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testosterone dimorphism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781039/sex-dependent-association-of-circulating-sex-steroids-and-pituitary-hormones-with-treatment-free-survival-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-patients
#1
Eric P Allain, Karin Venzl, Patrick Caron, Véronique Turcotte, David Simonyan, Michaela Gruber, Trang Le, Eric Lévesque, Chantal Guillemette, Katrina Vanura
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is not considered a hormone-regulated cancer although sex is a recognized risk factor with men more frequently diagnosed and developing progressive disease. We hypothesized that variable hormonal exposure may have a sexually dimorphic influence on treatment-free survival (TFS). In 156 CLL cases, we quantitatively profiled 29 circulating steroids (progesterone, adrenal precursors, androgens, estrogens, and catechol estrogens) as well as luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone...
May 21, 2018: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770127/temporal-expression-patterns-of-genes-related-to-sex-steroid-action-in-sexually-dimorphic-nuclei-during-puberty
#2
Moeko Kanaya, Masahiro Morishita, Shinji Tsukahara
Sex steroids play a major role in sexually dimorphic brain development during not only the perinatal period but also the pubertal period. We previously showed that, in male mice, the estrogen receptor-α ( Esr1 ) and aromatase ( Cyp19a1 ) genes are essential to the sexually dimorphic formation of the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTp), but the estrogen receptor-β ( Esr2 ) gene is not necessary. We also showed that the androgen receptor ( Ar ) gene is essential to the sexually dimorphic formation of the BNSTp...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668838/organizational-effects-of-the-antiandrogen-vinclozolin-on-penis-development-in-the-mouse
#3
Ciro M Amato, Morgan Boyd, Joshua Yang, Krista A McCoy
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are pollutants found throughout the environment that disrupt normal endocrine processes. In mice, penis development is thought to be most susceptible to EDCs during a critical developmental window occurring on embryonic days (E) 15.5-17.5. However, androgen signaling begins on E13.5 when Androgen Receptor (AR) protein is found in the genitalia and testosterone is circulating. We hypothesize that disrupting androgen signaling prior to the established critical window sensitizes the penis to future androgen disruption...
April 14, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668033/sexual-dimorphism-in-postnatal-gonadotropin-levels-in-infancy-reflects-diverse-maturation-of-the-ovarian-and-testicular-hormone-synthesis
#4
Tanja Kuiri-Hänninen, Leo Dunkel, Ulla Sankilampi
BACKGROUND: The postnatal gonadotropin surge is sexually dimorphic: FSH levels predominate in girls and LH levels in boys. However, in preterm (PT) girls, both gonadotropin levels are higher than in PT boys. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how gonadal maturation contributes to the sex differences in FSH and LH. DESIGN: Monthly follow-up of 58 full-term (FT, 29 boys) and 67 PT (33 boys) infants from one week (D7) to six months of age (M1-M6). Analyses were also done according to postmenstrual (PM) age in PT infants...
April 18, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659830/genome-wide-association-study-identifies-nine-novel-loci-for-2d-4d-finger-ratio-a-putative-retrospective-biomarker-of-testosterone-exposure-in-utero
#5
Nicole M Warrington, Enisa Shevroja, Gibran Hemani, Pirro G Hysi, Yunxuan Jiang, Adam Auton, Cindy G Boer, Massimo Mangino, Carol A Wang, John P Kemp, George McMahon, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Martha Hickey, Katerina Trajanoska, Dieter Wolke, Arfan M Ikram, Grant W Montgomery, Janine F Felix, Margaret J Wright, David A Mackey, Vincent W Jaddoe, Nicholas G Martin, Joyce Y Tung, George Davey Smith, Craig E Pennell, Tim D Spector, Joyce van Meurs, Fernando Rivadeneira, Sarah E Medland, David M Evans
The ratio of the length of the index finger to that of the ring finger (2D:4D) is sexually dimorphic and is commonly used as a noninvasive biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure. Most association studies of 2D:4D ratio with a diverse range of sex-specific traits have typically involved small sample sizes and have been difficult to replicate, raising questions around the utility and precise meaning of the measure. In the largest genome-wide association meta-analysis of 2D:4D ratio to date (N = 15,661, with replication N = 75,821), we identified eleven loci (nine novel) explaining 3...
April 12, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481807/gonadal-hormones-but-not-sex-affect-the-acquisition-and-maintenance-of-a-go-no-go-odor-discrimination-task-in-mice
#6
T Kunkhyen, E Perez, M Bass, A Coyne, M J Baum, J A Cherry
In mice, olfaction is crucial for identifying social odors (pheromones) that signal the presence of suitable mates. We used a custom-built olfactometer and a thirst-motivated olfactory discrimination Go/No-Go (GNG) task to ask whether discrimination of volatile odors is sexually dimorphic and modulated in mice by adult sex hormones. Males and females gonadectomized prior to training failed to learn even the initial phase of the task, which involved nose poking at a port in one location obtaining water at an adjacent port...
