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muscle protein breakdown

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546457/amino-acid-homeostasis-and-signalling-in-mammalian-cells-and-organisms
#1
REVIEW
Stefan Bröer, Angelika Bröer
Cells have a constant turnover of proteins that recycle most amino acids over time. Net loss is mainly due to amino acid oxidation. Homeostasis is achieved through exchange of essential amino acids with non-essential amino acids and the transfer of amino groups from oxidised amino acids to amino acid biosynthesis. This homeostatic condition is maintained through an active mTORC1 complex. Under amino acid depletion, mTORC1 is inactivated. This increases the breakdown of cellular proteins through autophagy and reduces protein biosynthesis...
May 25, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546288/dynamic-changes-in-the-skeletal-muscle-proteome-during-denervation-induced-atrophy
#2
Franziska Lang, Sriram Aravamudhan, Hendrik Nolte, Clara Tuerk, Soraya Hölper, Stefan Müller, Stefan Günther, Bert Blaauw, Thomas Braun, Marcus Krüger
Loss of neuronal stimulation enhances protein breakdown and reduces protein synthesis, causing rapid muscle mass loss. To elucidate the pathophysiological adaptations that occur in atrophying muscles, we used stable isotope labelling and mass spectrometry to accurately quantify protein expression changes during denervation-induced atrophy after sciatic nerve section in the mouse gastrocnemius muscle (GAST). Additionally, mice were fed a SILAC diet containing (13)C6 lysine for four, seven, or eleven days to calculate relative levels of protein synthesis in denervated and control muscles...
May 25, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536293/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-agonism-attenuates-endotoxaemia-induced-muscle-protein-loss-and-lactate-accumulation-in%C3%A2-rats
#3
Hannah Crossland, Dumitru Constantin-Teodosiu, Sheila Gardiner, Paul Greenhaff
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist rosiglitazone (Rosi) appears to provide protection against organ dysfunction during endotoxaemia. We examined the potential benefits of Rosi on skeletal muscle protein maintenance and carbohydrate metabolism during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxaemia. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either standard chow (control) or standard chow containing Rosi (8.5±0.1 mg(.)kg(-1.)day(-1)) for two weeks before and during 24 h continuous intravenous infusion of LPS (15 μg(...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514978/jugular-infused-methionine-lysine-and-branched-chain-amino-acids-does-not-improve-milk-production-in-holstein-cows-experiencing-heat-stress
#4
K R Kassube, J D Kaufman, K G Pohler, J W McFadden, A G Ríus
Poor utilization of amino acids contributes to losses of milk protein yield in dairy cows exposed to heat stress (HS). Our objective was to test the effect of essential amino acids on milk production in lactating dairy cows exposed to short-term HS conditions. To achieve this objective, 12 multiparous, lactating Holstein cows were assigned to two environments (thermoneutral (THN) or HS) from days 1 to 14 in a split-plot type cross-over design. All cows received 0 g/day of essential amino acids from days 1 to 7 (negative control (NC)) followed by an intravenous infusion of l-methionine (12 g/day), l-lysine (21 g/day), l-leucine (35 g/day), l-isoleucine (15 g/day) and l-valine (15 g/day, methionine, lysine and branched-chain amino acids (ML+BCAA)) from days 8 to 14...
May 18, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493603/age-related-endothelial-dysfunction-in-human-skeletal-muscle-feed-arteries-the-role-of-free-radicals-derived-from-mitochondria-in-the-vasculature
#5
Song-Young Park, Oh Sung Kwon, Robert H I Andtbacka, John R Hyngstrom, Van Reese, Michael P Murphy, Russell S Richardson
AIM: This study sought to determine the role of free radicals derived from mitochondria in the vasculature in the recognized age-related endothelial dysfunction of human skeletal muscle feed arteries (SMFAs). METHODS: A total of 44 SMFAs were studied with and without acute exposure to the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blockade. The relative abundance of proteins from the electron transport chain, phosphorylated (p-) to endothelial (e) NOS ratio, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and the mitochondria-derived superoxide (O2(-) ) levels were assessed in SMFA...
