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TMS and cognition

Asif Jamil, Giorgi Batsikadze, Hsiao-I Kuo, Ludovica Labruna, Alkomiet Hasan, Walter Paulus, Michael A Nitsche
Contemporary non-invasive neuromodulatory techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), have shown promising potential in both restituting impairments in cortical physiology in clinical settings, as well as modulating cognitive abilities in the healthy population. However, neuroplastic after-effects of tDCS are highly dependent on stimulation parameters, relatively short lasting, and not expectedly uniform between individuals. The present study systematically investigates the full range of current intensity between 0...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Faranak Farzan, Marine Vernet, Mouhsin M D Shafi, Alexander Rotenberg, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
The concurrent combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) is a powerful technology for characterizing and modulating brain networks across developmental, behavioral, and disease states. Given the global initiatives in mapping the human brain, recognition of the utility of this technique is growing across neuroscience disciplines. Importantly, TMS-EEG offers translational biomarkers that can be applied in health and disease, across the lifespan, and in humans and animals, bridging the gap between animal models and human studies...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Jaan Tulviste, Elkhonon Goldberg, Kenneth Podell, Talis Bachmann
We test the emerging hypothesis that prefrontal cortical mechanisms involved in non-veridical decision making do not overlap with those of veridical decision making. Healthy female subjects performed an experimental task assessing free choice, agent-centered decision making (The Cognitive Bias Task) and a veridical control task related to visuospatial working memory (the Moving Spot Task). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied to the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) using 1 Hz and 10 Hz (intermittent) rTMS and sham protocols...
2016: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
Eleni Papathanasiou, Mathilde Chevignard, Carole Vuillerot, Anne Tiberghien, Ingrid Godard
OBJECTIVE: Paediatric stroke is a relatively rare medical condition, but it often leads to long lasting motor and cognitive impairments. Rehabilitation of motor impairments has been widely studied, with most studies performed in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, CP covers a variety of medical conditions, including brain lesions due to paediatric stroke occurring early in life, but not stroke occurring later on during childhood. The specificity of rehabilitation after paediatric stroke remains understudied...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Sarah L Chellappa, Giulia Gaggioni, Julien Q M Ly, Soterios Papachilleos, Chloé Borsu, Alexandre Brzozowski, Mario Rosanova, Simone Sarasso, André Luxen, Benita Middleton, Simon N Archer, Derk-Jan Dijk, Marcello Massimini, Pierre Maquet, Christophe Phillips, Rosalyn J Moran, Gilles Vandewalle
Several neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders have recently been characterized as dysfunctions arising from a 'final common pathway' of imbalanced excitation to inhibition within cortical networks. How the regulation of a cortical E/I ratio is affected by sleep and the circadian rhythm however, remains to be established. Here we addressed this issue through the analyses of TMS-evoked responses recorded over a 29 h sleep deprivation protocol conducted in young and healthy volunteers. Spectral analyses of TMS-evoked responses in frontal cortex revealed non-linear changes in gamma band evoked oscillations, compatible with an influence of circadian timing on inhibitory interneuron activity...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jose Martin Rabey, Evgenia Dobronevsky
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia among the elderly. Common treatments available and non-pharmacological interventions have their limitations, and new therapeutic approaches are critically needed. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique that generates an electric current-inducing modulation in cortical excitability. The previous clinical trials showed that combinations of rTMS and cognitive training (rTMS-COG), as provided by the NeuroAD medical device system, offer a novel, safe, and effective method improving mild-to-moderate AD patients...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Xiaoming Du, Fow-Sen Choa, Ann Summerfelt, Laura M Rowland, Joshua Chiappelli, Peter Kochunov, L Elliot Hong
N100, the negative peak of electrical response occurring around 100 ms, is present in diverse functional paradigms including auditory, visual, somatic, behavioral and cognitive tasks. We hypothesized that the presence of the N100 across different paradigms may be indicative of a more general property of the cerebral cortex regardless of functional or anatomic specificity. To test this hypothesis, we combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) to measure cortical excitability by TMS across cortical regions without relying on specific sensory, cognitive or behavioral modalities...
