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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778845/predictors-of-long-term-mortality-in-status-epilepticus
#1
Somsak Tiamkao, Pawinee Saybungkla, Prapassara Sirikarn, Kittisak Sawanyawisuth
BACKGROUND: There were several studies that have reported on the long-term mortality rate of status epilepticus (SE). However, these studies were conducted mainly in Western countries using small study populations. This study aimed to evaluate predictors for long-term mortality in SE using the Thai national healthcare database. METHODS: This study was conducted using the Thai national Universal Health Coverage (UC) database. The eligibility criteria for this study were that all patients were diagnosed with SE and had been admitted to any hospital between 2005 and 2015...
May 17, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723512/a-phase-iii-study-evaluating-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-remimazolam-cns-7056-compared-with-placebo-and-midazolam-in-patients-undergoing-colonoscopy
#2
Douglas K Rex, Raj Bhandari, Taddese Desta, Michael DeMicco, Cynthia Schaeffer, Kyle Etzkorn, Charles Barish, Ronald Pruitt, Brooks D Cash, Daniel Quirk, Felix Tiongco, Shelby Sullivan, David Bernstein
BACKGROUND: Remimazolam is an ultrashort-acting benzodiazepine. METHODS: We performed a randomized double-blind comparison of remimazolam to placebo for outpatient colonoscopy. This study design was a requirement of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. An additional group was randomized to open-label midazolam administered according to its package insert instructions (randomization ratio for remimazolam:placebo:midazolam was 30:6:10). Study medications were administered under the supervision of the endoscopist, without any involvement of an anesthesia specialist...
April 30, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706302/the-role-of-proton-beam-therapy-in-central-neurocytoma-a-single-institution-experience
#3
Kylie H Kang, Emily Schapira, Andrzej Niemierko, Maria Martinez-Lage, Marc R Bussière, Torunn I Yock, Jay S Loeffler, William E Butler, Bob S Carter, Helen A Shih
PURPOSE: Central neurocytomas (CNs) are rare World Health Organization grade II tumors managed with surgery and radiation therapy. We report our experience in managing CN with proton beam therapy (PBT) when radiation therapy was used. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We identified 61 patients with pathologically diagnosed CN treated at our institution between 1996 and 2016, of which 24 met inclusion criteria. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics are reported in context of progression-free survival and treatment-related adverse events...
February 16, 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657091/injectable-polypeptide-hydrogels-via-methionine-modification-for-neural-stem-cell-delivery
#4
A L Wollenberg, T M O'Shea, J H Kim, A Czechanski, L G Reinholdt, M V Sofroniew, T J Deming
Injectable hydrogels with tunable physiochemical and biological properties are potential tools for improving neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) transplantation to treat central nervous system (CNS) injury and disease. Here, we developed injectable diblock copolypeptide hydrogels (DCH) for NSPC transplantation that contain hydrophilic segments of modified l-methionine (Met). Multiple Met-based DCH were fabricated by post-polymerization modification of Met to various functional derivatives, and incorporation of different amino acid comonomers into hydrophilic segments...
April 5, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512848/metformin-ameliorates-the-age-related-changes-of-d-galactose-administration-in-ovariectomized-mice
#5
Iman Fatemi, Sara Heydari, Ayat Kaeidi, Ali Shamsizadeh, Elham Hakimizadeh, Amin Khaluoi, Mohammad Allahtavakoli
Metformin (Met) has been shown to have pleiotropic effects such as neuroprotective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties making that a potential candidate for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. This study was designed to investigate the possible effect of Met on the d-galactose (d-gal)-induced aging in ovariectomized mice. The female mice underwent bilateral ovariectomy. d-gal was administered orally at a dose of 500 mg/kg, and Met was administrated orally at doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg for 6 weeks...
March 7, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451454/efficacy-of-intraoperative-ultrasonography-in-neurosurgical-tumor-resection
#6
Jared F Sweeney, Heather Smith, AmiLyn Taplin, Eric Perloff, Matthew A Adamo
OBJECTIVE Intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS) is a widely accessible imaging modality that provides real-time surgical guidance with minimal identified risk or additional operative time. A recent study by the authors found a strong correlation between IOUS and postoperative MRI findings when evaluating the extent of tumor resection, suggesting that IOUS might have significant clinical implications. The objective of this study was to expand on results from the previous study in order to provide more evidence on the usage of IOUS in the determination of gross-total resection (GTR) in both adult and pediatric patients with brain tumors...