May 11, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493471/what-role-does-the-stress-response-have-in-congestive-heart-failure
#6
REVIEW
Ahmed Badreddin, Youssef Fady, Hamdy Attia, Mohamed Hafez, Ahmed Khairallah, Dina Johar, Larry Bernstein
This review is concerned with cardiac malfunction as a result of an imbalance in protein proteostasis, the homeostatic balance between protein removal and regeneration in a long remodeling process involving the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the unfolded protein response (UPR). The importance of this is of special significance with regard to cardiac function as a high energy requiring muscular organ that has a high oxygen requirement and is highly dependent on mitochondria. The importance of mitochondria is not only concerned with high energy dependence on mitochondrial electron transport, but it also has a role in the signaling between the mitochondria and the ER under stress...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481238/the-adenosinergic-system-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-the-vasculature-new-ligands-and-challenges
#7
REVIEW
Joana Beatriz Sousa, Carmen Diniz
Adenosine is an adenine base purine with actions as a modulator of neurotransmission, smooth muscle contraction, and immune response in several systems of the human body, including the cardiovascular system. In the vasculature, four P1-receptors or adenosine receptors-A₁, A2A, A2B and A₃-have been identified. Adenosine receptors are membrane G-protein receptors that trigger their actions through several signaling pathways and present differential affinity requirements. Adenosine is an endogenous ligand whose extracellular levels can reach concentrations high enough to activate the adenosine receptors...
May 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434720/short-and-longer-term-effects-of-feeding-increased-metwabolizable-protein-with-or-without-an-altered-amino-acid-profile-to-dairy-cows-immediately-postpartum
#8
E G Carder, W P Weiss
The first few weeks after parturition is marked by low, but increasing feed intake and sharply increasing milk production by dairy cows. Because of low intake, the nutrient density of the diet may need to be higher during this period to support increasing milk yields. We hypothesized that feeding higher levels of metabolizable protein (MP) or a protein supplement with rumen-protected lysine and methionine during the immediate postpartum period would increase yields of milk and milk components. Fifty-six Holstein cows (21 primiparous and 35 multiparous) starting at 3 d in milk were used in a randomized block design...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428179/adamts13-controls-vascular-remodeling-by-modifying-vwf-reactivity-during-stroke-recovery
#9
Haochen Xu, Yongliang Cao, Xing Yang, Ping Cai, Lijing Kang, Ximin Zhu, Haiyu Luo, Lu Lu, Lixiang Wei, Xiaofei Bai, Yuanbo Zhu, Bing-Qiao Zhao, Wenying Fan
Angiogenic response is essential for ischemic brain repair. However, the mechanisms leading to postischemic neovascularization have not been established, and no therapies have been identified. The VWF-cleaving protease ADAMTS13 is required for endothelial tube formation in vitro However, there is currently no in vivo evidence supporting a function of ADAMTS13 in angiogenesis. Here we show that mice deficient in ADAMTS13 exhibited significantly reduced neovascularization, brain capillary perfusion, pericyte and smooth muscle cell coverage on microvessels, expression of the tight junction and basement membrane proteins, and accelerated blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and extravascular deposits of serum proteins in the peri-infarct cortex at 14 days after stroke...
April 20, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422542/routine-yoga-practice-impacts-whole-body-protein-utilization-in-healthy-women
#10
Megan Colletto, Nancy Rodriguez
Whole body protein utilization (WBPU), which includes flux (Q), protein synthesis (PS), protein breakdown (PB), and whole body protein balance (WBPB), provides insight regarding muscle mass, a criterion for sarcopenia. PURPOSE: To characterize yoga's impact on WBPU, body composition and functional measures in healthy (50-65y) women. METHODS: WBPU and functional measures were compared between women who routinely practiced yoga (YOGA; n=7) and non-active counterparts (CON; n=8)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393572/the-role-of-s-nitrosoglutathione-reductase-gsnor-in-human-disease-and-therapy
#11
Scott D Barnett, Iain L O Buxton
S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), or ADH5, is an enzyme in the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) family. It is unique when compared to other ADH enzymes in that primary short-chain alcohols are not its principle substrate. GSNOR metabolizes S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), S-hydroxymethylglutathione (the spontaneous adduct of formaldehyde and glutathione), and some alcohols. GSNOR modulates reactive nitric oxide (•NO) availability in the cell by catalyzing the breakdown of GSNO, and indirectly regulates S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) through GSNO-mediated protein S-nitrosation...
