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Thrombolytics in pulmonary embolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673293/systemic-thrombolytic-therapy-for-massive-and-submassive-pulmonary-embolism
#1
Lauren A Igneri, John M Hammer
OBJECTIVE: To critically evaluate the published literature assessing the safety and efficacy of thrombolytic therapy for massive and submassive pulmonary embolism (PE). METHODS: A search of human trials in the English-language (September 2017) was conducted through the MEDLINE database using the following terms: PE, tissue plasminogen activator, tenecteplase, and alteplase. 67 unique articles were identified, of which 24 clinical trials discussing clinical outcomes related to administration of either intravenous tenecteplase or alteplase were included...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655808/impact-of-syncope-and-pre-syncope-on-short-term-mortality-in-patients-with-acute-pulmonary-embolism
#2
Loris Roncon, Marco Zuin, Franco Casazza, Cecilia Becattini, Claudio Bilato, Pietro Zonzin
BACKGROUND: Syncope and pre-syncope are well-known symptoms of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). However, data about their impact on short-term mortality are scant. We assess the short-term mortality (30-day) for all-causes in PE patients admitted with syncope or with pre-syncope, according their hemodynamic status at admission. METHODS: Patients from the prospective Italian Pulmonary Embolism Registry (IPER) were included in the study. At admission, subjects were stratified according to 2008 ESC guidelines (as high- and non-high-risk patients)...
April 11, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567899/autopsy-findings-in-an-atypical-case-of-occult-massive-fatal-pulmonary-embolism-in-a-backdrop-of-hyperhomocysteinemia
#3
Pratibha Misra, Arijit Kumar Ghosh, Aneeta Jassar
A 43-year-old apparently healthy male presented with fever and presyncope. He was suspected to have massive pulmonary thromboembolism based on the clinico-biochemical profile. Despite aggressive thrombolytic therapy, he succumbed to his illness within 12 h of admission. Postmortem examination showed massive pulmonary thromboembolism and hyperhomocysteinemia with low high-density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol with antemortem blood sample. Herein, we report autopsy findings in a rare case of a young male with occult massive pulmonary thromboembolism without deep vein thrombosis, who had an atypical clinical presentation and was found to have underlying hyperhomocysteinemia and decreased HDLc...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552916/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-intermittent-low-dose-urokinase-thrombolysis-for-the-treatment-of-senile-acute-intermediate-high-risk-pulmonary-embolism-a-pilot-trial
#4
Tianming Zhao, Jixiang Ni, Xuehua Hu, Yingnan Wang, Xinge Du
Thrombolysis and anticoagulation were the main treatment methods for acute pulmonary embolism. However, the use of thrombolysis drugs may lead to bleeding complications. We compared intermittent low-dose urokinase (UK) and alteplase (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator [rt-PA]) in normotensive patients with intermediate-high-risk pulmonary embolism. The UK group was treated with intravenous UK 10 000 U/kg once a day for 7 days. The rt-PA group was given alteplase 50 mg by intravenous injection within 2 hours of admission...
January 1, 2018: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531763/understanding-haemorrhagic-risk-following-thrombolytic-therapy-in-patients-with-intermediate-risk-and-high-risk-pulmonary-embolism-a-hypothesis-paper
#5
REVIEW
Paul Abraham, Diego A Arroyo, Raphael Giraud, Henri Bounameaux, Karim Bendjelid
While systemic intravenous thrombolysis decreases mortality in patients with high-risk pulmonary embolism (PE), it clearly increases haemorrhagic risk. There are many contraindications to thrombolysis, and efforts should aim at selecting those patients who will benefit most, without suffering complications. The current review summarises the evidence for the use of thrombolytic therapy in PE. It clarifies the pathophysiological mechanisms in PE and acute cor pulmonale that increase the risk of bleeding following thrombolysis...
2018: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511564/management-of-patients-with-high-risk-pulmonary-embolism-a-narrative-review
#6
REVIEW
Takeshi Yamamoto
High-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) is a life-threatening disorder associated with high mortality and morbidity. Most deaths in patients with shock occur within the first few hours after presentation, and rapid diagnosis and treatment is therefore essential to save patients' lives. The main manifestations of major PE are acute right ventricular (RV) failure and hypoxia. RV pressure overload is predominantly related to the interaction between the mechanical pulmonary vascular obstruction and the underlying cardiopulmonary status...
2018: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503401/variation-in-patient-backgrounds-practice-patterns-and-outcomes-of-high-risk-pulmonary-embolism-in-japan
#7
Hiraku Funakoshi, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Hideo Yasunaga
High-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) with hypotension, circulatory failure, or cardiac arrest is a rare, but life-threating condition. Many guidelines recommend that thrombolytic therapy is the first-line therapy for this condition and surgical embolectomy is an alternative treatment. However, nationwide data have been lacking on patient characteristics and practice patterns for high-risk PE in a real-world clinical setting.We defined high-risk PE patients as those who received noradrenaline and underwent surgical embolectomy or thrombolysis within one day after admission...
