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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302360/consistent-screening-of-admitted-infants-with-head-injuries-reveals-high-rate-of-nonaccidental-trauma
#1
Paul T Kim, Jillian McCagg, Ashley Dundon, Zach Ziesler, Suzanne Moody, Richard A Falcone
PURPOSE: Implementation of a nonaccidental trauma (NAT) screening guideline for the evaluation of infants admitted with an unwitnessed head injury has eliminated screening disparities. This study sought to determine the overall NAT rate and key predictive factors using this guideline. METHODS: All infants screened via the guideline from 2008 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The overall rate of NAT as determined by our child abuse team was determined. In addition, a logistic regression model was developed to evaluate potential predictors of increased risk of NAT...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301541/contextual-explanations-for-numeracy-and-literacy-skill-disparities-between-native-and-foreign-born-adults-in-western-countries
#2
Mark Levels, Jaap Dronkers, Christopher Jencks
Using new direct measures of numeracy and literacy skills among 85,875 adults in 17 Western countries, we find that foreign-born adults have lower mean skills than native-born adults of the same age (16 to 64) in all of the examined countries. The gaps are small, and vary substantially between countries. Multilevel models reveal that immigrant populations' demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, employment, and language proficiency explain about half of the cross-national variance of numeracy and literacy skills gaps...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295584/rural-urban-differences-in-access-to-preventive-health-care-among-publicly-insured-minnesotans
#3
John Loftus, Elizabeth M Allen, Kathleen Thiede Call, Susan A Everson-Rose
PURPOSE: Reduced access to care and barriers have been shown in rural populations and in publicly insured populations. Barriers limiting health care access in publicly insured populations living in rural areas are not understood. This study investigates rural-urban differences in system-, provider-, and individual-level barriers and access to preventive care among adults and children enrolled in a public insurance program in Minnesota. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a 2008 statewide, cross-sectional survey of publicly insured adults and children (n = 4,388) investigating barriers associated with low utilization of preventive care...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293777/engaging-parents-in-preventive-interventions-for-young-children-working-with-cultural-diversity-within-low-income-urban-neighborhoods
#4
Spring Dawson-McClure, Esther J Calzada, Laurie M Brotman
A robust literature documents the impact of poverty on child development and lifelong health, well-being and productivity. Racial and ethnic minority children continue to bear the burden of poverty disproportionately. Evidence-based parenting interventions in early childhood have the potential to attenuate risk attributable to poverty and stress. To reduce racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in the USA, parenting interventions must be accessible, engaging, and effective for low-income families of color living in large urban centers...
March 14, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293491/disparities-in-utilization-of-jaw-surgery-for-treatment-of-sleep-apnea-a-nationwide-analysis
#5
Ravi K Garg, Ying Shan, Jeffrey A Havlena, Ahmed M Afifi
BACKGROUND: Maxillomandibular advancement has been shown to be one of the most effective operations for management of severe obstructive sleep apnea, yet pharyngeal surgery is more commonly performed. The goal of this study was to identify socioeconomic factors associated with this phenomenon. METHODS: Patients aged 14 or older with a primary hospital diagnosis of sleep apnea were identified using the National Inpatient Sample from 2005 to 2012. ICD9 codes were used to determine whether a pharyngeal or jaw procedure was performed...
December 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289039/socioeconomic-gradients-in-all-cause-premature-and-avoidable-mortality-among-immigrants-and-long-term-residents-using-linked-death-records-in-ontario-canada
#6
Anam M Khan, Marcelo Urquia, Kathy Kornas, David Henry, Stephanie Y Cheng, Catherine Bornbaum, Laura C Rosella
BACKGROUND: Immigrants have been shown to possess a health advantage, yet are also more likely to reside in arduous economic conditions. Little is known about if and how the socioeconomic gradient for all-cause, premature and avoidable mortality differs according to immigration status. METHODS: Using several linked population-based vital and demographic databases from Ontario, we examined a cohort of all deaths in the province between 2002 and 2012. We constructed count models, adjusted for relevant covariates, to attain age-adjusted mortality rates and rate ratios for all-cause, premature and avoidable mortality across income quintile in immigrants and long-term residents, stratified by sex...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288635/urban-rural-disparities-in-hypertension-prevalence-detection-and-medication-use-among-chinese-adults-from-1993-to-2011
#7
Jiajia Li, Leiyu Shi, Shixue Li, Lingzhong Xu, Wen Qin, Heng Wang
BACKGROUND: China has experienced a rapid increase in hypertension over the past decade, especially in rural. Therefore, the aim of this research is to examine the dynamic trends in urban-rural disparities in hypertension prevalence, detection, and medication use among Chinese adults from 1993 to 2011. METHODS: Data were extracted from the seven latest waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). We used the hukou system to distinguish between urban and rural residents...
