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horners syndrome

J Stephen Huff, Everett W Austin
Understanding the anatomy and physiology of the eye, the orbit, and the central connections is key to understanding neuro-ophthalmologic emergencies. Anisocoria is an important sign that requires a systematic approach to avoid misdiagnosis of serious conditions, including carotid dissection (miosis) and aneurysmal third nerve palsy (mydriasis). Ptosis may be a sign of either Horner syndrome or third nerve palsy. An explanation should be pursued for diplopia since the differential diagnosis ranges from the trivial to life-threatening causes...
November 2016: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Azer Majeed, Nuno Pedro Lobato Ribeiro, Asem Ali, Mohsen Hijazi, Hina Farook
Spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection (sICAD) is an uncommon cause of isolated cranial nerve palsies. Commonly patients present with stroke, headache, facial pain and Horner's syndrome, with upto 16% having cranial nerve palsies. We present the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with hoarseness, dysphagia and tongue swelling, mimicking a tongue base tumor. He was found to have unilateral VIIth, Xth and XIIth nerve palsies with Horner's syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal changes and loss of signal void in right internal carotid artery, later confirmed by Angiography as a dissection with pseudo-aneurysm...
October 2016: Oxford Medical Case Reports
Jeffrey Steinberg, Vincent Cheung, Gunjan Goel, J Scott Pannell, Javan Nation, Alexander Khalessi
Although there have been reports of carotid artery pseudoaneurysm formation after adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy secondary to iatrogenic injury, there are no case reports of successful endovascular reconstruction of the injured artery in the pediatric population. In most pediatric cases, the internal carotid artery (ICA) is sacrificed. The authors report on a 6-year-old girl who presented with odynophagia, left-sided Horner's syndrome, hematemesis, and severe anemia 6 months after a tonsillectomy. On examination she was found to have a pulsatile mass along the left posterior lateral oropharynx, and imaging demonstrated a dissection of the extracranial left ICA and an associated pseudoaneurysm...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Akihiro Nakajo, Hideo Arima, Munetsugu Hirata, Yoshie Yamashita, Yoshiaki Shinden, Naoki Hayashi, Yota Kawasaki, Takaaki Arigami, Yasuto Uchikado, Shinichiro Mori, Yuko Mataki, Masahiko Sakoda, Yuko Kijima, Yoshikazu Uenosono, Kosei Maemura, Shoji Natsugoe
INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic thyroidectomy is a well-established surgical technique that is mainly performed for benign thyroid disease. We considered that endoscopic surgery could also be widely indicated for the treatment of thyroid cancer. We herein describe our new bidirectional approach of video-assisted neck surgery (BAVANS) for complete central node dissection in endoscopic thyroid cancer surgery. METHODS: BAVANS involves two different directional pathways to the cervical lesion...
September 21, 2016: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
Mohammad M Al-Qattan, Amel A F El-Sayed
It is generally thought that Klumpke's palsy is not seen as obstetric injury. The authors present a case of Klumpke's palsy with Horner syndrome following delivery by emergency Cesarean section. Neurolysis and nerve grafting partially corrected the paralysis.
September 2016: Clinical Case Reports
A Caignard, S Leruez, D Milea
Neuro-ophthalmic emergencies can cause life-threatening or sight-threatening complications. Various conditions may have acute neuro-ophthalmic manifestations, including inflammatory or ischemic processes, as well as tumoral, aneurysmal compression or metabolic and systemic diseases. Diplopia related to a partial third nerve palsy with pupillary involvement may reveal an intracranial aneurysm. Abnormalities of conjugate gaze may reveal an inflammatory or ischemic lesion, most often of the brainstem. An intracranial tumor may also manifest itself as a single or multiple oculomotor palsy, or causing various visual field defects, due to optic nerve, chiasm or retrochiasmal involvement...
October 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Gavin Sugrue, Farouk Mookadam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Sara Ds Janssens, Annika N Haagsman, Gert Ter Haar
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to report the surgical outcome and complication rate of deep traction avulsion (TA) of feline aural inflammatory polyps after a lateral approach (LA) to the ear canal. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of data retrieved from an electronic database of 62 cats treated with TA after an LA (TALA) for removal of ear canal polyps. Long-term outcome was assessed via a telephone questionnaire survey with the owners. RESULTS: Domestic shorthair cats (48%) and Maine Coons (37%) were over-represented...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Beeresh Puttegowda, Rajni Sharma, A C Nagamani, Agrawal Navin, Ramesh Basappa, N C Manjunath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2013: Heart Asia
Kinda Najem, Edward A Margolin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
Jose Enrique Alonso Formento, Jose Luis Fernández Reyes, Blanca Mar Envid Lázaro, Teresa Fernández Letamendi, Ryth Yeste Martín, Francisco José Jódar Morente
Internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) is a rare entity that either results from traumatic injury or can be spontaneously preceded or not by a minor trauma such as sporting activities. It represents a major cause of stroke in young patients. The diagnosis should be suspected with the combination of Horner's syndrome, headache or neck pain, and retinal or cerebral ischaemia. The confirmation is frequently made with a magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Although anticoagulation with heparin followed by vitamin-K-antagonists is the most common treatment, there is no difference in efficacy of antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs at preventing stroke and death in patients with symptomatic carotid dissection...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Hiroro Nakano, Daisuke Yanase, Masahito Yamada
BACKGROUND: Only one case of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone with lateral medullary syndrome has been reported so far. We report a case of lateral medullary syndrome showing syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone and analyze the pathomechanism underlying its clinical features. CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for dizziness, dysarthria, and dysphagia. He was diagnosed with lateral medullary syndrome based on the neurological examination and brain magnetic resonance imaging...
