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muscle protein degradation

Hala Attia, Nouf Al-Rasheed, Raeesa Mohamad, Nawal Al-Rasheed, Maha Al-Amin
BACKGROUND: Hepatic fibrosis and its end point; cirrhosis, are the major cause of liver failure and death in patients with chronic liver disease. Therefore, the need for an effective treatment is evident. This study was designed to assess the potential effects of aqueous extract of date fruits, either flesh (DFE) or pits (DPE), on oxidative DNA damage and liver inflammation induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and whether they are related to inhibition of nuclear factor-κB pathway...
October 24, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Stefan Pittner, Bianca Ehrenfellner, Angela Zissler, Victoria Racher, Wolfgang Trutschnig, Arne C Bathke, Alexandra M Sänger, Walter Stoiber, Peter Steinbacher, Fabio C Monticelli
Awareness of postmortem degradation processes in a human body is fundamental to develop methods for forensic time since death estimation (TDE). Currently, applied approaches are all more or less limited to certain postmortem phases, or have restrictions on behalf of circumstances of death. Novel techniques, however, rarely exceed basic research phases due to various reasons. We report the first application of a novel method, based on decay of muscle proteins, in a recent case of murder-suicide, where other TDE methods failed to obtain data...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
E Kamanga-Sollo, K J Thornton, M E White, W R Dayton
In feedlot steers, estradiol-17β (E2) and combined E2 and trenbolone acetate (a testosterone analog) implants enhance rate and efficiency of muscle growth; and, consequently, these compounds are widely used as growth promoters in several countries. Treatment with E2 stimulates protein synthesis rate and suppresses protein degradation rate in fused bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures; however, the mechanisms involved in these effects are not known with certainty. Although the genomic effects of E2 mediated through the classical estrogen receptors have been characterized, recent studies indicate that binding of E2 to the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER)-1 mediates nongenomic effects of E2 on cellular function...
September 13, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Andrea B Agarwal, Cheng-Yuan Feng, Amy L Altick, David R Quilici, Dan Wen, L Alan Johnson, Christopher S von Bartheld
Purpose: To determine whether structural protein composition and expression of key regulatory genes are altered in strabismic human extraocular muscles. Methods: Samples from strabismic horizontal extraocular muscles were obtained during strabismus surgery and compared with normal muscles from organ donors. We used proteomics, standard and customized PCR arrays, and microarrays to identify changes in major structural proteins and changes in gene expression. We focused on muscle and connective tissue and its control by enzymes, growth factors, and cytokines...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Leandro H Manfredi, D Lustrino, Juliano Machado, Wilian Assis Silveira, Neusa Maria Zanon, Luiz C Navegantes, Isis do Carmo Kettelhut
Previous studies have shown that catecholamines in vivo and in vitro inhibit the activity of Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis in skeletal muscles under basal conditions. In the present study we sought to investigate the role of catecholamines in regulating the Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis in soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from rats acutely exposed to cold. Overall proteolysis, the activity of proteolytic systems as well as protein levels and gene expression of different components of calpain system were investigated in rats submitted to adrenodemedullation (ADMX) and exposed to cold for 24 h...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Juan Guillermo Cárcamo, Marcelo N Aguilar, Constanza F Carreño, Tamara Vera, Luis Arias-Darraz, Jaime E Figueroa, Alex P Romero, Marco Alvarez, Alejandro J Yañez
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) subjected to three consecutive, alternating treatments with emamectin benzoate (EMB) and deltamethrin (DM) during outbreaks of Caligus rogercresseyi in a farm located in southern Chile (Hornopiren, Chiloé), were studied to determine the effects of these treatments on the protein and enzymatic activity levels of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in different tissues. Consecutive and alternating EMB/DM treatments resulted in a 10-fold increase and 3-fold decrease of CYP1A protein levels in the intestine and gills, respectively...
