This systematic review identifies and evaluates preclinical studies of ChABC as a treatment for acute brain injury. METHODS: Four databases were searched for studies relating to ChABC and brain or brain injuries. Controlled studies in mammals with acute brain injuries treated with ChABC were included in meta-analyses of neurobehavioural outcomes...
February 13, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435967/-the-effect-of-age-on-the-prognosis-of-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury-who-undergo-a-craniotomy-analysis-of-a-surgical-series
#5
I J Gilete-Tejero, H Z Ippolito-Bastidas, L M Bernal-Garcia, J Mata-Gomez, R Garcia-Moreno, M Ortega-Martinez, J M Cabezudo-Artero
INTRODUCTION: In our setting, the ageing of the population has led to management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the later stages of life becoming an increasingly frequent problem. AIM: To evaluate the association between age and the functional and survival prognosis of patients who have undergone surgery due to TBI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of a series of 404 patients submitted to surgery between the years 2000 and 2015: 144 youngsters (12-44 years), 77 adults (45-64 years), 148 geriatric patients (65-79 years) and 26 'super geriatric' patients (> 80 years)...
February 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433914/is-it-possible-to-recover-from-traumatic-brain-injury-and-a-glasgow-coma-scale-score-of-3-at-emergency-department-presentation
#6
Farid Sadaka, Amar Jadhav, Melinda Miller, Ammar Saifo, Jacklyn O'Brien, Steven Trottier
INTRODUCTION: A Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 3 on presentation in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) portends a poor prognosis. Consequently, there is often a tendency to treat these patients less aggressively because of low expectations for a good outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a retrospective review of patients with TBI and a GCS score of 3. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS): Group 1 (GOS=1-3) and Group 2 (GOS=4-5)...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429438/validation-of-the-simplified-motor-score-in-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury-at-a-major-trauma-centre-in-south-africa
#7
J J P Buitendag, A Ras, V Y Kong, J L Bruce, G L Laing, D L Clarke, P Brysiewicz
BACKGROUND: This study used data from a large prospectively entered database to assess the efficacy of the motor score (M score) component of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and the Simplified Motor Score (SMS) in predicting overall outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). OBJECTIVE: To safely and reliably simplify the scoring system used to assess level of consciousness of trauma patients in the acute setting. METHODS: A retrospective observational review of the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service hybrid electronic medical registry database was performed during the period January 2013 - December 2015...
February 1, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428344/the-effects-of-timing-and-intensity-of-neurorehabilitation-on-functional-outcome-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Marsh Königs, Eva A Beurskens, Lian Snoep, Erik J A Scherder, Jaap Oosterlaan
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review evidence on the effects of timing and intensity of neurorehabilitation on the functional recovery of patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and aggregate the available evidence using meta-analytic methods. DATA SOURCES: Pubmed, Embase, PsycINFO and Cochrane Database. DATA SELECTION: Electronic databases were searched for prospective controlled clinical trials assessing the effect of timing or intensity of multidisciplinary neurorehabilitation programs on functional outcome of patients with moderate or severe TBI...
February 8, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428027/does-vasopressin-exacerbate-cerebral-edema-in-patients-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Casey J Allen, Ty K Subhawong, Mena M Hanna, Lydia Chelala, M Ross Bullock, Carl I Schulman, Kenneth G Proctor
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is often used as an alternative pressor to catecholamines (CATs). However, unlike CATs, AVP is a powerful antidiuretic that could promote edema. We tested the hypothesis that AVP promoted cerebral edema and/or increased requirements for osmotherapy, relative to those who received CATs, for cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) management after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This is a retrospective review of 286 consecutive TBI patients with intracranial pressure monitoring at a single institution from September 2008 to January 2015...
January 1, 2018: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422364/glioblastoma-arising-within-sites-of-encephalomalacia-from-cerebrovascular-insult-two-cases-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#10
Emily A Ferenczi, Altaf Saadi, Shamik Bhattacharyya, Aaron L Berkowitz
Glioblastoma is the most common primary parenchymal brain malignancy, with median survival of less than one year. While there are likely multiple predisposing genetic and environmental factors in glioblastoma formation, chronic inflammation resulting from non-traumatic vascular brain injury is one proposed risk factor for oncogenesis. Here, we report two instances of glioblastoma arising within areas of encephalomalacia caused by remote vascular insults (one following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and one following ischemic infarction), review the literature associating glioblastoma with prior brain injury, and discuss potential mechanisms for malignant transformation in injured brain tissue...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422067/predictors-of-hospital-mortality-in-adult-trauma-patients-receiving-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-for-advanced-life-support-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
Meng-Yu Wu, Pin-Li Chou, Tzu-I Wu, Pyng-Jing Lin
BACKGROUND: Using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to provide advanced life support in adult trauma patients remains a controversial issue now. The study was aimed at identifying the independent predictors of hospital mortality in adult trauma patients receiving ECMO for advanced cardiopulmonary dysfunctions. METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled 36 adult trauma patients receiving ECMO due to advanced shock or respiratory failure in a level I trauma center between August 2006 and October 2014...
February 8, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414562/an-objective-score-to-identify-psychogenic-seizures-based-on-age-of-onset-and-history
#12
Wesley T Kerr, Emily A Janio, Chelsea T Braesch, Justine M Le, Jessica M Hori, Akash B Patel, Norma L Gallardo, Janar Bauirjan, Andrea M Chau, Eric S Hwang, Emily C Davis, Albert Buchard, David Torres-Barba, Shannon D'Ambrosio, Mona Al Banna, Andrew Y Cho, Jerome Engel, Mark S Cohen, John M Stern
OBJECTIVE: Psychogenic nonepileptic seizure (PNES) is a common diagnosis after evaluation of medication resistant or atypical seizures with video-electroencephalographic monitoring (VEM), but usually follows a long delay after the development of seizures, during which patients are treated for epilepsy. Therefore, more readily available diagnostic tools are needed for earlier identification of patients at risk for PNES. A tool based on patient-reported psychosocial history would be especially beneficial because it could be implemented in the outpatient clinic...