May 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427814/management-and-survival-of-adult-patients-with-pilocytic-astrocytoma-in-the-national-cancer-database
#7
Kevin J Lee, Eduardo Marchan, Jennifer Peterson, Anna C Harrell, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, Paul D Brown, Daniel M Trifiletti
BACKGROUND: Adult pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are relatively rare central nervous system (CNS) tumors with a favorable prognosis. We sought to investigate existing clinical management strategies and overall survival (OS) as a function of various clinical characteristics in a cohort of adult patients with PA. METHODS: The study cohort comprised all patients age >18 years diagnosed with a CNS PA diagnosed between 2004 and 2014 and included in the National Cancer Database...
April 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275979/prediction-of-a-multiple-sclerosis-diagnosis-in-patients-with-clinically-isolated-syndrome-using-the-2016-magnims-and-2010-mcdonald-criteria-a-retrospective-study
#8
Massimo Filippi, Paolo Preziosa, Alessandro Meani, Olga Ciccarelli, Sarlota Mesaros, Alex Rovira, Jette Frederiksen, Christian Enzinger, Frederik Barkhof, Claudio Gasperini, Wallace Brownlee, Jelena Drulovic, Xavier Montalban, Stig P Cramer, Alexander Pichler, Marloes Hagens, Serena Ruggieri, Vittorio Martinelli, Katherine Miszkiel, Mar Tintorè, Giancarlo Comi, Iris Dekker, Bernard Uitdehaag, Irena Dujmovic-Basuroski, Maria A Rocca
BACKGROUND: In 2016, the Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis (MAGNIMS) network proposed modifications to the MRI criteria to define dissemination in space (DIS) and time (DIT) for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). Changes to the DIS definition included removal of the distinction between symptomatic and asymptomatic lesions, increasing the number of lesions needed to define periventricular involvement to three, combining cortical and juxtacortical lesions, and inclusion of optic nerve evaluation...
February 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204841/stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-central-nervous-system-hemangioblastoma-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
James Pan, Rashad Jabarkheel, Yuhao Huang, Allen Ho, Steven D Chang
Hemangioblastomas are rare, benign, vascular tumors of the central nervous system (CNS), often associated with von-hippel lindau (VHL) disease. Current therapeutic options include microsurgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). With no randomized controlled studies and minimal data beyond single-institution reviews, the optimal management approach for patients with CNS hemangioblastomas is unclear. We completed a Pubmed/SCOPUS literature search from January 1990 to January 2017 for eligible studies on SRS for CNS hemangioblastomas...
March 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128947/t2-based-mr-imaging-gradient-echo-or-susceptibility-weighted-imaging-in-midline-and-off-midline-intracranial-germ-cell-tumors-a-pilot-study
#10
Giovanni Morana, Cesar Augusto Alves, Domenico Tortora, Jonathan L Finlay, Mariasavina Severino, Paolo Nozza, Marcello Ravegnani, Marco Pavanello, Claudia Milanaccio, Mohamad Maghnie, Andrea Rossi, Maria Luisa Garrè
PURPOSE: The role of T2*-based MR imaging in intracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs) has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) or T2* gradient echo (GRE) features of germinomas and non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs) in midline and off-midline locations. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated all consecutive pediatric patients referred to our institution between 2005 and 2016, for newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve intracranial GCT, who underwent MRI, including T2*-based MR imaging (T2* GRE sequences or SWI)...