October 17, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Barbara Kathage, Sebastian Gehlert, Anna Ulbricht, Laura Lüdecke, Victor E Tapia, Zacharias Orfanos, Daniela Wenzel, Wilhelm Bloch, Rudolf Volkmer, Bernd K Fleischmann, Dieter O Fürst, Jörg Höhfeld
The cochaperone BAG3 is a central protein homeostasis factor in mechanically strained mammalian cells. It mediates the degradation of unfolded and damaged forms of the actin-crosslinker filamin through chaperone-assisted selective autophagy (CASA). In addition, BAG3 stimulates filamin transcription in order to compensate autophagic disposal and to maintain the actin cytoskeleton under strain. Here we demonstrate that BAG3 coordinates protein synthesis and autophagy through spatial regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)...
October 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Stephen Harrap
Genetic discovery in blood pressure is generally referenced in relation to protein-coding genes, despite the fact that genes less than 2% of the genome. Recent exploration of the DNA sequences between genes, once called "junk" DNA, has revealed a wealth of transcripts for RNA species that do not encode protein. These non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have emerged as dynamic managers of the business of the genome, able to coordinate the expression of genes in time and space to achieve the complexities of normal development and growth...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Tomonori Sato, Yoshiaki Ito, Takashi Nagasawa
Sarcopenia is a condition of the loss of muscle mass that is associated with aging and that increases the risk for bedridden state, thereby warranting studies of interventions that attenuate sarcopenia. Here the effects of 2-month dietary L-lysine (Lys) supplementation (1.5-3.0 %) on myofibrillar protein degradation and major proteolytic systems were investigated in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8). At 36 weeks of age, skeletal muscle and lean body mass was reduced in SAMP8 when compared with control senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1)...
October 17, 2016: Biogerontology
Karen Vignale, Justina V Caldas, Judy A England, Nirun Boonsinchai, Phiphob Sodsee, Monticha Putsakum, Erik D Pollock, Sami Dridi, Craig N Coon
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of four different feeding regimens on breast muscle protein turnover in broiler breeder Cobb-500 parent stock (PS) pullets and breeder hens. The four feeding regimens based on BW curves utilized for the study were as follows: Everyday feeding (STD-ED) (Cobb Standard BW curve), skip-a-day feeding (STD-SKIP) (Cobb Standard BW curve), lighter BW (LBW-SKIP) (BW curve 20% under), and heavier BW (HBW-SKIP) (BW curve 20% over). Each feeding regimen was provided to pullets from 4 wk to 21 wk of age...
October 12, 2016: Poultry Science
Tanes I Lima, Hygor N Araujo, Eveline S Menezes, Carlos H Sponton, Michel B Araújo, Lucas H M Bomfim, André L Queiroz, Madla A Passos, Thais Amaral E Sousa, Sandro M Hirabara, Amanda R Martins, Helena C L B Sampaio, Alice Rodrigues, Rui Curi, Everardo M Carneiro, Antônio C Boschero, Leonardo R Silveira
Mitochondria play a critical role in several cellular processes and cellular homeostasis. Mitochondrion dysfunction has been correlated with numerous metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs that have emerged as key regulators of cell metabolism. The microRNAs act as central regulators of metabolic gene networks by leading to the degradation of their target messenger RNA or repression of protein translation. In addition, vesicular and non-vesicular circulating miRNAs exhibit a potential role as mediators of the cross-talk between the skeletal muscle and other tissues/organs...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Svitlana Pasteuning-Vuhman, Johanna Boertje-van der Meulen, Maaike van Putten, Maurice Overzier, Peter Ten Dijke, Szymon M Kiełbasa, Wibowo Arindrarto, Ron Wolterbeek, Ksenia V Lezhnina, Ivan V Ozerov, Aleksandr M Aliper, Willem M Hoogaars, Annemieke Aartsma-Rus, Cindy J M Loomans
Skeletal muscle fibrosis and impaired muscle regeneration are major contributors to muscle wasting in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Muscle growth is negatively regulated by myostatin (MSTN) and activins. Blockage of these pathways may improve muscle quality and function in DMD. Antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) were designed specifically to block the function of ALK4, a key receptor for the MSTN/activin pathway in skeletal muscle. AON-induced exon skipping resulted in specific Alk4 down-regulation, inhibition of MSTN activity, and increased myoblast differentiation in vitro Unexpectedly, a marked decrease in muscle mass (10%) was found after Alk4 AON treatment in mdx mice...
