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Cognition and functional connectivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036636/genetic-reduction-of-nrf2-exacerbates-cognitive-deficits-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Caterina Branca, Eric Ferreira, Thuy-Vi Nguyen, Kristian Doyle, Antonella Caccamo, Salvatore Oddo
Aging is the major risk factor for several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms by which aging contributes to neurodegeneration remain elusive. The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that regulates expression of a vast number of genes by binding to the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 levels decrease as a function of age, and reduced Nrf2 levels have been reported in postmortem human brains and animal models of AD...
September 19, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036632/mapping-compulsivity-in-the-dsm-5-obsessive-compulsive-and-related-disorders-cognitive-domains-neural-circuitry-and-treatment
#2
Naomi A Fineberg, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, M Matilde Vaghi, Paula Banca, Claire M Gillan, Valerie Voon, Samuel R Chamberlain, Cinosi Eduardo, Reid Jemma, Sonia Shahper, Edward T Bullmore, Barbara J Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins
Compulsions are repetitive, stereotyped thoughts and behaviors designed to reduce harm. Growing evidence suggests that the neurocognitive mechanisms mediating behavioural inhibition (motor inhibition, cognitive inflexibility) reversal learning and habit formation (shift from goal-directed to habitual responding) contribute toward compulsive activity in a broad range of disorders. In obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), distributed network perturbation appears focussed around the pre-frontal cortex, caudate, putamen and associated neuro-circuitry...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034102/new-directions-in-hypnosis-research-strategies-for-advancing-the-cognitive-and-clinical-neuroscience-of-hypnosis
#3
Mark P Jensen, Graham A Jamieson, Antoine Lutz, Giuliana Mazzoni, William J McGeown, Enrica L Santarcangelo, Athena Demertzi, Vilfredo De Pascalis, Éva I Bányai, Christian Rominger, Patrik Vuilleumier, Marie-Elisabeth Faymonville, Devin B Terhune
This article summarizes key advances in hypnosis research during the past two decades, including (i) clinical research supporting the efficacy of hypnosis for managing a number of clinical symptoms and conditions, (ii) research supporting the role of various divisions in the anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices in hypnotic responding, and (iii) an emerging finding that high hypnotic suggestibility is associated with atypical brain connectivity profiles. Key recommendations for a research agenda for the next decade include the recommendations that (i) laboratory hypnosis researchers should strongly consider how they assess hypnotic suggestibility in their studies, (ii) inclusion of study participants who score in the middle range of hypnotic suggestibility, and (iii) use of expanding research designs that more clearly delineate the roles of inductions and specific suggestions...
2017: Neuroscience of Consciousness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033796/laminar-and-cellular-distribution-of-monoamine-receptors-in-rat-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#4
REVIEW
Noemí Santana, Francesc Artigas
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is deeply involved in higher brain functions, many of which are altered in psychiatric conditions. The PFC exerts a top-down control of most cortical and subcortical areas through descending pathways and is densely innervated by axons emerging from the brainstem monoamine cell groups, namely, the dorsal and median raphe nuclei (DR and MnR, respectively), the ventral tegmental area and the locus coeruleus (LC). In turn, the activity of these cell groups is tightly controlled by afferent pathways arising from layer V PFC pyramidal neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033331/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-facilitates-associative-learning-and-alters-functional-connectivity-in-the-primate-brain
#5
Matthew R Krause, Theodoros P Zanos, Bennett A Csorba, Praveen K Pilly, Jaehoon Choe, Matthew E Phillips, Abhishek Datta, Christopher C Pack
There has been growing interest in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive technique purported to modulate neural activity via weak, externally applied electric fields. Although some promising preliminary data have been reported for applications ranging from stroke rehabilitation to cognitive enhancement, little is known about how tDCS affects the human brain, and some studies have concluded that it may have no effect at all. Here, we describe a macaque model of tDCS that allows us to simultaneously examine the effects of tDCS on brain activity and behavior...
October 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031602/microstructural-mri-basis-of-the-cognitive-functions-in-patients-with-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-2
#6
G Olivito, M Lupo, C Iacobacci, S Clausi, S Romano, M Masciullo, M Molinari, M Cercignani, M Bozzali, M Leggio
Spinocerebellarataxiatype2(SCA2) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease involving the cerebellum. The particular atrophy pattern results in some typical clinical features mainly including motor deficits. In addition, the presence of cognitive impairments, involving language, visuospatial and executive functions, has been also shown in SCA2 patients and it is now widely accepted as a feature of the disease. The aim of the study is to investigate the microstructural patterns and the anatomo-functional substrate that could account for the cognitive symptomatology observed in SCA2 patients...
October 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031510/pain-and-consciousness
#7
REVIEW
Luis Garcia-Larrea, Hélène Bastuji
The aversive experience we call "pain" results from the coordinated activation of multiple brain areas, commonly described as a "pain matrix". This is not a fixed arrangement of structures but rather a fluid system composed of several interacting networks: A 'nociceptive matrix' includes regions receiving input from ascending nociceptive systems, and ensures the bodily characteristics of physical pain. A further set of structures receiving secondary input supports the 'salience' attributes of noxious stimuli, triggers top-down cognitive controls, and -most importantly- ensures the passage from pre-conscious nociception to conscious pain...
