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muscle protein degradation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785242/role-of-oxidative-stress-as-key-regulator-of-muscle-wasting-during-cachexia
#1
REVIEW
Johanna Ábrigo, Alvaro A Elorza, Claudia A Riedel, Cristian Vilos, Felipe Simon, Daniel Cabrera, Lisbell Estrada, Claudio Cabello-Verrugio
Skeletal muscle atrophy is a pathological condition mainly characterized by a loss of muscular mass and the contractile capacity of the skeletal muscle as a consequence of muscular weakness and decreased force generation. Cachexia is defined as a pathological condition secondary to illness characterized by the progressive loss of muscle mass with or without loss of fat mass and with concomitant diminution of muscle strength. The molecular mechanisms involved in cachexia include oxidative stress, protein synthesis/degradation imbalance, autophagy deregulation, increased myonuclear apoptosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781585/group-i-paks-support-muscle-regeneration-and-counteract-cancer-associated-muscle-atrophy
#2
Andrea Cerquone Perpetuini, Andrea David Re Cecconi, Michela Chiappa, Giulia Benedetta Martinelli, Claudia Fuoco, Giovanni Desiderio, Luisa Castagnoli, Cesare Gargioli, Rosanna Piccirillo, Gianni Cesareni
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is characterized by an efficient regeneration potential that is often impaired during myopathies. Understanding the molecular players involved in muscle homeostasis and regeneration could help to find new therapies against muscle degenerative disorders. Previous studies revealed that the Ser/Thr kinase p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) was specifically down-regulated in the atrophying gastrocnemius of Yoshida hepatoma-bearing rats. In this study, we evaluated the role of group I Paks during cancer-related atrophy and muscle regeneration...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780359/the-mitotic-and-metabolic-effects-of-phosphatidic-acid-in-the-primary-muscle-cells-of-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus
#3
Tingting Wang, Xuan Wang, Huihui Zhou, Haowen Jiang, Kangsen Mai, Gen He
Searching for nutraceuticals and understanding the underlying mechanism that promote fish growth is at high demand for aquaculture industry. In this study, the modulatory effects of soy phosphatidic acids (PA) on cell proliferation, nutrient sensing, and metabolic pathways were systematically examined in primary muscle cells of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus ). PA was found to stimulate cell proliferation and promote G1/S phase transition through activation of target of rapamycin signaling pathway. The expression of myogenic regulatory factors, including myoD and follistatin , was upregulated, while that of myogenin and myostatin was downregulated by PA...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777737/type-i-collagen-induces-mesenchymal-cell-differentiation-into-myofibroblasts-through-yap-induced-tgf-%C3%AE-1-activation
#4
Xiaoling Liu, Xinyu Long, Weiwei Liu, Yeli Zhao, Toshihiko Hayashi, Masayuki Yamato, Kazunori Mizuno, Hitomi Fujisaki, Shunji Hattori, Shin-Ichi Tashiro, Takaaki Ogura, Yuji Atsuzawa, Takashi Ikejima
In organ fibrosis, mechanical stress and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) promote differentiation into myofibroblast from mesenchymal cells, leading to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling or active synthesis, deposition or degradation of ECM components. A major component of ECM, type I collagen (col I) triple helical molecules assemble into fibrils or are denatured to gelatin without triple-helicity in remodeling. However, whether changes of ECM components in remodeling have influence on mesenchymal cell differentiation remains elusive...