March 5, 2018: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502772/pulmonary-embolism-current-role-of-catheter-treatment-options-and-operative-thrombectomy
#8
REVIEW
Michael Jolly, John Phillips
Pulmonary embolism remains a leading cause of death in the United States, with an estimated 180,000 deaths per year. Guideline-based treatment in most cases recommends oral anticoagulation for 3 months. However, in a small subset of patients, the "submassive, high-risk" by current nomenclature, with hemodynamic instability, more advanced therapeutic options are available. Treatment modalities to extract the thromboembolism and reduce pressure overload in the cardiopulmonary system include use of intravenous or catheter-directed thrombolytic agents, catheter-directed mechanical thrombectomy, and surgical embolectomy...
April 2018: Surgical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467048/pregnancy-associated-spontaneous-coronary-artery-dissection-pascad-an-etiology-for-chest-pain-in-the-young-peripartum-patient
#9
Richard Lee, David Carr
Cardiac emergencies in pregnancy and the postpartum period are rare but often life-threatening. An emergency physician's differential diagnosis for chest pain in the peripartum patient often includes serious etiologies such as pulmonary embolism or myocardial infarction (MI). A lesser-known but important consideration on the differential for MI is that of a spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD). SCAD is defined as an intramural hematoma within the coronary artery that compresses the true lumen. Expansion by increased pressures may lead to subsequent myocardial ischemia and infarction...
February 22, 2018: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412186/cyclic-rgd-functionalized-liposomes-encapsulating-urokinase-for-thrombolysis
#10
Nengpan Zhang, Chunlin Li, Dayong Zhou, Chen Ding, Yaqing Jin, Qingmei Tian, Xiangzhou Meng, Kefeng Pu, Yimin Zhu
Thrombosis, a critical event in blood vessels, not only is associated with myocardial infarction and stroke, but also accounts for considerable morbidity and mortality. Thrombolytic drugs are usually applied to the treatment of acute myocardial infarction, acute cerebral infarction and pulmonary embolism. However, thrombolytic drugs show limited efficacy in clinical practice because of the short half-life in plasma and systemic side effects. In this study, the cyclic RGD (cRGD) functionalized liposomes were prepared to encapsulate urokinase, a cheap and widely used thrombolytic drug in clinic and better thrombolysis efficacy was achieved...
February 9, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404166/does-the-incidence-and-mortality-of-pulmonary-thromboembolism-change-over-the-years
#11
Savaş Sedat Özsu, Zerrin Gürel Durmuş, Mustafa Buğra Coşkuner, Yılmaz Bülbül, Funda Öztuna, Tevfik Özlü
OBJECTIVES: In the last 20 years, with the use of computed tomography (CT) angiography, the number of patients diagnosed with pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) has increased. At the same time, data show that pulmonary embolism mortality has also reduced in this duration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, we analyzed records of patients with PTE (using ICD's) in the hospital automation system from 2001 to 2013. Data regarding age, sex, date of diagnosis, diagnosis of cancer, hemodynamic status, initial and maintenance treatment, hospital length of stay, and hospital mortality were recorded...
July 2017: Turkish Thoracic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399526/catheter-directed-thrombolysis-of-deep-vein-thrombosis-literature-review-and-practice-considerations
#12
REVIEW
Drew Fleck, Hassan Albadawi, Fadi Shamoun, Grace Knuttinen, Sailendra Naidu, Rahmi Oklu
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major health problem worldwide. The risk of pulmonary embolism following DVT is well established, but the long-term vascular sequelae of DVT are often underappreciated, costly to manage, and can have extremely detrimental effects on quality of life. Treatment of DVT classically involves oral anticoagulation, which reduces the risk of pulmonary embolism but does not remove the clot. Anticoagulation therefore does little to prevent the venous damage and scarring that occurs following DVT, leaving the patient at risk for permanent venous insufficiency and development of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS)...
December 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399522/can-thrombus-age-guide-thrombolytic-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Christopher Czaplicki, Hassan Albadawi, Sasan Partovi, Ripal T Gandhi, Keith Quencer, Amy R Deipolyi, Rahmi Oklu
Venous thrombosis (VT) is a common yet complex clinical condition that has shown minimal alteration in clinical management for decades. It is well known that thrombus evolves structurally over time, with complex changes resulting from the interplay between coagulation factors, cytokines, leukocytes and a myriad of other factors. Our current treatment options are most effective in the acute thrombus, which is composed predominantly of a loose mesh of fibrin and red blood cells (RBCs), making current anticoagulation therapies and thrombolytics quite effective in treatment...
