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Evangelos Koustas, Michalis V Karamouzis, Chrysovalantou Mihailidou, Dimitrios Schizas, Athanasios G Papavassiliou
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its associated pathway is a critical key regulator of CRC development and progression. The monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) cetuximab and panitumumab, directed against EGFR, represent a major step forward in the treatment of metastatic Colorectal cancer (mCRC), in terms of progression-free survival and overall survival in several clinical trials. However, the activity of anti-EGFR moAbs appears to be limited to a subset of patients with mCRC. Studies have highlighted that acquired-resistance to anti-EGFR MoAbs biochemically converge into Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways...
March 18, 2017: Cancer Letters
Juan J Gu, Gregory P Kaufman, Cory Mavis, Myron S Czuczman, Francisco J Hernandez-Ilizaliturri
The ubiqutin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a role in rituximab-chemotherapy resistance and bortezomib (BTZ) possesses caspase-dependent (i.e. Bak stabilization) and a less characterized caspase-independent mechanism-of-action(s). Here, we define BTZ-induced caspase-independent cell death pathways. A panel of rituximab-sensitive (RSCL), rituximab-resistant cell lines (RRCL) and primary tumor cells derived from lymphoma patients (N = 13) were exposed to BTZ. Changes in cell viability, cell-cycle, senescence, and mitotic index were quantified...
December 31, 2016: Oncotarget
Subhadip Mukhopadhyay, Prajna Paramita Naik, Prashanta Kumar Panda, Niharika Sinha, Durgesh Nandini Das, Sujit Kumar Bhutia
Mitophagy is a highly specialised type of autophagy that plays an important role in regulating mitochondrial dynamics and controls cellular quality during stress. In this study, we established that serum starvation led to induction of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 (cIAP1), which regulates mitophagy through ubiquitination. Importantly, gain and loss of function of cIAP1 resulted in concomitant alteration in mitophagy confirming the direct implication of cIAP1 in induction of mitophagy. Interestingly, it was observed that cIAP1 translocated to mitochondria to associate with TOM20, Ulk1, and LC3 to initiate mitophagy...
October 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Frederick C Nucifora, Leslie G Nucifora, Chee-Hoe Ng, Nicolas Arbez, Yajuan Guo, Elaine Roby, Vered Shani, Simone Engelender, Dong Wei, Xiao-Fang Wang, Tianxia Li, Darren J Moore, Olga Pletnikova, Juan C Troncoso, Akira Sawa, Ted M Dawson, Wanli Smith, Kah-Leong Lim, Christopher A Ross
A common genetic form of Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by mutations in LRRK2. We identify WSB1 as a LRRK2 interacting protein. WSB1 ubiquitinates LRRK2 through K27 and K29 linkage chains, leading to LRRK2 aggregation and neuronal protection in primary neurons and a Drosophila model of G2019S LRRK2. Knocking down endogenous WSB1 exacerbates mutant LRRK2 neuronal toxicity in neurons and the Drosophila model, indicating a role for endogenous WSB1 in modulating LRRK2 cell toxicity. WSB1 is in Lewy bodies in human PD post-mortem tissue...
June 7, 2016: Nature Communications
Xin Liu, Hongyuan Li, Lingxia Liu, Yang Lu, Yanyan Gao, Pengyu Geng, Xiaoxue Li, Baiqu Huang, Yu Zhang, Jun Lu
The cap 'n' collar (CNC) family of transcription factors play important roles in resistance of oxidative and electrophilic stresses. Among the CNC family members, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is critical for regulating the antioxidant and phase II enzymes through antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated transactivation. The activity of Nrf2 is controlled by a variety of post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation and sumoylation. Here we demonstrate that the arginine methyltransferase-1 (PRMT1) methylates Nrf2 protein at a single residue of arginine 437, both in vitro and in vivo...
August 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Dragana A M Catici, Hope E Amos, Yi Yang, Jean M H van den Elsen, Christopher R Pudney
To understand complex molecular interactions, it is necessary to account for molecular flexibility and the available equilibrium of conformational states. Only a small number of experimental approaches can access such information. Potentially steady-state red edge excitation shift (REES) spectroscopy can act as a qualitative metric of changes to the protein free energy landscape (FEL) and the equilibrium of conformational states. First, we validate this hypothesis using a single Trp-containing protein, NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO)...
