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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815690/treatment-of-individuals-who-cannot-receive-blood-products-for-religious-or-other-reasons
#1
REVIEW
Carlton D Scharman, Joseph J Shatzel, Edward Kim, Thomas G DeLoughery
By virtue of their religious principles, Jehovah's Witnesses (JWs) generally object to receiving blood products, raising numerous ethical, legal, and medical challenges for providers who care for these patients, especially in the emergent setting. In this review, we discuss several areas relevant to the care of JWs, including the current literature on "bloodless" medical care in the setting of peri- and intra-operative management, acute blood loss, trauma, pregnancy, and malignancy. We have found that medical and administrative efforts in the form of bloodless medicine and surgery programs can be instrumental in helping to reduce risks of morbidity and mortality in these patients...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799199/refining-moral-agency-insights-from-moral-psychology-and-moral-philosophy
#2
Aimee Milliken
Research in moral psychology has recently raised questions about the impact of context and the environment on the way the human mind works. In a 2012 call to action, Paley wrote: "If some of the conclusions arrived at by moral psychologists are true, they are directly relevant to the way nurses think about moral problems, and present serious challenges to favoured concepts in nursing ethics, such as the ethics of care, virtue, and the unity of the person" (p. 80). He urges nurse ethicists and scholars to evaluate the impact these findings may have for moral theory...
August 11, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789658/healthcare-professionals-and-patients-perspectives-on-consent-to-clinical-genetic-testing-moving-towards-a-more-relational-approach
#3
Gabrielle Natalie Samuel, Sandi Dheensa, Bobbie Farsides, Angela Fenwick, Anneke Lucassen
BACKGROUND: This paper proposes a refocusing of consent for clinical genetic testing, moving away from an emphasis on autonomy and information provision, towards an emphasis on the virtues of healthcare professionals seeking consent, and the relationships they construct with their patients. METHODS: We draw on focus groups with UK healthcare professionals working in the field of clinical genetics, as well as in-depth interviews with patients who have sought genetic testing in the UK's National Health Service (data collected 2013-2015)...
August 8, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721643/the-scientific-self-reclaiming-its-place-in-the-history-of-research-ethics
#4
Herman Paul
How can the history of research ethics be expanded beyond the standard narrative of codification-a story that does not reach back beyond World War II-without becoming so broad as to lose all distinctiveness? This article proposes a history of research ethics focused on the "scientific self," that is, the role-specific identity of scientists as typically described in terms of skills, competencies, qualities, or dispositions. Drawing on three agenda-setting texts from nineteenth-century history, biology, and sociology, the article argues that the "revolutions" these books sought to unleash were, among other things, revolts against inherited conceptions of scientific selfhood...
July 18, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707850/the-virtues-of-scientific-practice-macintyre-virtue-ethics-and-the-historiography-of-science
#5
Daniel J Hicks, Thomas A Stapleford
“Practice” has become a ubiquitous term in the history of science, and yet historians have not always reflected on its philosophical import and in particular on its potential connections with ethics. This essay draws on the work of the virtue ethicist Alasdair MacIntyre to develop a theory of “communal practices” and explore how such an approach can inform the history of science, including allegations about the corruption of science by wealth or power, consideration of scientific ethics or “moral economies,” the role of values in science, the ethical distinctiveness (or not) of scientific vocations, and the relationship between history of science and the practice of science itself...
September 2016: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663681/living-donor-liver-transplantation-for-acute-liver-failure-with-fixed-pupils-are-we-fixed
#6
Shweta A Singh, Anshuman Singh, Viniyendra Pamecha, Chandra Kant Pandey, Shiv Kumar Sarin
Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is fraught with the social and ethical dilemma of excising a part of the liver from a healthy first-degree relative. When LDLT is to be done for an acute liver failure (ALF), identification of a suitable donor is a race against time. Herein, we describe a unique challenge faced by the transplant team of whether to proceed with donor hepatectomy from a son, when the recipient (HBV-related ALF) developed non-reactive fully dilated pupils on the table, prior to beginning the surgery...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644785/what-should-physicians-do-when-they-disagree-clinically-and-ethically-with-a-surrogate-s-wishes
#7
Terri Traudt, Joan Liaschenko
When patients' surrogates and physicians disagree about the appropriateness of aggressive treatment in intensive care units (ICUs), physicians can experience surrogates' demands as sources of moral distress. This article addresses the virtues and communication strategies needed to respond appropriately in such situations. Specifically, we offer a framework and language that rely on moral community to facilitate common ground and alleviate moral distress.