March 14, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287782/socioeconomic-health-and-psychosocial-mediators-of-racial-disparities-in-cognition-in-early-middle-and-late-adulthood
#8
Laura B Zahodne, Jennifer J Manly, Jacqui Smith, Teresa Seeman, Margie E Lachman
Racial disparities in cognitive performance exist across the life course, but it is not known whether mediators of disparities differ by age. Understanding sources of cognitive disparities at different ages can inform policies and interventions. Data were obtained for non-Hispanic Black and White respondents to The National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States from 3 age groups: 28-44 (N = 1210; 20% Black); 45-64 (N = 2693; 15% Black); and 65-85 (N = 1298; 11% Black). Moderated mediation models characterized direct and indirect effects of race on episodic memory and executive function composite scores through economic, health, and psychosocial variables as a function of age group...
March 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285805/telehealth-for-diabetes-self-management-education-and-support-in-an-underserved-free-clinic-population-a-pilot-study
#9
Tiffaney B Threatt, Eileen D Ward
OBJECTIVES: Primary study objectives were to (1) describe mean change in A1c from baseline of a free clinic population enrolled in telehealth diabetes self-management education and support (DSME/S) services and (2) to compare change in A1C and other clinical outcomes measures with free clinic patients enrolled in a traditional face-to-face DSME/S program. METHODS: An exploratory study design and comparative evaluation of telehealth DSME/S services in a free clinic population was used...
March 9, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285580/intraindividual-variability-in-late-life-functional-limitations-among-white-black-and-hispanic-older-adults
#10
Jielu Lin, Jessica Kelley-Moore
Consistent with the weathering hypothesis, many studies have captured racial/ethnic disparities in average functional health trajectories. The same mechanisms of social inequality that contribute to worse average health among minority adults may also contribute to greater fluctuations in their physical function at upper ages. Using panel data from the Health and Retirement Study, we examine patterns of intraindividual variability over time in trajectories of functional limitations for White, Black, and Hispanic older adults...
April 2017: Research on Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285333/south-asian-health-from-research-to-practice-and-policy-an-overview
#11
Francesca Gany, Latha Palaniappan, Lakshmi Prasad, Sudha Acharya, Jennifer Leng
The US South Asian population has grown tremendously, and is now over 2.5 million. South Asians often face tremendous cultural, socioeconomic, linguistic and structural obstacles to good health, and face staggering cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer risk. Coupled with this is a paucity of detailed data on the population's unique CVD and cancer risk profiles, etiologic mechanisms, and effective interventions to address South Asian health disparities. This data gap compelled an initiative to develop more targeted research and evidence-based practice and policy approaches...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284678/analysis-of-the-effects-of-individual-and-community-level-factors-on-childhood-immunization-in-malawi
#12
Peter Austin Morton Ntenda, Kun-Yang Chuang, Fentanesh Nibret Tiruneh, Ying-Chih Chuang
BACKGROUND: Empirical evidence regarding the relationship between childhood immunization and individual- and community-level factors in low-income countries has received little attention. We compared the trends and the effects of a wide range of individual- and community-level socioeconomic factors on the likelihood of a child being immunized between 2004 and 2010 in Malawi. METHODS: We used data from the 2004 and 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and applied generalized estimating logistic regression equation to analyze data respectively on 2042 and 3496 children aged 12-23months...
March 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282529/evidence-of-socio-economic-stress-and-female-foeticide-in-racial-disparities-in-the-gender-ratio-at-birth-in-the-united-states-1995-2014
#13
Victor Grech
BACKGROUND: Males are born in excess of females, expressed as M/T (male/total births), which is expected to approximate 0.515. Racial M/T disparities have been long known. This study was carried out in order to identify such disparities in different races in the United States. DESIGN: Monthly male and female live births by race for the entire US were obtained from the website of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for 1995-2014 for the four racial groups: American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, Black or African American and White...
March 1, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277700/does-socioeconomic-status-mediate-racial-differences-in-the-cortisol-response-in-middle-childhood
#14
Jennifer L Tackett, Kathrin Herzhoff, Avanté J Smack, Kathleen W Reardon, Emma K Adam
OBJECTIVE: Race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status are both associated with stress physiology as indexed by cortisol. The present study tested the extent to which racial/ethnic disparities in cortisol reactivity are explained by socioeconomic status. METHOD: The sample consisted of 296 racially and socioeconomically diverse children ages 8-11 (47% boys). Mothers reported on children's stressors and socioeconomic status; salivary cortisol levels were assessed before and after the Trier Social Stress Test...
