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Cognition and functional connectivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102593/a-case-for-cannabidiol-in-wolf-hirschhorn-syndrome-seizure-management
#1
Karen S Ho, E Robert Wassman
Complex, and sometimes intractable, seizures affect the quality of life and cognitive development of over 90% of individuals with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS). Fine resolution genotype-phenotype mapping of the WHS locus recently identified a candidate gene whose probable function has led to insights into a mechanism connecting WHS seizures with those of Dravet syndrome, a distinct condition caused by mutations in SCN1A and SCN1B. In addition to this possible molecular mechanistic connection, these disorders' seizures share a strikingly similar constellation of features, including clinical presentation, seizure types, early age of onset, EEG pattern, and responses to specific anti-epileptic drugs...
February 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100742/visual-sampling-predicts-hippocampal-activity
#2
Zhong-Xu Liu, Kelly Shen, Rosanna K Olsen, Jennifer D Ryan
: Eye movements serve to accumulate information from the visual world, contributing to the formation of coherent memory representations that support cognition and behavior. The hippocampus and the oculomotor network are well connected anatomically through an extensive set of polysynaptic pathways. However, the extent to which visual sampling behavior is related to functional responses in the hippocampus during encoding has not been studied directly in human neuroimaging. In the current study, participants engaged in a face processing task while brain responses were recorded with fMRI and eye movements were monitored simultaneously...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097738/enhanced-predictive-signalling-in-schizophrenia
#3
Katharina Schmack, Marcus Rothkirch, Josef Priller, Philipp Sterzer
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia such as delusions and hallucinations are thought to arise from an alteration in predictive mechanisms of the brain. Here, we empirically tested the hypothesis that schizophrenia is associated with an enhanced signalling of higher-level predictions that shape perception into conformity with acquired beliefs. Twenty-one patients with schizophrenia and twenty-eight healthy controls matched for age and gender took part in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment that assessed the effect of an experimental manipulation of cognitive beliefs on the perception of an ambiguous visual motion stimulus...
January 18, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096673/apathy-and-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-networks-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#4
Soo Hyun Joo, Chang Uk Lee, Hyun Kook Lim
BACKGROUND: Although several prior works reported that apathy is associated with conversion to Alzheimer's disease in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), effects of apathy on the functional connectivity (FC) of the brain remain unclear. In this study, we assessed the pattern of association between apathy and default mode network (DMN), salience network and central executive network (CEN) in aMCI subjects. METHODS: Fifty subjects with aMCI and 50 controls (CONs) participated in this study...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095313/prefrontal-mediation-of-emotion-regulation-in-social-anxiety-disorder-during-laughter-perception
#5
Benjamin Kreifelts, Carolin Brück, Thomas Ethofer, Jan Ritter, Lena Weigel, Michael Erb, Dirk Wildgruber
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by negatively biased perception of social cues and deficits in emotion regulation. While negatively biased perception is thought to maintain social anxiety, emotion regulation represents an ability necessary to overcome both biased perception and social anxiety. Here, we used laughter as a social threat in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to identify cerebral mediators linking SAD with attention and interpretation biases and their modification through cognitive emotion regulation in the form of reappraisal...
January 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095052/increased-gamma-connectivity-during-working-memory-retention-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Neil W Bailey, Nigel C Rogasch, Kate E Hoy, Jerome J Maller, Rebecca A Segrave, Caley M Sullivan, Paul B Fitzgerald
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Alterations to functional connectivity following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) may lead to impaired cognitive performance and major depressive disorder (MDD). In particular, functional gamma band connectivity is thought to reflect information binding important for working memory. The objective of this study was to determine whether altered functional gamma connectivity may be a factor in MDD following TBI (TBI-MDD). RESEARCH DESIGN: This study assessed individuals with TBI-MDD, as well as individuals with TBI alone and MDD alone using electroencephalographic recordings while participants performed a working memory task to assess differences in functional connectivity between these groups...
January 17, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094811/brain-connectivity-changes-occurring-following-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-psychosis-predict-long-term-recovery
#7
L Mason, E Peters, S C Williams, V Kumari
Little is known about the psychobiological mechanisms of cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) and which specific processes are key in predicting favourable long-term outcomes. Following theoretical models of psychosis, this proof-of-concept study investigated whether the long-term recovery path of CBTp completers can be predicted by the neural changes in threat-based social affective processing that occur during CBTp. We followed up 22 participants who had undergone a social affective processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging along with self-report and clinician-administered symptom measures, before and after receiving CBTp...