October 11, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030105/definition-and-characterization-of-an-extended-multiple-demand-network
#8
J A Camilleri, V I Müller, P Fox, A R Laird, F Hoffstaedter, T Kalenscher, S B Eickhoff
Neuroimaging evidence suggests that executive functions (EF) depend on brain regions that are not closely tied to specific cognitive demands but rather to a wide range of behaviors. A multiple-demand (MD) system has been proposed, consisting of regions showing conjoint activation across multiple demands. Additionally, a number of studies defining networks specific to certain cognitive tasks suggest that the MD system may be composed of a number of sub-networks each subserving specific roles within the system...
October 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030069/sex-differences-and-menstrual-cycle-effects-in-cognitive-and-sensory-resting-state-networks
#9
Susanne Weis, Sophie Hodgetts, Markus Hausmann
It has not yet been established if resting state (RS) connectivity reflects stable characteristics of the brain, or if it is modulated by the psychological and/or physiological state of the participant. Based on research demonstrating sex hormonal effects in task-related brain activity, the present study aimed to investigate corresponding differences in RS networks. RS functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (RS fMRI) was conducted in women during three different menstrual cycle phases, while men underwent three repeated RS fMRI testing sessions...
October 10, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028935/latent-profile-analysis-reveals-behavioral-and-brain-correlates-of-dopamine-cognition-associations
#10
Martin Lövdén, Nina Karalija, Micael Andersson, Anders Wåhlin, Jan Axelsson, Ylva Köhncke, Lars S Jonasson, Anna Rieckman, Goran Papenberg, Douglas D Garrett, Marc Guitart-Masip, Alireza Salami, Katrine Riklund, Lars Bäckman, Lars Nyberg, Ulman Lindenberger
Evidence suggests that associations between the neurotransmitter dopamine and cognition are nonmonotonic and open to modulation by various other factors. The functional implications of a given level of dopamine may therefore differ from person to person. By applying latent-profile analysis to a large (n = 181) sample of adults aged 64-68 years, we probabilistically identified 3 subgroups that explain the multivariate associations between dopamine D2/3R availability (probed with 11C-raclopride-PET, in cortical, striatal, and hippocampal regions) and cognitive performance (episodic memory, working memory, and perceptual speed)...
September 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028135/predicting-episodic-and-spatial-memory-performance-from-hippocampal-resting-state-functional-connectivity-evidence-for-an-anterior-posterior-division-of-function
#11
Jonas Persson, Eva Stening, Kristin Nordin, Hedvig Söderlund
fMRI studies have identified distinct resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) networks associated with the anterior and posterior hippocampus. However, the functional relevance of these two networks is still largely unknown. Hippocampal lesion studies and task-related fMRI point to a role for the anterior hippocampus in non-spatial episodic memory and the posterior hippocampus in spatial memory. We used Relevance Vector Regression (RVR), a machine-learning method that enables predictions of continuous outcome measures from multivariate patterns of brain imaging data, to test the hypothesis that patterns of whole-brain RSFC associated with the anterior hippocampus predict episodic memory performance, while patterns of whole-brain RSFC associated with the posterior hippocampus predict spatial memory performance...
October 13, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026095/alterations-of-regional-homogeneity-and-functional-connectivity-in-pituitary-adenoma-patients-with-visual-impairment
#12
Guidong Song, Jicheng Qiu, Chuzhong Li, Jiye Li, Songbai Gui, Haibo Zhu, Yazhuo Zhang
Evidences have showed that the deprivation of vision can considerably alter the resting-state activity both within and beyond the visual cortices. However, the functional changes of the brain cortices related to partially vision-deprivation are still largely unknown. Using resting-state functional MR imaging, we quantitatively evaluated the regional homogeneity(ReHo) and functional connectivity(FC) changes between 25 pituitary adenoma patients with visual impairment and 25 healthy controls(HCs). Compared with HCs, PAs exhibited significant increased ReHo in the left superior occipital gyrus, bilateral middle occipital gyrus and reduced ReHo in the left inferior frontal gyrus and right middle temporal gyrus...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025696/usability-test-of-exercise-games-designed-for-rehabilitation-of-elderly-patients-after-hip-replacement-surgery-pilot-study
#13
Yun Ling, Louis P Ter Meer, Zerrin Yumak, Remco C Veltkamp
BACKGROUND: Patients who receive rehabilitation after hip replacement surgery are shown to have increased muscle strength and better functional performance. However, traditional physiotherapy is often tedious and leads to poor adherence. Exercise games, provide ways for increasing the engagement of elderly patients and increase the uptake of rehabilitation exercises. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate Fietsgame (Dutch for cycling game), which translates existing rehabilitation exercises into fun exercise games...
