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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101699/humanity-at-the-edge-the-moral-laboratory-of-feeding-precarious-lives
#1
Mette N Svendsen, Iben M Gjødsbøl, Mie S Dam, Laura E Navne
At the heart of anthropology and the social sciences lies a notion of human existence according to which humans and animals share the basic need for food, but only humans have the capacity for morality. Based on fieldwork in a pig laboratory, a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and a dementia nursing home, we follow practices of feeding precarious lives lacking most markers of human personhood, including the exercise of moral judgment. Despite the absence of such markers, laboratory researchers and caregivers in these three sites do not abstain from engaging in questions about the moral status of the piglets, infants, and people with dementia in their care...
January 18, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092713/%C3%A2-the-anthropocene%C3%A2-ecosystem-management-and-environmental-virtue
#2
Ronald Sandler
*Portions of this article are drawn from: Sandler, R. Environmental Ethics: Theory in Practice, Oxford University Press, New York, in press. In this article I consider contrasting views on the implications of rapid, macroscale anthropogenic change for environmental ethics, particularly ecosystem management, species conservation, and environmental virtue. I begin by reviewing the Anthropocene debate, which has become a primary point of discourse on whether we ought to embrace a more interventionist stance regarding ecosystem management and species conservation...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092711/-the-future-of-ecology-wisdom-as-the-speculative-centre-of-environmental-ethics
#3
Luca Valera
This article argues that it is necessary to go back to Potter's proposal to rediscover a concept of bioethics wider than medical ethics, and strongly connected to environmental ethics. The two disciplines share, among others, the following dimensions: the consciousness of the sin as a consequence of recent technological developments; the need for a salvation; the need for a science of survival; wisdom as a possible solution. Referring to the latter, the work of Van Rennselaer Potter (father of bioethics) and Arne Næss (father of deep ecology, and in a broader sense, of environmental ethics) are particularly linked: it seems that wisdom should be the virtue providing answers about our way of dwelling the world...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092709/the-centrality-of-philosophical-anthropology-to-a-future-environmental-ethics
#4
Arran Gare
While environmental ethics has successfully established itself in philosophy, as presently conceived it is still largely irrelevant to grappling the global ecological crisis because, as Alasdair MacIntyre has argued, ethical philosophy itself is in grave disorder. MacIntyre's historically oriented recovery of virtue ethics is defended, but it is argued that even MacIntyre was too constrained by received assumptions to overcome this disorder. As he himself realized, his ideas need to be integrated and defended through philosophical anthropology...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032470/a-look-at-uganda-s-early-hiv-prevention-strategies-through-a-moderate-african-communitarian-lens
#5
Jane Wathuta
This paper seeks to highlight the benefits of prioritizing moderate African communitarian principles as partly demonstrated in the HIV prevention strategies implemented in Uganda in the late 1980s. Pertinent lessons could be drawn so as to achieve the HIV prevention targets envisioned in the post-2015 development era. Communitarianism emphasizes the importance of communities as part of healthy human existence. Its core ethical values include the virtues of generosity, compassion, and solidarity. Persuasion through communication, consensus through dialogue, and the awareness and commitment to responsibilities towards other members of the community, are chief practices relied upon to achieve appropriate social behaviour...
December 28, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995445/promoting-virtue-or-punishing-fraud-mapping-contrasts-in-the-language-of-scientific-integrity
#6
S P J M Horbach, W Halffman
Even though integrity is widely considered to be an essential aspect of research, there is an ongoing debate on what actually constitutes research integrity. The understanding of integrity ranges from the minimal, only considering falsification, fabrication and plagiarism, to the maximum, blending into science ethics. Underneath these obvious contrasts, there are more subtle differences that are not as immediately evident. The debate about integrity is usually presented as a single, universal discussion, with shared concerns for researchers, policymakers and 'the public'...