June 2016: FEBS Journal
Xingqiao Xie, Faxiang Li, Yuanyuan Wang, Yingli Wang, Zhijie Lin, Xiaofang Cheng, Jianping Liu, Changbin Chen, Lifeng Pan
The autophagy receptor CALCOCO2/NDP52 functions as a bridging adaptor and plays an essential role in the selective autophagic degradation of invading pathogens by specifically recognizing ubiquitin-coated intracellular pathogens and subsequently targeting them to the autophagic machinery; thereby it is required for innate immune defense against a range of infectious pathogens in mammals. However, the mechanistic basis underlying CALCOCO2-mediated specific recognition of ubiqutinated pathogens is still unknown...
2015: Autophagy
Lu-jing Ren, Xiao-yan Zhuang, Sheng-lan Chen, Xiao-jun Ji, He Huang
ω-3 fatty acids play significant roles in brain development and cardiovascular disease prevention and have been widely used in food additives and the pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of ω-3 desaturase for regulating fatty acid composition and sterol content in Schizochytrium sp. The exogenous ω-3 desaturase gene driven by ubiqutin promoter was introduced by 18S homologous sequence to the genome of Schizochytrium sp. Genetically modified strains had greater size and lower polar lipids than wild type strains...
November 11, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yoshinori Katsuragi, Yoshinobu Ichimura, Masaaki Komatsu
p62/SQSTM1 is a stress-inducible cellular protein that is conserved among metazoans but not in plants and fungi. p62/SQSTM1 has multiple domains that mediate its interactions with various binding partners and it serves as a signaling hub for diverse cellular events such as amino acid sensing and the oxidative stress response. In addition, p62/SQSTM1 functions as a selective autophagy receptor for degradation of ubiqutinated substrates. In the present review, we describe the current knowledge about p62 with regard to mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 activation, the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway and selective autophagy...
December 2015: FEBS Journal
Christian M Girgis, Kuan Minn Cha, Peter J Houweling, Renuka Rao, Nancy Mokbel, Mike Lin, Roderick J Clifton-Bligh, Jenny E Gunton
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with muscle weakness, pain, and atrophy. Serum vitamin D predicts muscle strength and age-related muscle changes. However, precise mechanisms by which vitamin D affects skeletal muscle are unclear. To address this question, this study characterizes the muscle phenotype and gene expression of mice with deletion of vitamin D receptor (VDRKO) or diet-induced vitamin D deficiency. VDRKO and vitamin D-deficient mice had significantly weaker grip strength than their controls. Weakness progressed with age and duration of vitamin D deficiency, respectively...
December 2015: Calcified Tissue International
Mi Kyung Park, Chang Hoon Lee
Toxicants can perturb cellular homeostasis by modifying phosphorylation-based signaling. In the present study, we examined the effects of cerulein, an inducer of acute pancreatitis, on keratin 8 (K8) phosphorylation. We found that cerulein dose-dependently induced K8 phosphorylation and perinuclear reorganization in PANC-1 cells, thus leading to migration and invasion. The extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) inhibitor U0126 suppressed cerulein-induced phosphorylation of serine 431 and reorganization of K8...
August 25, 2015: Environmental Toxicology
Karolina Matković, Małgorzata Mitkiewicz, Janusz Matuszyk
Type I interferons (IFNs) are important in the immune response. After pathogen detection, host cells rapidly trigger innate immune mechanisms such as inflammatory cytokines production, thus leading to the eradication of the invading virus. Such mechanisms engage signaling cascades which, in the initial phase of infection, lead to the activation of the NF-κB pathway and IFN regulatory factors (IRF-3, IRF-7) which directly control the production of IFNs. Proper regulation of IFN induction takes place by ubiqutination and allows to maintain a balance between the activation and inhibition of the immune system response due to an infection...
July 27, 2015: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
H Ogi, Y Sakuraba, R Kitagawa, L Xiao, C Shen, M A Cynthia, S Ohta, M A Arnold, N Ramirez, P J Houghton, K Kitagawa
Sgt1/Sugt1, a cochaperone of Hsp90, is involved in several cellular activities including Cullin E3 ubiqutin ligase activity. The high level of Sgt1 expression in colorectal and gastric tumors suggests that Sgt1 is involved in tumorigenesis. Here, we report that Sgt1 is overexpressed in colon, breast and lung tumor tissues and in Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma xenografts. We also found that Sgt1 heterozygous knockout resulted in suppressed Hras-mediated transformation in vitro and tumor formation in p53(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblast cells and significantly increased survival of p53(-/-) mice...
