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muscle protein degradation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331337/elastin-in-lung-development-and-disease-pathogenesis
#1
REVIEW
Robert P Mecham
Elastin is expressed in most tissues that require elastic recoil. The protein first appeared coincident with the closed circulatory system, and was critical for the evolutionary success of the vertebrate lineage. Elastin is expressed by multiple cell types in the lung, including mesothelial cells in the pleura, smooth muscle cells in airways and blood vessels, endothelial cells, and interstitial fibroblasts. This highly crosslinked protein associates with fibrillin-containing microfibrils to form the elastic fiber, which is the physiological structure that functions in the extracellular matrix...
January 10, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326312/foxo3a-forkhead-transcription-factor-o-subfamily-member-3a-links-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-apoptosis-matrix-breakdown-atherosclerosis-and-vascular-remodeling-through-a-novel-pathway-involving-mmp13-matrix-metalloproteinase-13
#2
Haixiang Yu, Adam Fellows, Kirsty Foote, Zhaoqing Yang, Nichola Figg, Trevor Littlewood, Martin Bennett
OBJECTIVE: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis accelerates atherosclerosis and promotes breakdown of the extracellular matrix, but the mechanistic links between these 2 processes are unknown. The forkhead protein FOXO3a (forkhead transcription factor O subfamily member 3a) is activated in human atherosclerosis and induces a range of proapoptotic and other transcriptional targets. We, therefore, determined the mechanisms and consequences of FOXO3a activation in atherosclerosis and arterial remodeling after injury...
January 11, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322304/causative-genes-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-protein-degradation-pathways-a-link-to-neurodegeneration
#3
REVIEW
C Maurel, A Dangoumau, S Marouillat, C Brulard, A Chami, R Hergesheimer, P Corcia, H Blasco, C R Andres, P Vourc'h
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease caused by the degeneration of motor neurons (MNs) leading to progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Several molecular pathways have been implicated, such as glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, defects in cytoskeletal dynamics and axonal transport, disruption of RNA metabolism, and impairments in proteostasis. ALS is associated with protein accumulation in the cytoplasm of cells undergoing neurodegeneration, which is a hallmark of the disease. In this review, we focus on mechanisms of proteostasis, particularly protein degradation, and discuss how they are related to the genetics of ALS...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321388/suppression-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-formation-in-mice-by-teneligliptin-a-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor
#4
Yusuke Takahara, Tomotake Tokunou, Toshihiro Ichiki
AIM: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors lower blood glucose levels through inhibition of incretin degradation, which stimulates insulin secretion. Recent studies reported that DPP-4 inhibitors suppressed atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoEKO) mice. In this study, we investigated whether teneligliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, affects the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in ApoEKO mice. METHODS: ApoEKO mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and infused with angiotensin (Ang) II by osmotic mini pumps for 4 weeks to induce AAA with (DPP-4i group) or without (control group) teneligliptin administered orally from 1 week before HFD and Ang II infusion to the end of the experiment...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315328/pgc-1%C3%AE-regulates-alanine-metabolism-in-muscle-cells
#5
Yukino Hatazawa, Kun Qian, Da-Wei Gong, Yasutomi Kamei
The skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body, depositing energy as protein/amino acids, which are degraded in catabolic conditions such as fasting. Alanine is synthesized and secreted from the skeletal muscle that is used as substrates of gluconeogenesis in the liver. During fasting, the expression of PGC-1α, a transcriptional coactivator of nuclear receptors, is increased in the liver and regulates gluconeogenesis. In the present study, we observed increased mRNA expression of PGC-1α and alanine aminotransferase 2 (ALT2) in the skeletal muscle during fasting...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310800/matrix-metalloproteinases-vascular-remodeling-and-vascular-disease
#6
Xi Wang, Raouf A Khalil
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that degrade various proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Typically, MMPs have a propeptide sequence, a catalytic metalloproteinase domain with catalytic zinc, a hinge region or linker peptide, and a hemopexin domain. MMPs are commonly classified on the basis of their substrates and the organization of their structural domains into collagenases, gelatinases, stromelysins, matrilysins, membrane-type (MT)-MMPs, and other MMPs...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301787/akt2-stabilizes-atp7a-a-copper-transporter-for-sod3-extracellular-superoxide-dismutase-in-vascular-smooth-muscles-novel-mechanism-to-limit-endothelial-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Varadarajan Sudhahar, Mustafa Nazir Okur, Zsolt Bagi, John P O'Bryan, Nissim Hay, Ayako Makino, Vijay S Patel, Shane A Phillips, David Stepp, Masuko Ushio-Fukai, Tohru Fukai
OBJECTIVE: Copper transporter ATP7A (copper-transporting/exporting ATPase) is required for full activation of SOD3 (extracellular superoxide dismutase), which is secreted from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and anchors to endothelial cell surface to preserve endothelial function by scavenging extracellular superoxide. We reported that ATP7A protein expression and SOD3 activity are decreased in insulin-deficient type 1 diabetes mellitus vessels, thereby, inducing superoxide-mediated endothelial dysfunction, which are rescued by insulin treatment...