December 19, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913987/a-moral-normative-framework-for-the-judgment-of-actions-and-decisions-in-the-construction-industry-and-engineering-part-ii
#7
Omar J Alkhatib
The construction industry is typically characterized as a fragmented, multi-organizational setting in which members from different technical backgrounds and moral values join together to develop a particular business or project. The most challenging obstacle in the construction process is to achieve a successful practice and to identify and apply an ethical framework to manage the behavior of involved specialists and contractors and to ensure the quality of all completed construction activities. The framework should reflect a common moral ground for myriad people involved in this process to survive and compete ethically in today's turbulent construction market...
December 2, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885543/realism-and-impartiality-making-sustainability-effective-in-decision-making
#8
Miquel Bastons, Jaume Armengou
There is both individual and collective widespread concern in society about the impact of human activity and the effects of our decisions on the physical and social environment. This concern is included within the idea of sustainability. The meaning of the concept is still ambiguous and its practical effectiveness disputed. Like many other authors, this article uses as a starting point the definition proposed by the World Commission on Environment and Development (Our common future, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1987), considering it to be a proposal for changing the assessment of the effects of decisions, from at least two perspectives: (1) what effects we should consider and (2) how we should assess them...
November 24, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749168/diagnosis-by-documentary-professional-responsibilities-in-informal-encounters
#9
Alistair Wardrope, Markus Reuber
Most work addressing clinical workers' professional responsibilities concerns the norms of conduct within established professional-patient relationships, but such responsibilities may extend beyond the clinical context. We explore health workers' professional responsibilities in such "informal" encounters through the example of a doctor witnessing the misdiagnosis and mistreatment of a serious long-term condition in a television documentary, arguing that neither internalist approaches to professional responsibility (such as virtue ethics or care ethics) nor externalist ones (such as the "social contract" model) provide sufficiently clear guidance in such situations...
November 2016: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720264/aats-2016-ethics-forum-working-virtues-in-surgical-practice
#10
Larry R Churchill
Moral virtues are the complement to ethical principles. They constitute the elements of character that drive habits and daily routines. Certain virtues are especially important in surgery, shaping surgical practice even when no big decisions are at hand. Eight virtues are described and the work they do is explored: trustworthiness, equanimity, empathy, advocacy, compassion, courage, humility, and hope.
September 17, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660184/reasoning-about-truth-telling-in-end-of-life-care-of-patients-with-acute-stroke
#11
Åsa Rejnö, Gunilla Silfverberg, Britt-Marie Ternestedt
BACKGROUND: Ethical problems are a universal phenomenon but rarely researched concerning patients dying from acute stroke. These patients often have a reduced consciousness from stroke onset and thereby lack ability to convey their needs and could be described as 'incompetent' decision makers regarding their own care. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to deepen the understanding of stroke team members' reasoning about truth-telling in end-of-life care due to acute stroke...
September 22, 2016: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641274/abiding-with-reverence-in-nurse-practice
#12
Constance L Milton
Reverence has been known as a forgotten virtue of human flourishing dating back thousands of years. Yet it remains as a concept pertinent to the discipline of nursing. The author of this column explores the ethical concept and its importance with specific application to the practice of nursing from a discipline-specific humanbecoming philosophical-theoretical perspective.
October 2016: Nursing Science Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607920/limiting-the-access-to-direct-acting-antivirals-against-hcv-an-ethical-dilemma
#13
Ivan Gentile, Alberto E Maraolo, Massimo Niola, Vincenzo Graziano, Guglielmo Borgia, Mariano Paternoster
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects about 200 million people worldwide and represents a leading cause of liver-related mortality. Eradication of HCV infection, achieved mainly through direct-acting antivirals (DAA), results in a decrease of mortality and an improvement of quality of life. These drugs have a maximal efficacy and an optimal tolerability. However, their high cost precludes a universal access even in wealthy countries. Areas covered: This article deals with the policies adopted for the use of the new anti-HCV drugs, especially in Europe and most of all in Italy, supposedly the developed country with the highest HCV prevalence...