2015: Oncogenesis
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 23, 2015: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
Ching-Hui Lin, Shu-Yu Lin, Hsuen-Wen Chang, Li-Jung Ko, Yan-Shen Tseng, Vincent H S Chang, Winston C Y Yu
Downregulation of multiple cell cycle-regulatory molecules is a dominant event in TGF-β1-mediated growth inhibition of human carcinoma cells. It is known that KLF10 mimics the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects that TGF-β1 has on epithelial cell growth and the growth of various tumor cells; based on these findings it is considered as a tumor suppressor. KLF10 protein expression is tightly associated with cell cycle-dependent events. However, the regulatory mechanism and its biological meaning have not been identified...
May 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Julien Bertrand, Rachel Marion-Letellier, Saïda Azhar, Philippe Chan, Romain Legrand, Alexis Goichon, Ibtissem Ghouzali, Moutaz Aziz, David Vaudry, Guillaume Savoye, Pierre Déchelotte, Moïse Coëffier
Ubiquitin proteasome system contributes to the regulation of intestinal inflammatory response as its inhibition is associated with tissue damage improvement. We aimed to evaluate whether glutamine is able to limit inflammation by targeting ubiquitin proteasome system in experimental colitis. Colitis was induced in male rats by intrarectal instillation of 2-4-6-trinitrobenzen sulfonic acid (TNBS) at day 1. From day 2 to day 6, rats daily received either an intrarectal instillation of PBS (TNBS/PBS group) or glutamine (TNBS/Gln)...
July 2015: Proteomics
Wen-Li Zeng, Yao-Wu Chen, Hui Zhou, Jue-Yu Zhou, Min Wei, Rong Shi
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that the members of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are important for tumorigenesis. HERC4, one component, is a recently identified ubiqutin ligase. However, the expression level and function role of HERC4 in lung cancer remain unknown. Our objective was to investigate any correlation between HERC4 and development of lung cancer and its clinical significance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To determine HERC4 expression in lung cancer, an immunohistochemistry analysis of a tissue microarray containing samples of 10 lung normal tissues, 15 pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas, 45 squamous epithelial cancers and 50 adenocarcinomas was conducted...
2015: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Haibo Jiang, Siqi Xiong, Xiaobo Xia
BACKGROUND: Rhodopsin mutations are associated with the autosomal dominant form of retinitis pigmentosa. T17M mutation in rhodopsin predisposes cells to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induces cell death. This study aimed to examine whether chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyrate prevents ER stress induced by rhodopsin T17M. RESULTS: ARPE-19 cells were transfected with myc-tagged wild-type (WT) and T17M rhodopsin constructs. Turnover of WT and T17M rhodopsin was measured by cycloheximide chase analysis...
2014: Cell & Bioscience
Yibin Yang, Louis M Staudt
Human lymphoid malignancies inherit gene expression networks from their normal B-cell counterpart and co-opt them for their own oncogenic purpose, which is usually governed by transcription factors and signaling pathways. These transcription factors and signaling pathways are precisely regulated at multiple steps, including ubiquitin modification. Protein ubiqutination plays a role in almost all cellular events and in many human diseases. In the past few years, multiple studies have expanded the role of ubiquitination in the genesis of diverse lymphoid malignancies...
January 2015: Immunological Reviews
Grigory Ryzhakov, Hayley L Eames, Irina A Udalova
Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is a crucial transcription factor in a number of immune and homeostatic processes, including host defense against pathogens, tumorigenesis, and autoimmunity. Upon induction of immune signaling pathways, IRF5 undergoes post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and ubiqutination, which are believed to trigger IRF5 nuclear translocation from the cytosol, followed by recruitment to promoters where transcription of its gene targets is initiated. In this review, we systematically analyze the data published in the last decade on IRF5 activation, including the role of post-translational modifications and the proposed enzymes targeting IRF5 in this process...
February 2015: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
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