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virtue ethics

Alistair Wardrope, Markus Reuber
Most work addressing clinical workers' professional responsibilities concerns the norms of conduct within established professional-patient relationships, but such responsibilities may extend beyond the clinical context. We explore health workers' professional responsibilities in such "informal" encounters through the example of a doctor witnessing the misdiagnosis and mistreatment of a serious long-term condition in a television documentary, arguing that neither internalist approaches to professional responsibility (such as virtue ethics or care ethics) nor externalist ones (such as the "social contract" model) provide sufficiently clear guidance in such situations...
November 2016: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Larry R Churchill
Moral virtues are the complement to ethical principles. They constitute the elements of character that drive habits and daily routines. Certain virtues are especially important in surgery, shaping surgical practice even when no big decisions are at hand. Eight virtues are described and the work they do is explored: trustworthiness, equanimity, empathy, advocacy, compassion, courage, humility, and hope.
September 17, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Åsa Rejnö, Gunilla Silfverberg, Britt-Marie Ternestedt
BACKGROUND: Ethical problems are a universal phenomenon but rarely researched concerning patients dying from acute stroke. These patients often have a reduced consciousness from stroke onset and thereby lack ability to convey their needs and could be described as 'incompetent' decision makers regarding their own care. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to deepen the understanding of stroke team members' reasoning about truth-telling in end-of-life care due to acute stroke...
September 22, 2016: Nursing Ethics
Constance L Milton
Reverence has been known as a forgotten virtue of human flourishing dating back thousands of years. Yet it remains as a concept pertinent to the discipline of nursing. The author of this column explores the ethical concept and its importance with specific application to the practice of nursing from a discipline-specific humanbecoming philosophical-theoretical perspective.
October 2016: Nursing Science Quarterly
Ivan Gentile, Alberto E Maraolo, Massimo Niola, Vincenzo Graziano, Guglielmo Borgia, Mariano Paternoster
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects about 200 million people worldwide and represents a leading cause of liver-related mortality. Eradication of HCV infection, achieved mainly through direct-acting antivirals (DAA), results in a decrease of mortality and an improvement of quality of life. These drugs have a maximal efficacy and an optimal tolerability. However, their high cost precludes a universal access even in wealthy countries. AREAS COVERED: This article deals with the policies adopted for the use of the new anti-HCV drugs, especially in Europe and most of all in Italy, supposedly the developed country with the highest HCV prevalence...
September 8, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Ben Kotzee, Agnieszka Ignatowicz, Hywel Thomas
Virtue ethics has long provided fruitful resources for the study of issues in medical ethics. In particular, study of the moral virtues of the good doctor-like kindness, fairness and good judgement-have provided insights into the nature of medical professionalism and the ethical demands on the medical practitioner as a moral person. Today, a substantial literature exists exploring the virtues in medical practice and many commentators advocate an emphasis on the inculcation of the virtues of good medical practice in medical education and throughout the medical career...
August 24, 2016: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
(no author information available yet)
'...unlikely to make people 'beautiful'; rather '[i]t will make them look normal and forgettable - that is its virtue'.
August 12, 2016: British Dental Journal
Christine Grady, Anthony S Fauci
In his famous 1966 New England Journal of Medicine article, Henry Beecher concluded that a critical safeguard for protecting human participants, more reliable than informed consent, was the "presence of an intelligent, informed, conscientious, compassionate, responsible investigator." This article examines Beecher's appeal to reliance on the "virtuous" investigator in light of the critical role that investigators play in research ethics and the systems of research protections that have been developed since Beecher's writing...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
Angela Huttner, Leonard Leibovici, Ursula Theuretzbacher, Benedikt Huttner, Mical Paul
The informed consent document is intended to provide basic rights to patients but often fails to do so. Patients' autonomy may be diminished by virtue of their illness; evidence shows that even patients who appear to be ideal candidates for understanding and granting informed consent rarely are-particularly those with acute infections. We argue that, for low-risk trials whose purpose is to evaluate non-experimental therapies or other measures toward which the medical community is in a state of equipoise, ethics committees should play a more active role in a more standardized fashion...
August 3, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Kyle E Karches, Daniel P Sulmasy
Medical educators and powerful physician organizations agree on the importance of professionalism for the formation of good physicians. However, the many definitions of professionalism found in the literature lack content and differ significantly, undermining attempts to describe and implement professionalism curricula. The work of the contemporary moral philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre on the virtues may help provide some of the content that the concept of professionalism currently lacks. MacIntyre shows the importance of the virtues, particularly justice, courage, and truthfulness, for the success of any "practice," defined as a form of cooperative human activity...
July 2016: Family Medicine
Miao Hu, Derek D Rucker, Adam D Galinsky
Ample evidence documents that power increases unethical behavior. This article introduces a new theoretical framework for understanding when power leads to more versus less unethical behavior. Our key proposition is that people hold expectations about power that are both descriptive (how the powerful do behave) and prescriptive (how the powerful should behave). People hold descriptive beliefs that the powerful do behave more unethically than the powerless, but they hold prescriptive beliefs that the powerful should behave more ethically than the powerless...