November 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557996/virtue-in-medical-practice-an-exploratory-study
#14
Ben Kotzee, Agnieszka Ignatowicz, Hywel Thomas
Virtue ethics has long provided fruitful resources for the study of issues in medical ethics. In particular, study of the moral virtues of the good doctor-like kindness, fairness and good judgement-have provided insights into the nature of medical professionalism and the ethical demands on the medical practitioner as a moral person. Today, a substantial literature exists exploring the virtues in medical practice and many commentators advocate an emphasis on the inculcation of the virtues of good medical practice in medical education and throughout the medical career...
August 24, 2016: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514344/-social-anonymity-the-ethics-of-facial-transplantation
#15
(no author information available yet)
'...unlikely to make people 'beautiful'; rather '[i]t will make them look normal and forgettable - that is its virtue'.
August 12, 2016: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499489/the-role-of-the-virtuous-investigator-in-protecting-human-research-subjects
#16
Christine Grady, Anthony S Fauci
In his famous 1966 New England Journal of Medicine article, Henry Beecher concluded that a critical safeguard for protecting human participants, more reliable than informed consent, was the "presence of an intelligent, informed, conscientious, compassionate, responsible investigator." This article examines Beecher's appeal to reliance on the "virtuous" investigator in light of the critical role that investigators play in research ethics and the systems of research protections that have been developed since Beecher's writing...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497812/closing-the-evidence-gap-in-infectious-disease-point-of-care-randomization-and-informed-consent
#17
Angela Huttner, Leonard Leibovici, Ursula Theuretzbacher, Benedikt Huttner, Mical Paul
The informed consent document is intended to provide basic rights to patients but often fails to do so. Patients' autonomy may be diminished by virtue of their illness; evidence shows that even patients who appear to be ideal candidates for understanding and granting informed consent rarely are-particularly those with acute infections. We argue that, for low-risk trials whose purpose is to evaluate non-experimental therapies or other measures toward which the medical community is in a state of equipoise, ethics committees should play a more active role in a more standardized fashion...
August 3, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472787/justice-courage-and-truthfulness-virtues-that-medical-trainees-can-and-must-learn
#18
Kyle E Karches, Daniel P Sulmasy
Medical educators and powerful physician organizations agree on the importance of professionalism for the formation of good physicians. However, the many definitions of professionalism found in the literature lack content and differ significantly, undermining attempts to describe and implement professionalism curricula. The work of the contemporary moral philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre on the virtues may help provide some of the content that the concept of professionalism currently lacks. MacIntyre shows the importance of the virtues, particularly justice, courage, and truthfulness, for the success of any "practice," defined as a form of cooperative human activity...
July 2016: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460274/from-the-immoral-to-the-incorruptible-how-prescriptive-expectations-turn-the-powerful-into-paragons-of-virtue
#19
Miao Hu, Derek D Rucker, Adam D Galinsky
Ample evidence documents that power increases unethical behavior. This article introduces a new theoretical framework for understanding when power leads to more versus less unethical behavior. Our key proposition is that people hold expectations about power that are both descriptive (how the powerful do behave) and prescriptive (how the powerful should behave). People hold descriptive beliefs that the powerful do behave more unethically than the powerless, but they hold prescriptive beliefs that the powerful should behave more ethically than the powerless...
June 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400821/psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures-diagnosis-management-and%C3%A2-bioethics
#20
REVIEW
Kaoru Takasaki, Andrea Diaz Stransky, Geoffrey Miller
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis and management of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) is often challenging and fraught with discord and disagreement between patients, parents, and physicians. Furthermore, there are ethical challenges when making the diagnosis, communicating this information, and instituting management. METHODS: We reviewed the current body of knowledge regarding the characteristic differences between epileptic seizures and PNES, and the high incidence of psychiatric comorbidities...
September 2016: Pediatric Neurology
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