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muscle protein breakdown

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899879/pronounced-energy-restriction-with-elevated-protein-intake-results-in-no-change-in-proteolysis-and-reductions-in-skeletal-muscle-protein-synthesis-that-are-mitigated-by-resistance-exercise
#1
Amy J Hector, Chris McGlory, Felipe Damas, Nicole Mazara, Steven K Baker, Stuart M Phillips
Preservation of lean body mass (LBM) may be important during dietary energy restriction (ER) and requires equal rates of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB). Currently, the relative contribution of MPS and MPB to the loss of LBM during ER in humans is unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of dietary protein intake and resistance exercise on MPS and MPB during a controlled short-term energy deficit. Adult men (body mass index, 28.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2); age 22 ± 1 yr) underwent 10 d of 40%-reduced energy intake while performing unilateral resistance exercise and consuming lower protein (1...
September 12, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872999/analysis-of-the-early-cellular-and-humoral-responses-of-galleria-mellonella-larvae-to-infection-by-candida-albicans
#2
Gerard Sheehan, Kevin Kavanagh
Galleria mellonella larvae were administered an inoculum of Candida albicans and the response to infection over 24 hours was monitored. The yeast cell density in infected larvae declined initially but replication commenced six hours post-infection. The hemocyte density decreased from 5.2 × 106/ml to 2.5 × 106/ml at 2 hours but increased to 4.2 × 106 at 6 hours and decreased subsequently. Administration of β - glucan to larvae also caused a fluctuation in hemocyte density (5.1 ± 0.22 × 106/ml (0 hour) to 6...
September 5, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855275/dynamic-proteome-profiling-of-individual-proteins-in-human-skeletal-muscle-after-a-high-fat-diet-and-resistance-exercise
#3
Donny M Camera, Jatin G Burniston, Mark A Pogson, William J Smiles, John A Hawley
It is generally accepted that muscle adaptation to resistance exercise (REX) training is underpinned by contraction-induced, increased rates of protein synthesis and dietary protein availability. By using dynamic proteome profiling (DPP), we investigated the contribution of both synthesis and breakdown to changes in abundance on a protein-by-protein basis in human skeletal muscle. Age-matched, overweight males consumed 9 d of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet during which time they either undertook 3 sessions of REX or performed no exercise...
August 30, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852372/branched-chain-amino-acids-and-muscle-protein-synthesis-in-humans-myth-or-reality
#4
REVIEW
Robert R Wolfe
The branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are leucine, valine and isoleucine. A multi-million dollar industry of nutritional supplements has grown around the concept that dietary supplements of BCAAs alone produce an anabolic response in humans driven by a stimulation of muscle protein synthesis. In this brief review the theoretical and empirical bases for that claim are discussed. Theoretically, the maximal stimulation of muscle protein synthesis in the post-absorptive state in response to BCAAs alone is the difference between muscle protein breakdown and muscle protein synthesis (about 30% greater than synthesis), because the other EAAs required for synthesis of new protein can only be derived from muscle protein breakdown...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842733/increasing-alkali-supplementation-decreases-urinary-nitrogen-excretion-when-adjusted-for-same-day-nitrogen-intake
#5
L Ceglia, B Dawson-Hughes
We examined whether escalating doses of potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) supplements alter urinary nitrogen excretion expressed as a ratio to same day nitrogen intake (measure of muscle-protein breakdown). The ratio declined significantly from placebo to low to high dose of KHCO3 supplementation in older adults over 3 months, suggesting muscle-sparing. INTRODUCTION: Neutralization of dietary acid load with alkali supplementation (i.e., KHCO3) has been hypothesized to have muscle protein-sparing effects...
