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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773610/nhs-constitution-values-for-values-based-recruitment-a-virtue-ethics-perspective
#1
Johanna Elise Groothuizen, Alison Callwood, Ann Gallagher
Values-based recruitment is used in England to select healthcare staff, trainees and students on the basis that their values align with those stated in the Constitution of the UK National Health Service (NHS). However, it is unclear whether the extensive body of existing literature within the field of moral philosophy was taken into account when developing these values. Although most values have a long historical tradition, a tendency to assume that they have just been invented, and to approach them uncritically, exists within the healthcare sector...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720489/ensuring-respect-for-persons-in-compass-a-cluster-randomised-pragmatic-clinical-trial
#2
Joseph E Andrews, J Brian Moore, Richard B Weinberg, Mysha Sissine, Sabina Gesell, Jacquie Halladay, Wayne Rosamond, Cheryl Bushnell, Sara Jones, Paula Means, Nancy M P King, Diana Omoyeni, Pamela W Duncan
Cluster randomised clinical trials present unique challenges in meeting ethical obligations to those who are treated at a randomised site. Obtaining informed consent for research within the context of clinical care is one such challenge. In order to solve this problem it is important that an informed consent process be effective and efficient, and that it does not impede the research or the healthcare. The innovative approach to informed consent employed in the COMPASS study demonstrates the feasibility of upholding ethical standards without imposing undue burden on clinical workflows, staff members or patients who may participate in the research by virtue of their presence in a cluster randomised facility...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700846/rethinking-medical-oaths-using-the-physician-charter-and-ethical-virtues
#3
Alexander M Greiner, Lauris C Kaldjian
OBJECTIVE: Medical oaths express ethical values that are essential to the trust within the patient-physician relationship and medicine's commitment to society. However, the contents of oaths vary between medical schools and therefore raise questions about which ethical values should be included in a medical oath. More than a decade has passed since this variability was last analysed in North America, and since that time the Physician Charter on Medical Professionalism has gained considerable attention, raising the possibility that the Charter may be influencing medical oaths and making them more consistent...
April 27, 2018: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530402/is-egg-freezing-a-good-response-to-socioeconomic-and-cultural-factors-that-lead-women-to-postpone-motherhood
#4
Claudia Bozzaro
In western societies, a growing number of women are currently turning to social egg freezing, a technique that makes it possible to freeze oocytes and thus preserve female reproductive possibilities. The current ethical debate has focused on normative aspects concerning the question of whether social egg freezing empowers women's reproductive autonomy. Due to this narrow focus on autonomy, deeper questions concerning the socio-economic conditions and cultural factors that lead women to delay reproduction, to feel pressured by their biological clock, and thus to consider social egg freezing have not yet received sufficient attention and analysis...
February 23, 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490910/the-ethical-concerns-about-transgenic-crops
#5
EDITORIAL
Agnès E Ricroch, Michèle Guillaume-Hofnung, Marcel Kuntz
It is generally accepted that transgenesis can improve our knowledge of natural processes, but also leads to agricultural, industrial or socio-economical changes which could affect human society at large and which may, consequently, require regulation. It is often stated that developing countries are most likely to benefit from plant biotechnology and are at the same time most likely to be affected by the deployment of such new technologies. Therefore, ethical questions related to such biotechnology probably also need to be addressed...
February 28, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460499/implications-of-odera-oruka-s-ethics-of-consumerism-for-reducing-globesity
#6
Ademola Kazeem Fayemi
In this paper, I advance Odera Oruka's insights on the ethics of consumerism in order to draw relevant implications of his thoughts on rethinking the problem of obesity. I argue that Oruka's ethics of consumerism and his right to human minimum theory entail some salient ideas that might serve as a better ethical model for reducing the global obesity prevalence. Though Oruka's African moral philosophy is yet to receive universal attention it arguably deserves, the interests of the international and 'globesity' community would be better served learning from the contributions of an African moral theory to contemporary bioethical discourse on obesity...
February 20, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334251/discussing-edaravone-with-the-als-patient-an-ethical-framework-from-a-u-s-perspective
#7
Crystal Jing Jing Yeo, Zachary Simmons
The recent approval of edaravone by the United States Food and Drug Administration has generated a mix of hope tempered by reality. The costs of the drug, both monetarily and with regard to intensity of treatment, are high. The benefits, while modest, will be viewed through a very different lens by individuals depending on their goals of care. By virtue of our training and experience, physicians are ideally suited to understand and explain new treatments to our patients. As healthcare providers with a fiduciary responsibility to our patients, we must make sure they are fully informed about both the costs and benefits of non-curative therapies such as edaravone, and be prepared to discuss these in the context of their goals of care and potential impact on quality of life...