March 9, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277046/social-disparities-in-diabetes-care-a-general-population-study-in-denmark
#15
Andreas Heltberg, John Sahl Andersen, Jakob Kragstrup, Volkert Siersma, Håkon Sandholdt, Christina Ellervik
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between socioeconomic factors and the attainment of treatment goals and pharmacotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes in Denmark. DESIGN: A cross-sectional population study. SETTING: The municipality of Naestved, Denmark. SUBJECTS: We studied 907 patients with type 2 diabetes identified from a random sample of 21,205 Danish citizens. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The proportion of patients who were not achieving goals for diabetes care based on their HbA1c, LDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and lifestyle, and the proportion of patients who were treated with antihypertensive and cholesterol- and glucose-lowering medication...
March 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275356/the-experience-of-sexual-stigma-and-the-increased-risk-of-attempted-suicide-in-young-brazilian-people-from-low-socioeconomic-group
#16
Angelo Brandelli Costa, Andrew Pasley, Wagner de Lara Machado, Ernesto Alvarado, Luciana Dutra-Thomé, Silvia Helena Koller
This study was intended to analyze the intersection of experience of sexual stigma low-socioeconomic status, and suicide attempt amongst young Brazilians (11-24 years old). In each of the data collection periods (2004-2006: n = 7185; 2010-2012: n = 2734), participants completed a questionnaire-based instrument. Network analysis provided support for a Minority Stress Model, oriented around whether participants had experienced sexual stigma. Although suicide attempts decreased by 20% for participants who had not experienced sexual stigma, there was a 60% increase for those who had experienced sexual stigma...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273080/geospatial-distribution-of-intestinal-parasitic-infections-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-and-its-association-with-social-determinants
#17
Clarissa Perez Faria, Graziela Maria Zanini, Gisele Silva Dias, Sidnei da Silva, Marcelo Bessa de Freitas, Ricardo Almendra, Paula Santana, Maria do Céu Sousa
BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections remain among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. This study aimed to estimate their prevalence and provide a detailed analysis of geographical distribution of intestinal parasites in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, considering demographic, socio-economic, and epidemiological contextual factors. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cross-section survey was conducted among individuals attending the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases (FIOCRUZ, RJ) during the period from April 2012 to February 2015...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272962/socioeconomic-determinants-of-sodium-intake-in-adult-populations-of-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Carlos de Mestral, Ana-Lucia Mayén, Dusan Petrovic, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Murielle Bochud, Silvia Stringhini
BACKGROUND: A poorer quality diet among individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) may partly explain the higher burden of noncommunicable disease among disadvantaged populations. Because there is a link between sodium intake and noncommunicable diseases, we systematically reviewed the current evidence on the social patterning of sodium intake. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the evidence on the association between SES and sodium intake in healthy adult populations of high-income countries...
April 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271627/social-determinants-of-inequalities-in-child-undernutrition-in-bangladesh-a-decomposition-analysis
#19
Tanvir M Huda, Alison Hayes, Shams El Arifeen, Michael J Dibley
Socioeconomic inequalities in child undernutrition remain one of the main challenges in Bangladesh. The social determinants of health are mostly responsible for such inequalities across different population groups. However, no study has examined the relative contribution of different social determinants to the socioeconomic inequality in child undernutrition in Bangladesh. Our objective is to measure the extent of socioeconomic-related inequalities in childhood stunting and identify the key social determinants that potentially explain these inequalities in Bangladesh...
March 8, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263280/disparities-in-potentially-preventable-hospitalizations-between-american-indian-and-alaska-native-and-non-hispanic-white-medicare-enrollees
#20
Joan O'Connell, Jennifer Rockell, Judith C Ouellet, Mark LeBeau
OBJECTIVE: A number of health care initiatives seek to improve health outcomes by increasing access to outpatient services while reducing preventable acute events. We evaluated disparities between American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) and non-Hispanic white (white) Medicare enrollees in access to outpatient preventive, primary, and specialty services by comparing their potentially preventable hospitalizations (PPHs). RESEARCH DESIGN: The study population included 121,311 adult AI/AN Medicare enrollees registered to use services funded by the Indian Health Service and 5,915,011 adult white enrollees living in the same counties...
March 3, 2017: Medical Care
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