December 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378443/thrombolysis-in-pregnancy-a-literature-review
#14
Marina Sousa Gomes, Mariana Guimarães, Nuno Montenegro
BACKGROUND: Changes in the coagulation system during pregnancy and puerperium produce a physiological hypercoagulable state. These changes are thought to be the cause of the higher rates of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), stroke, and mechanical prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT) during pregnancy. Thrombolysis can be a treatment option in this case. However, there are no available data from randomized controlled trials in pregnant patients and information about the security of thrombolytics in pregnancy is missing...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327535/catheter-assisted-management-of-massive-pulmonary-embolism
#15
Amey Beedkar, Rohan Parikh, Bhavesh Patel, Mahendra Mhaske, Sunil Washimkar, Pradeep Deshmukh, Mukund Deshpande
Pulmonary thromboembolism is common and missed by clinicians. We report a case of massive pulmonary embolism which was life threatening treated by the catheter assisted technique. Anticoagulation is the mainstay of therapy for most patients, with thrombolytic therapy reserved for some patients.1 Recent studies have suggested a role for systemic or catheter-directed thrombolytic therapy in selected patients.2 We present a case of a patient who presented with an PE, was successfully treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298088/echocardiogram-in-the-evaluation-of-hemodynamically-stable-acute-pulmonary-embolism-national-practices-and-clinical-outcomes
#16
David M Cohen, Michael Winter, Peter K Lindenauer, Allan J Walkey
RATIONALE: Societal guideline recommendations vary with regard to the role of routine trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) to screen for right ventricular strain in patients with hemodynamically-stable, acute pulmonary embolism (PE). OBJECTIVE: To characterize national patterns in use of early TTE for the evaluation of patients with hemodynamically-stable, acute PE, and determine associations between TTE use and patient outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using Premier, Inc...
January 3, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276710/use-of-tachycardia-in-patients-with-submassive-pulmonary-emboli-to-risk-stratify-for-early-initiation-of-thrombolytic-therapy-a-case-series-comparing-early-versus-late-thrombolytic-initiation
#17
Jordana Cheta, Ashleigh Long, Paul Marik
Pulmonary embolism (PE) represents a prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, with approximately 600 000 cases diagnosed annually. The mortality rate for untreated PE is as high as 30%. Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is a sign of possible adverse outcomes with right-sided heart failure being the usual cause of death from PE. There is a spectrum of clinical presentations associated with PE diagnoses, from incidental and asymptomatic to rapid hemodynamic collapse. Despite successes in identifying patients with "high-risk" PEs for aggressive thrombolytic interventions and "low-risk" PEs for outpatient anticoagulation, a significant lack of consensus exists regarding intervention modalities for PEs identified as "intermediate risk" or "submassive," defined as normotensive (systolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg) with acute RV dysfunction and myocardial injury...
October 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261563/pediatric-in-hospital-cardiac-arrest-secondary-to-acute-pulmonary-embolism
#18
Ryan W Morgan, Hannah R Stinson, Heather Wolfe, Robert B Lindell, Alexis A Topjian, Vinay M Nadkarni, Robert M Sutton, Robert A Berg, Todd J Kilbaugh
OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary embolism is a rarely reported and potentially treatable cause of cardiac arrest in children and adolescents. The objective of this case series is to describe the course of five adolescent patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest secondary to pulmonary embolism. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Single, large academic children's hospital. PATIENTS: All patients under the age of 18 years (n = 5) who experienced an in-hospital cardiac arrest due to apparent pulmonary embolism from August 1, 2013, to July 31, 2017...
March 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249784/-surgical-embolectomy-for-acute-massive-pulmonary-thromboembolism-requiring-percutaneous-cardiopulmonary-support-after-thoracoabdominal-aorta-replacement
#19
Takahiko Masuda, Masaki Hata, Kazuhiro Yamaya, Tomoyuki Suzuki, Yukihiro Hayatsu, Kyohei Ueno, Masaaki Naganuma, Naoya Terao
A 48-year-old man was admitted to our hospital and underwent thoracoabdominal aorta replacement. Eight days postoperatively, he developed severe dyspnea and transient drop in blood pressure suddenly following walk rehabilitation. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed thrombi in the bilateral main pulmonary artery. Respiratory failure and unstable hemodynamics developed, which required percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS). Because catheter embolectomy and thrombolytic therapy via pulmonary artery catheter were not effective, surgical thrombectomy was performed...
December 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245284/multiple-cardiac-arrests-induced-by-pulmonary-embolism-in-a-traumatically-injured-patient-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Shu-Qing Sun, Ke-Peng Li, Jianming Zhi
RATIONALE: Pulmonary embolism-induced cardiac arrest should not be given up arbitrarily, knowing that the etiology of pulmonary embolism is reversible in most cases. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of continuous resuscitation lasting approximately 4 hours, during which 21 episodes of cardiac arrest occurred in a 46-year-old man who sustained high-level paraplegia after a road traffic accident. DIAGNOSES: Multiple cardiac arrests induced by pulmonary embolism...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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