May 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282423/establishment-of-medical-education-upon-internalization-of-virtue-ethics-bridging-the-gap-between-theory-and-practice
#8
Mansoureh Madani, Bagher Larijani, Ensieh Madani, Nazafarin Ghasemzadeh
During medical training, students obtain enough skills and knowledge. However, medical ethics accomplishes its goals when, together with training medical courses, it guides students behavior towards morality so that ethics-oriented medical practice is internalized. Medical ethics is a branch of applied ethics which tries to introduce ethics into physicians' practice and ethical decisions; thus, it necessitates the behavior to be ethical. Therefore, when students are being trained, they need to be supplied with those guidelines which turn ethical instructions into practice to the extent possible...
2017: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282230/deconstructing-risk-management-in-psychotherapy-supervision
#9
Jerome Kroll, Jennifer Radden
In the ongoing controversy over how much regulation and standardization to impose on clinical practice and research, it is not surprising that the activity of psychotherapy supervision should be swept up in the drive for uniformity. The managers amongst us want to regulate and institutionalize all aspects of practice. In opposition, many clinicians resist the relentless march toward the safety of uniformity travel alongside managerial imposition of regulations. Psychotherapy supervision's method of a close apprenticeship relationship between supervisor and trainee and its focus on the process and ethics of professional interaction stand at the humanistic core of what is otherwise becoming an increasingly mechanistic model of providing care to persons with mental illness...
December 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218723/how-do-our-values-inform-ethical-research-a-narrative-of-recognizing-colonizing-practices
#10
Peta Dzidic, Brian Bishop
How do you reconcile tensions between ethical research practice, personal values, and disciplinary values? This article focuses on an ethical challenge involving the engagement of rural Indigenous community members that emerged during my PhD fieldwork. The narrative illustrates the necessity to engage in critical reflexive research practice, a process which saw me respond to my own feelings of "wrong" and "right," contemplate a distinction between procedural ethics and virtue ethics in community-based research, explore colonizing research practices, and endeavor to reconcile an instance where the values of community psychology appeared in contest...
December 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210286/morality-in-clinical-space-treatment-of-youngsters-with-functional-somatic-symptoms-in-a-western-clinical-context
#11
Sara Seerup Laursen, Birgitte Dehlholm-Lambertsen, Egon Stenager, Helle Johannessen
This paper explores the moral implications of treatment of young people with functional somatic symptoms. Based on an ethnographic field study at a Danish pain clinic for youngsters (age 8 to 18), the paper seeks to unearth the cultural, moral values that clinical practice steers by and upholds, and the implications this has for the assessment and management of ill body-selves. Through an exposition of the general practice of the clinic and an investigation of two specific cases of youngsters, it is found that the assessment of symptoms and selves and the goals of treatment are informed by cultural ideals of 'the good self' and 'the good life' in which agency and work ethic - both pertaining to the notion of individual responsibility - figure as prevalent virtues...
December 6, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184591/iranian-pediatric-nurse-s-experience-the-facilitators-of-the-learning-of-ethical-practices
#12
Kobra Karami, Sadat SeyedBagher Maddah, Abbas Abbaszadeh, Farahnaz Mohammadi Shahboulaghi, Mohammadali Hosseini, Nazila MousaviArfa, Mohammad Almasian
Background: Ethical care is a core value in nursing. Pediatric nurses are in direct and continuous contact with children and their parents. They manage their lives and health. As part of the pediatric nurses' daily work, ethical issues play an important role in making decisions, are important to make decisions, and this capability is only achieved by ethical practice. This study aimed to explore the factors facilitating the learning of ethical practice among Iranian pediatric nurses. Materials and Methods: This study is a conventional qualitative content analysis based on the Graneheim and Lundman method...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183249/truth-telling-decision-making-and-ethics-among-cancer-patients-in-nursing-practice-in-china
#13
Dong-Lan Ling, Hong-Jing Yu, Hui-Ling Guo
BACKGROUND: Truth-telling toward terminally ill patients is a challenging ethical issue in healthcare practice. However, there are no existing ethical guidelines or frameworks provided for Chinese nurses in relation to decision-making on truth-telling of terminal illness and the role of nurses thus is not explicit when encountering this issue. OBJECTIVES: The intention of this paper is to provide ethical guidelines or strategies with regards to decision-making on truth-telling of terminal illness for Chinese nurses...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173509/virtuous-aging-and-existential-vulnerability
#14
Hanne Laceulle
In its efforts to overcome problematic views that associate aging with inevitable decline, contemporary gerontology shows a tendency to focus predominantly on age-related vulnerabilities that science may try to remedy and control. However, gerontology should also offer languages to address vulnerabilities that cannot be remedied because they intrinsically belong to the human condition. After all, these are increasingly radically encountered in later life and should therefore be reflected upon in the study of aging...
