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TMS and cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928632/neurophysiology-of-the-celiac-brain-disentangling-gut-brain-connections
#1
REVIEW
Manuela Pennisi, Alessia Bramanti, Mariagiovanna Cantone, Giovanni Pennisi, Rita Bella, Giuseppe Lanza
Celiac disease (CD) can be considered a complex multi-organ disorder with highly variable extra-intestinal, including neurological, involvement. Cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, seizures, headache, cognitive impairment, and neuropsychiatric diseases are complications frequently reported. These manifestations may be present at the onset of the typical disease or become clinically evident during its course. However, CD subjects with subclinical neurological involvement have also been described, as well as patients with clear central and/or peripheral nervous system and intestinal histopathological disease features in the absence of typical CD manifestations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912081/towards-understanding-rtms-mechanism-of-action-stimulation-of-the-dlpfc-causes-network-specific-increase-in-functional-connectivity
#2
Martin Tik, André Hoffmann, Ronald Sladky, Livia Tomova, Allan Hummer, Lucia Navarro de Lara, Henryk Bukowski, Jürgen Pripfl, Bharat Biswal, Claus Lamm, Christian Windischberger
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a powerful non-invasive technique for the modulation of brain activity. While the precise mechanism of action is still unknown, TMS is applied in cognitive neuroscience to establish causal relationships between stimulation and subsequent changes in cerebral function and behavioral outcome. In addition, TMS is an FDA-approved therapeutic agent in psychiatric disorders, especially major depression. Successful repetitive TMS in such disorders is usually applied over the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and treatment response mechanism was therefore supposed to be based on modulations in functional networks, particularly the meso-cortico-limbic reward circuit...
September 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899520/cholinergic-neurotransmission-and-olfactory-function-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-a-tms-study
#3
Viviana Versace, Patrick B Langthaler, Luca Sebastianelli, Stefan Golaszewski, Alexander B Kunz, Francesco Brigo, Leopold Saltuari, Raffaele Nardone
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Odor identification and discrimination are reduced in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), but the pathophysiology of the olfactory dysfunction in OSAS is still poorly understood. Experimental evidence suggests that olfactory impairment could be related to central cholinergic dysfunction. Short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) is a paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol that gives the opportunity to test an inhibitory cholinergic circuit in the human cerebral motor cortex...
September 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852114/no-effects-of-transcranial-dlpfc-stimulation-on-implicit-task-sequence-learning-and-consolidation
#4
Branislav Savic, Dario Cazzoli, René Müri, Beat Meier
Neurostimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can modulate performance in cognitive tasks. In a recent study, however, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the DLPFC did not affect implicit task sequence learning and consolidation in a paradigm that involved bimanual responses. Because bimanual performance increases the coupling between homologous cortical areas of the hemispheres and left and right DLPFC were stimulated separately the null findings may have been due to the bimanual setup...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840271/observing-painful-events-in-others-leads-to-a-temporally-extended-general-response-facilitation-in-the-self
#5
Carl Michael Galang, Katherine R Naish, Keon Arbabi, Sukhvinder S Obhi
Excitability in the motor cortex is modulated when we observe other people receiving a painful stimulus (Avenanti et al., Nat Neurosci 8(7):955-960, 2005). However, the task dependency of this modulation is not well understood, as different paradigms have yielded seemingly different results. Previous neurophysiological work employing transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) suggests that watching another person's hand being pierced by a needle leads to a muscle specific inhibition, assessed via motor evoked potentials...