May 16, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775750/the-effects-of-capn1-gene-inactivation-on-the-differential-expression-of-genes-in-skeletal-muscle
#5
William T Olive, Brittney N Keel, Amanda K Lindholm-Perry, Justyna Horodyska, Andrew P Foote
Protein turnover is required for muscle growth and regeneration and several proteolytic enzymes, including the calpains, degrade myofibrillar proteins during this process. In a previous experiment, phenotypic differences were observed between μ-calpain knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice, including nutrient accretion and fiber type differences. These changes were particularly evident as the animals aged. Thus, we utilized 18 mice (9 KO and 9 WT) to compare transcript abundance to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 52 wk of age...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775416/downregulation-of-the-%C3%AE-1-and-%C3%AE-1-subunit-of-sgc-in-arterial-smooth-muscle-cells-of-opscc-is-hpv-independent
#6
Y Korkmaz, H C Roggendorf, O G Siefer, J Seehawer, T Imhof, M Plomann, W Bloch, A Friebe, C U Huebbers
The nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a heterodimeric enzyme with an α and β subunit. NO binds to heme of the β1 -subunit of sGC, activates the enzyme in the reduced heme iron state in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and generates cGMP-inducing vasodilatation and suppression of VSMC proliferation. In the complex tumor milieu with higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), sGC heme iron may become oxidized and insensitive to NO. To change sGC from an NO-insensitive to NO-sensitive state or NO-independent manner, protein expression of sGC in VSMC is required...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770231/cardiovascular-outcomes-of-pcsk9-inhibitors-with-special-emphasis-on-its-effect-beyond-ldl-cholesterol-lowering
#7
REVIEW
Dhrubajyoti Bandyopadhyay, Kumar Ashish, Adrija Hajra, Arshna Qureshi, Raktim K Ghosh
PCSK9 inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, are novel antihypercholesterolemic drugs. FDA first approved them in July 2015. PCSK9 protein (692-amino acids) was discovered in 2003. It plays a major role in LDL receptor degradation and is a prominent modulator in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) metabolism. PCSK9 inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies that target PCSK9 protein in liver and inhibiting this protein leads to drastically lowering harmful LDL-C level in the bloodstream. Despite widespread use of the statin, not all the high-risk patients were able to achieve targeted level of LDL-C...
2018: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768017/the-signaling-network-resulting-in-ventilator-induced-diaphragm-dysfunction
#8
Huibin Tang, Joseph B Shrager
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving measure for those incapable of adequately ventilating or oxygenating without assistance. Unfortunately, even brief periods of MV result in diaphragm weakness (i.e., "ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction" - VIDD) that may render it difficult to wean the ventilator. Prolonged MV is associated with cascading complications and is a strong risk factor for death. Thus, prevention of VIDD may have a dramatic impact on mortality rates. Here, we summarized the current understanding of the pathogenic events underlying VIDD...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763934/inactivation-of-usp14-perturbs-ubiquitin-homeostasis-and-delays-the-cell-cycle-in-mouse-embryonic-fibroblasts-and-in-fruit-fly-drosophila
#9
Jung Hoon Lee, Seoyoung Park, Yejin Yun, Won Hoon Choi, Min-Ji Kang, Min Jae Lee
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The 26S proteasome is the key proteolytic complex for recognition and degradation of polyubiquitinated target substrates in eukaryotes. Among numerous proteasome-associated proteins, a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) USP14 has been identified as an endogenous inhibitor of the proteasome. Here, we explored the complex regulatory functions of USP14 that involve ubiquitin (Ub) homeostasis and substrate degradation in flies and mammals. METHODS: USP14-null primary and immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and USP14 knocked-down Drosophila were analyzed in this study...
May 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763381/the-mfge8-%C3%AE-8%C3%AE-1-pten-pathway-regulates-airway-smooth-muscle-contraction-in-allergic-inflammation
#10
Amin Khalifeh-Soltani, Deepti Gupta, Arnold Ha, Michael J Podolsky, Ritwik Datta, Kamran Atabai
Asthma affects ∼300 million people worldwide. Despite multiple treatment options, asthma treatment remains unsatisfactory in a subset of patients. Airway obstruction is a hallmark of allergic asthma and is largely due to airway smooth muscle hypercontractility induced by airway inflammation. Identification of molecular pathways that regulate airway smooth muscle hypercontractility is of considerable therapeutic interest. We previously identified roles for milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-like 8 (Mfge8) in opposing the effects of allergic inflammation on increasing airway smooth muscle contractile force...