January 2018: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116375/uncoupling-n-acetylaspartate-from-brain-pathology-implications-for-canavan-disease-gene-therapy
#11
Georg von Jonquieres, Ziggy H T Spencer, Benjamin D Rowlands, Claudia B Klugmann, Andre Bongers, Anne E Harasta, Kristina E Parley, Jennie Cederholm, Orla Teahan, Russell Pickford, Fabien Delerue, Lars M Ittner, Dominik Fröhlich, Catriona A McLean, Anthony S Don, Miriam Schneider, Gary D Housley, Caroline D Rae, Matthias Klugmann
N-Acetylaspartate (NAA) is the second most abundant organic metabolite in the brain, but its physiological significance remains enigmatic. Toxic NAA accumulation appears to be the key factor for neurological decline in Canavan disease-a fatal neurometabolic disorder caused by deficiency in the NAA-degrading enzyme aspartoacylase. To date clinical outcome of gene replacement therapy for this spongiform leukodystrophy has not met expectations. To identify the target tissue and cells for maximum anticipated treatment benefit, we employed comprehensive phenotyping of novel mouse models to assess cell type-specific consequences of NAA depletion or elevation...
January 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112532/speech-in-noise-perception-as-a-marker-of-cognitive-impairment-in-hiv-infection
#12
Yi Zhan, Abigail M Fellows, Tangkai Qi, Odile H Clavier, Sigfrid D Soli, Xiudong Shi, Jiang Gui, Yuxin Shi, Jay C Buckey
OBJECTIVES: Human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) individuals report hearing difficulties, but standard audiological tests show no, or small, changes in peripheral hearing ability. The hearing complaints may reflect central nervous system (CNS) auditory processing deficits, rather than middle or inner ear problems, and may result from CNS damage due to HIV infection or treatment. If central auditory task performance and cognitive deficits in HIV+ individuals are shown to be related, then central auditory tests might serve as a "window" into CNS function in these patients...
November 4, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029896/clemastine-fumarate-as-a-remyelinating-therapy-for-multiple-sclerosis-rebuild-a-randomised-controlled-double-blind-crossover-trial
#13
Ari J Green, Jeffrey M Gelfand, Bruce A Cree, Carolyn Bevan, W John Boscardin, Feng Mei, Justin Inman, Sam Arnow, Michael Devereux, Aya Abounasr, Hiroko Nobuta, Alyssa Zhu, Matt Friessen, Roy Gerona, Hans Christian von Büdingen, Roland G Henry, Stephen L Hauser, Jonah R Chan
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is a degenerative inflammatory disease of the CNS characterised by immune-mediated destruction of myelin and progressive neuroaxonal loss. Myelin in the CNS is a specialised extension of the oligodendrocyte plasma membrane and clemastine fumarate can stimulate differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in vitro, in animal models, and in human cells. We aimed to analyse the efficacy and safety of clemastine fumarate as a treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis...
December 2, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959703/radiologically-isolated-syndrome-in-children-clinical-and-radiologic-outcomes
#14
Naila Makhani, Christine Lebrun, Aksel Siva, David Brassat, Clarisse Carra Dallière, Jérôme de Seze, Wei Du, Françoise Durand Dubief, Orhun Kantarci, Megan Langille, Sona Narula, Jean Pelletier, Juan Ignacio Rojas, Eugene D Shapiro, Robert T Stone, Mar Tintoré, Ugur Uygunoglu, Patrick Vermersch, Evangeline Wassmer, Darin T Okuda, Daniel Pelletier
OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical and radiologic outcomes of children with incidental findings on neuroimaging suggestive of CNS demyelination (termed "radiologically isolated syndrome" or RIS). METHODS: Clinical and radiologic data were obtained from a historical cohort of children with no symptoms of demyelinating disease who had MRI scans that met the 2010 MRI criteria for dissemination in space for MS. RESULTS: We identified 38 children (27 girls and 11 boys) with RIS now being prospectively followed at 16 sites in 6 countries...
November 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904215/everyday-exotropia-learning-from-the-littlest
#15
Judy L Petrunak
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Early onset exodeviations in systemically and ocularly healthy young children, diagnosed at less than 1 year of age, may be of the constant, "infantile XT" type, or early X(T) type. The onset of common childhood X(T) is not clearly known. The purpose of this lecture is to discuss theories and characteristics of early onset exodeviations, and report on our observations of infantile XT and early X(T) at Children's Eye Care in Michigan. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 470 cases of childhood exodeviations (ages 6 months to 15 years) were reviewed and met inclusion criteria of no prior surgical treatment, no ocular, CNS or craniofacial disease, and no significant prematurity...