August 24, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805565/noninvasive-brain-stimulation-and-implications-for-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Irena Rektorová, Ľubomíra Anderková
Transcranial noninvasive brain stimulation includes both repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). TMS uses a rapidly changing magnetic field to induce currents and action potentials in underlying brain tissue, whereas tDCS involves the application of weak electrical currents to modulate neuronal membrane potential. In this chapter, we provide a literature review with a focus on the therapeutic potential of both techniques in the treatment of nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD)...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803382/cortical-afferent-inhibition-abnormalities-reveal-cholinergic-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-reappraisal
#7
REVIEW
Raffaele Nardone, Francesco Brigo, Viviana Versace, Yvonne Höller, Frediano Tezzon, Leopold Saltuari, Eugen Trinka, Luca Sebastianelli
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder affecting, besides the dopaminergic function, multiple neurotransmission systems, including the cholinergic system. Central cholinergic circuits of human brain can be tested non-invasively by coupling peripheral nerve stimulation with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of motor cortex; this test is named short latency afferent inhibition (SAI). SAI abnormalities have been reported in PD patients with gait disturbances and many non-motor symptoms, such as visual hallucinations (VHs), REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), dysphagia, and olfactory impairment...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769869/impact-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-functional-movement-disorders-cortical-modulation-or-a-behavioral-effect
#8
Béatrice Garcin, Francine Mesrati, Cécile Hubsch, Thomas Mauras, Iulia Iliescu, Lionel Naccache, Marie Vidailhet, Emmanuel Roze, Bertrand Degos
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies suggest that repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) improves functional movement disorders (FMDs), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The objective was to determine whether the beneficial action of TMS in patients with FMDs is due to cortical neuromodulation or rather to a cognitive-behavioral effect. METHOD: Consecutive patients with FMDs underwent repeated low-frequency (0.25 Hz) magnetic stimulation over the cortex contralateral to the symptoms or over the spinal roots [root magnetic stimulation (RMS)] homolateral to the symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735100/attention-modulates-specific-motor-cortical-circuits-recruited-by-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#9
J L Mirdamadi, L Y Suzuki, S K Meehan
Skilled performance and acquisition is dependent upon afferent input to motor cortex. The present study used short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) to probe how manipulation of sensory afference by attention affects different circuits projecting to pyramidal tract neurons in motor cortex. SAI was assessed in the first dorsal interosseous muscle while participants performed a low or high attention-demanding visual detection task. SAI was evoked by preceding a suprathreshold transcranial magnetic stimulus with electrical stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist...
September 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728060/clinical-neurophysiology-of-prolonged-disorders-of-consciousness-from-diagnostic-stimulation-to-therapeutic-neuromodulation
#10
REVIEW
Aldo Ragazzoni, Massimo Cincotta, Fabio Giovannelli, Damian Cruse, G Bryan Young, Carlo Miniussi, Simone Rossi
The identification of signs of awareness in patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (DoC) after severe brain injury is a challenging task for clinicians. Differentiating on behavioural examination the vegetative state (VS) from the minimally conscious state (MCS) can lead to a high misdiagnosis rate. Advanced neuroimaging and neurophysiological techniques can supplement clinical evaluation by providing physiological evidence of brain activity. However, an open issue remains whether these empirical results are directly or indirectly associated with covert consciousness and limitations emerge for their diagnostic application at the single-patient level...
September 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716966/hierarchically-organized-medial-frontal-cortex-basal-ganglia-loops-selectively-control-task-and-response-selection
#11
Franziska M Korb, Jiefeng Jiang, Joseph A King, Tobias Egner
Adaptive behavior requires context-sensitive configuration of task-sets that specify time-varying stimulus-response mappings. Intriguingly, response time costs associated with changing task-sets and motor responses are known to be strongly interactive: switch costs at the task level are small in the presence of a response-switch but large when accompanied by a response-repetition, and vice versa for response-switch costs. The reasons behind this well known interdependence between task- and response-level control processes are currently not well understood...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694153/caffeinated-energy-drink-intake-modulates-motor-circuits-at-rest-before-and-after-a-movement
#12
Carmen Concerto, Carmenrita Infortuna, Eileen Chusid, Diego Coira, Jacqueline Babayev, Rowan Metwaly, Hesam Naenifard, Eugenio Aguglia, Fortunato Battaglia
Energy drinks are thought to improve certain aspects of athletic and cognitive performances. Moreover, less is understood about physiological mechanisms that might underlie these effects. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of sugar-free energy drink (SFED) ingestion on corticomotor excitability and plasticity. Fourteen college students consumed a commercially available SFED or a "dummy" drink. By using Transcranial magnetic Stimulation (TMS) we investigated resting motor threshold (RMT), motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude and cortical silent period (CSP)...
