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Cognition and functional connectivity

Isabelle F van der Velpen, Stephanie Feleus, Anne Suzanne Bertens, Behnam Sabayan
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac function is a key player in maintaining energy homeostasis in the brain. Heart failure is closely related to higher risk of neurocognitive disorders. Recent evidence shows that this relationship might not be limited to patients with advanced heart failure, and even suboptimal cardiac functioning is associated with accelerated brain aging. Hence, hemodynamic and serum cardiac markers may provide valuable information about the risk of dementia. METHODS: We provide an overview on the link between cardiac markers and cognitive function by a systematic search in five databases...
October 19, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Daniela Mier, Sarah Eisenacher, Franziska Rausch, Susanne Englisch, Martin Fungisai Gerchen, Vera Zamoscik, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Mathias Zink, Peter Kirsch
Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in social cognition. These impairments have been shown to go along with altered activation of the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). However, studies that investigate connectivity of pSTS during social cognition in schizophrenia are sparse. Twenty-two patients with schizophrenia and 22 matched healthy controls completed a social-cognitive task for functional magnetic resonance imaging that allows the investigation of affective Theory of Mind (ToM), emotion recognition and the processing of neutral facial expressions...
October 21, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Franziska Richter, Julia Gerstenberger, Anne Bauer, Chun-Chi Liang, Angelika Richter
Hereditary generalized dystonia is often caused by a GAG deletion in TOR1A (DYT1) that encodes for the protein torsinA. Although mutation carriers show alterations in neuronal connectivity and sensorimotor deficits, only 30% develop dystonia. Uncovering the factors triggering the dystonic symptoms and underlying pathophysiology would greatly benefit the development of more effective therapies. In DYT1 knock-in (KI) mice, the expression of torsinA mutant alters the connectivity of neurons and the function of striatal cholinergic interneurons...
October 18, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Matilde M Vaghi, Petra E Vértes, Manfred G Kitzbichler, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, Febe E van der Flier, Naomi A Fineberg, Akeem Sule, Rashid Zaman, Valerie Voon, Prantik Kundu, Edward T Bullmore, Trevor W Robbins
BACKGROUND: A recent hypothesis has suggested that core deficits in goal-directed behavior in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are caused by impaired frontostriatal function. We tested this hypothesis in OCD patients and control subjects by relating measures of goal-directed planning and cognitive flexibility to underlying resting-state functional connectivity. METHODS: Multiecho resting-state acquisition, combined with micromovement correction by blood oxygen level-dependent sensitive independent component analysis, was used to obtain in vivo measures of functional connectivity in 44 OCD patients and 43 healthy comparison subjects...
August 11, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Jeffrey Cummings, Philip Scheltens, Ian McKeith, Rafael Blesa, John E Harrison, Paulo H F Bertolucci, Kenneth Rockwood, David Wilkinson, Wouter Wijker, David A Bennett, Raj C Shah
BACKGROUND: Souvenaid® (uridine monophosphate, docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, choline, phospholipids, folic acid, vitamins B12, B6, C, and E, and selenium), was developed to support the formation and function of neuronal membranes. OBJECTIVE: To determine effect sizes observed in clinical trials of Souvenaid and to calculate the number needed to treat to show benefit or harm. METHODS: Data from all three reported randomized controlled trials of Souvenaid in Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia (Souvenir I, Souvenir II, and S-Connect) and an open-label extension study were included in analyses of effect size for cognitive, functional, and behavioral outcomes...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Lena Lipskaya-Velikovsky, Moshe Kotler, Terry Krupa
People with mental health conditions (MHCs) frequently experience participation and functional restrictions. Today, hospitals still serve a significant number of people with MHCs. However, there is little evidence for occupation-oriented interventions to support participation, health, and well-being in these hospital settings. This article describes a newly developed, short-term, structured intervention for the inpatient setting, Occupational Connections (OC), that focuses on promoting everyday functions and participation in daily life and presents preliminary findings for its effectiveness...
