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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932930/understanding-and-resolving-conflicting-traditions-a-macintyrean-approach-to-shared-deliberation-in-medical-ethics
#1
Jessica Adkins
The position of clinical ethicist exists to help resolve conflicts in the hospital. Sometimes these conflicts arise because of fundamental cultural differences between the patient and the medical team, and such cases present special challenges. Should the ideology of modern medicine reject the wishes of those who hold ideologies from differing cultures? How can the medical ethicist help resolve such conflicts? To answer these questions, I rely on the works of Alasdair MacIntyre. Using MacIntyre's philosophy, we can better understand why traditions exist, how conflicts arise, and how opposing traditions can collaborate in shared decision making...
September 20, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902054/ethical-issues-with-genetic-testing-for-tay-sachs
#2
Tricia Clayton
Several genetic disorders are specific to Jewish heritage; one of the most devastating is Tay-Sachs disease.Tay-Sachs is a fatal hereditary disease, causing progressive neurological problems for which there is no cure. Ethical issues surrounding genetic testing for Tay-Sachs within the Jewish community continue to be complex and multifaceted. A perspective of Tay-Sachs, using rights-based ethics and virtue ethics as a theoretical framework, is explored.
October 2017: Journal of Christian Nursing: a Quarterly Publication of Nurses Christian Fellowship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901599/balancing-bioethics-by-sensing-the-aesthetic
#3
Paul Macneill
This article is critical of "bioethics" as it is widely understood and taught, noting in particular an emphasis given to philosophical justification, reason and rationality. It is proposed that "balancing" bioethics be achieved by giving greater weight to practice and the aesthetic: Defined in terms of sensory perception, emotion and feeling. Each of those three elements is elaborated as a non-cognitive capacity and, when taken together, comprise aesthetic sensitivity and responsiveness. This is to recognise the aesthetic as a productive element in bioethics as practice...
October 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852558/reflecting-the-human-nature-of-ivf-embryos-disappearing-women-in-ethics-law-and-fertility-practice
#4
Jenni Millbank
Many laws and ethical documents instruct us that disembodied embryos created through IVF processes are not mere tissue; they are 'widely regarded' as unique objects of serious moral consideration. Even in jurisdictions which disavow any overt characterization of embryonic personhood, the embryo, by virtue of its uniqueness and orientation toward future development, is said to have a 'special status' or command 'respect'. The woman whose desire for a child or children created this embryo, and who inhabits the body to whom it may one day be returned, is an omission or at best an afterthought in such frameworks...
April 2017: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838070/the-role-of-the-iacuc-in-the-design-and-conduct-of-animal-experiments-that-contribute-to-translational-success
#5
J I Everitt, B R Berridge
Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs) have a mandated role under the Animal Welfare Act and under Public Health Service Policy to assure the ethical and humane use of research animals in experiments conducted in the United States. The IACUC by virtue of its mandated functions is well positioned to help nurture an institutional culture of optimized animal use since this Committee is often responsible in large part for the culture of animal use that evolves within an institution. In addition to fostering a culture of humane care for research animals and a culture of working with the concepts of the 3Rs (refinement, reduction, replacement), the IACUC can help foster a culture of optimized animal use that encourages high quality reproducible studies that contribute to translational success...
July 1, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829270/environmental-health-virtue-ethics
#6
Matthew O'Madigan Gribble
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815690/treatment-of-individuals-who-cannot-receive-blood-products-for-religious-or-other-reasons
#7
REVIEW
Carlton D Scharman, Joseph J Shatzel, Edward Kim, Thomas G DeLoughery
By virtue of their religious principles, Jehovah's Witnesses (JWs) generally object to receiving blood products, raising numerous ethical, legal, and medical challenges for providers who care for these patients, especially in the emergent setting. In this review, we discuss several areas relevant to the care of JWs, including the current literature on "bloodless" medical care in the setting of peri- and intra-operative management, acute blood loss, trauma, pregnancy, and malignancy. We have found that medical and administrative efforts in the form of bloodless medicine and surgery programs can be instrumental in helping to reduce risks of morbidity and mortality in these patients...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799199/refining-moral-agency-insights-from-moral-psychology-and-moral-philosophy
#8
Aimee Milliken
Research in moral psychology has recently raised questions about the impact of context and the environment on the way the human mind works. In a 2012 call to action, Paley wrote: "If some of the conclusions arrived at by moral psychologists are true, they are directly relevant to the way nurses think about moral problems, and present serious challenges to favoured concepts in nursing ethics, such as the ethics of care, virtue, and the unity of the person" (p. 80). He urges nurse ethicists and scholars to evaluate the impact these findings may have for moral theory...