August 25, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819082/dysregulation-of-calpain-proteolytic-systems-underlies-degenerative-vascular-disorders
#6
Takuro Miyazaki, Akira Miyazaki
Chronic vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms, diabetic angiopathy/retinopathy as well as fibrotic and proliferative vascular diseases are generally complicated by the progression of degenerative insults, which are characterized by endothelial dysfunction, apoptotic/necrotic cell death in vascular/immune cells, remodeling of extracellular matrix or breakdown of elastic lamella. Increasing evidence suggests that dysfunctional calpain proteolytic systems and defective calpain protein metabolism in blood vessels contribute to degenerative disorders...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807333/update-on-maximal-anabolic-response-to-dietary-protein
#7
REVIEW
Il-Young Kim, Nicolaas E P Deutz, Robert R Wolfe
The anabolic response to dietary protein can be defined as the difference between protein synthesis and breakdown, or the net protein balance, in response to ingestion of protein alone or a mixed meal containing protein. Others have concluded that a maximal anabolic response can be achieved with ingestion of 20-35 g of a high quality protein, leading to the formulation of a popular concept that the maximal anabolic response can be achieved by distributing the total protein intake evenly throughout the day, rather than eating a majority of dietary protein with dinner...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740214/compensatory-anabolic-signaling-in-the-sarcopenia-of-experimental-chronic-arthritis
#8
Robert D Little, Iván Prieto-Potin, Sandra Pérez-Baos, Amanda Villalvilla, Paula Gratal, Flavia Cicuttini, Raquel Largo, Gabriel Herrero-Beaumont
Inflammatory activity in rheumatoid arthritis may alter the regulation of muscle mass leading to a secondary sarcopenia, commonly termed rheumatoid cachexia (RC). We characterized alterations to muscle structure and various pro-inflammatory, catabolic and regenerative markers in an animal model of RC. Antigen induced arthritis (AiA) was performed in 20 male adult rabbits. AiA animals exhibited significantly less weight gain, a markedly elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP), lighter muscles with shorter cross-sectional diameter and increased myonuclei when compared to controls...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735095/regulation-of-lipid-droplet-associated-proteins-by-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors
#9
REVIEW
Montserrat A de la Rosa Rodriguez, Sander Kersten
Excess fatty acids are stored in cells as triglycerides in specialized organelles called lipid droplets (LD). LD can be found in nearly all cell types and may expand during certain (patho)physiological conditions. The synthesis and breakdown of triglycerides and their deposition in LD is governed by a diverse set of enzymes and LD-associated proteins. These proteins serve structural roles in and around LD and regulate the activity of key lipogenic and lipolytic enzymes. The LD-associated proteins are subject to multiple regulatory mechanisms at the protein and gene expression level...
July 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712722/cell-polarity-regulates-biased-myosin-activity-and-dynamics-during-asymmetric-cell-division-via-drosophila-rho-kinase-and-protein-kinase-n
#10
Anna Tsankova, Tri Thanh Pham, David Salvador Garcia, Fabian Otte, Clemens Cabernard
Cell and tissue morphogenesis depends on the correct regulation of non-muscle Myosin II, but how this motor protein is spatiotemporally controlled is incompletely understood. Here, we show that in asymmetrically dividing Drosophila neural stem cells, cell intrinsic polarity cues provide spatial and temporal information to regulate biased Myosin activity. Using live cell imaging and a genetically encoded Myosin activity sensor, we found that Drosophila Rho kinase (Rok) enriches for activated Myosin on the neuroblast cortex prior to nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB)...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701312/inflammation-and-premature-aging-in-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
Jeroen Kooman, Marijke Dekker, Len A Usvyat, Peter Kotanko, Frank Van der Sande, Casper G Schalkwijk, Paul G Shiels, Peter Stenvinkel
Systemic inflammation in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is an established risk factor for mortality and a catalyst for other complications which are related to a premature aging phenotype, including muscle wasting, vascular calcification and other forms of premature vascular disease, depression, osteoporosis and frailty. Uremic inflammation is also mechanistically related to mechanisms involved in the aging process, such as telomere shortening, mitochondrial dysfunction, and altered nutrient sensing, which can have direct effect on cellular and tissue function...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694075/double-seropositive-myasthenia-gravis-with-acetylcholine-receptor-and-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-protein-4-antibodies-associated-with-invasive-thymoma
#12
Hidehiro Ishikawa, Akira Taniguchi, Yuichiro Ii, Osamu Higuchi, Hidenori Matsuo, Shunya Nakane, Masaru Asahi, Atsushi Niwa, Hidekazu Tomimoto
We describe two cases of myasthenia gravis (MG) with double seropositivity for acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) antibodies (AChR/LRP4-MG) with invasive thymoma. Both cases showed myasthenic weakness, which was restricted to the ocular muscles for >5 months from onset, and then unprovoked severe clinical deterioration supervened with predominant bulbar symptoms. The patients responded adequately to therapeutic intervention. Serum AChR antibody levels at post-intervention were markedly decreased, whereas LRP4 antibodies were almost unchanged in case 1 and slightly decreased in case 2...
June 3, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679339/characteristics-of-a-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-induced-porcine-sepsis-model-for-multi-organ-metabolic-flux-measurements
#13
Gabriella A M Ten Have, Renske C I Deutz, Mariëlle P K J Engelen, Robert R Wolfe, Nicolaas E P Deutz
Survival of sepsis is related to loss of muscle mass. Therefore, it is imperative to further define and understand the basic alterations in nutrient metabolism in order to improve targeted sepsis nutritional therapies. We developed and evaluated a controlled hyperdynamic severe sepsis pig model that can be used for in vivo multi-organ metabolic studies in a conscious state. In this catheterized pig model, bacteremia was induced intravenously with 10(9) CFU/h Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) in 13 pigs for 18 h...
