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TMS and cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277405/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-precuneus-enhances-memory-and-neural-activity-in-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Giacomo Koch, Sonia Bonnì, Maria Concetta Pellicciari, Elias P Casula, Matteo Mancini, Romina Esposito, Viviana Ponzo, Silvia Picazio, Francesco Di Lorenzo, Laura Serra, Caterina Motta, Michele Maiella, Camillo Marra, Mara Cercignani, Alessandro Martorana, Carlo Caltagirone, Marco Bozzali
Memory loss is one of the first symptoms of typical Alzheimer's disease (AD), for which there are no effective therapies available. The precuneus (PC) has been recently emphasized as a key area for the memory impairment observed in early AD, likely due to disconnection mechanisms within large-scale networks such as the default mode network (DMN). Using a multimodal approach we investigated in a two-week, randomized, sham-controlled, double-blinded trial the effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the PC on cognition, as measured by the Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite in 14 patients with early AD (7 females)...
December 19, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246845/the-role-of-the-cerebellum-in-explicit-and-incidental-processing-of-facial-emotional-expressions-a-study-with-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#2
Chiara Ferrari, Viola Oldrati, Marcello Gallucci, Tomaso Vecchi, Zaira Cattaneo
Growing evidence suggests that the cerebellum plays a critical role in non-motor functions, contributing to cognitive and affective processing. In particular, the cerebellum might represent an important node of the "limbic" network, underlying not only emotion regulation but also emotion perception and recognition. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to shed further light on the role of the cerebellum in emotional perception by specifically testing cerebellar contribution to explicit and incidental emotional processing...
December 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239495/comparisons-between-traditional-medicines-and-pharmacotherapies-for-alzheimer-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-cognitive-outcomes
#3
REVIEW
Brian H May, Mei Feng, Anna J Hyde, Helmut Hügel, Su-Yueh Chang, Lin Dong, Xinfeng Guo, Anthony L Zhang, Chuanjian Lu, Charlie C Xue
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical evidence for traditional medicines (TMs) used in East Asia on measures of cognition in Alzheimer disease, determine the effect sizes at different time points for the TMs and pharmacotherapies, and assess the tolerability of the TMs. METHODS: We searched 12 databases in English, Chinese, and Japanese for eligible randomised controlled trials that compared orally administered TMs with pharmacotherapy and reported cognitive outcomes...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229706/causal-evidence-for-learning-dependent-frontal-lobe-contributions-to-cognitive-control
#4
Paul S Muhle-Karbe, Jiefeng Jiang, Tobias Egner
The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) plays a central role in the prioritization of sensory input based on task-relevance. Such top-down control of perception is of fundamental importance in goal-directed behavior, but can also be costly when deployed excessively, necessitating a mechanism that regulates control engagement to align it with changing environmental demands. We have recently introduced the "flexible control model," which explains this regulation as resulting from a self-adjusting reinforcement-learning mechanism that infers latent statistical structure in dynamic task environments to predict forthcoming states...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224085/aphasia-and-cognitive-impairment-decrease-the-reliability-of-rntms-language-mapping
#5
Vera Schwarzer, Ina Bährend, Tizian Rosenstock, Felix R Dreyer, Peter Vajkoczy, Thomas Picht
BACKGROUND: Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is a non-invasive mapping tool to locate functional areas of the brain. While gaining importance in the preoperative planning process in motor eloquent regions, its usefulness for reliably identifying language areas is still being discussed. The aim of this study was to identify biometric factors which might influence and therefore bias the results of repetitive nTMS (rnTMS) over cortex areas relevant for language. METHOD: We included data of 101 patients with language eloquent brain lesions who underwent preoperative rnTMS examination bihemispherically...
December 9, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223355/multisession-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-induces-motor-cortex-plasticity-enhancement-and-motor-learning-generalization-in-an-aging-population
#6
Gaëlle Dumel, Marie-Ève Bourassa, Camille Charlebois-Plante, Martine Desjardins, Julien Doyon, Dave Saint-Amour, Louis De Beaumont
OBJECTIVES: The present aging study investigated the impact of a multisession anodal-tDCS protocol applied over the primary motor cortex (M1) during motor sequence learning on generalization of motor learning and plasticity-dependent measures of cortical excitability. METHODS: A total of 32 cognitively-intact aging participants performed five consecutive daily 20-min sessions of the serial-reaction time task (SRTT) concomitant with either anodal (n = 16) or sham (n = 16) tDCS over M1...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213090/evaluation-of-short-interval-cortical-inhibition-and-intracortical-facilitation-from-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#7
Yoshihiro Noda, Mera S Barr, Reza Zomorrodi, Robin F H Cash, Faranak Farzan, Tarek K Rajji, Robert Chen, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
GABAergic and glutamatergic dysfunction in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) are thought to be the core pathophysiological mechanisms of schizophrenia. Recently, we have established a method to index these functions from the DLPFC using the paired transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigms of short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (ICF) combined with electroencephalography (EEG). In this study, we aimed to evaluate neurophysiological indicators related to GABAA and glutamate receptor-mediated functions respectively from the DLPFC in patients with schizophrenia using these paradigms, compared to healthy controls...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195158/corticospinal-excitability-during-motor-imagery-is-reduced-in-young-adults-with-developmental-coordination-disorder
#8
C Hyde, I Fuelscher, J Williams, J A G Lum, J He, P Barhoun, P G Enticott
While a compelling body of behavioral research suggests that individuals with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) experience difficulties engaging motor imagery (MI), very little is known about the neural correlates of this deficit. Since corticospinal excitability is a predictor of MI proficiency in healthy adults, we reasoned that decreased MI efficiency in DCD may be paralleled by atypical primary motor cortex (PMC) activity. Participants were 29 young adults aged 18- 36 years: 8 with DCD (DCD) and 21 controls...