May 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761850/unexpected-regulation-pattern-of-the-ikk%C3%AE-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-murf1-pathway-with-remarkable-muscle-plasticity-in-the-daurian-ground-squirrel-spermophilus-dauricus
#11
Yanhong Wei, Lingchen Gong, Weiwei Fu, Shenhui Xu, Zhe Wang, Jie Zhang, Er Ning, Hui Chang, Huiping Wang, Yunfang Gao
As a typical hibernator, the Daurian ground squirrel (Spermophilus dauricus) spends considerable time in a state of reduced activity with prolonged fasting. Despite this, they experience little muscle atrophy and have thus become an interesting anti-disuse muscle atrophy model. The IKKβ/NF-κB signaling pathway is significant to muscle atrophy due to the protein degradation resulting from the upregulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase MuRF1. The current study showed that the IKKβ/NF-κB signaling pathway and MuRF1 maintained relatively steady mRNA and protein expression levels, with little muscle atrophy observed in the soleus (slow-twitch, SOL) or extensor digitorum longus (fast-twitch, EDL) during hibernation (HIB); however, mRNA expression significantly increased in the SOL and EDL muscle during interbout arousal (IBA), as did the MuRF1 mRNA level in the SOL and MuRF1 protein level in the EDL...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753766/licorice-flavonoid-oil-enhances-muscle-mass-in-kk-a-y-mice
#12
Yasukiyo Yoshioka, Yoko Yamashita, Hideyuki Kishida, Kaku Nakagawa, Hitoshi Ashida
AIMS: Muscle mass is regulated by the balance between the synthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. Loss of skeletal muscle mass is associated with an increased risk of developing metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of licorice flavonoid oil on muscle mass in KK-Ay /Ta mice. MAIN METHODS: Male genetically type II diabetic KK-Ay /Ta mice received 0, 1, or 1.5 g/kg BW of licorice flavonoid oil by mouth once daily for 4 weeks...
May 10, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752915/increase-in-insulin-secretion-and-decrease-in-muscle-degradation-by-fat-free-milk-intake-are-attenuated-by-physical-exercise
#13
Tetsuo Yamada, Masami Matsuzaki, Akira Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Protein intake, particularly branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), and exercise have opposing actions on insulin secretion, but the same action on protein anabolism. We examined the effects of BCAA-rich fat-free milk intake and/or exercise on levels of insulin secretion and indices related to muscle protein metabolism in order to assess the potency of dietary and exercise therapies against metabolic and locomotive disorders. METHODS: Eight adult female volunteers participated in all four 24 h experiments; control diet intake with or without exercise, and fat-free milk-containing diet intake with or without exercise...
May 9, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752569/widespread-expression-of-perilipin-5-in-normal-human-tissues-and-in-diseases-is-restricted-to-distinct-lipid-droplet-subpopulations
#14
Merita Hashani, Hagen Roland Witzel, Lena Maria Pawella, Judith Lehmann-Koch, Jens Schumacher, Gunhild Mechtersheimer, Martina Schnölzer, Peter Schirmacher, Wilfried Roth, Beate Katharina Straub
Diseases associated with the accumulation of lipid droplets are increasing in western countries. Lipid droplet biogenesis, structure and degradation are regulated by proteins of the perilipin family. Perilipin 5 has been shown to regulate basal lipolysis in oxidative tissues. We examine perilipin 5 in normal human tissues and in diseases using protein biochemical and microscopic techniques. Perilipin 5 was constitutively located at small lipid droplets in skeletal myocytes, cardiomyocytes and brown adipocytes...
May 11, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751280/evaluation-of-serum-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-and-26s-proteasome-concentrations-in-healthy-dogs-and-dogs-with-chronic-diseases-depending-on-body-condition-score
#15
Ingrid Gerke, Franz-Josef Kaup, Stephan Neumann
In patients suffering from chronic diseases, the objective assessment of metabolic states could be of interest for disease prognosis and therapeutic options. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and 26S proteasome (26SP) in healthy dogs and dogs suffering from chronic diseases depending on their body condition score (BCS) and to examine their potential for objective assessment of anabolic and catabolic states. Serum concentrations of IGF-1, an anabolic hormone, and 26SP, a multiprotein complex which is part of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, by which the majority of endogenous proteins including the muscle proteins are degraded, were measured in 21 healthy dogs and 20 dogs with chronic diseases by canine ELISA...