July 27, 2016: BMC Neurology
Gary A Ulaner, Robert Samstein, Oren Cahlon, Wolfgang A Weber, Andreas Rimner
A 29-year-old woman underwent resection of a left anterior mediastinal thymoma and pleurectomy. Postsurgical FDG PET/CT scan demonstrated FDG avidity in the right neck and upper thoracic fat but relatively absent FDG-avid fat in the left neck and upper thorax. Bilateral FDG-avid fat was also apparent in the lower chest and upper abdomen. After surgery, the patient demonstrated Horner syndrome, with left-sided ptosis, miosis, and facial anhidrosis. It is hypothesized that left-sided sympathetic nerves were compromised during surgery, leading to Horner syndrome and denervation of ipsilateral brown fat...
October 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Giuseppe Marulli, Lucia Battistella, Marco Mammana, Francesca Calabrese, Federico Rea
Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner's syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%...
June 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Jose Ribas Milanez de Campos, Paulo Kauffman, Oswaldo Gomes, Nelson Wolosker
By the 1980s, endoscopy was in use by some groups in sympathetic denervation of the upper limbs with vascular indications. Low morbidity, cosmetic results, reduction in the incidence of Horner syndrome, and the shortened time in hospital made video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy (VATS) better accepted by those undergoing treatment for hyperhidrosis. Over the last 25 years, this surgical procedure has become routine in the treatment of hyperhidrosis, leading to a significant increase in the number of papers on the subject in the literature...
August 2016: Thoracic Surgery Clinics
Canan Yılmaz, Derya Karasu, Demet Özer, Ümit Çağlayan, Oya Karakaş
Horner's syndrome is rarely observed in epidural anaesthesia; it is characterized by ptosis and enophthalmos on the affected side; miosis, anisocoria, and conjunctival hyperemia in the affected eye and anhydrosis, flushing on the affected side of the face. It is usually a complication spontaneously resolved without permanent neurological deficits. Intraoral anaesthesia, stellate, cervical and brachial plexus block, thoracic, lumbar and caudal epidural anaesthesia and intrapleural analgesia are the main causes associated with Horner's syndrome in anaesthesia...
June 2015: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
A Ghai, T Kaushik, R Kumar, S Wadhera
We present a case of patient with orofacial cancer having pain on one side of face affecting her ability to speak, chew, swallow and sleep leading to emotional and behavioral deterioration. A diagnostic stellate ganglion block was performed followed by chemical neurolysis using phenol under ultrasound guidance, to prevent complications due to inadvertent spread of drug. Her pain scores decreased drastically, she was able to chew and swallow. Weighing the risk of permanent Horner's syndrome or motor paralysis with benefit of improvement in basic functioning of debilitated patients chemical neurolysis of stellate ganglion can be performed with advanced imaging modalities...
2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica
Y Law, Y C Chan, S W Cheng
BACKGROUND: The study aims to conduct a review of the surgical management of carotid body tumor. METHODS: Consecutive patients with CBT who received surgical interventions from January 1994 to January 2014 at our institution were reviewed. Clinical, operative, pathological and follow up information were reported. RESULTS: Twenty patients (four males; median age was 36) with 21 CBT operations were recorded during the period. One patient undertook sequential operations for bilateral CBTs...
June 29, 2016: Vascular
K Skorkovská
The case report presents a patient, who was examined at our department due to anisocoria that was present for more than one year. Besides the anisocoria the patient had no other pathological symptoms. The pupil on the right eye was larger than on the left eye by more than 1mm. Photoreaction was present on both eyes with a dilatation deficit on the left eye. There was also a slight ptosis on the left. The anterior and posterior eye segment was normal, only the iris of the left eye was slightly decoloured. The ophthalmological finding was pointing to Horner syndrome on the left side...
2016: Ceská a Slovenská Oftalmologie
Rodney M Ritzel, Sarah J Pan, Rajkumar Verma, John Wizeman, Joshua Crapser, Anita R Patel, Richard Lieberman, Royce Mohan, Louise D McCullough
PURPOSE: The transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of stroke is one of the most commonly used models to study focal cerebral ischemia. This procedure also results in the simultaneous occlusion of the ophthalmic artery that supplies the retina. Retinal cell death is seen days after reperfusion and leads to functional deficits; however, the mechanism responsible for this injury has not been investigated. Given that the eye may have a unique ocular immune response to an ischemic challenge, this study examined the inflammatory response to retinal ischemia in the MCAO model...
2016: Molecular Vision
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