January 17, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094464/test-retest-reliability-of-functional-connectivity-networks-during-naturalistic-fmri-paradigms
#8
Jiahui Wang, Yudan Ren, Xintao Hu, Vinh Thai Nguyen, Lei Guo, Junwei Han, Christine Cong Guo
Functional connectivity analysis has become a powerful tool for probing the human brain function and its breakdown in neuropsychiatry disorders. So far, most studies adopted resting-state paradigm to examine functional connectivity networks in the brain, thanks to its low demand and high tolerance that are essential for clinical studies. However, the test-retest reliability of resting-state connectivity measures is moderate, potentially due to its low behavioral constraint. On the other hand, naturalistic neuroimaging paradigms, an emerging approach for cognitive neuroscience with high ecological validity, could potentially improve the reliability of functional connectivity measures...
January 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093761/soul-in-the-world-symbolic-culture-as-the-medium-for-psyche
#9
Warren Colman
Whilst the loss of a sense of living connection with the material world is mainly associated with the scientific revolution in seventeenth century Europe, it can be traced back to Plato's introduction of a hierarchy between soul and body. Jung's attempted solution to this - esse in anima - is ingenious but maintains the Cartesian split by which the aliveness of the world is reduced to a projection of psychic forces (the archetypes). An alternative approach is proposed, rooted in the Aristotelean emphasis on practical activity that sees the soul as a function of our way of being in the world...
February 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093358/mapping-the-functional-connectome-traits-of-levels-of-consciousness
#10
Enrico Amico, Daniele Marinazzo, Carol Di Perri, Lizette Heine, Jitka Annen, Charlotte Martial, Mario Dzemidzic, Murielle Kirsch, Vincent Bonhomme, Steven Laureys, Joaquín Goñi
Examining task-free functional connectivity (FC) in the human brain offers insights on how spontaneous integration and segregation of information relate to human cognition, and how this organization may be altered in different conditions, and neurological disorders. This is particularly relevant for patients in disorders of consciousness (DOC) following severe acquired brain damage and coma, one of the most devastating conditions in modern medical care. We present a novel data-driven methodology, connICA, which implements Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for the extraction of robust independent FC patterns (FC-traits) from a set of individual functional connectomes, without imposing any a priori data stratification into groups...
January 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092641/performance-characterization-of-a-novel-electronic-number-connection-test-to-detect-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-cirrhotic-patients
#11
Tilo Wuensch, Darius Ferenc Ruether, Caroline Zöllner, Tobias Mueller, Tobias Jung, Magnus Kaffarnik, Ursula Kassner, Eckart Schott, Stephan Kiefer, Johann Pratschke, Martin Stockmann, Maximilian Jara
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a frequent complication of cirrhosis, characterized by cognitive deficits that negatively impact patients' quality of life. The mild, minimal hepatic encephalopathy (mHE) can only be detected by psychometric tests and early mHE detection can prevent more severe complications or even survival times. Here, we aimed to investigate the feasibility and validity of the novel-developed electronic number connection test (eNCT), which is designed as a fast and easy-to-perform mHE patient self-test...
January 12, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089351/longitudinal-association-between-hippocampus-atrophy-and-episodic-memory-decline
#12
Tetiana Gorbach, Sara Pudas, Anders Lundquist, Greger Orädd, Maria Josefsson, Alireza Salami, Xavier de Luna, Lars Nyberg
There is marked variability in both onset and rate of episodic-memory decline in aging. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have revealed that the extent of age-related brain changes varies markedly across individuals. Past studies of whether regional atrophy accounts for episodic-memory decline in aging have yielded inconclusive findings. Here we related 15-year changes in episodic memory to 4-year changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter volume and in white-matter connectivity and lesions...
December 11, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088391/changes-in-the-cerebellar-and-cerebro-cerebellar-circuit-in-type-2-diabetes
#13
Peng Fang, Jie An, Xin Tan, Ling-Li Zeng, Hui Shen, Shijun Qiu, Dewen Hu
Currently, 422 million adults suffer from diabetes worldwide, leading to tremendous disabilities and a great burden to families and society. Functional and structural MRIs have demonstrated that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) exhibit abnormalities in brain regions in the cerebral cortex. However, the changes of cerebellar anatomical connections in diabetic patients remains unclear. In the current study, diffusion tensor imaging deterministic tractography and statistical analysis were employed to investigate abnormal cerebellar anatomical connections in diabetic patients...
