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muscle protein breakdown

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326312/foxo3a-forkhead-transcription-factor-o-subfamily-member-3a-links-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-apoptosis-matrix-breakdown-atherosclerosis-and-vascular-remodeling-through-a-novel-pathway-involving-mmp13-matrix-metalloproteinase-13
#1
Haixiang Yu, Adam Fellows, Kirsty Foote, Zhaoqing Yang, Nichola Figg, Trevor Littlewood, Martin Bennett
OBJECTIVE: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis accelerates atherosclerosis and promotes breakdown of the extracellular matrix, but the mechanistic links between these 2 processes are unknown. The forkhead protein FOXO3a (forkhead transcription factor O subfamily member 3a) is activated in human atherosclerosis and induces a range of proapoptotic and other transcriptional targets. We, therefore, determined the mechanisms and consequences of FOXO3a activation in atherosclerosis and arterial remodeling after injury...
January 11, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315579/muscle-molecular-adaptations-to-endurance-exercise-training-are-conditioned-by-glycogen-availability-a-proteomics-based-analysis-in-the-mcardle-mouse-model
#2
Carmen Fiuza-Luces, Alejandro Santos-Lozano, Francisco Llavero, Rocío Campo, Gisela Nogales-Gadea, Jorge Díez Bermejo, Carlos Balandrón, África González-Murillo, Joaquín Arenas, Miguel A Martín, Antoni L Andreu, Tomàs Pinós, Beatriz G Gálvez, Juan A López, Jesús Vázquez, José L Zugaza, Alejandro Lucia
McArdle disease is an inborn disorder of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism that results in blockade of glycogen breakdown due to mutations in the myophosphorylase gene. We recently developed a mouse model carrying the homozygous p.R50X common human mutation (McArdle mouse), facilitating the study of how glycogen availability affects muscle molecular adaptations to endurance exercise training. Using quantitative differential analysis by liquid chromatography with tandem-mass spectrometry, we analysed the quadriceps muscle proteome of 16-week-old McArdle (n = 5) and wild-type (WT) (n = 4) mice previously subjected to 8-week moderate-intensity treadmill training or to an equivalent control (no training) period...
January 7, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277598/deletion-of-rap1-disrupts-redox-balance-and-impairs-endothelium-dependent-relaxations
#3
Kenneth H K Wong, Yin Cai, Fan Ying, Xinyi Chen, Paul M Vanhoutte, Eva H C Tang
AIMS: Repressor activator protein 1 (Rap1) is conventionally known as a static structural component of the telomere, but recent evidence indicates that it exerts functions within and outside the nucleus taking part in metabolic regulation and promoting inflammatory responses. The present study investigated whether or not Rap1 deletion affects oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in the vascular wall, thus modulating endothelial function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Vascular responsiveness was studied in wire myographs in aortae from Rap1 wildtype and knockout mice...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245171/effects-of-atorvastatin-on-autophagy-in-skeletal-muscles-of-diabetic-rats
#4
Bingquan Yang, Jie Sun, Yang Yuan, Zilin Sun
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Atorvastatin is usually used to decrease the amount of fatty substances in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, it can cause side effects, such as breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue. This study focuses on the effects of atorvastatin on autophagy of the skeletal muscles in diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetes in rats in the diabetic (D) and atorvastatin (T) groups was induced using streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203713/therapeutic-potential-of-heat-shock-protein-induction-for-muscular-dystrophy-and-other-muscle-wasting-conditions
#5
REVIEW
Savant S Thakur, Kristy Swiderski, James G Ryall, Gordon S Lynch
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common and severe of the muscular dystrophies, a group of inherited myopathies caused by different genetic mutations leading to aberrant expression or complete absence of cytoskeletal proteins. Dystrophic muscles are prone to injury, and regenerate poorly after damage. Remorseless cycles of muscle fibre breakdown and incomplete repair lead to progressive and severe muscle wasting, weakness and premature death. Many other conditions are similarly characterized by muscle wasting, including sarcopenia, cancer cachexia, sepsis, denervation, burns, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
January 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187513/a-critical-evaluation-of-the-anabolic-response-after-bolus-or-continuous-feeding-in-copd-and-healthy-older-adults
#6
Renate Jonker, Nicolaas Ep Deutz, Rajesh Harrykissoon, Anthony J Zachria, Eugene A Veley, Mariëlle Pkj Engelen
After bolus and continuous enteral feeding of the same protein, different digestion and absorption kinetics and anabolic responses are observed. Establishing which mode of feeding has the highest anabolic potential in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may aid in the prevention of muscle wasting, but an important confounding factor is the duration of assessments after bolus feeding. We hypothesized that the anabolic response to bolus and continuous feeding in COPD patients is comparable when methodological issues are addressed...