June 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622010/-are-you-in-or-are-you-out-moral-appeals-to-the-public-in-organ-donation-poster-campaigns-a-multimodal-and-ethical-analysis
#8
Solveig L Hansen, Marthe I Eisner, Larissa Pfaller, Silke Schicktanz
Organ transplantation is a well-established practice in modern medicine. However, many countries, especially those with an opt-in regulation, face the problem of low donation numbers. Respective public campaigns attempt to increase the number of donors by swaying public opinion with the use of carefully selected bits of information. Germany serves as a case study for an opt-in country investing approximately €7.5 million/year in the distribution of respective campaigns. To address diverse populations, large-scale posters in various public spaces still display a multitude of moral messages for organ donation...
June 16, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596742/assessing-the-growth-of-ethical-banking-some-evidence-from-spanish-customers
#9
Fernando E Callejas-Albiñana, Isabel Martínez-Rodríguez, Ana I Callejas-Albiñana, Irene M de Vidales-Carrasco
Aristotle, who, having predated Adam Smith by 2000 years, deserves to be recognized as the world's first economist (Solomon, 1995), distinguished between two different senses of what we call economics: oikonomikos, or household trading, which he approved of and considered essential to the working of any even slightly complex society, and chrematisike, or trade for profit, which he considered selfish and utterly devoid of virtue, calling those who engaged in such practices "parasites". Of course, consumers do not purchase and invest for solely economic reasons (Polanyi, 1944)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559456/can-exercise-suppress-tumour-growth-in-advanced-prostate-cancer-patients-with-sclerotic-bone-metastases-a-randomised-controlled-study-protocol-examining-feasibility-safety-and-efficacy
#10
Nicolas H Hart, Robert U Newton, Nigel A Spry, Dennis R Taaffe, Suzanne K Chambers, Kynan T Feeney, David J Joseph, Andrew D Redfern, Tom Ferguson, Daniel A Galvão
INTRODUCTION: Exercise may positively alter tumour biology through numerous modulatory and regulatory mechanisms in response to a variety of modes and dosages, evidenced in preclinical models to date. Specifically, localised and systemic biochemical alterations produced during and following exercise may suppress tumour formation, growth and distribution by virtue of altered epigenetics and endocrine-paracrine activity. Given the impressive ability of targeted mechanical loading to interfere with metastasis-driven tumour formation in human osteolytic tumour cells, it is of equal interest to determine whether a similar effect is observed in sclerotic tumour cells...
May 30, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551773/should-physicians-tell-the-truth-without-taking-social-complications-into-account-a-striking-case
#11
Ercan Avci
The principle of respect for autonomy requires informing patients adequately and appropriately about diagnoses, treatments, and prognoses. However, some clinical cases may cause ethical dilemmas regarding telling the truth. Under the existence especially of certain cultural, social, and religious circumstances, disclosing all the relevant information to all pertinent parties might create harmful effects. Even though the virtue of telling the truth is unquestionable, sometimes de facto conditions compel physicians to act paternalistically to protect the patient/patients from imminent dangers...
