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Cognition and functional connectivity

Michal Assaf, Liron Rabany, Luis Zertuche, Laura Bragdon, David Tolin, John Goethe, Gretchen Diefenbach
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) might be effective in treating generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Cognitive models of GAD highlight the role of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) in precipitating and maintaining worry, and it has been hypothesized that patients with GAD exhibit decision-making deficits under uncertain conditions. Improving understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits associated with IU may lead to the identification of novel rTMS treatment targets and optimization of treatment parameters...
June 21, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Bao-Juan Li, Karl Friston, Maria Mody, Hua-Ning Wang, Hong-Bing Lu, De-Wen Hu
Understanding the neural substrates of depression is crucial for diagnosis and treatment. Here, we review recent studies of functional and effective connectivity in depression, in terms of functional integration in the brain. Findings from these studies, including our own, point to the involvement of at least four networks in patients with depression. Elevated connectivity of a ventral limbic affective network appears to be associated with excessive negative mood (dysphoria) in the patients; decreased connectivity of a frontal-striatal reward network has been suggested to account for loss of interest, motivation, and pleasure (anhedonia); enhanced default mode network connectivity seems to be associated with depressive rumination; and diminished connectivity of a dorsal cognitive control network is thought to underlie cognitive deficits especially ineffective top-down control of negative thoughts and emotions in depressed patients...
June 21, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Xin Di, Bharat B Biswal
Human brain anatomical and resting-state functional connectivity have been comprehensively portrayed using MRI, which are termed anatomical and functional connectomes. A systematic examination of tasks modulated whole brain functional connectivity, which we term as task connectome, is still lacking. We analyzed 6 block-designed and 1 event-related designed functional MRI data, and examined whole-brain task modulated connectivity in various task domains, including emotion, reward, language, relation, social cognition, working memory, and inhibition...
June 21, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Tianyi Yan, Wenhui Wang, Liu Yang, Kewei Chen, Rong Chen, Ying Han
Alzheimer's disease (AD) has a preclinical phase that can last for decades prior to clinical dementia onset. Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is regarded as the last preclinical AD stage prior to the development of amnestic mild cognitive decline (aMCI) and AD dementia (d-AD). The analysis of brain structural networks based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has identified the so-called 'rich club', a set of cortical regions highly connected to each other, with other regions referred to as peripheral. It has been reported that rich club architecture is affected by regional atrophy and connectivity, which are reduced in patients with aMCI and d-AD...
2018: Theranostics
Darija Jurišić, Irena Sesar, Ivan Ćavar, Antonio Sesar, Maja Živković, Marko Ćurković
BACKGROUND: Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) refers to visual hallucinations that occur in individuals with preserved cognitive functions associated with visual impairment. METHODS: This article reviews occurence of visual hallucinations in subjects with CBS by journals published in English in the Pubmed database in the period 1992-2018. Criteria for selection of appropriate papers were sufficient information and perspicuous view on pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical presentation and treatment possibilities of CBS...
June 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Chun-Yu Tse, Yip Long-Yin, Troby Ka-Yan Lui, Xue-Zhen Xiao, Yang Wang, Winnie Chiu Wing Chu, Nathan Allen Parks, Sandra Sau-Man Chan, Sebastiaan Franciscus Wijnandus Neggers
Current theories of pre-attentive deviant detection postulate that before the Superior Temporal Cortex (STC) detects a change, the Inferior Frontal Cortex (IFC) engages in stimulus analysis, which is particularly critical for ambiguous deviations (e.g., deviant preceded by a short train of standards). These theories rest on the assumption that IFC and STC are functionally connected, which has only been supported by correlational brain imaging studies. We examined this functional connectivity assumption by applying Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to disrupt IFC function, while measuring the later STC mismatch response with the event-related optical signal (EROS)...