August 11, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789658/healthcare-professionals-and-patients-perspectives-on-consent-to-clinical-genetic-testing-moving-towards-a-more-relational-approach
#9
Gabrielle Natalie Samuel, Sandi Dheensa, Bobbie Farsides, Angela Fenwick, Anneke Lucassen
BACKGROUND: This paper proposes a refocusing of consent for clinical genetic testing, moving away from an emphasis on autonomy and information provision, towards an emphasis on the virtues of healthcare professionals seeking consent, and the relationships they construct with their patients. METHODS: We draw on focus groups with UK healthcare professionals working in the field of clinical genetics, as well as in-depth interviews with patients who have sought genetic testing in the UK's National Health Service (data collected 2013-2015)...
August 8, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721643/the-scientific-self-reclaiming-its-place-in-the-history-of-research-ethics
#10
Herman Paul
How can the history of research ethics be expanded beyond the standard narrative of codification-a story that does not reach back beyond World War II-without becoming so broad as to lose all distinctiveness? This article proposes a history of research ethics focused on the "scientific self," that is, the role-specific identity of scientists as typically described in terms of skills, competencies, qualities, or dispositions. Drawing on three agenda-setting texts from nineteenth-century history, biology, and sociology, the article argues that the "revolutions" these books sought to unleash were, among other things, revolts against inherited conceptions of scientific selfhood...
July 18, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707850/the-virtues-of-scientific-practice-macintyre-virtue-ethics-and-the-historiography-of-science
#11
Daniel J Hicks, Thomas A Stapleford
“Practice” has become a ubiquitous term in the history of science, and yet historians have not always reflected on its philosophical import and in particular on its potential connections with ethics. This essay draws on the work of the virtue ethicist Alasdair MacIntyre to develop a theory of “communal practices” and explore how such an approach can inform the history of science, including allegations about the corruption of science by wealth or power, consideration of scientific ethics or “moral economies,” the role of values in science, the ethical distinctiveness (or not) of scientific vocations, and the relationship between history of science and the practice of science itself...
September 2016: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663681/living-donor-liver-transplantation-for-acute-liver-failure-with-fixed-pupils-are-we-fixed
#12
Shweta A Singh, Anshuman Singh, Viniyendra Pamecha, Chandra Kant Pandey, Shiv Kumar Sarin
Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is fraught with the social and ethical dilemma of excising a part of the liver from a healthy first-degree relative. When LDLT is to be done for an acute liver failure (ALF), identification of a suitable donor is a race against time. Herein, we describe a unique challenge faced by the transplant team of whether to proceed with donor hepatectomy from a son, when the recipient (HBV-related ALF) developed non-reactive fully dilated pupils on the table, prior to beginning the surgery...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644785/what-should-physicians-do-when-they-disagree-clinically-and-ethically-with-a-surrogate-s-wishes
#13
Terri Traudt, Joan Liaschenko
When patients' surrogates and physicians disagree about the appropriateness of aggressive treatment in intensive care units (ICUs), physicians can experience surrogates' demands as sources of moral distress. This article addresses the virtues and communication strategies needed to respond appropriately in such situations. Specifically, we offer a framework and language that rely on moral community to facilitate common ground and alleviate moral distress.