October 12, 2017: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024792/effective-connectivity-inferred-from-fmri-transition-dynamics-during-movie-viewing-points-to-a-balanced-reconfiguration-of-cortical-interactions
#14
REVIEW
Matthieu Gilson, Gustavo Deco, Karl Friston, Patric Hagmann, Dante Mantini, Viviana Betti, Gian Luca Romani, Maurizio Corbetta
Our behavior entails a flexible and context-sensitive interplay between brain areas to integrate information according to goal-directed requirements. However, the neural mechanisms governing the entrainment of functionally specialized brain areas remain poorly understood. In particular, the question arises whether observed changes in the regional activity for different cognitive conditions are explained by modifications of the inputs to the brain or its connectivity? We observe that transitions of fMRI activity between areas convey information about the tasks performed by 19 subjects, watching a movie versus a black screen (rest)...
October 9, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024277/how-intraspecific-variation-in-seed-dispersing-animals-matters-for-plants
#15
Rafał Zwolak
Seed dispersal by animals is a complex phenomenon, characterized by multiple mechanisms and variable outcomes. Most researchers approach this complexity by analysing context-dependency in seed dispersal and investigating extrinsic factors that might influence interactions between plants and seed dispersers. Intrinsic traits of seed dispersers provide an alternative way of making sense of the enormous variation in seed fates. I review causes of intraspecific variability in frugivorous and granivorous animals, discuss their effects on seed dispersal, and outline likely consequences for plant populations and communities...
October 10, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023586/reduced-resting-state-connectivity-and-gray-matter-volume-correlate-with-cognitive-impairment-in-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy
#16
Raquel García-García, Álvaro Javier Cruz-Gómez, Alba Mangas-Losada, Amparo Urios, Cristina Forn, Desamparados Escudero-García, Elena Kosenko, Juan Fermín Ordoño, Joan Tosca, Remedios Giner-Durán, Miguel Angel Serra, César Avila, Vicente Belloch, Vicente Felipo, Carmina Montoliu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is associated with cognitive alterations and changes in connectivity. We assessed the relationship of the abnormalities of resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) and gray matter (GM) volume with different cognitive alterations and biochemical parameters associated to MHE. METHODS: Thirty-nine cirrhotic patients (26 without and 13 with MHE) and 24 controls were widely cognitive assessed with a battery of psychometric tests...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018338/altered-distant-synchronization-of-background-network-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-during-an-executive-function-task
#17
Pengyun Wang, Rui Li, Jing Yu, Zirui Huang, Zhixiong Yan, Ke Zhao, Juan Li
Few studies to date have investigated the background network in the cognitive state relying on executive function in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. Using the index of degree of centrality (DC), we explored distant synchronization of background network in MCI during a hybrid delayed-match-to-sample task (DMST), which mainly relies on the working memory component of executive function. We observed significant interactions between group and cognitive state in the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the ventral subregion of precuneus...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017915/the-neurobiology-of-body-dysmorphic-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-theoretical-model
#18
REVIEW
Sally A Grace, Izelle Labuschagne, Ryan A Kaplan, Susan L Rossell
There has been an increase in neuroimaging research in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), yet little is known about the underlying neurobiological basis of the disorder. We aimed to provide a systematic overview of the literature on the neurobiology of BDD. Two reviewers undertook a search of three electronic research databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar. The search consisted of synonyms commonly associated with BDD and methods to evaluate brain structure, function, and network organisation. Out of an initial yield of 175 articles, 19 fulfilled inclusion criteria and were reviewed...
October 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017388/pathophysiological-bases-of-comorbidity-tbi-and-ptsd
#19
Gary B Kaplan, Kimberly A Leite-Morris, Lei Wang, Kendra K Rumbika, Stephen C Heinrichs, Xiang Zeng, Liquan Wu, Danielle T Arena, Yang D Teng
The high rates of TBI and PTSD diagnoses encountered in recent years by the U.S. Veterans Affairs Healthcare System have increased public awareness and research investigation into these conditions. In this review, we analyze the neural mechanisms underlying the TBI/PTSD comorbidity. TBI and PTSD present with common neuropsychiatric symptoms including anxiety, irritability, insomnia, personality changes and memory problems and this overlap complicates diagnostic differentiation. Interestingly, both TBI and PTSD can be produced by overlapping pathophysiological changes that disrupt neural connections termed the "connectome"...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017156/the-missing-link-in-the-pathophysiology-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment-design-of-the-heart-brain-study
#20
Astrid M Hooghiemstra, Anne Suzanne Bertens, Anna E Leeuwis, Esther E Bron, Michiel L Bots, Hans-Peter Brunner-La Rocca, Anton J M de Craen, Rob J van der Geest, Jacoba P Greving, L Jaap Kappelle, Wiro J Niessen, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Matthias J P van Osch, Albert de Roos, Albert C van Rossum, Geert Jan Biessels, Mark A van Buchem, Mat J A P Daemen, Wiesje M van der Flier
BACKGROUND: Hemodynamic balance in the heart-brain axis is increasingly recognized as a crucial factor in maintaining functional and structural integrity of the brain and thereby cognitive functioning. Patients with heart failure (HF), carotid occlusive disease (COD), and vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) present themselves with complaints attributed to specific parts of the heart-brain axis, but hemodynamic changes often go beyond the part of the axis for which they primarily seek medical advice...
October 10, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra
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