January 4, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300955/evolution-of-proteolytic-indicators-during-storage-of-broiler-wooden-breast-meat
#8
F Soglia, Z Zeng, J Gao, E Puolanne, C Cavani, M Petracci, P Ertbjerg
In the past few yr, an emerging muscle abnormality termed wooden breast (WB) was found to affect broilers' Pectoralis major muscles. Although different studies have been performed in order to evaluate the effect of WB on meat quality, there is no evidence concerning its impact on the proteolytic processes taking place during meat aging. Thus, this study aimed at investigating the effect of a 7-day storage of broiler breast fillets on free calcium concentration, calpain activity, and proteolysis. Both the superficial and the deep layers of the Pectoralis major muscles were considered...
December 29, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289514/nutrient-excess-and-autophagic-deficiency-explaining-metabolic-diseases-in-obesity
#9
REVIEW
Gustav van Niekerk, André duToit, Ben Loos, Anna-Mart Engelbrecht
Over-nutrition and a sedentary lifestyle are the driving forces behind the development of metabolic diseases. Conversely, caloric restriction and exercise have proven to be the most effective strategies in combating metabolic diseases. Interestingly, exercise and caloric restriction share a common feature: both represent a potent mechanism for upregulating autophagy. Autophagy is rapidly induced by nutrient deprivation, and conversely, inactivated by amino acids as well as growth factors (e.g. insulin). Here, we review evidence demonstrating that autophagy may indeed be attenuated in metabolic tissue such as liver, muscle, and adipose, in the context of obesity...
December 28, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288771/s-allyl-cysteine-regulates-the-tnf%C3%AE-induced-muscle-wasting-by-suppressing-proteolysis-and-regulating-the-inflammatory-molecules-in-skeletal-muscle-myotubes
#10
Vikas Dutt, Vikram Saini, Prachi Gupta, Nirmaljeet Kaur, Manju Bala, Ravindra Gujar, Anita Grewal, Sanjeev Gupta, Anita Dua, Ashwani Mittal
BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of inflammatory molecules are the key players in muscle wasting/atrophy leading to human morbidity. TNFα is a well-known pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of muscle wasting under diverse clinical settings. S-allyl cysteine (SAC), an active component of garlic (Allium sativum), has established anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in various cell types. However, the impact of SAC on skeletal muscle pathology remains unexplored. Owing to the known anti-inflammatory properties of SAC, we investigate whether pre-treatment with SAC has a protective role in TNFα induced atrophy in cultured myotubes...
December 27, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287759/comparative-proteomics-analysis-of-trichinella-spiralis-muscle-larvae-exposure-to-albendazole-sulfoxide-stress
#11
Ruo Yu Peng, Hui Jun Ren, Chun Li Zhang, Pin Lv, Gao Hui Wei, Zhong Quan Wang, Jing Cui, Liang Ming
The drug albendazole (ABZ) has a positive effect against Trichinella spiralis infection and has been used for the treatment and prevention of trichinellosis in both humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanism of ABZ's effects on T. spiralis remains unknown now. Albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO) is the main intermediary metabolic product of ABZ, and often used as a substitute of ABZ for the metabolism and bioavailability researches. Herein, isobaric tagging reagents for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based LC-MS/MS analysis was used to identify the effect of ABZSO on the proteome of T...
December 26, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287433/changes-in-calpain-activity-protein-degradation-and-microstructure-of-beef-m-semitendinosus-by-the-application-of-ultrasound
#12
Anran Wang, Dacheng Kang, Wangang Zhang, Chaoyang Zhang, Yunhe Zou, Guanghong Zhou
In this investigation, samples were treated by ultrasonic probe (20 kHz) at an intensity of 25 W cm-2 for 20 or 40 min, followed by aging at 4 °C for 1, 3 and 7 d. Ultrasound treatment significantly increased myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) and decreased Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) at 3 and 7 d of postmortem aging (P < .05). Ultrasound-treated samples showed significantly greater intensities of autolyzed 76 kDa subunits and the lower intensity of intact 80 kDa form compared to control at 1 d of storage (P < ...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287368/effect-of-kappa-carrageenan-oligosaccharides-on-myofibrillar-protein-oxidation-in-peeled-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-during-long-term-frozen-storage
#13
Bin Zhang, Chuan-Dong Fang, Gui-Juan Hao, Yang-Yang Zhang
Protein oxidation during chilling and frozen storage has recently attracted great attention due to its consequences on protein solubility and functionality. In this study, the effects of kappa-carrageenan oligosaccharides on myofibrillar protein oxidation in peeled shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during frozen storage were investigated by assessing the content of the carbonyls, total sulfhydryl, dityrosine, and surface hydrophobicity. We also examined the means of antioxidant activity in vitro, degradation of muscle proteins, and integrity of tissue structure...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287365/dephosphorylation-enhances-postmortem-degradation-of-myofibrillar-proteins
#14
Zheng Li, Meng Li, Manting Du, Qingwu W Shen, Dequan Zhang
Protein degradation is primarily responsible for postmortem meat tenderization, which might be affected by phosphorylation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of phosphorylation on myofibrillar proteins degradation in muscle during postmortem. Here we modulated the phosphorylation status of protein by protein kinase inhibitor and phosphatase inhibitor, and the effect of these inhibitors on myofibrillar protein degradation was evaluated. Generally, myofibril fragmentation index of samples with lower phosphorylation level was higher...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279317/ak098656-a-novel-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-dominant-long-noncoding-rna-promotes-hypertension
#15
Ling Jin, Xianjuan Lin, Lei Yang, Xiaofang Fan, Wenjie Wang, Shuangyue Li, Jing Li, Xiaoyan Liu, Minghui Bao, Xiao Cui, Jichun Yang, Qinghua Cui, Bin Geng, Jun Cai
Recent studies reported some long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs)-mediated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) phenotypic switch, which was a common pathophysiological process of vascular diseases. However, whether human-specific expressed lncRNAs would modulate VSMCs phenotype and participate into the pathogenesis of essential hypertension remains unclear. By comparing the circulating lncRNAs expression profiles between hypertensive patients and healthy controls, we identified a lncRNA-AK098656, strongly upregulated in the plasma of hypertensive patients, and predominantly expressed in VSMCs...