October 12, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Yaping Zhang, Wei Zhang, Lars Edvinsson, Cang-Bao Xu
Abnormal contraction of vessels termed "vasospasm" is associated with various cardiovascular diseases. Smoking is a well-known risk factor that increases vasospasm. However, the molecular mechanisms by which smoking leads to vasospasm and cardiovascular disease are not fully understood. The present study was designed to examine if DMSO-extracted cigarette smoke particles (DSP) could induce up-regulation of vascular endothelin type A (ETA ) receptors, and if ETA receptor is up-regulated through activation of extracellular regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) signal pathways...
October 12, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Laís Rosa Viana, Rafael Canevarolo, Anna Caroline Perina Luiz, Raquel Frias Soares, Camila Lubaczeuski, Ana Carolina de Mattos Zeri, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is one of the most important causes of cancer-related death. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids, particularly leucine, has been used to minimise loss of muscle tissue, although few studies have examined the effect of this type of nutritional supplementation on the metabolism of the tumour-bearing host. Therefore, the present study evaluated whether a leucine-rich diet affects metabolomic derangements in serum and tumour tissues in tumour-bearing Walker-256 rats (providing an experimental model of cachexia)...
October 3, 2016: BMC Cancer
Yu Fu, Jette F Young, Margrethe Therkildsen
The present research was performed to investigate endogenous release of bioactive peptides in beef during postmortem aging times (1, 10 and 20days). Gradually decreased Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values of longissimus thoracis (LT) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles were observed and the degradation of structural proteins and collagen led to release of low-molecular weight (<3kDa) peptides. These peptides exhibited 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, ACE- and renin-inhibitory activities...
September 30, 2016: Meat Science
R H Wang, R R Liang, H Lin, L X Zhu, Y M Zhang, Y W Mao, P C Dong, L B Niu, M H Zhang, X Luo
This study investigated the effects of acute heat stress and slaughter processing on poultry meat quality and carbohydrate metabolism. Broilers (200) were randomly divided into 2 groups receiving heat stress (HS; 36°C for one h), compared to a non-stressed control (C). At slaughter, each group was further divided into 2 groups for slaughter processing (L = laboratory; F = commercial factory). L group breasts were removed immediately after bleeding without carcass scalding or defeathering, and stored at 4°C...
October 4, 2016: Poultry Science
Divya Mohan, Amy Lewis, Mehul S Patel, Katrina J Curtis, Jen Y Lee, Nicholas S Hopkinson, Ian B Wilkinson, Paul R Kemp, Michael I Polkey
INTRODUCTION: Quadriceps dysfunction is important in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with an associated increased proportion of type II fibers. Investigation of protein synthesis and degradation has yielded conflicting results, possibly due to study of whole biopsy samples, whereas signalling may be fiber-specific. Our objective was to develop a method for fiber-specific gene expression analysis. METHODS: 12 COPD and 6 healthy subjects underwent quadriceps biopsy...
September 28, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Takeshi Shimoide, Naoyuki Kawao, Yukinori Tamura, Hironobu Morita, Hiroshi Kaji
Skeletal muscle hypertrophy and wasting are induced by hypergravity and microgravity, respectively. However, the mechanisms by which gravity change regulates muscle mass still remain unclear. We previously reported that hypergravity increases muscle mass via the vestibular system in mice. In this study, we performed comparative DNA microarray analysis of the soleus muscle from mice kept in 1 or 3 g environments with or without vestibular lesions. Mice were kept in 1 g or 3 g environment for 4 weeks by using a centrifuge 14 days after surgical bilateral vestibular lesions...
October 21, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Stavroula Tsitkanou, Paul A Della Gatta, Aaron P Russell
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease (MND), is a fatal motor neuron disorder. It results in progressive degeneration and death of upper and lower motor neurons, protein aggregation, severe muscle atrophy and respiratory insufficiency. Median survival with ALS is between 2 and 5 years from the onset of symptoms. ALS manifests as either familial ALS (FALS) (~10% of cases) or sporadic ALS (SALS), (~90% of cases). Mutations in the copper/zinc (CuZn) superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene account for ~20% of FALS cases and the mutant SOD1 mouse model has been used extensively to help understand the ALS pathology...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
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