April 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388381/protein-requirements-of-the-critically-ill-pediatric-patient
#12
Jorge A Coss-Bu, Jill Hamilton-Reeves, Jayshil J Patel, Claudia R Morris, Ryan T Hurt
This article includes a review of protein needs in children during health and illness, as well as a detailed discussion of protein metabolism, including nitrogen balance during critical illness, and assessment and prescription/delivery of protein to critically ill children. The determination of protein requirements in children has been difficult and challenging. The protein needs in healthy children should be based on the amount needed to ensure adequate growth during infancy and childhood. Compared with adults, children require a continuous supply of nutrients to maintain growth...
April 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325824/persistence-of-myopathy-in-cushing-s-syndrome-evaluation-of-the-german-cushing-s-registry
#13
Christina Maria Berr, Mareike R Stieg, Timo Deutschbein, Marcus Quinkler, Ralf Schmidmaier, Andrea Osswald, Nicole Reisch, Katrin Ritzel, Christina Dimopoulou, Julia Fazel, Stefanie Hahner, Gunter K Stalla, Felix Beuschlein, Martin Reincke
BACKGROUND: Cushing's syndrome (CS) is characterized by an excessive secretion of glucocorticoids that results in a characteristic clinical phenotype. One feature of clinical hypercortisolism is breakdown of protein metabolism translating into clinical consequences including glucocorticoid induced myopathy. While surgery is effective in control of cortisol excess, the effect of biochemical remission on muscular function is yet unclear. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study we analyzed 47 patients with CS during the florid phase (ActiveCS)...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318687/protein-intake-distribution-pattern-does-not-affect-anabolic-response-lean-body-mass-muscle-strength-or-function-over-8-weeks-in-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Il-Young Kim, Scott Schutzler, Amy M Schrader, Horace J Spencer, Gohar Azhar, Robert R Wolfe, Arny A Ferrando
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In our recent acute metabolic study, we found no differences in the anabolic response to differing patterns of dietary protein intake. To confirm this in a chronic study, we investigated the effects of protein distribution pattern on functional outcomes and protein kinetics in older adults over 8 weeks. METHODS: To determine chronic effects of protein intake pattern at 1.1 g protein/kg/day in mixed meals on lean body mass (LBM), functional outcomes, whole body protein kinetics and muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (MPS) over 8-week respective dietary intervention, fourteen older subjects were randomly divided into either EVEN or UNVEN group...
March 3, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280974/post-absorptive-muscle-protein-turnover-affects-resistance-training-hypertrophy
#15
Paul T Reidy, Michael S Borack, Melissa M Markofski, Jared M Dickinson, Christopher S Fry, Rachel R Deer, Elena Volpi, Blake B Rasmussen
PURPOSE: Acute bouts of resistance exercise and subsequent training alters protein turnover in skeletal muscle. The mechanisms responsible for the changes in basal post-absorptive protein turnover and its impact on muscle hypertrophy following resistance exercise training are unknown. Our goal was to determine whether post-absorptive muscle protein turnover following 12 weeks of resistance exercise training (RET) plays a role in muscle hypertrophy. In addition, we were interested in determining potential molecular mechanisms responsible for altering post-training muscle protein turnover...