June 18, 2018: NeuroImage
Pauline Popp, Peter Zu Eulenburg, Thomas Stephan, Rainer Bögle, Maximilian Habs, Peter Henningsen, Regina Feuerecker, Marianne Dieterich
Objective: Functional dizziness syndromes are among the most common diagnoses made in patients with chronic dizziness, but their underlying neural characteristics are largely unknown. The aim of this neuroimaging study was to analyze the disease-specific brain changes in patients with phobic postural vertigo (PPV). Methods: We measured brain morphology, task response, and functional connectivity in 44 patients with PPV and 44 healthy controls. Results: The analyses revealed a relative structural increase in regions of the prefrontal cortex and the associated thalamic projection zones as well as in the primary motor cortex...
June 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Sirio Cocozza, Teresa Costabile, Enrico Tedeschi, Filomena Abate, Camilla Russo, Agnese Liguori, Walter Del Vecchio, Francesca Paciello, Mario Quarantelli, Alessandro Filla, Arturo Brunetti, Francesco Saccà
Objective: The aim of this study was to perform the first resting-state functional MRI (RS-fMRI) analysis in Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) patients to assess possible brain functional connectivity (FC) differences in these patients, and test their correlations with neuropsychological performances. Methods: In total, 24 FRDA patients (M/F: 15/9, mean age 31.3 ± 15.0) and 24 healthy controls (HC; M/F: 15/9, mean age 30.7 ± 15.5) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study...
June 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Laura J de Schipper, Anne Hafkemeijer, Jeroen van der Grond, Johan Marinus, Johanna M L Henselmans, Jacobus J van Hilten
Background: Functional imaging methods, such as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, reflect changes in neural connectivity and may help to assess the widespread consequences of disease-specific network changes in Parkinson's disease. In this study we used a relatively new graph analysis approach in functional imaging: eigenvector centrality mapping. This model-free method, applied to all voxels in the brain, identifies prominent regions in the brain network hierarchy and detects localized differences between patient populations...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
A Janet Tomiyama
Many pathways connect stress and obesity, two highly prevalent problems facing society today. First, stress interferes with cognitive processes such as executive function and self-regulation. Second, stress can affect behavior by inducing overeating and consumption of foods that are high in calories, fat, or sugar; by decreasing physical activity; and by shortening sleep. Third, stress triggers physiological changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, reward processing in the brain, and possibly the gut microbiome...
June 21, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
A N Simonov, T P Klyushnik, L V Androsova, N M Mikhaylova
AIM: To quantify the relationship of Alzheimer's disease with the inflammatory markers: enzymatic activity of leukocyte elastase (LE) and functional activity of α1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI) on the basis of the logistic regression model and to build a model to predict the probability of AD in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The object of the mathematical analysis was the database, which included the results of assays of LE activity and functional α1-PI activity in blood plasma of 91 patients with a verified diagnosis of AD in inpatient or outpatient treatment and 37 age-matched healthy people...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Anna Lisowska, Islem Rekik
Diagnosis of brain dementia, particularly early mild cognitive impairment (eMCI), is critical for early intervention to prevent the onset of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), where cognitive decline is severe and irreversible. There is a large body of machine-learning based research investigating how dementia alters brain connectivity, mainly using structural (derived from diffusion MRI) and functional (derived from resting-state functional MRI) brain connectomic data. However, how early dementia affects cortical brain connections in morphology remains largely unexplored...
June 21, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Bidhan Lamichhane, Mark A McDaniel, Emily R Waldum, Todd S Braver
The capability to remember and execute intentions in the future - termed prospective memory (PM) - may be of special significance for older adults to enable successful completion of important activities of daily living. Despite the importance of this cognitive function, mixed findings have been obtained regarding age-related decline in PM, and, currently, there is limited understanding of potential contributing mechanisms. In the current study, older (N=41) and younger adults (N=47) underwent task-functional MRI during performance of PM conditions that encouraged either spontaneous retrieval (Focal) or sustained attentional monitoring (Non-focal) to detect PM targets...