June 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622010/-are-you-in-or-are-you-out-moral-appeals-to-the-public-in-organ-donation-poster-campaigns-a-multimodal-and-ethical-analysis
#14
Solveig L Hansen, Marthe I Eisner, Larissa Pfaller, Silke Schicktanz
Organ transplantation is a well-established practice in modern medicine. However, many countries, especially those with an opt-in regulation, face the problem of low donation numbers. Respective public campaigns attempt to increase the number of donors by swaying public opinion with the use of carefully selected bits of information. Germany serves as a case study for an opt-in country investing approximately €7.5 million/year in the distribution of respective campaigns. To address diverse populations, large-scale posters in various public spaces still display a multitude of moral messages for organ donation...
June 16, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596742/assessing-the-growth-of-ethical-banking-some-evidence-from-spanish-customers
#15
Fernando E Callejas-Albiñana, Isabel Martínez-Rodríguez, Ana I Callejas-Albiñana, Irene M de Vidales-Carrasco
Aristotle, who, having predated Adam Smith by 2000 years, deserves to be recognized as the world's first economist (Solomon, 1995), distinguished between two different senses of what we call economics: oikonomikos, or household trading, which he approved of and considered essential to the working of any even slightly complex society, and chrematisike, or trade for profit, which he considered selfish and utterly devoid of virtue, calling those who engaged in such practices "parasites". Of course, consumers do not purchase and invest for solely economic reasons (Polanyi, 1944)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559456/can-exercise-suppress-tumour-growth-in-advanced-prostate-cancer-patients-with-sclerotic-bone-metastases-a-randomised-controlled-study-protocol-examining-feasibility-safety-and-efficacy
#16
Nicolas H Hart, Robert U Newton, Nigel A Spry, Dennis R Taaffe, Suzanne K Chambers, Kynan T Feeney, David J Joseph, Andrew D Redfern, Tom Ferguson, Daniel A Galvão
INTRODUCTION: Exercise may positively alter tumour biology through numerous modulatory and regulatory mechanisms in response to a variety of modes and dosages, evidenced in preclinical models to date. Specifically, localised and systemic biochemical alterations produced during and following exercise may suppress tumour formation, growth and distribution by virtue of altered epigenetics and endocrine-paracrine activity. Given the impressive ability of targeted mechanical loading to interfere with metastasis-driven tumour formation in human osteolytic tumour cells, it is of equal interest to determine whether a similar effect is observed in sclerotic tumour cells...
May 30, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551773/should-physicians-tell-the-truth-without-taking-social-complications-into-account-a-striking-case
#17
Ercan Avci
The principle of respect for autonomy requires informing patients adequately and appropriately about diagnoses, treatments, and prognoses. However, some clinical cases may cause ethical dilemmas regarding telling the truth. Under the existence especially of certain cultural, social, and religious circumstances, disclosing all the relevant information to all pertinent parties might create harmful effects. Even though the virtue of telling the truth is unquestionable, sometimes de facto conditions compel physicians to act paternalistically to protect the patient/patients from imminent dangers...
May 27, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543658/the-virtues-of-national-ethics-committees
#18
Jonathan Montgomery
The United Kingdom has many bodies that play their part in carrying out the work of national ethics committees, but its nearest equivalent of a U.S. presidential bioethics commission is the Nuffield Council on Bioethics, established in 1991. The Council is charged with examining ethical questions raised by developments in biological and medical research, publishing reports, and making representations to appropriate bodies in order to respond to or anticipate public concern. It is a nongovernment organization with no defined or guaranteed channels of influence...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464757/nurses-contributions-to-the-resolution-of-ethical-dilemmas-in-practice
#19
Nichola Ann Barlow, Janet Hargreaves, Warren P Gillibrand
BACKGROUND: Complex and expensive treatment options have increased the frequency and emphasis of ethical decision-making in healthcare. In order to meet these challenges effectively, we need to identify how nurses contribute the resolution of these dilemmas. AIMS: To identify the values, beliefs and contextual influences that inform decision-making. To identify the contribution made by nurses in achieving the resolution of ethical dilemmas in practice. DESIGN: An interpretive exploratory study was undertaken, 11 registered acute care nurses working in a district general hospital in England were interviewed, using semi-structured interviews...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447023/virtue-ethics-of-clinical-research
#20
María PérezñPinar, Luis Ayerbe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Perspectives in Clinical Research
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