June 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Kaoru Takasaki, Andrea Diaz Stransky, Geoffrey Miller
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis and management of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) is often challenging and fraught with discord and disagreement between patients, parents, and physicians. Furthermore, there are ethical challenges when making the diagnosis, communicating this information, and instituting management. METHODS: We reviewed the current body of knowledge regarding the characteristic differences between epileptic seizures and PNES, and the high incidence of psychiatric comorbidities...
September 2016: Pediatric Neurology
P Voultsos, N Raikos, N Vasileiadis, Ch Spiliopoulou, B Tarlatzis
Ovarian tissue transplantation (OTT) is a promising experimental method which may soon become well-established. In cases of minor oncology, where patients' fertility is seriously threatened by treatment, it may be applied as a unique fertility preservation option. OTT has a dual nature ('organ' and 'gamete'). Many stakeholders are involved, including donor, recipient, child, health-care providers and society at large. There is considerable uncertainty about the long-term consequences of the application of OTT and OT cryopreservation (OTC)...
July 4, 2016: Medicine, Science, and the Law
Heidi Furey
Virtue-based approaches to engineering ethics have recently received considerable attention within the field of engineering education. Proponents of virtue ethics in engineering argue that the approach is practically and pedagogically superior to traditional approaches to engineering ethics, including the study of professional codes of ethics and normative theories of behavior. This paper argues that a virtue-based approach, as interpreted in the current literature, is neither practically or pedagogically effective for a significant subpopulation within engineering: engineers with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
June 29, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
Vicki D Lachman
Moral resilience is the ability to deal with an ethically adverse situation without lasting effects of moral distress and moral residue. This requires morally courageous action, activating needed supports and doing the right thing. Morally resilient people also have developed self-confidence by confronting such situations so they can maintain their self-esteem, no matter what life delivers. Finally, the ability to adapt to changing circumstances with a sense of humor is at the heart of their flexibility. Morally resilient nurses are not naïve about the price of moral integrity...
March 2016: Medsurg Nursing: Official Journal of the Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses
Jiin-Yu Chen
Programs in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) vary between institutions, demonstrated by disparate structures and goals. These variations may be attributed to the absence of grounding frameworks within which to examine research and RCR education programs. This article examines research as a practice and a profession, using these frames to draw out defining features of research and the moral obligations entailed. Situating research within virtue ethics can clarify how researchers might cultivate the virtues necessary for meeting its obligations and aims...
2016: Accountability in Research
Artur Dalfó Pibernat, Jessica Rosell Vidal, Enric Dalfó Pibernat, Francisco Javier Pelegrina Rodríguez, Gerard Colomer, Maria Feijoo Cid
This article will explore a clinical case study of a home visit carried out by the case manager nurse. In this case, we will discuss the dilemma of finding the balance between autonomy and beneficence from the perspective of principlist ethics, virtue ethics and the 'ethics of care'. The main conflict in this case study deals with all proposals are unsuitable and it is not necessary for a nurse to pay him a home visit, whereas for the healthcare system it is considered necessary. We could conclude that, during the home visit, the case manager aspires to achieve excellence, and throughout his clinical relationship with Francesc, searches for a series of virtues, respecting certain fundamental principles...
May 9, 2016: Nursing Ethics
Suzannah Biernoff
When BioShock was released in 2007, reviewers praised the moral complexities of the narrative and the game's dystopian vision of what Ayn Rand dubbed the "virtue of selfishness". What critics overlooked was the extent to which the disturbingly realistic artwork and musical score relied on found images and sound, including a recording of distressed breathing from a physician's website, and digitised First World War medical photographs of soldiers with facial injuries. This article examines the implications of these acts of appropriation from a range of critical perspectives including Susan Sontag's commentary on the representation of suffering; recent literature on the ethics of computer games; and an online discussion forum in which players of BioShock discuss the moral "grey areas" of the game...
September 2012: Photographies
Tom Shakespeare
In the helpful article "Why Bioethics Needs a Disability Moral Psychology," Joseph Stramondo adds to the critique of actually existing bioethics and explains why disability activists and scholars so often find fault with the arguments of bioethicists. He is careful not to stereotype either community-rightly, given that bioethicists endorse positions as disparate as utilitarianism, deontology, virtue ethics, and feminist ethics, among others. Although Stramondo never explicitly mentions utilitarians or liberals, it seems probable that these are the main targets of his discontent...
May 2016: Hastings Center Report
Manuel De Santiago
This essay addresses Pellegrino's thought on Philosophy of Medicine; it also provides an approach to his concerns on the changing relationship between patients and physicians which took place in the late twentieth century in the United States and, finally, to his contribution to the identity of Medicine debate. From an Aristotelian-Thomist way of thinking, and from a phenomenological approach to the medical act, he identifies the ending of Medicine and also its limits concerning to ″healing″, in his two moments, curing and helping, which includes caring...
January 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
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