April 26, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750813/autophagy-mediates-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-induced-phenotype-switching-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-a7r5-cell-line
#16
Marina García-Miguel, Jaime A Riquelme, Ignacio Norambuena-Soto, Pablo E Morales, Fernanda Sanhueza-Olivares, Constanza Nuñez-Soto, David Mondaca-Ruff, Nicole Cancino-Arenas, Alejandra San Martín, Mario Chiong
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) dedifferentiation from a contractile to a synthetic phenotype contributes to atherosclerosis. Atherosclerotic tissue has a chronic inflammatory component with high levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). VSMC of atheromatous plaques have increased autophagy, a mechanism responsible for protein and intracellular organelle degradation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether TNF-α induces phenotype switching of VSMCs and whether this effect depends on autophagy...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750000/pathophysiological-analyses-of-skeletal-muscle-in-obese-type-2-diabetes-sdt-fatty-rats
#17
Yusuke Kemmochi, Takeshi Ohta, Yu Motohashi, Akihiro Kaneshige, Sohei Katsumi, Kochi Kakimoto, Yuzo Yasui, Akiko Anagawa-Nakamura, Kaoru Toyoda, Eriko Taniai-Riya, Akemi Takahashi, Toshiyuki Shoda, Takahisa Yamada
Sarcopenia is the age-related decrease of muscle mass and function. Diabetes and obesity are known to be risk factors that exacerbate sarcopenia, but the underlying mechanism of diabetes-related sarcopenia is still unknown. Obese type 2 diabetes SDT fatty rats show early onset of severe diabetes and there have been no reports on the characteristics of their skeletal muscle. Therefore, pathophysiological analyses were performed for the skeletal muscle in these rats. Diabetic male SDT fatty rats were sacrificed at 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 weeks of age...
April 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749311/role-of-the-ldl-receptor-related-protein-1-in-regulating-protease-activity-and-signaling-pathways-in-the-vasculature
#18
Dianaly T Au, Allison L Arai, William E Fondrie, Selen C Muratoglu, Dudley K Strickland
Aortic aneurysms represent a significant clinical problem as they largely go undetected until a rupture occurs. Currently, an understanding of mechanisms leading to aneurysm formation is limited. Numerous studies clearly indicate that vascular smooth muscle cells play a major role in the development and response of the vasculature to hemodynamic changes and defects in these responses can lead to aneurysm formation. The LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is major smooth muscle cell receptor that has the capacity to mediate the endocytosis of numerous ligands and to initiate and regulate signaling pathways...
May 11, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730504/sparc-preserves-endothelial-glycocalyx-integrity-and-protects-against-adverse-cardiac-inflammation-and-injury-during-viral-myocarditis
#19
Marieke Rienks, Paolo Carai, Jurgen van Teeffelen, Bart Eskens, Wouter Verhesen, Bianca Hemmeryckx, Daniel M Johnson, Rick van Leeuwen, Elizabeth A Jones, Stephane Heymans, Anna-Pia Papageorgiou
Myocardial damage as a consequence of cardiotropic viruses leads to a broad variety of clinical presentations and is still a complicated condition to diagnose and treat. Whereas the extracellular matrix protein Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine or SPARC has been implicated in hypertensive and ischemic heart disease by modulating collagen production and cross-linking, its role in cardiac inflammation and endothelial function is yet unknown. Absence of SPARC in mice resulted in increased cardiac inflammation and mortality, and reduced cardiac systolic function upon coxsackievirus-B3 induced myocarditis...
May 3, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728917/short-and-long-term-effects-of-leucine-and-branched-chain-amino-acid-supplementation-of-a-protein-and-energy-reduced-diet-on-muscle-protein-metabolism-in-neonatal-pigs
#20
Rodrigo Manjarín, Daniel A Columbus, Jessica Solis, Adriana D Hernandez-García, Agus Suryawan, Hanh V Nguyen, Molly M McGuckin, Rafael T Jimenez, Marta L Fiorotto, Teresa A Davis
The objective of this study was to determine if enteral leucine or branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation increases muscle protein synthesis in neonates who consume less than their protein and energy requirements, and whether this increase is mediated via the upregulation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway or the decrease in muscle protein degradation signaling. Neonatal pigs were fed milk replacement diets containing reduced energy and protein (R), R supplemented with BCAA (RBCAA), R supplemented with leucine (RL), or complete protein and energy (CON) at 4-h intervals for 9 (n = 24) or 21 days (n = 22)...
May 4, 2018: Amino Acids
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