February 1, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414287/symbol-digit-modalities-test-adaptation-for-magnetic-resonance-imaging-environment-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
P H R Silva, C T Spedo, A A Barreira, R F Leoni
BACKGROUND: The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) is widely used for cognitive evaluation of information processing speed (IPS), required in many cognitive operations. Despite being unspecific for different neurological disorders, it is sensitive to assess impaired performance related to stroke, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, and multiple sclerosis. However, in addition to evaluate the presence and severity of IPS impairment, it is of interest to determine the localization and integration of brain regions responsible for the functions assessed by the SDMT...
January 25, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412713/mortality-disparities-in-racial-ethnic-minority-groups-in-the-veterans-health-administration-an-evidence-review-and-map
#14
Kim Peterson, Johanna Anderson, Erin Boundy, Lauren Ferguson, Ellen McCleery, Kallie Waldrip
BACKGROUND: Continued racial/ethnic health disparities were recently described as "the most serious and shameful health care issue of our time." Although the 2014 US Affordable Care Act-mandated national insurance coverage expansion has led to significant improvements in health care coverage and access, its effects on life expectancy are not yet known. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA), the largest US integrated health care system, has a sustained commitment to health equity that addresses all 3 stages of health disparities research: detection, understanding determinants, and reduction or elimination...
March 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410157/regulatory-accepted-drug-development-tools-are-needed-to-accelerate-innovative-cns-disease-treatments
#15
REVIEW
Stephen P Arnerić, Volker D Kern, Diane T Stephenson
Central Nervous System (CNS) diseases represent one of the most challenging therapeutic areas for successful drug approvals. Developing quantitative biomarkers as Drug Development Tools (DDTs) can catalyze the path to innovative treatments, and improve the chances of drug approvals. Drug development and healthcare management requires sensitive, reliable, validated, and regulatory accepted biomarkers and endpoints. This review highlights the regulatory paths and considerations for developing DDTs required to advance biomarker and endpoint use in clinical development (e...
January 30, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409928/the-most-cited-works-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-bibliometric-analysis-of-the-100-most-cited-articles
#16
Lei Li, Xiaoye Ma, Sajan Pandey, Xianyu Deng, Songyu Chen, Daming Cui, Liang Gao
BACKGROUND: There is an abundance of works published on severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). Bibliometric analyses are aiming to have a macroscopic view of research activities about sTBI and are helpful in determining the most impactful studies within this field. METHODS: we performed a generalized search using the database of Web of Science (WoS), organized the references by the number of citations, and reviewed full length-articles for the top 100 cited papers...
January 31, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407521/investigating-the-variability-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-definitions-a-prospective-cohort-study
#17
Louise M Crowe, Stephen Hearps, Vicki Anderson, Meredith Borland, Natalie Phillips, Amit Kochar, Sarah Dalton, John A Cheek, Yuri Gilhotra, Jeremy Furyk, Jocelyn Neutze, Mark D Lyttle, Silvia Bressan, Susan Donath, Charlotte Molesworth, Ed Oakley, Stuart R Dalziel, Franz E Babl
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively compare the proportion of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) that would be classified as 'mild' using different published definitions by applying published definitions of mild TBI to a large prospectively collected dataset and to examine the variability in the proportions included by various definitions. High rates of mild TBI in children makes it a major public health issue, however, there is a wide variation in how mild TBI is defined in literature and guidelines...
January 30, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405284/sports-and-headaches
#18
Randolph W Evans
In the United States, up to 3.8 million people per year have sports-related mild traumatic brain injury frequently followed by a variety of headaches. Headaches associated with sports (exertional, weightlifter's, and external compression headache) are also reviewed.
February 5, 2018: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401743/current-and-future-applications-of-biomedical-engineering-for-proteomic-profiling-predictive-biomarkers-in-neuro-traumatology
#19
REVIEW
Mario Ganau, Nikolaos Syrmos, Marco Paris, Laura Ganau, Gianfranco K I Ligarotti, Ali Moghaddamjou, Salvatore Chibbaro, Andrea Soddu, Rossano Ambu, Lara Prisco
This systematic review aims to summarize the impact of nanotechnology and biomedical engineering in defining clinically meaningful predictive biomarkers in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), a critical worldwide health problem with an estimated 10 billion people affected annually worldwide. Data were collected through a review of the existing English literature performed on Scopus, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, and/or Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Only experimental articles revolving around the management of TBI, in which the role of new devices based on innovative discoveries coming from the field of nanotechnology and biomedical engineering were highlighted, have been included and analyzed in this study...
February 5, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396883/experiences-of-giving-and-receiving-care-in-traumatic-brain-injury-an-integrative-review
#20
REVIEW
Stephen Kivunja, Jo River, Janice Gullick
AIMS: To synthesise the literature on the experiences of giving or receiving care for traumatic brain injury (TBI) for people with TBI, their family members and nurses in hospital and rehabilitation settings. BACKGROUND: TBI represents a major source of physical, social, and economic burden. In the hospital setting, people with TBI feel excluded from decision-making processes and perceive impatient care. Families describe inadequate information and support for psychological distress...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
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