November 2016: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Eve Valera, Aaron Kucyi
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in women experiencing intimate-partner violence (IPV) is common, and IPV afflicts 30 % of women worldwide. However, the neurobiology and related sequelae of these TBIs have never been systematically examined. Consequently, TBI treatments are typically absent and IPV interventions are inadequate. There has been a call for a comprehensive assessment of IPV-related TBIs and their relationship to aspects of women's cognitive and neural functioning. In response, we examined brain-network organization associated with TBI and its cognitive effects using clinical interviews and neuropsychological measures as well as structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in women experiencing IPV-related TBI...
October 20, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Yajing Pang, Qian Cui, Yifeng Wang, Yuyan Chen, Xiaona Wang, Shaoqiang Han, Zhiqiang Zhang, Guangming Lu, Huafu Chen
The amygdala plays a key role in emotion processing. Its functional connectivity with other brain regions has been extensively demonstrated to be associated with extraversion and neuroticism. However, how the amygdala affects other regions and is affected by others within these connectivity patterns associated with extraversion and neuroticism remains unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the effective connectivity of the amygdala using Granger causality analysis on the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 70 participants...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Vera Dinkelacker, Sophie Dupont, Séverine Samson
The new classification of epilepsy stratifies the disease into an acute level, based on seizures, and an overarching chronic level of epileptic syndromes (Berg et al., 2010). In this new approach, seizures are considered either to originate and evolve in unilateral networks or to rapidly encompass both hemispheres. This concept extends the former vision of focal and generalized epilepsies to a genuine pathology of underlying networks. These key aspects of the new classification can be linked to the concept of cognitive curtailing in focal epilepsy...
October 17, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Julie M Hall, Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens, Courtney C Walton, Claire O'Callaghan, Peter E Keller, Simon J G Lewis, Ahmed A Moustafa
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a heterogeneous neurological disorder with a variety of motor and non-motor symptoms. The underlying mechanisms of these symptoms are not fully understood. An increased interest in structural connectivity analyses using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in PD has led to an expansion of our understanding of the impact of abnormalities in diffusivity on phenotype. This review outlines the contribution of these abnormalities to symptoms of PD including bradykinesia, tremor and non-tremor phenotypes, freezing of gait, cognitive impairment, mood, sleep disturbances, visual hallucinations and olfactory dysfunction...
September 28, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Mingxiong Huang, Deborah L Harrington, Ashley Robb, Annemarie Angeles, Sharon Nichols, Angela I Drake, Tao Song, Mithun Diwakar, Charles W Huang, Victoria Risbrough, Anders M Dale, Hauke Bartsch, Scott Matthews, Jeffrey W Huang, Roland R Lee, Dewleen G Baker
Blast mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military service members and Veterans. However, the mechanism of persistent disability is not fully understood. The present study investigated disturbances in brain functioning in mTBI participants using a source-imaging-based approach to analyze functional connectivity (FC) from resting-state magnetoencephalography (rs-MEG). Study participants included 26 active-duty service members or Veterans who had blast mTBI with persistent post-concussive symptoms and 22 healthy control active-duty service members or Veterans...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Klaus Kopitzki, Andreas Oldag, Catherine M Sweeney-Reed, Judith Machts, Maria Veit, Jörn Kaufmann, Hermann Hinrichs, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Katja Kollewe, Susanne Petri, Bahram Mohammadi, Reinhard Dengler, Andreas R Kupsch, Stefan Vielhaber
PURPOSE: Aim of the present study was to investigate potential impairment of non-motor areas in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). In particular, we evaluated whether homotopic resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of non-motor associated cortical areas correlates with clinical parameters and disease-specific degeneration of the corpus callosum (CC) in ALS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Interhemispheric homotopic rs-FC was assessed in 31 patients and 30 healthy controls (HCs) for 8 cortical sites, from prefrontal to occipital cortex, using NIRS...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
María Díez-Cirarda, Natalia Ojeda, Javier Peña, Alberto Cabrera-Zubizarreta, Olaia Lucas-Jiménez, Juan Carlos Gómez-Esteban, Maria Ángeles Gómez-Beldarrain, Naroa Ibarretxe-Bilbao
Cognitive rehabilitation programs have demonstrated efficacy in improving cognitive functions in Parkinson's disease (PD), but little is known about cerebral changes associated with an integrative cognitive rehabilitation in PD. To assess structural and functional cerebral changes in PD patients, after attending a three-month integrative cognitive rehabilitation program (REHACOP). Forty-four PD patients were randomly divided into REHACOP group (cognitive rehabilitation) and a control group (occupational therapy)...