January 2017: American Orthoptic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862044/acute-lamotrigine-overdose-a-systematic-review-of-published-adult-and-pediatric-cases
#16
Bader Alyahya, Marjorie Friesen, Bénédicte Nauche, Martin Laliberté
CONTEXT: Lamotrigine is a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant commonly used to treat seizure and bipolar mood disorders. Evidence from case series and retrospective studies indicate that lamotrigine overdose is usually benign. However, there are reported cases of cardiac arrest and mortality following lamotrigine overdose. We undertook a systematic review of the literature on lamotrigine overdoses to better understand the clinical severity, the relevance of serum concentrations, and therapeutic interventions for overdose...
February 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842758/utility-of-strain-typing-of-propionibacterium-acnes-in-central-nervous-system-and-prosthetic-joint-infections-to-differentiate-contamination-from-infection-a-retrospective-cohort
#17
J P Burnham, A Shupe, C-A D Burnham, D K Warren
The study aimed to retrospectively assess if strain typing of Propionibacterium acnes could help to distinguish between infection and contamination in isolates recovered from the central nervous system (CNS) and prosthetic joints (PJs). This was a retrospective cohort of all Propionibacterium species isolates from the Barnes-Jewish Hospital (St Louis, MO, USA) clinical microbiology laboratory from 2011 to 2014. Available frozen isolates were recovered, and strain type (IA-1, IA-2, IB, II, III, or nontypeable class A or B) was determined via polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods...
December 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832173/-radiation-necrosis-in-the-upper-cervical-spinal-cord-in-a-patient-treated-with-proton-therapy-after-radical-resection-of-the-fourth-ventricle-ependymoma
#18
J Mraček, J Mork, T Svoboda, J Ferda, V Přibáň
BACKGROUND: Radiation necrosis in eloquent areas of the central nervous system (CNS) is one of the most serious forms of toxicity from radiation therapy. The occurrence of radiation necrosis in the CNS is described in a wide range of 3 months to 13 years after radiation therapy. The incidence of this complication covers a wide range of 3-47%. The potential advantage of proton therapy is the ability to reduce dose to normal tissue and escalate tumor dose. Proton beams enter and pass through the tissue with minimal dose deposition until they reach the end of their paths, where the peak of dose, known as the Bragg peak, occurs...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791500/correlation-of-volumetric-growth-and-histological-grade-in-50-meningiomas
#19
Wai Cheong Soon, Daniel M Fountain, Kacper Koczyk, Mutwakil Abdulla, Sachin Giri, Kieren Allinson, Tomasz Matys, Mathew R Guilfoyle, Ramez W Kirollos, Thomas Santarius
INTRODUCTION: Advances in radiological imaging techniques have enabled volumetric measurements of meningiomas to be easily monitored using serial imaging scans. There is limited literature on the relationship between tumour growth rates and the WHO classification of meningiomas despite tumour growth being a major determinant of type and timing of intervention. Volumetric growth has been successfully used to assess growth of low-grade glioma; however, there is limited information on the volumetric growth rate (VGR) of meningiomas...
November 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756607/a-randomized-open-label-two-way-crossover-single-dose-bioequivalence-study-of-temozolomide-200%C3%A2-mg-m-2-dralitem-%C3%A2-vs-temodal-%C3%A2-capsules-in-patients-with-primary-tumors-of-the-central-nervous-system-under-fasting-conditions
#20
Alejandro Muggeri, Miguel Vago, Sebastián Pérez, Marcelo Rubio, Cecilia González, Cristian Magariños, Mónica Rosenberg, Fernando Costa, Santiago Pérez-Lloret
BACKGROUND: Temozolomide is an antineoplastic agent of proven efficacy against high-grade gliomas. PURPOSE: The objective of this crossover, single-dose, bioequivalence study was to compare the rate and extent of absorption of oral temozolomide after administration of the study product (Dralitem(®), Monte Verde Sociedad Anónima) and the reference product (Temodal(®), originator product manufactured by Schering Plough Laboratories) in patients with primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors under fasting conditions...
September 2017: Drugs in R&D
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