January 11, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087436/functional-connectivity-analysis-using-fnirs-in-healthy-subjects-during-prolonged-simulated-driving
#14
Liwei Xu, Bitian Wang, Gongcheng Xu, Wei Wang, Zhian Liu, Zengyong Li
Noninvasive and accurate assessment of driving fatigue in relation to brain activity during long-term driving can contribute to traffic safety and accident prevention. This study evaluated functional connectivity (FC) in relevant brain regions. Synergistic mechanisms in different brain regions were detected by a novel simulator, which combined semi-immersive virtual reality technology and functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Each subject was instructed to complete driving tasks coupled with a mental calculation task...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080965/feeling-learning-from-and-being-aware-of-inner-states-interoceptive-dimensions-in-neurodegeneration-and-stroke
#15
Indira García-Cordero, Lucas Sedeño, Laura de la Fuente, Andrea Slachevsky, Gonzalo Forno, Francisco Klein, Patricia Lillo, Jesica Ferrari, Clara Rodriguez, Julian Bustin, Teresa Torralva, Sandra Baez, Adrian Yoris, Sol Esteves, Margherita Melloni, Paula Salamone, David Huepe, Facundo Manes, Adolfo M García, Agustín Ibañez
Interoception is a complex process encompassing multiple dimensions, such as accuracy, learning and awareness. Here, we examined whether each of those dimensions relies on specialized neural regions distributed throughout the vast interoceptive network. To this end, we obtained relevant measures of cardiac interoception in healthy subjects and patients offering contrastive lesion models of neurodegeneration and focal brain damage: behavioural variant fronto-temporal dementia (bvFTD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and fronto-insular stroke...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077711/phase-amplitude-coupling-and-long-range-phase-synchronization-reveal-frontotemporal-interactions-during-visual-working-memory
#16
Jonathan Daume, Thomas Gruber, Andreas K Engel, Uwe Friese
: It has been suggested that cross-frequency phase-amplitude coupling (PAC), particularly in temporal brain structures, serves as a neural mechanism for coordinated working memory storage. In this magnetoencephalography study, we show that during visual working memory maintenance, temporal cortex regions, which exhibit enhanced PAC, interact with prefrontal cortex via enhanced low-frequency phase synchronization. Healthy human participants were engaged in a visual delayed match-to-sample task with pictures of natural objects...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077511/altered-connectivity-and-synapse-maturation-of-the-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-pathway-in-a-mouse-model-of-the-fragile-x-syndrome
#17
F Scharkowski, Michael Frotscher, David Lutz, Martin Korte, Kristin Michaelsen-Preusse
The Fragile X syndrome (FXS) as the most common monogenetic cause of cognitive impairment and autism indicates how tightly the dysregulation of synapse development is linked to cognitive deficits. Symptoms of FXS include excessive adherence to patterns that point to compromised hippocampal network formation. Surprisingly, one of the most complex hippocampal synapses connecting the dentate gyrus (DG) to CA3 pyramidal neurons has not been analyzed in FXS yet. Intriguingly, we found altered synaptic function between DG and CA3 in a mouse model of FXS (fmr1 knockout [KO]) demonstrated by increased mossy fiber-dependent miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) frequency at CA3 pyramidal neurons together with increased connectivity between granule cells and CA3 neurons...
January 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076982/from-structure-to-activity-using-centrality-measures-to-predict-neuronal-activity
#18
Jack McKay Fletcher, Thomas Wennekers
It is clear that the topological structure of a neural network somehow determines the activity of the neurons within it. In the present work, we ask to what extent it is possible to examine the structural features of a network and learn something about its activity? Specifically, we consider how the centrality (the importance of a node in a network) of a neuron correlates with its firing rate. To investigate, we apply an array of centrality measures, including In-Degree, Closeness, Betweenness, Eigenvector, Katz, PageRank, Hyperlink-Induced Topic Search (HITS) and NeuronRank to Leaky-Integrate and Fire neural networks with different connectivity schemes...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074926/disrupted-global-metastability-and-static-and-dynamic-brain-connectivity-across-individuals-in-the-alzheimer-s-disease-continuum
#19
Aldo Córdova-Palomera, Tobias Kaufmann, Karin Persson, Dag Alnæs, Nhat Trung Doan, Torgeir Moberget, Martina Jonette Lund, Maria Lage Barca, Andreas Engvig, Anne Brækhus, Knut Engedal, Ole A Andreassen, Geir Selbæk, Lars T Westlye
As findings on the neuropathological and behavioral components of Alzheimer's disease (AD) continue to accrue, converging evidence suggests that macroscale brain functional disruptions may mediate their association. Recent developments on theoretical neuroscience indicate that instantaneous patterns of brain connectivity and metastability may be a key mechanism in neural communication underlying cognitive performance. However, the potential significance of these patterns across the AD spectrum remains virtually unexplored...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073935/brain-structure-and-function-associated-with-younger-adults-in-growth-hormone-receptor-deficient-humans
#20
Kaoru Nashiro, Jaime Guevara-Aguirre, Meredith N Braskie, George W Hafzalla, Rico Velasco, Priya Balasubramian, Min Wei, Paul M Thompson, Mara Mather, Marvin D Nelson, Alexandra Guevara, Enrique Teran, Valter D Longo
: Growth hormone receptor deficiency (GHRD) results in short stature, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and low circulating levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Previous studies in mice and humans suggested that GHRD has protective effects against age-related diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Whereas GHRD mice show improved age-dependent cognitive performance, the effect of GHRD on human cognition remains unknown. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we compared brain structure, function, and connectivity between 13 people with GHRD and 12 unaffected relatives...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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