November 28, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174304/simultaneous-rtms-and-psychotherapy-in-major-depressive-disorder-clinical-outcomes-and-predictors-from-a-large-naturalistic-study
#9
Lana Donse, Frank Padberg, Alexander T Sack, A John Rush, Martijn Arns
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is considered an efficacious non-invasive neuromodulation treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about the clinical outcome of combined rTMS and psychotherapy (rTMS + PT). Through common neurobiological brain mechanisms, rTMS + PT may exert enhanced antidepressant effects compared to the respective monotherapies. OBJECTIVE: The current naturalistic study aimed to evaluate feasibility and clinical outcome of rTMS + PT in a large group of MDD patients...
November 11, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121485/distinct-modulation-of-interhemispheric-inhibitory-mechanisms-during-movement-preparation-reveals-the-influence-of-cognition-on-action-control
#10
Mark R Hinder, Rohan Puri, Sarah Kemp, Sara Waitzer, Paola Reissig, Tino Stöckel, Hakuei Fujiyama
When selecting actions based on visual warning stimuli (WS), corticospinal excitability (CSE) is initially suppressed, consistent with a neural mechanism to prevent premature release of the competing responses. Despite being implicated in between-hand movement selection and preparation, the role that interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) may play in this 'impulse control' mechanism is not known. Participants performed a warned, between-hand, choice reaction time (RT) task in which the informativeness of the WS (with regards to which hand would be required to respond) was manipulated...
October 27, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096197/motor-cortex-inhibition-by-tms-reduces-cognitive-non-motor-procedural-learning-when-immediate-incentives-are-present
#11
Leonora Wilkinson, Philip J Koshy, Adam Steel, Devin Bageac, Selene Schintu, Eric M Wassermann
Inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the primary motor area (M1) impairs motor sequence-learning, but not basic motor function. It is unknown if this is specific for motor forms of procedural learning or a more general effect. To investigate, we tested the effect of M1-inhibition on the weather prediction task (WPT), a learning task with minimal motor learning component. In the WPT, participants learn arbitrary, probabilistic, associations between sets of meaningless cues and fictional outcomes...
October 6, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074317/alteration-of-cortical-excitability-and-its-modulation-by-miglustat-in-niemann-pick-disease-type-c
#12
Shady Safwat Hassan, Carlos Trenado, Saskia Elben, Alfons Schnitzler, Stefan Jun Groiss
Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) is a rare, neurodegenerative, lysosomal storage disease. Cortical excitability using different transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocols together with clinical and neuropsychological testing was longitudinally assessed in a patient with NP-C. Cerebellar inhibition, a measure for the integrity of the cerebello-thalamo-cortical network, was impaired. Short-latency afferent inhibition, a measure for cholinergic transmission, and cognitive functions were also impaired and improved under Miglustat treatment...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066167/the-effects-of-medication-use-in-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-a-brief-review
#13
REVIEW
Molly E McLaren, Nicole R Nissim, Adam J Woods
BACKGROUND: There has been increased interest in the potential use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as treatment for multiple conditions including depression, pain, and cognitive impairment. However, few studies account for the possible influence of comorbid medications when conducting tDCS research. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: This literature review was conducted to examine what is currently known about the impact of medications on tDCS, provide recommendations for future research practices, and highlight areas where more research is needed...