May 27, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543658/the-virtues-of-national-ethics-committees
#12
Jonathan Montgomery
The United Kingdom has many bodies that play their part in carrying out the work of national ethics committees, but its nearest equivalent of a U.S. presidential bioethics commission is the Nuffield Council on Bioethics, established in 1991. The Council is charged with examining ethical questions raised by developments in biological and medical research, publishing reports, and making representations to appropriate bodies in order to respond to or anticipate public concern. It is a nongovernment organization with no defined or guaranteed channels of influence...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464757/nurses-contributions-to-the-resolution-of-ethical-dilemmas-in-practice
#13
Nichola Ann Barlow, Janet Hargreaves, Warren P Gillibrand
BACKGROUND: Complex and expensive treatment options have increased the frequency and emphasis of ethical decision-making in healthcare. In order to meet these challenges effectively, we need to identify how nurses contribute the resolution of these dilemmas. AIMS: To identify the values, beliefs and contextual influences that inform decision-making. To identify the contribution made by nurses in achieving the resolution of ethical dilemmas in practice. DESIGN: An interpretive exploratory study was undertaken, 11 registered acute care nurses working in a district general hospital in England were interviewed, using semi-structured interviews...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447023/virtue-ethics-of-clinical-research
#14
María PérezñPinar, Luis Ayerbe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Perspectives in Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430569/courage-and-compassion-virtues-in-caring-for-so-called-difficult-patients
#15
Michael Hawking, Farr A Curlin, John D Yoon
What, if anything, can medical ethics offer to assist in the care of the "difficult" patient? We begin with a discussion of virtue theory and its application to medical ethics. We conceptualize the "difficult" patient as an example of a "moral stress test" that especially challenges the physician's character, requiring the good physician to display the virtues of courage and compassion. We then consider two clinical vignettes to flesh out how these virtues might come into play in the care of "difficult" patients, and we conclude with a brief proposal for how medical educators might cultivate these essential character traits in physicians-in-training...
April 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429302/ethics-guidelines-in-environmental-epidemiology-their-development-and-challenges-we-face
#16
REVIEW
Shira Kramer, Colin L Soskolne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review integrates historical developments and key events in bringing ethics into epidemiology in general and into environmental epidemiology in particular. The goal is to provide context for and discern among the various approaches and motivations that drive the need for ethical conduct in support of the public interest. RECENT FINDINGS: The need for ethics guidelines in epidemiology is different from developments in other biomedical-related fields by virtue of its focus on populations rather than on individuals...
April 20, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421865/it-s-not-all-about-moral-reasoning-understanding-the-content-of-moral-case-deliberation
#17
Mia Svantesson, Marit Silén, Inger James
BACKGROUND: Moral Case Deliberation is one form of clinical ethics support described as a facilitator-led collective moral reasoning by healthcare professionals on a concrete moral question connected to their practice. Evaluation research is needed, but, as human interaction is difficult to standardise, there is a need to capture the content beyond moral reasoning. This allows for a better understanding of Moral Case Deliberation, which may contribute to further development of valid outcome criteria and stimulate the normative discussion of what Moral Case Deliberation should contain...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395043/virtue-ethics
#18
Anthony Austin Bibus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366905/public-reasoning-and-health-care-priority-setting-the-case-of-nice
#19
Benedict Rumbold, Albert Weale, Annette Rid, James Wilson, Peter Littlejohns
Health systems that aim to secure universal patient access through a scheme of prepayments-whether through taxes, social insurance, or a combination of the two-need to make decisions on the scope of coverage that they guarantee: such tasks often falling to a priority-setting agency. This article analyzes the decision-making processes at one such agency in particular-the UK's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)-and appraises their ethical justifiability. In particular, we consider the extent to which NICE's model can be justified on the basis of Rawls's conception of "reasonableness...
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274325/consent-for-the-diagnosis-of-preclinical-dementia-states-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Julian C Hughes, Thomas A Ingram, Aron Jarvis, Elise Denton, Zoe Lampshire, Cathy Wernham
It is now possible to detect the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) many years before symptoms and signs otherwise become manifest. Biomarkers of disease include evidence of amyloid and tau in the cerebrospinal fluid and neuroimaging which (for instance) allows amyloid in the brain to be visualized. There is, thus, a preclinical state in which it is possible to identify Alzheimer's pathology long before there is clinical evidence of disease. Much research focuses on this preclinical state because it seems likely that treatments will be more effective before the disease is established...
April 2017: Maturitas
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