November 29, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187365/foxo1-nucleo-cytoplasmic-distribution-and-unidirectional-nuclear-influx-are-the-same-in-nuclei-in-a-single-skeletal-muscle-fiber-but-vary-between-fibers
#7
Yewei Liu, Sarah J Russell, Martin F Schneider
Foxo transcription factors promote protein breakdown and atrophy of skeletal muscle fibers. Foxo transcriptional effectiveness is largely determined by phosphorylation-dependent nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling. Imaging Foxo1-GFP over time in 124 nuclei in 68 multi-nucleated adult skeletal muscle fibers under control culture conditions reveals large variability in Foxo1-GFP nucleo-cytoplasmic concentration ratio (N/C) and in the apparent rate coefficient (kI') for Foxo1-GFP unidirectional nuclear influx (measured with efflux blocked by leptomycin B)...
November 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180197/tsg-6-is-highly-expressed-in-human-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms
#8
S Keisin Wang, Jie Xie, Linden A Green, Robert A McCready, Raghu L Motaganahalli, Andres Fajardo, Clifford C Babbey, Michael P Murphy
BACKGROUND: The formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is characterized by a dominance of proinflammatory forces that result in smooth muscle cell apoptosis, extracellular matrix degradation, and progressive diameter expansion. Additional defects in the antiinflammatory response may also play a role but have yet to be fully characterized. TSG-6 (TNF-stimulated gene-6) is a potent antiinflammatory protein involved in extracellular matrix stabilization and cell migration active in many pathological conditions...
December 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136210/the-effect-of-sexual-maturity-and-egg-production-on-skeletal-muscle-pectoralis-major-and-gastrocnemius-protein-turnover-in-broiler-breeder-pure-lines
#9
Karen Vignale, Justina V Caldas, Judy A England, Nirun Boonsinchai, Phiphob Sodsee, Erik D Pollock, Craig N Coon
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of sexual maturity on pectoralis major and gastrocnemius muscle protein turnover in broiler breeder pure lines. Protein turnover in skeletal muscle tissue was determined in 4 broiler breeder pure lines (Line A, Line B, Line C and Line D) at 22, 27, 33, 37, 44, and 50 wk of age. A completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement 4 × 6 (4 lines and 6 time periods (ages)) was used. There were 5 replicates per line/time and each hen represented a replicate...