April 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380817/sex-specific-differences-in-hypertension-and-associated-cardiovascular-disease
#7
REVIEW
Katrina M Mirabito Colafella, Kate M Denton
Although intrinsic mechanisms that regulate arterial blood pressure (BP) are similar in men and women, marked variations exist at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. These physiological disparities between the sexes likely contribute to differences in disease onset, susceptibility, prevalence and treatment responses. Key systems that are important in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD), including the sympathetic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the immune system, are differentially activated in males and females...
March 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378942/male-specific-il-33-expression-regulates-sex-dimorphic-eae-susceptibility
#8
Abigail E Russi, Mark E Ebel, Yuchen Yang, Melissa A Brown
The cellular and molecular basis of sex-dimorphic autoimmune diseases, such as the CNS demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS), remains unclear. Our studies in the SJL mouse model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), reveal that sex-determined differences in Il33 expression by innate immune cells in response to myelin peptide immunization regulate EAE susceptibility. IL-33 is selectively induced in PLP139-151 -immunized males and activates type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), cells that promote and sustain a nonpathogenic Th2 myelin-specific response...
February 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351809/axonal-transport-in-a-peripheral-diabetic-neuropathy-model-sex-dimorphic-features
#9
Marzia Pesaresi, Silvia Giatti, Roberto Spezzano, Simone Romano, Silvia Diviccaro, Tiziana Borsello, Nico Mitro, Donatella Caruso, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, Roberto Cosimo Melcangi
BACKGROUND: Disruption of axonal transport plays a pivotal role in diabetic neuropathy. A sex-dimorphism exists in the incidence and symptomatology of diabetic neuropathy; however, no studies so far have addressed sex differences in axonal motor proteins expression in early diabetes as well as the possible involvement of neuroactive steroids. Interestingly, recent data point to a role for mitochondria in the sexual dimorphism of neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondria have a fundamental role in axonal transport by producing the motors' energy source, ATP...
January 19, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246515/complex-association-of-sex-hormones-on-left-ventricular-systolic-function-insight-into-sexual-dimorphism
#10
Joe-Elie Salem, Lee S Nguyen, Nadjib Hammoudi, Gisèle Preud'homme, Jean-Sebastien Hulot, Monique Leban, Christian Funck-Brentano, Philippe Touraine, Richard Isnard, Anne Bachelot
BACKGROUND: Normal values of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and absolute values of global longitudinal strain (GLS) are lower in men than in women. Data concerning the association of sex hormone levels on these left ventricular systolic function surrogates are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the association of sex hormones with systolic left ventricular function in healthy subjects and patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) as a model of testosterone dysregulation...
February 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237414/isogenic-mice-exhibit-sexually-dimorphic-dna-methylation-patterns-across-multiple-tissues
#11
Helen McCormick, Paul E Young, Suzy S J Hur, Keith Booher, Hunter Chung, Jennifer E Cropley, Eleni Giannoulatou, Catherine M Suter
BACKGROUND: Cytosine methylation is a stable epigenetic modification of DNA that plays an important role in both normal physiology and disease. Most diseases exhibit some degree of sexual dimorphism, but the extent to which epigenetic states are influenced by sex is understudied and poorly understood. To address this deficit we studied DNA methylation patterns across multiple reduced representation bisulphite sequencing datasets (from liver, heart, brain, muscle and spleen) derived from isogenic male and female mice...
December 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186686/testosterone-attenuates-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cell-mediated-airway-inflammation
#12
Jacqueline-Yvonne Cephus, Matthew T Stier, Hubaida Fuseini, Jeffrey A Yung, Shinji Toki, Melissa H Bloodworth, Weisong Zhou, Kasia Goleniewska, Jian Zhang, Sarah L Garon, Robert G Hamilton, Vasiliy V Poloshukin, Kelli L Boyd, R Stokes Peebles, Dawn C Newcomb
Sex hormones regulate many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including asthma. As adults, asthma prevalence is 2-fold greater in women compared to men. The number of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) is increased in patients with asthma, and we investigate how testosterone attenuates ILC2 function. In patients with moderate to severe asthma, we determine that women have an increased number of circulating ILC2 compared to men. ILC2 from adult female mice have increased IL-2-mediated ILC2 proliferation versus ILC2 from adult male mice, as well as pre-pubescent females and males...
November 28, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138241/decorin-a-growth-hormone-regulated-protein-in-humans
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Neha Bahl, Glenn Stone, Mark McLean, Ken K Y Ho, Vita Birzniece
CONTEXT: Growth hormone (GH) stimulates connective tissue and muscle growth, an effect that is potentiated by testosterone. Decorin, a myokine and a connective tissue protein, stimulates connective tissue accretion and muscle hypertrophy. Whether GH and testosterone regulate decorin in humans is not known. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether decorin is stimulated by GH and testosterone. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study...