September 14, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Carmelo M Vicario, Robert D Rafal, Sara Borgomaneri, Riccardo Paracampo, Ada Kritikos, Alessio Avenanti
The tongue holds a unique role in gustatory disgust. However, it is unclear whether the tongue representation in the motor cortex (tM1) is affected by the sight of distaste-related stimuli. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy humans, we recorded tongue motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) as an index of tM1 cortico-hypoglossal excitability. MEPs were recorded while participants viewed pictures associated with gustatory disgust and revulsion (i.e., rotten foods and faces expressing distaste), non oral-related disgusting stimuli (i...
September 10, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Alanna C Bridgman, Mera S Barr, Michelle S Goodman, Reza Zomorrodi, Tarek Rajji, Bernard Le Foll, Robert Chen, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Tony P George
BACKGROUND: Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and deficits in this system may contribute to high rates of cigarette smoking in this population. nAChR stimulation may modulate neuroplasticity, or long-term potentiation (LTP), which is a key mediator of cognitive performance. Varenicline is a nAChR partial agonist that may improve cognitive deficits in both smokers and non-smokers with schizophrenia; however, the mechanism by which varenicline alters cognition in schizophrenia remains unclear...
September 6, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Elias Paolo Casula, Maria Concetta Pellicciari, Silvia Picazio, Carlo Caltagirone, Giacomo Koch
Changes in the synaptic strength of neural connections are induced by repeated coupling of activity of interconnected neurons with precise timing, a phenomenon known as spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). It is debated if this mechanism exists in large-scale cortical networks in humans. We combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with concurrent electroencephalography (EEG) to directly investigate the effects of two paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocols (fronto-parietal and parieto-frontal) of pre and post-synaptic inputs within the human fronto-parietal network...
August 31, 2016: NeuroImage
Travis W Davidson, François Tremblay
OBJECTIVE: Growing evidence suggests that long-term structural and physiological alterations are present in the brain of previously concussed athletes. In this study, we sought to further explore the long-term consequences of concussions with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) by examining excitability changes both within and between hemispheres. METHODS: Participants (32 young adults with and without a history of concussions (HxC)) first underwent testing to assess cognitive and motor performance using standardized tests...
October 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Manuela Pennisi, Giuseppe Lanza, Mariagiovanna Cantone, Riccardo Ricceri, Concetto Spampinato, Giovanni Pennisi, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro, Rita Bella
Background. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) highlighted functional changes in dementia, whereas there are few data in patients with vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND). Similarly, little is known about the neurophysiological impact of vascular depression (VD) on deterioration of cognitive functions. We test whether depression might affect not only cognition but also specific cortical circuits in subcortical vascular disease. Methods. Sixteen VCI-ND and 11 VD patients, age-matched with 15 controls, underwent a clinical-cognitive, neuroimaging, and TMS assessment...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Stefan Golaszewski, Patrick B Langthaler, Kerstin Schwenker, Cristina Florea, Monica Christova, Francesco Brigo, Eugen Trinka, Raffaele Nardone
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) represents the earliest stage of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). MHE is characterized by cognitive function impairment in the domains of attention, vigilance and integrative function, while obvious clinical manifestations are lacking. In the present study, we aimed at assessing whether subjects with MHE showed alterations in synaptic plasticity within the motor cortex. Previous findings suggest that learning in human motor cortex occurs through long-term potentiation (LTP)-like mechanisms...