December 2017: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173055/an-aristotelian-view-of-therapists-practice-in-multifamily-therapy-for-young-adults-with-severe-eating-disorders
#15
Berit Støre Brinchmann, Cathrine Moe, Mildrid Elisabeth Valvik, Steven Balmbra, Siri Lyngmo, Tove Skarbø
BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are serious conditions which also impact the families of adult patients. There are few qualitative studies of multifamily therapy with adults with severe eating disorders and none concerning the practice of therapists in multifamily therapy. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to explore therapists' practice in multifamily therapy. Research design and participants: A grounded theory approach was chosen. Data were collected through participant observation in two multifamily therapy groups and qualitative interviews with the therapists in those groups...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135457/toward-an-explanatory-framework-for-yoga-therapy-informed-by-philosophical-and-ethical-perspectives
#16
Marlysa B Sullivan, Steffany Moonaz, Kristine Weber, Jessica Noggle Taylor, Laura Schmalzl
Context • Yoga Therapy is an emerging complementary and integrative health practice for which there is increasing interest from both clinical and research perspectives. Currently missing, however, is an explanatory framework for the profession that provides practitioners, clients, and the public with an understanding of how various yogic traditions and principles can be understood in modern health care contexts. Objective • This study proposes an explanatory framework for yoga therapy, informed by phenomenology, eudaimonia, virtue ethics, and first-person ethical inquiry...
January 2018: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971432/cognitive-enhancement-using-ict-and-its-ethical-implications
#17
Spyros Doukakis, Giannis Stamatellos, Nektaria Glinou
The utilization of digital tools aiming at the cognitive enhancement of students and adults, so that they can achieve better performance and professional or academic success, has increased in recent years. This paper focuses on ICT tools such as computer games, programming languages and educational software as means for cognitive enhancement and attempts to highlight their contributions. Issues of design and the limitations of digital tools are discussed. In the final section, the ethical implications of using educational ICT tools for cognitive enhancement from a virtue ethics perspective are presented...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932930/understanding-and-resolving-conflicting-traditions-a-macintyrean-approach-to-shared-deliberation-in-medical-ethics
#18
Jessica Adkins
The position of clinical ethicist exists to help resolve conflicts in the hospital. Sometimes these conflicts arise because of fundamental cultural differences between the patient and the medical team, and such cases present special challenges. Should the ideology of modern medicine reject the wishes of those who hold ideologies from differing cultures? How can the medical ethicist help resolve such conflicts? To answer these questions, I rely on the works of Alasdair MacIntyre. Using MacIntyre's philosophy, we can better understand why traditions exist, how conflicts arise, and how opposing traditions can collaborate in shared decision making...
March 2018: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902054/ethical-issues-with-genetic-testing-for-tay-sachs
#19
Tricia Clayton
Several genetic disorders are specific to Jewish heritage; one of the most devastating is Tay-Sachs disease.Tay-Sachs is a fatal hereditary disease, causing progressive neurological problems for which there is no cure. Ethical issues surrounding genetic testing for Tay-Sachs within the Jewish community continue to be complex and multifaceted. A perspective of Tay-Sachs, using rights-based ethics and virtue ethics as a theoretical framework, is explored.
October 2017: Journal of Christian Nursing: a Quarterly Publication of Nurses Christian Fellowship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901599/balancing-bioethics-by-sensing-the-aesthetic
#20
Paul Macneill
This article is critical of "bioethics" as it is widely understood and taught, noting in particular an emphasis given to philosophical justification, reason and rationality. It is proposed that "balancing" bioethics be achieved by giving greater weight to practice and the aesthetic: Defined in terms of sensory perception, emotion and feeling. Each of those three elements is elaborated as a non-cognitive capacity and, when taken together, comprise aesthetic sensitivity and responsiveness. This is to recognise the aesthetic as a productive element in bioethics as practice...
October 2017: Bioethics
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