October 18, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Annerine Roos, Jean-Paul Fouche, Dan J Stein
Evidence suggests that women who suffer from intimate partner violence (IPV) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have structural and functional alterations in specific brain regions. Yet, little is known about how brain connectivity may be altered in individuals with IPV, but without PTSD. Women exposed to IPV (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 18) underwent structural brain imaging using a Siemens 3T MRI. Global and regional brain network connectivity measures were determined, using graph theory analyses...
October 18, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Francesco Corrivetti, Guillaume Herbet, Sylvie Moritz-Gasser, Hugues Duffau
BACKGROUND: Face recognition is a complex function sustained by a distributed large-scale neural network, with a core system involving the ventral occipito-temporal cortex, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and the splenial commissural fibers. This circuit seems to be bilaterally organized, with however a right hemispheric dominance. According to this anatomo-functional model, prosopagnosia is usually, but not exclusively, generated by a damage of the right part of this brain network...
October 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Rebecca M Stanley, Rachel A Jones, Dylan P Cliff, Stewart G Trost, Donna Berthelsen, Jo Salmon, Marijka Batterham, Simon Eckermann, John J Reilly, Ngiare Brown, Karen J Mickle, Steven J Howard, Trina Hinkley, Xanne Janssen, Paul Chandler, Penny Cross, Fay Gowers, Anthony D Okely
BACKGROUND: Participation in regular physical activity (PA) during the early years helps children achieve healthy body weight and can substantially improve motor development, bone health, psychosocial health and cognitive development. Despite common assumptions that young children are naturally active, evidence shows that they are insufficiently active for health and developmental benefits. Exploring strategies to increase physical activity in young children is a public health and research priority...
October 19, 2016: BMC Public Health
Xuemei Lei, Chuansheng Chen, Chunhui Chen, Qinghua He, Robert K Moyzis, Gui Xue, Qi Dong
Cooperativeness is an essential behavioral trait evolved to facilitate group living. Social and cognitive mechanisms involved in cooperation (e.g., motivation, reward encoding, action evaluation, and executive functions) are sub-served by the striatal-projected circuits, whose physical existence has been confirmed by animal studies, human postmortem studies, and in vivo human brain studies. The current study investigated the associations between Cooperativeness and fiber connectivities from the striatum to nine subcortical and cortical regions, including the amygdala, hippocampus, medial orbitofrontal cortex, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex/retrosplenial cortex, dorsal cingulate cortex, and rostral cingulate cortex...
2016: PloS One
Yuda Turana
Observational studies have conveyed the connection between hypertension and cognitive impairment. Several forms of dementia are more frequent in hypertensive subjects or those with previous history of hypertension compared to subjects with normal blood pressure.In many studies, hypertension occuring in mid-life is a risk factor of dementia occuring in later age. Long-standing hypertension will induce structural damages in the brain. It is also widely known that hypertension attributes to small vessel diseases causing lacunar infarcts and white matter lesions associated with cognitive decline...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Andreas Spiegler, Enrique C A Hansen, Christophe Bernard, Anthony R McIntosh, Viktor K Jirsa
When the brain is stimulated, for example, by sensory inputs or goal-oriented tasks, the brain initially responds with activities in specific areas. The subsequent pattern formation of functional networks is constrained by the structural connectivity (SC) of the brain. The extent to which information is processed over short- or long-range SC is unclear. Whole-brain models based on long-range axonal connections, for example, can partly describe measured functional connectivity dynamics at rest. Here, we study the effect of SC on the network response to stimulation...
September 2016: ENeuro
Andrew C Lynn, Aarthi Padmanabhan, Daniel Simmonds, William Foran, Michael N Hallquist, Beatriz Luna, Kirsten O'Hearn
Face recognition abilities improve between adolescence and adulthood over typical development (TD), but plateau in autism, leading to increasing face recognition deficits in autism later in life. Developmental differences between autism and TD may reflect changes between neural systems involved in the development of face encoding and recognition. Here, we focused on whole-brain connectivity with the fusiform face area (FFA), a well-established face-preferential brain region. Older children, adolescents, and adults with and without autism completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, and a matched car memory test, during fMRI scanning...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
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