July 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678870/answering-the-missed-call-initial-exploration-of-cognitive-and-electrophysiological-changes-associated-with-smartphone-use-and-abuse
#13
Aviad Hadar, Itay Hadas, Avi Lazarovits, Uri Alyagon, Daniel Eliraz, Abraham Zangen
BACKGROUND: Smartphone usage is now integral to human behavior. Recent studies associate extensive usage with a range of debilitating effects. We sought to determine whether excessive usage is accompanied by measurable neural, cognitive and behavioral changes. METHOD: Subjects lacking previous experience with smartphones (n = 35) were compared to a matched group of heavy smartphone users (n = 16) on numerous behavioral and electrophysiological measures recorded using electroencephalogram (EEG) combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the right prefrontal cortex (rPFC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673806/improved-snr-for-combined-tms-fmri-a-support-device-for-commercially-available-body-array-coil
#14
Wen-Tung Wang, Benjamin Xu, John A Butman
BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation tool extensively used in clinical and cognitive neuroscience research. TMS has been applied during functional magnetic resonance imaging (i.e., concurrent/interleaved TMS-fMRI) to understand neural mechanisms underlying cognitive functions. However, no advanced commercial multi-channel whole-brain array MR coils can fit the large TMS coil. We developed a low-cost and easy-to-configure setup that takes advantage of the superior signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance of commercially available flexible body array coils that can accommodate the TMS coil...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669908/modulation-of-cognitive-cerebello-cerebral-functional-connectivity-by-lateral-cerebellar-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation
#15
Anuj Rastogi, Robin Cash, Katharine Dunlop, Michael Vesia, Aaron Kucyi, Ayda Ghahremani, Jonathan Downar, Joyce Chen, Robert Chen
Network connectivity measured with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has revealed the contribution of distinct cerebellar lobules to an array of brain wide networks sub-serving motor and cognitive processes. As distinct cerebellar lobules form relatively accessible nodes of different brain networks, this raises the possibility for site-specific modulation of network connectivity using non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS) induces long-lasting inhibition of cortical areas...
June 29, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657363/assessment-of-motor-cortex-excitability-and-inhibition-during-a-cognitive-task-in-individuals-with-concussion
#16
Eli K Edwards, Anita D Christie
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To examine the function of the motor cortex during executive function tasks in individuals with concussion, relative to healthy controls. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess motor cortex excitability and inhibition acutely, within 72 hours, and over two months, post-concussion in 23 participants, nine individuals with concussion and 14 controls. Participants performed a cognitive task during TMS to determine the impact of cognitive task on the motor cortex...
June 28, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648572/cortical-excitability-and-neuropsychological-functioning-in-healthy-adults
#17
Lauren B Bolden, Joseph C Griffis, Sandipan Pati, Jerzy P Szaflarski
Evidence from clinical populations, such as epilepsy and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, suggests a relationship between hyperexcitability and cognitive impairment, but this relationship has not been demonstrated in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate the relationship between cortical excitability and cognitive functioning in healthy adults. Single- and paired-pulse TMS was applied to 20 healthy adults to measure cortical excitability and long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI). A neuropsychological battery was administered to assess aspects of attention, executive function, and mood...
June 23, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539601/temporal-dynamics-of-tms-interference-over-preparatory-alpha-activity-during-semantic-decisions
#18
Sara Spadone, Carlo Sestieri, Antonello Baldassarre, Paolo Capotosto
The mean amplitude of the EEG alpha (8-12 Hz) power de-synchronization (ERD) is a robust electrophysiological correlate of task anticipation. Furthermore, in paradigms using a fixed period between warning and target stimuli, such alpha de-synchronization tends to increase and to peak just before target presentation. Previous studies from our group showed that the anticipatory alpha ERD can be modulated when magnetic stimulation is delivered over specific cortical regions during a variety of cognitive tasks...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528736/on-the-effectiveness-of-event-related-beta-tacs-on-episodic-memory-formation-and-motor-cortex-excitability
#19
Verena Braun, Rodika Sokoliuk, Simon Hanslmayr
BACKGROUND: Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is widely used to entrain or modulate brain oscillations in order to investigate causal relationships between oscillations and cognition. OBJECTIVE: In a series of experiments we here addressed the question of whether event-related, transient tACS in the beta frequency range can be used to entrain beta oscillations in two different domains: episodic memory formation and motor cortex excitability. METHODS: In experiments 1 and 2, 72 healthy human participants engaged in an incidental encoding task of verbal and non-verbal material while receiving tACS to the left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) at 6...
April 30, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512429/reduced-prefrontal-short-latency-afferent-inhibition-in-older-adults-and-its-relation-to-executive-function-a-tms-eeg-study
#20
Yoshihiro Noda, Reza Zomorrodi, Felicity Backhouse, Robin F H Cash, Mera S Barr, Tarek K Rajji, Robert Chen, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
Combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with electroencephalography (EEG) allows for the assessment of various neurophysiological processes in the human cortex. One of these paradigms, short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI), is thought to be a sensitive measure of cholinergic activity. In a previous study, we demonstrated the temporal pattern of this paradigm from both the motor (M1) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) using simultaneous TMS-EEG recording. The SAI paradigm led to marked modulations at N100...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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