November 9, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122965/the-impact-of-dairy-protein-during-limb-immobilization-and-recovery-on-muscle-size-and-protein-synthesis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Cameron J Mitchell, Randall F D'Souza, Sarah M Mitchell, Vandre Casagrande Figueiredo, Benjamin F Miller, Karyn L Hamilton, Frederick F Peelor, Marcelli Coronet, Chantal A Pileggi, Brenan Durainayagam, Aaron C Fanning, Sally D Poppitt, David Cameron-Smith
Muscle disuse results in the loss of muscular strength and size, due to an imbalance between protein synthesis (MPS) and breakdown (MPB). Protein ingestion stimulates MPS, although it is not established if protein is able to attenuate muscle loss with immobilization (IM) or influence the recovery consisting of ambulatory movement followed by resistance training (RT). Thirty men (49.9±0.6 years) underwent 14 days of unilateral leg IM, 14 days of ambulatory recovery (AR) and a further 6 RT sessions over 14 days...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097038/impact-of-the-calcium-form-of-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-upon-human-skeletal-muscle-protein-metabolism
#11
D J Wilkinson, T Hossain, M C Limb, B E Phillips, J Lund, J P Williams, M S Brook, J Cegielski, A Philp, S Ashcroft, J A Rathmacher, N J Szewczyk, K Smith, P J Atherton
BACKGROUND & AIMS: β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is purported as a key nutritional supplement for the preservation of muscle mass in health, disease and as an ergogenic aid in exercise. Of the two available forms of HMB (calcium (Ca-HMB) salt or free acid (FA-HMB)) - differences in plasma bioavailability have been reported. We previously reported that ∼3 g oral FA-HMB increased muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and reduced muscle protein breakdown (MPB). The objective of the present study was to quantify muscle protein metabolism responses to oral Ca-HMB...
October 6, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066101/quality-of-meal-protein-determines-anabolic-response-in-older-adults
#12
Il-Young Kim, Yun-A Shin, Scott E Schutzler, Gohar Azhar, Robert R Wolfe, Arny A Ferrando
BACKGROUND & AIMS: It has been demonstrated that the relative content and profile of essential amino acids (EAA) play a determining role for stimulation of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) following intake of pure EAA or protein alone. METHODS: To test if this also holds in the context of mixed meals at both whole body and muscle levels, twelve older subjects (57-74 yrs) received primed continuous infusion of L-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine and L-[ring-(2)H2]tyrosine over a 9-h experimental period to determine whole body protein kinetics and MPS in the fasted state and following consumption of egg-based (EGG) or cereal-based (CEREAL) isocaloric and isonitrogenous breakfast...
October 6, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056169/unacylated-ghrelin-a-novel-regulator-of-muscle-intermediate-metabolism-with-potential-beneficial-effects-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
Gianluca Gortan Cappellari, Michela Zanetti, Pierandrea Vinci, Gianfranco Guarnieri, Rocco Barazzoni
In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), malnutrition with loss of skeletal muscle mass has a negative impact on morbidity and mortality. Emerging evidence indicates that a cluster of oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance directly contributes to skeletal muscle catabolism by favoring protein breakdown over synthesis. Ghrelin is a gastric hormone discovered and initially studied in its acylated orexigenic form. More recently, a role of unacylated ghrelin (UnAG) has been described to reduce skeletal muscle mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, inflammation, and insulin resistance both in experimental models and in clinical studies...
November 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054406/a-novel-puromycin-decorporation-method-to-quantify-skeletal-muscle-protein-breakdown-a-proof-of-concept-study
#14
Hannah Crossland, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton, Daniel J Wilkinson
The precise roles that the major proteolytic pathways play in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass remain incompletely understood, in part due to technical limitations associated with current techniques used to quantify muscle protein breakdown (MPB). We aimed to develop a method to assess MPB in cells, based on loss of puromycin labelling of translated polypeptide chains. Following an initial 24 h incubation period with puromycin (1 μM), loss of puromycin labelling from murine C2C12 myotubes was assessed over 48 h, both in the presence or absence of protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX)...
October 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040226/propranolol-and-oxandrolone-therapy-accelerated-muscle-recovery-in-burned-children
#15
Tony Chao, Craig Porter, David N Herndon, Aikaterina Siopi, Henry Ideker, Ronald P Mlcak, Labros S Sidossis, Oscar E Suman
INTRODUCTION: Severe burns result in prolonged hypermetabolism and skeletal muscle catabolism. Rehabilitative exercise training (RET) programs improved muscle mass and strength in severely burned children. The combination of RET with β-blockade or testosterone analogues showed improved exercise-induced benefits on body composition and muscle function. However, the effect of RET combined with multiple drug therapy on muscle mass, strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and protein turnover are unknown...