May 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257333/recent-advances-for-measurement-of-protein-synthesis-rates-use-of-the-virtual-biopsy-approach-and-measurement-of-muscle-mass
#16
Marc Hellerstein, William Evans
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Flux-rate measurements of protein synthesis and breakdown (turnover) in muscle represent an ideal class of mechanism-based biomarkers for conditions of altered muscle mass and function. We describe here new metabolic labeling techniques for flux-rate measurements in humans, focusing on skeletal muscle. RECENT FINDINGS: Dynamics of the muscle proteome are accurately measured in humans by combining long-term heavy water labeling with tandem mass spectrometry...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237723/androgen-mediated-regulation-of-skeletal-muscle-protein-balance
#17
REVIEW
Michael L Rossetti, Jennifer L Steiner, Bradley S Gordon
Androgens significantly alter muscle mass in part by shifting protein balance in favor of net protein accretion. During various atrophic conditions, the clinical impact of decreased production or bioavailability of androgens (termed hypogonadism) is important as a loss of muscle mass is intimately linked with survival outcome. While androgen replacement therapy increases muscle mass in part by restoring protein balance, this is not a comprehensive treatment option due to potential side effects. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanisms by which androgens alter protein balance is needed for the development of androgen-independent therapies...
May 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194093/effects-of-an-amylopectin-and-chromium-complex-on-the-anabolic-response-to-a-suboptimal-dose-of-whey-protein
#18
T N Ziegenfuss, H L Lopez, A Kedia, S M Habowski, J E Sandrock, B Raub, C M Kerksick, A A Ferrando
BACKGROUND: Previous research has demonstrated the permissive effect of insulin on muscle protein kinetics, and the enhanced insulin sensitizing effect of chromium. In the presence of adequate whole protein and/or essential amino acids (EAA), insulin has a stimulatory effect on muscle protein synthesis, whereas in conditions of lower blood EAA concentrations, insulin has an inhibitory effect on protein breakdown. In this study, we determined the effect of an amylopectin/chromium (ACr) complex on changes in plasma concentrations of EAA, insulin, glucose, and the fractional rate of muscle protein synthesis (FSR)...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177129/role-of-parp-activity-in-lung-cancer-induced-cachexia-effects-on-muscle-oxidative-stress-proteolysis-anabolic-markers-and-phenotype
#19
Alba Chacon-Cabrera, Mercè Mateu-Jimenez, Klaus Langohr, Clara Fermoselle, Elena García-Arumí, Antoni L Andreu, Jose Yelamos, Esther Barreiro
Strategies to treat cachexia are still at its infancy. Enhanced muscle protein breakdown and ubiquitin-proteasome system are common features of cachexia associated with chronic conditions including lung cancer (LC). Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP), which play a major role in chromatin structure regulation, also underlie maintenance of muscle metabolism and body composition. We hypothesized that protein catabolism, proteolytic markers, muscle fiber phenotype, and muscle anabolism may improve in respiratory and limb muscles of LC-cachectic Parp-1-deficient (Parp-1(-/-) ) and Parp-2(-/-) mice...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175999/dietary-proteins-and-amino-acids-in-the-control-of-the-muscle-mass-during-immobilization-and-aging-role-of-the-mps-response
#20
REVIEW
Jason M Cholewa, Dominique Dardevet, Fernanda Lima-Soares, Kassiana de Araújo Pessôa, Paulo Henrique Oliveira, João Ricardo Dos Santos Pinho, Humberto Nicastro, Zhi Xia, Christian Emmanuel Torres Cabido, Nelo Eidy Zanchi
Dietary proteins/essential amino acids (EAAs) are nutrients with anabolic properties that may increase muscle mass or attenuate muscle loss during immobilization and aging via the stimulation of muscle protein synthesis (MPS). An EAA's anabolic threshold, capable to maximize the stimulation of MPS has been hypothesized, but during certain conditions associated with muscle loss, this anabolic threshold seems to increase which reduces the efficacy of dietary EAAs to stimulate MPS. Preliminary studies have demonstrated that acute ingestion of dietary proteins/EAA (with a sufficient amount of leucine) was capable to restore the postprandial MPS during bed rest, immobilization or aging; however, whether these improvements translate into chronic increases (or attenuates loss) of muscle mass is equivocal...
May 2017: Amino Acids
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