February 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097367/sex-chromosome-complement-defines-diffuse-versus-focal-angiotensin-ii-induced-aortic-pathology
#14
Yasir Alsiraj, Sean E Thatcher, Eric Blalock, Bradley Fleenor, Alan Daugherty, Lisa A Cassis
OBJECTIVE: Aortic pathologies exhibit sexual dimorphism, with aneurysms in both the thoracic and abdominal aorta (ie, abdominal aortic aneurysm [AAA]) exhibiting higher male prevalence. Women have lower prevalence of aneurysms, but when they occur, aneurysms progress rapidly. To define mechanisms for these sex differences, we determined the role of sex chromosome complement and testosterone on the location and progression of angiotensin II (AngII)-induced aortic pathologies. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We used transgenic male mice expressing Sry (sex-determining region Y) on an autosome to create Ldlr (low-density lipoprotein receptor)-deficient male mice with an XY or XX sex chromosome complement...
January 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065927/the-protective-role-of-estrogen-and-estrogen-receptors-in-cardiovascular-disease-and-the-controversial-use-of-estrogen-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Andrea Iorga, Christine M Cunningham, Shayan Moazeni, Gregoire Ruffenach, Soban Umar, Mansoureh Eghbali
Epidemiologic studies have previously suggested that premenopausal females have reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) when compared to age-matched males, and the incidence and severity of CVD increases postmenopause. The lower incidence of cardiovascular disease in women during reproductive age is attributed at least in part to estrogen (E2). E2 binds to the traditional E2 receptors (ERs), estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ), as well as the more recently identified G-protein-coupled ER (GPR30), and can exert both genomic and non-genomic actions...
October 24, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063642/neonatal-maternal-separation-opposes-the-facilitatory-effect-of-castration-on-the-respiratory-response-to-hypercapnia-of-the-adult-male-rat-evidence-for-the-involvement-of-the-medial-amygdala
#16
L Tenorio-Lopes, M S Henry, D Marques, M-È Tremblay, G Drolet, F Bretzner, R Kinkead
Respiratory manifestations of panic disorder (PD) include a greater respiratory instability and enhanced responsiveness to CO2 compared to normal individuals. Although the prevalence of PD is approximately three times greater in women compared to men, the origins of this sexual dimorphism remain poorly understood. Similar to PD patients, adult female rats previously subjected to neonatal maternal separation (NMS) show an increase in their ventilatory response to CO2 . Because this effect of NMS is not observed in males, we hypothesised that testosterone prevents NMS-induced hyper-responsiveness to CO2 ...
December 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063284/androgen-receptors-and-muscle-a-key-mechanism-underlying-life-history-trade-offs
#17
REVIEW
D Ashley Monks, Melissa M Holmes
Sexual dimorphism in skeletal muscle is prominent in mammals, with males typically having larger and stronger muscles than females. Furthermore, neuromuscular systems with sexual functions are remarkably sexually dimorphic in a wide variety of vertebrates. Endocrine mechanisms are of central importance for sexual differentiation of these traits, and anabolic actions of gonadal testosterone have been intensively studied. Here we review the relationship between androgen receptor (AR) and sexual differentiation of neuromuscular systems...
January 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037971/to-fight-or-mate-hormonal-control-of-sex-recognition-male-sexual-behavior-and-aggression-in-the-gecko-lizard
#18
Tereza Schořálková, Lukáš Kratochvíl, Lukáš Kubička
Squamate reptiles are a highly diversified vertebrate group with extensive variability in social behavior and sexual dimorphism. However, hormonal control of these traits has not previously been investigated in sufficient depth in many squamate lineages. Here, we studied the hormonal control of male sexual behavior, aggressiveness, copulatory organ (hemipenis) size and sex recognition in the gecko Paroedura picta, comparing ovariectomized females, ovariectomized females treated with exogenous dihydrotestosterone (DHT), ovariectomized females treated with exogenous testosterone (T), control females and males...
January 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992603/sex-steroid-hormones-and-sex-hormone-binding-globulin-levels-cyp17-msp-ai-34t-c-and-cyp19-codon-39-trp-arg-variants-in-children-with-developmental-stuttering
#19
Hiwa Mohammadi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Zohreh Rahimi, Faezeh Faghihi, Habibolah Khazaie, Hashem Farhangdoost, Masoud Mehrpour
Developmental stuttering is known to be a sexually dimorphic and male-biased speech motor control disorder. In the present case-control study, we investigated the relationship between developmental stuttering and steroid hormones. Serum levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), oestradiol, progesterone, cortisol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), as well as the 2nd/4th digit ratio (2D:4D), an indicator of prenatal testosterone level, were compared between children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS)...
December 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977609/gonadal-hormone-dependent-sexual-differentiation-of-a-female-biased-sexually-dimorphic-cell-group-in-the-principal-nucleus-of-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-in-mice
#20
Masahiro Morishita, Sho Maejima, Shinji Tsukahara
We recently reported a female-biased sexually dimorphic area in the mouse brain in the boundary region between the preoptic area and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). We reexamined this area and found that it is a ventral part of the principal nucleus of the BNST (BNSTp). The BNSTp is a male-biased sexually dimorphic nucleus, but the ventral part of the BNSTp (BNSTpv) exhibits female-biased sex differences in volume and neuron number. The volume and neuron number of the BNSTpv were increased in males by neonatal orchiectomy and decreased in females by treatment with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or estradiol within 5 days after birth...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
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