October 12, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062035/csf-tau-is-associated-with-impaired-cortical-plasticity-cognitive-decline-and-astrocyte-survival-only-in-apoe4-positive-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Giacomo Koch, Francesco Di Lorenzo, Stefano Loizzo, Caterina Motta, Sara Travaglione, Monica Baiula, Roberto Rimondini, Viviana Ponzo, Sonia Bonnì, Sofia Toniolo, Fabrizio Sallustio, Marco Bozzali, Carlo Caltagirone, Gabriele Campana, Alessandro Martorana
In Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, apopoliprotein (APOE) polymorphism is the main genetic factor associated with more aggressive clinical course. However, the interaction between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau protein levels and APOE genotype has been scarcely investigated. A possible key mechanism invokes the dysfunction of synaptic plasticity. We investigated how CSF tau interacts with APOE genotype in AD patients. We firstly explored whether CSF tau levels and APOE genotype influence disease progression and long-term potentiation (LTP)-like cortical plasticity as measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in AD patients...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036454/mirror-and-absence-of-counter-mirror-responses-to-action-sounds-measured-with-tms
#15
Luca F Ticini, Simone Schütz-Bosbach, Florian Waszak
To what extent is the mirror neuron mechanism malleable to experience? The answer to this question can help characterising its ontogeny and its role in social cognition. Some suggest that it develops through sensorimotor associations congruent with our own actions. Others argue for its extreme volatility that will encode any sensorimotor association in the environment. Here, we added to this debate by exploring the effects of short goal-directed "mirror" and "counter-mirror" trainings (a "mirror" training is defined as the first type of training encountered by the participants) on human auditory mirror motor-evoked potentials (MEPs)...
September 22, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994763/effects-of-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-on-the-primary-motor-cortex-by-online-combined-approach-with-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#16
Anna Shpektor, Maria Nazarova, Matteo Feurra
Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS) is a neuromodulatory technique able to act through sinusoidal electrical waveforms in a specific frequency and in turn modulate ongoing cortical oscillatory activity. This neurotool allows the establishment of a causal link between endogenous oscillatory activity and behavior. Most of the tACS studies have shown online effects of tACS. However, little is known about the underlying action mechanisms of this technique because of the AC-induced artifacts on Electroencephalography (EEG) signals...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984621/the-effects-of-exercise-on-cognitive-function-and-brain-plasticity-a-feasibility-trial
#17
Joyce Gomes-Osman, Danylo F Cabral, Carrie Hinchman, Ali Jannati, Timothy P Morris, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
BACKGROUND: Exercise-mediated cognitive improvements can be at least partly attributed to neuroplastic changes in the nervous system, and may be influenced by the Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to assess mechanisms of plasticity in humans noninvasively. OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of evaluating the effects of short-term regular exercise on cognitive performance, and to evaluate the relationship between these effects, TMS measures of plasticity, and BDNF Met carrier status in young healthy sedentary adults...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968804/neural-substrate-for-metacognitive-accuracy-of-tactile-working-memory
#18
Juha Gogulski, Rasmus Zetter, Mikko Nyrhinen, Antti Pertovaara, Synnöve Carlson
The human prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been shown to be important for metacognition, the capacity to monitor and control one's own cognitive processes. Here we dissected the neural architecture of somatosensory metacognition using navigated single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to modulate tactile working memory (WM) processing. We asked subjects to perform tactile WM tasks and to give a confidence rating for their performance after each trial. We circumvented the challenge of interindividual variability in functional brain anatomy by applying TMS to two PFC areas that, according to tractography, were neurally connected with the primary somatosensory cortex (S1): one area in the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), another in the middle frontal gyrus (MFG)...
August 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964754/short-and-long-latency-afferent-inhibition-uses-mechanisms-and-influencing-factors
#19
REVIEW
Claudia V Turco, Jenin El-Sayes, Mitchell J Savoie, Hunter J Fassett, Mitchell B Locke, Aimee J Nelson
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an ideal technique for non-invasively stimulating the brain and assessing intracortical processes. By delivering electrical stimuli to a peripheral nerve prior to a TMS pulse directed to the motor cortex, the excitability and integrity of the sensorimotor system can be probed at short and long time intervals (short latency afferent inhibition, long latency afferent inhibition). The goal of this review is to detail the experimental factors that influence the magnitude and timing of afferent inhibition in the upper limb and these include the intensity of nerve and TMS delivery, and the nerve composition...
September 20, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928632/neurophysiology-of-the-celiac-brain-disentangling-gut-brain-connections
#20
REVIEW
Manuela Pennisi, Alessia Bramanti, Mariagiovanna Cantone, Giovanni Pennisi, Rita Bella, Giuseppe Lanza
Celiac disease (CD) can be considered a complex multi-organ disorder with highly variable extra-intestinal, including neurological, involvement. Cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, seizures, headache, cognitive impairment, and neuropsychiatric diseases are complications frequently reported. These manifestations may be present at the onset of the typical disease or become clinically evident during its course. However, CD subjects with subclinical neurological involvement have also been described, as well as patients with clear central and/or peripheral nervous system and intestinal histopathological disease features in the absence of typical CD manifestations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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