June 20, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Minji Bang, Hae-Jeong Park, Chongwon Pae, Kyoungri Park, Eun Lee, Seung-Koo Lee, Suk Kyoon An
BACKGROUND: In the tradition of phenomenology, minimal selfdisturbance has been suggested as a manifestation of the core pathogenesis of schizophrenia; however, the underlying neural mechanism remains unclear. Here, in line with the concept of "cognitive dysmetria," we investigated the cerebro-cerebellar default mode network (DMN) connectivity and its association with pre-reflective minimal selfdisturbance in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis and patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES)...
June 18, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Derek M Smith, Yrian Zhao, Shella D Keilholz, Eric H Schumacher
Dynamic functional connectivity metrics have much to offer to the neuroscience of individual differences of cognition. Yet, despite the recent expansion in dynamic connectivity research, limited resources have been devoted to the study of the reliability of these connectivity measures. To address this, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 100 Human Connectome Project subjects were compared across 2 scan days. Brain states (i.e., patterns of coactivity across regions) were identified by classifying each time frame using k means clustering...
June 2018: Brain Connectivity
In-Seon Lee, Stephanie Kullmann, Klaus Scheffler, Hubert Preissl, Paul Enck
Background: High-fat meals are associated with dyspeptic symptoms in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. It is still unclear how fat is processed, or how FD symptoms and neuronal activities are modulated by psychological factors. Objective: We investigated brain activity by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) after the ingestion of high- and low-fat foods with correct/incorrect fat information. Design: We compared 12 FD patients and 14 healthy controls (HCs)...
June 18, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Richard Huskey, Britney Craighead, Michael B Miller, René Weber
Cognitive control is a framework for understanding the neuropsychological processes that underlie the successful completion of everyday tasks. Only recently has research in this area investigated motivational contributions to control allocation. An important gap in our understanding is the way in which intrinsic rewards associated with a task motivate the sustained allocation of control. To address this issue, we draw on flow theory, which predicts that a balance between task difficulty and individual ability results in the highest levels of intrinsic reward...
June 19, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Xiao Luo, Kaicheng Li, Qingze Zeng, Peiyu Huang, Yeerfan Jiaerken, Tiantian Qiu, Xiaojun Xu, Jiong Zhou, Jingjing Xu, Minming Zhang
Background: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a heterogeneous condition. Based on clinical symptoms, aMCI could be categorized into single-domain aMCI (SD-aMCI, only memory deficit) and multi-domain aMCI (MD-aMCI, one or more cognitive domain deficit). As core intrinsic functional architecture, inter-hemispheric connectivity maintains many cognitive abilities. However, few studies investigated whether SD-aMCI and MD-aMCI have different inter-hemispheric connectivity pattern. Methods: We evaluated inter-hemispheric connection pattern using fluorine-18 positron emission tomography - fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F PET-FDG), resting-state functional MRI and structural T1 in 49 controls, 32 SD-aMCI, and 32 MD-aMCI patients...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Sephira G Ryman, James F Cavanagh, Christopher J Wertz, Nicholas A Shaff, Andrew B Dodd, Brigitte Stevens, Josef Ling, Ronald A Yeo, Faith M Hanlon, Juan Bustillo, Shannon F Stromberg, Denise S Lin, Swala Abrams, Andrew R Mayer
BACKGROUND: Disrupted proactive cognitive control, a form of early selection and active goal maintenance, is hypothesized to underlie the broad cognitive deficits observed in patients with schizophrenia (SPs). Current research suggests that the disrupted activation within and connectivity between regions of the cognitive control network contribute to disrupted proactive cognitive control; however, no study has examined these mechanisms using an AX Continuous Performance Test task in schizophrenia...
May 25, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Michael A Skeide, Tanya M Evans, Edward Z Mei, Daniel A Abrams, Vinod Menon
Impaired abilities in multiple domains is common in children with learning difficulties. Co-occurrence of low reading and mathematical abilities (LRLM) appears in almost every second child with learning difficulties. However, little is known regarding the neural bases of this combination. Leveraging a unique and tightly controlled sample including children with LRLM, isolated low reading ability (LR), and isolated low mathematical ability (LM), we uncover a distinct neural signature in children with co-occurring low reading and mathematical abilities differentiable from LR and LM...
June 19, 2018: Developmental Science
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