December 26, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277369/implication-of-altered-ubiquitin-proteasome-system-and-er-stress-in-the-muscle-atrophy-of-diabetic-rats
#16
S Sreenivasa Reddy, Karnam Shruthi, Y Konda Prabhakar, Gummadi Sailaja, G Bhanuprakash Reddy
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is adversely affected in type-1 diabetes, and excessively stimulated ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) was found to be a leading cause of muscle wasting or atrophy. The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in muscle atrophy of type-1 diabetes is not known. Hence, we investigated the role of UPS and ER stress in the muscle atrophy of chronic diabetes rat model. METHODS: Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (STZ) in male Sprague-Dawley rats and were sacrificed 2- and 4-months thereafter to collect gastrocnemius muscle...
December 22, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276985/upregulation-of-mir-221-and-222-in-response-to-increased-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinases-1-2-activity-exacerbates-neointimal-hyperplasia-in-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Daniel J Lightell, Stephanie C Moss, T Cooper Woods
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Diabetes is associated with accelerated arterial intimal thickening that contributes to the increased cardiovascular disease seen in this population. In healthy arteries, intimal thickening is inhibited by elevated levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p27Kip1, and intimal thickening is promoted by activation of the mammalian Target of Rapamycin to promote degradation of p27Kip1 protein. Recently, we reported that two microRNAs, miR-221 and -222, which promote intimal thickening via down-regulation of mRNA encoding p27Kip1, are elevated in the arteries of diabetic patients...
December 9, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258243/canadine-from-corydalis-turtschaninovii-stimulates-myoblast-differentiation-and-protects-against-myotube-atrophy
#18
Heyjin Lee, Sang-Jin Lee, Gyu-Un Bae, Nam-In Baek, Jae-Ha Ryu
Cachexia and sarcopenia are the main causes of muscle atrophy. These result in a reduction in the muscle fiber area, myo-protein content, and muscle strength, with various molecular modulators being involved. Although several reports have proposed potential therapeutic agents, no effective treatments have been found for muscle atrophy. We searched for myogenic modulators from medicinal plants to treat muscle diseases. We isolated six alkaloids from Corydalis turtschaninovii and evaluated their myogenic potential by using the MyoD reporter gene assay in C2C12 cells...
December 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247922/analysis-of-meat-quality-traits-and-gene-expression-profiling-of-pigs-divergent-in-residual-feed-intake
#19
Justyna Horodyska, Michael Oster, Henry Reyer, Anne Maria Mullen, Peadar G Lawlor, Klaus Wimmers, Ruth M Hamill
Residual feed intake (RFI), the difference between actual feed intake and predicted feed requirements, is suggested to impact various aspects of meat quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underpinning the relationship between RFI and meat quality. Technological, sensory and nutritional analysis as well as transcriptome profiling were carried out in Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle of pigs divergent in RFI (n=20). Significant differences in sensory profile and texture suggest a minor impairment of meat quality in more efficient pigs...
November 20, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245988/alcohol-intake-aggravates-adipose-browning-and-muscle-atrophy-in-cancer-associated-cachexia
#20
Bo Wang, Faya Zhang, Hui Zhang, Zhixiu Wang, Yan-Nan Ma, Mei-Jun Zhu, Min Du
Cancer is commonly associated with cachexia, a paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by body weight loss, muscle wasting, adipose tissue atrophy and inflammation. Chronic alcohol consumption increases the risk of multiple types of cancer, and enhances cancer-associated cachexia (CAC), but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. To test, C57BL/6 mice were fed with 0% or 20% (w/v) alcohol for 3 months, then inoculated with B16BL6 melanoma cells subcutaneously in the right side of the hip and continued to feed with/without alcohol for 3 or 4 weeks...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
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