October 16, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962861/tribbles-3-regulates-protein-turnover-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#16
Ran Hee Choi, Abigail McConahay, Ha-Won Jeong, Jamie L McClellan, Justin P Hardee, James A Carson, Michael F Hirshman, Laurie J Goodyear, Ho-Jin Koh
Skeletal muscle atrophy is associated with a disruption in protein turnover involving increased protein degradation and suppressed protein synthesis. Although it has been well studied that the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway plays an essential role in the regulation of the protein turnover, molecule(s) that triggers the change in protein turnover still remains to be elucidated. TRB3 has been shown to inhibit Akt through direct binding. In this study, we hypothesized that TRB3 in mouse skeletal muscle negatively regulates protein turnover via the disruption of Akt and its downstream molecules...
November 25, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957442/existence-of-life-time-stable-proteins-in-mature-rats-dating-of-proteins-age-by-repeated-short-term-exposure-to-labeled-amino-acids-throughout-age
#17
Cecilie Leidesdorff Bechshøft, Peter Schjerling, Andreas Bornø, Lars Holm
In vivo turnover rates of proteins covering the processes of protein synthesis and breakdown rates have been measured in many tissues and protein pools using various techniques. Connective tissue and collagen protein turnover is of specific interest since existing results are rather diverging. The aim of this study is to investigate whether we can verify the presence of protein pools within the same tissue with very distinct turnover rates over the life-span of rats with special focus on connective tissue. Male and female Lewis rats (n = 35) were injected with five different isotopically labeled amino acids tracers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899879/pronounced-energy-restriction-with-elevated-protein-intake-results-in-no-change-in-proteolysis-and-reductions-in-skeletal-muscle-protein-synthesis-that-are-mitigated-by-resistance-exercise
#18
Amy J Hector, Chris McGlory, Felipe Damas, Nicole Mazara, Steven K Baker, Stuart M Phillips
Preservation of lean body mass (LBM) may be important during dietary energy restriction (ER) and requires equal rates of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB). Currently, the relative contribution of MPS and MPB to the loss of LBM during ER in humans is unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of dietary protein intake and resistance exercise on MPS and MPB during a controlled short-term energy deficit. Adult men (body mass index, 28.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2); age 22 ± 1 yr) underwent 10 d of 40%-reduced energy intake while performing unilateral resistance exercise and consuming lower protein (1...
September 12, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872999/analysis-of-the-early-cellular-and-humoral-responses-of-galleria-mellonella-larvae-to-infection-by-candida-albicans
#19
Gerard Sheehan, Kevin Kavanagh
Galleria mellonella larvae were administered an inoculum of Candida albicans and the response to infection over 24 hours was monitored. The yeast cell density in infected larvae declined initially but replication commenced six hours post-infection. The hemocyte density decreased from 5.2 × 106/ml to 2.5 × 106/ml at 2 hours but increased to 4.2 × 106 at 6 hours and decreased subsequently. Administration of β - glucan to larvae also caused a fluctuation in hemocyte density (5.1 ± 0.22 × 106/ml (0 hour) to 6...
September 5, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855275/dynamic-proteome-profiling-of-individual-proteins-in-human-skeletal-muscle-after-a-high-fat-diet-and-resistance-exercise
#20
Donny M Camera, Jatin G Burniston, Mark A Pogson, William J Smiles, John A Hawley
It is generally accepted that muscle adaptation to resistance exercise (REX) training is underpinned by contraction-induced, increased rates of protein synthesis and dietary protein availability. By using dynamic proteome profiling (DPP), we investigated the contribution of both synthesis and breakdown to changes in abundance on a protein-by-protein basis in human skeletal muscle. Age-matched, overweight males consumed 9 d of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet during which time they either undertook 3 sessions of REX or performed no exercise...
August 30, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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