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659285/upregulation-of-circulating-myomir-following-short-term-energy-restriction-is-inversely-associated-with-whole-body-protein-synthesis
#14
Lee M Margolis, Donato A Rivas, Stefan M Pasiakos, James P McClung, Lisa Ceglia, Roger A Fielding
The objective of the present investigation was to determine whether energy restriction (ER) influences expression of skeletal muscle specific microRNA in circulation (c-myomiR), and if changes in c-myomiR are associated with rates of whole-body protein synthesis. Sixteen older (64 ± 2 yrs) overweight (28.5 ± 1.2 kg·m(-2)) males enrolled in this 35-day controlled feeding trial. A 7-day weight maintenance (WM) period was followed by 28 days of 30% ER. Whole-body protein turnover was determined from (15)N-glycine enrichments in 24-hr urine collections, and c-myomiR (miR-1-3p, miR-133a-3p, miR-133b, and miR-206) expressions were assessed from serum samples using RT-qPCR at the conclusions of WM and ER...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652193/triglyceride-metabolism-in-exercising-muscle
#15
REVIEW
Matthew J Watt, Yunsheng Cheng
Triglycerides are stored within lipid droplets in skeletal muscle and can be hydrolyzed to produce fatty acids for energy production through β-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation. While there was some controversy regarding the quantitative importance of intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) as a metabolic substrate, recent advances in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and confocal microscopy support earlier tracer and biopsy studies demonstrating a substantial contribution of IMTG to energy production, particularly during moderate-intensity endurance exercise...
June 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630410/investigating-the-life-expectancy-and-proteolytic-degradation-of-engineered-skeletal-muscle-biological-machines
#16
Caroline Cvetkovic, Meghan C Ferrall-Fairbanks, Eunkyung Ko, Lauren Grant, Hyunjoon Kong, Manu O Platt, Rashid Bashir
A combination of techniques from 3D printing, tissue engineering and biomaterials has yielded a new class of engineered biological robots that could be reliably controlled via applied signals. These machines are powered by a muscle strip composed of differentiated skeletal myofibers in a matrix of natural proteins, including fibrin, that provide physical support and cues to the cells as an engineered basement membrane. However, maintaining consistent results becomes challenging when sustaining a living system in vitro...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621016/acute-effects-of-phenylbutyrate-on-glutamine-branched-chain-amino-acid-and-protein-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscles-of-rats
#17
Milan Holecek, Melita Vodenicarovova, Pavel Siman
Phenylbutyrate (PB) acts as chemical chaperone and histone deacetylase inhibitor, which is used to decrease ammonia in urea cycle disorders and has been investigated for use in the treatment of a number of lethal illnesses. We performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to examine the effects of PB on glutamine (GLN), branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine and isoleucine) and protein metabolism in rats. In the first study, animals were sacrificed one hour after three injections of PB (300mg/kg b...
June 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549989/overweight-in-elderly-people-induces-impaired-autophagy-in-skeletal-muscle
#18
Yaiza Potes, Beatriz de Luxán-Delgado, Susana Rodriguez-González, Marcela Rodrigues Moreira Guimarães, Juan J Solano, María Fernández-Fernández, Manuel Bermúdez, Jose A Boga, Ignacio Vega-Naredo, Ana Coto-Montes
Sarcopenia is the gradual loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and quality associated with aging. Changes in body composition, especially in skeletal muscle and fat mass are crucial steps in the development of chronic diseases. We studied the effect of overweight on skeletal muscle tissue in elderly people without reaching obesity to prevent this extreme situation. Overweight induces a progressive protein breakdown reflected as a progressive withdrawal of anabolism against the promoted catabolic state leading to muscle wasting...
September 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546457/amino-acid-homeostasis-and-signalling-in-mammalian-cells-and-organisms
#19
REVIEW
Stefan Bröer, Angelika Bröer
Cells have a constant turnover of proteins that recycle most amino acids over time. Net loss is mainly due to amino acid oxidation. Homeostasis is achieved through exchange of essential amino acids with non-essential amino acids and the transfer of amino groups from oxidised amino acids to amino acid biosynthesis. This homeostatic condition is maintained through an active mTORC1 complex. Under amino acid depletion, mTORC1 is inactivated. This increases the breakdown of cellular proteins through autophagy and reduces protein biosynthesis...
May 25, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546288/dynamic-changes-in-the-mouse-skeletal-muscle-proteome-during-denervation-induced-atrophy
#20
Franziska Lang, Sriram Aravamudhan, Hendrik Nolte, Clara Türk, Soraya Hölper, Stefan Müller, Stefan Günther, Bert Blaauw, Thomas Braun, Marcus Krüger
Loss of neuronal stimulation enhances protein breakdown and reduces protein synthesis, causing rapid loss of muscle mass. To elucidate the pathophysiological adaptations that occur in atrophying muscles, we used stable isotope labelling and mass spectrometry to quantify protein expression changes accurately during denervation-induced atrophy after sciatic nerve section in the mouse gastrocnemius muscle. Additionally, mice were fed a stable isotope labelling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) diet containing (13)C6-lysine for 4, 7 or 11 days to calculate relative levels of protein synthesis in denervated and control muscles...
July 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
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