July 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Carmen Concerto, Bahaa Amer, Anaida Abagyan, Yisheng Cao, Carmenrita Infortuna, Eileen Chusid, Diego Coira, Fortunato Battaglia
In this study we investigated the effect of a dual task (DT) comprised of a nonfatiguing leg and foot extension coupled with a calculation task on postexercise facilitation (PEF) of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) tested by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Twelve right-handed healthy subjects participated in the study. They were required to perform a motor task, a cognitive task and a DT. The motor task consisted of extending the right leg and foot for 30 sec at 20% of the maximal voluntary contraction...
June 2016: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Selene Schintu, Elisa Martín-Arévalo, Michael Vesia, Yves Rossetti, Romeo Salemme, Laure Pisella, Alessandro Farnè, Karen T Reilly
Rightward prism adaptation ameliorates neglect symptoms while leftward prism adaptation (LPA) induces neglect-like biases in healthy individuals. Similarly, inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) induces neglect-like behavior, whereas on the left PPC it ameliorates neglect symptoms and normalizes hyperexcitability of left hemisphere parietal-motor (PPC-M1) connectivity. Based on this analogy we hypothesized that LPA increases PPC-M1 excitability in the left hemisphere and decreases it in the right one...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Skadi Wilke, Jonathan List, Ralf Mekle, Robert Lindenberg, Martin Bukowski, Stefanie Ott, Florian Schubert, Bernd Ittermann, Agnes Flöel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In patients in the chronic phase after recurrent mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), alterations in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration and receptor activity have been reported, possibly mediating subtle but persistent cognitive deficits and increased rate of dementia in older age. Here, we evaluated whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS) over the primary motor cortex reduces GABA concentration and GABAB receptor activity in patients with recurrent mTBI...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
John M Schreiber, Phillip L Pearl, Irene Dustin, Edythe Wiggs, Emily Barrios, Eric M Wassermann, K Michael Gibson, William H Theodore
AIM: We tested the hypothesis that patients with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency on taurine would have decreased cortical excitability as measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and improved cognition, due to taurine's partial GABA(A and B) receptor agonist effects and rescue in the null mouse model from status epilepticus and premature lethality. METHOD: Biomarkers including neuropsychological testing, TMS, and CSF metabolites were studied in a cohort of patients on and off three months' taurine treatment...
June 24, 2016: JIMD Reports
Raffaele Nardone, Pierpaolo De Blasi, Yvonne Höller, Francesco Brigo, Stefan Golaszewski, Vanessa N Frey, Andrea Orioli, Eugen Trinka
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the earliest form of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and affects up to 80 % of patients with liver cirrhosis. By definition, MHE is characterized by psychomotor slowing and subtle cognitive deficits,  but obvious clinical manifestations are lacking. Given its covert nature, MHE is often underdiagnosed. This study was aimed at detecting neurophysiological changes, as assessed by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), involved in the early pathogenesis of the HE...
October 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Elisa Pelosin, Carla Ogliastro, Giovanna Lagravinese, Gaia Bonassi, Anat Mirelman, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Laura Avanzino
The aim of this study was to address whether deficits in the central cholinergic activity may contribute to the increased difficulty to allocate attention during gait in the elderly with heightened risk of falls. We recruited 50 participants with a history of two or more falls (33 patients with Parkinson's Disease and 17 older adults) and 14 non-fallers age-matched adults. Cholinergic activity was estimated by means of short latency afferent inhibition (SAI), a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) technique that assesses an inhibitory circuit in the sensorimotor cortex and is regarded as a global marker of cholinergic function in the brain...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Yoshihiro Noda, Robin F H Cash, Reza Zomorrodi, Luis Garcia Dominguez, Faranak Farzan, Tarek K Rajji, Mera S Barr, Robert Chen, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
Combined transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) enables noninvasive neurophysiological investigation of the human cortex. A TMS paradigm of short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) is characterized by attenuation of the motor-evoked potential (MEP) and modulation of N100 of the TMS-evoked potential (TEP) when TMS is delivered to motor cortex (M1) following median nerve stimulation. SAI is a marker of cholinergic activity in the motor cortex; however, the SAI has not been tested from the prefrontal cortex...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
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