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Pax1 AND Pax4

Peter Fabian, Iryna Kozmikova, Zbynek Kozmik, Chrysoula N Pantzartzi
Paired box transcription factors play important role in development and tissue morphogenesis. The number of Pax homologs varies among species studied so far, due to genome and gene duplications that have affected PAX family to a great extent. Based on sequence similarity and functional domains, four Pax classes have been identified in chordates, namely Pax1/9, Pax2/5/8, Pax3/7, and Pax4/6. Numerous splicing events have been reported mainly for Pax2/5/8 and Pax6 genes. Of significant interest are those events that lead to Pax proteins with presumed novel properties, such as altered DNA-binding or transcriptional activity...
2015: Frontiers in Genetics
Franziska Anni Franke, Isabell Schumann, Lars Hering, Georg Mayer
Pax family genes encode a class of transcription factors that regulate various developmental processes. To shed light on the evolutionary history of these genes in Panarthropoda (Onychophora + Tardigrada + Arthropoda), we analyzed the Pax repertoire in the embryonic and adult transcriptomes of the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli. Our data revealed homologs of all five major bilaterian Pax subfamilies in this species, including Pax2/5/8, Pax4/6, Pox-neuro, Pax1/9/Pox-meso, and Pax3/7. In addition, we identified a new Pax member, pax-α, which does not fall into any other known Pax subfamily but instead clusters in the heterogenic Pax-α/β clade containing deuterostome, ecdysozoan, and lophotrochozoan gene sequences...
January 2015: Evolution & Development
Nathalie Feiner, Axel Meyer, Shigehiro Kuraku
The members of the paired box (Pax) family regulate key developmental pathways in many metazoans as tissue-specific transcription factors. Vertebrate genomes typically possess nine Pax genes (Pax1-9), which are derived from four proto-Pax genes in the vertebrate ancestor that were later expanded through the so-called two-round (2R) whole-genome duplication. A recent study proposed that pax6a genes of a subset of teleost fishes (namely, acanthopterygians) are remnants of a paralog generated in the 2R genome duplication, to be renamed pax6...
July 2014: Genome Biology and Evolution
Stephen Short, Linda Z Holland
Pax genes encode transcription factors critical for metazoan development. Large-scale gene duplication with subsequent gene losses during vertebrate evolution has resulted in two human genes for each of the Pax1/9, Pax3/7, and Pax4/6 subfamilies and three for the Pax2/5/8 subfamily, compared to one each in the cephalochordate amphioxus. In addition, alternative splicing occurs in vertebrate Pax transcripts from all four subfamilies, and many splice forms are known to have functional importance. To better understand the evolution of alternative splicing within the Pax family, we systematically surveyed transcripts of the four amphioxus Pax genes...
June 2008: Journal of Molecular Evolution
G Chalepakis, P Gruss
The Pax gene family, encoding transcription factors, has been classified into four subfamilies according to their genomic organization, the sequences of the paired domains (PD) and the expression pattern. Pax1 and Pax9 constitute one subfamily, Pax2, Pax5 and Pax8 another, Pax3 and Pax7 another one and Pax4 and Pax6 the fourth subfamily. The PD exhibits DNA-binding activity, and is the most conserved functional motif in all Pax proteins. A high-resolution analysis of a PD structure has been performed [Xu et al...
September 11, 1995: Gene
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