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testosterone dimorphism

T Kunkhyen, E Perez, M Bass, A Coyne, M J Baum, J A Cherry
In mice, olfaction is crucial for identifying social odors (pheromones) that signal the presence of suitable mates. We used a custom-built olfactometer and a thirst-motivated olfactory discrimination Go/No-Go (GNG) task to ask whether discrimination of volatile odors is sexually dimorphic and modulated in mice by adult sex hormones. Males and females gonadectomized prior to training failed to learn even the initial phase of the task, which involved nose poking at a port in one location obtaining water at an adjacent port...
February 23, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Katrina M Mirabito Colafella, Kate M Denton
Although intrinsic mechanisms that regulate arterial blood pressure (BP) are similar in men and women, marked variations exist at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. These physiological disparities between the sexes likely contribute to differences in disease onset, susceptibility, prevalence and treatment responses. Key systems that are important in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD), including the sympathetic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the immune system, are differentially activated in males and females...
January 30, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Abigail E Russi, Mark E Ebel, Yuchen Yang, Melissa A Brown
The cellular and molecular basis of sex-dimorphic autoimmune diseases, such as the CNS demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS), remains unclear. Our studies in the SJL mouse model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), reveal that sex-determined differences in Il33 expression by innate immune cells in response to myelin peptide immunization regulate EAE susceptibility. IL-33 is selectively induced in PLP139-151 -immunized males and activates type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), cells that promote and sustain a nonpathogenic Th2 myelin-specific response...
February 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Marzia Pesaresi, Silvia Giatti, Roberto Spezzano, Simone Romano, Silvia Diviccaro, Tiziana Borsello, Nico Mitro, Donatella Caruso, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, Roberto Cosimo Melcangi
BACKGROUND: Disruption of axonal transport plays a pivotal role in diabetic neuropathy. A sex-dimorphism exists in the incidence and symptomatology of diabetic neuropathy; however, no studies so far have addressed sex differences in axonal motor proteins expression in early diabetes as well as the possible involvement of neuroactive steroids. Interestingly, recent data point to a role for mitochondria in the sexual dimorphism of neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondria have a fundamental role in axonal transport by producing the motors' energy source, ATP...
January 19, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Joe-Elie Salem, Lee S Nguyen, Nadjib Hammoudi, Gisèle Preud'homme, Jean-Sebastien Hulot, Monique Leban, Christian Funck-Brentano, Philippe Touraine, Richard Isnard, Anne Bachelot
BACKGROUND: Normal values of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and absolute values of global longitudinal strain (GLS) are lower in men than in women. Data concerning the association of sex hormone levels on these left ventricular systolic function surrogates are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the association of sex hormones with systolic left ventricular function in healthy subjects and patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) as a model of testosterone dysregulation...
December 13, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Helen McCormick, Paul E Young, Suzy S J Hur, Keith Booher, Hunter Chung, Jennifer E Cropley, Eleni Giannoulatou, Catherine M Suter
BACKGROUND: Cytosine methylation is a stable epigenetic modification of DNA that plays an important role in both normal physiology and disease. Most diseases exhibit some degree of sexual dimorphism, but the extent to which epigenetic states are influenced by sex is understudied and poorly understood. To address this deficit we studied DNA methylation patterns across multiple reduced representation bisulphite sequencing datasets (from liver, heart, brain, muscle and spleen) derived from isogenic male and female mice...
December 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
Jacqueline-Yvonne Cephus, Matthew T Stier, Hubaida Fuseini, Jeffrey A Yung, Shinji Toki, Melissa H Bloodworth, Weisong Zhou, Kasia Goleniewska, Jian Zhang, Sarah L Garon, Robert G Hamilton, Vasiliy V Poloshukin, Kelli L Boyd, R Stokes Peebles, Dawn C Newcomb
Sex hormones regulate many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including asthma. As adults, asthma prevalence is 2-fold greater in women compared to men. The number of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) is increased in patients with asthma, and we investigate how testosterone attenuates ILC2 function. In patients with moderate to severe asthma, we determine that women have an increased number of circulating ILC2 compared to men. ILC2 from adult female mice have increased IL-2-mediated ILC2 proliferation versus ILC2 from adult male mice, as well as pre-pubescent females and males...
November 28, 2017: Cell Reports
Neha Bahl, Glenn Stone, Mark McLean, Ken K Y Ho, Vita Birzniece
CONTEXT: Growth hormone (GH) stimulates connective tissue and muscle growth, an effect that is potentiated by testosterone. Decorin, a myokine and a connective tissue protein, stimulates connective tissue accretion and muscle hypertrophy. Whether GH and testosterone regulate decorin in humans is not known. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether decorin is stimulated by GH and testosterone. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study...
November 14, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
Yasir Alsiraj, Sean E Thatcher, Eric Blalock, Bradley Fleenor, Alan Daugherty, Lisa A Cassis
OBJECTIVE: Aortic pathologies exhibit sexual dimorphism, with aneurysms in both the thoracic and abdominal aorta (ie, abdominal aortic aneurysm [AAA]) exhibiting higher male prevalence. Women have lower prevalence of aneurysms, but when they occur, aneurysms progress rapidly. To define mechanisms for these sex differences, we determined the role of sex chromosome complement and testosterone on the location and progression of angiotensin II (AngII)-induced aortic pathologies. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We used transgenic male mice expressing Sry on an autosome to create Ldlr (low-density lipoprotein receptor)-deficient male mice with an XY or XX sex chromosome complement...
November 2, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Andrea Iorga, Christine M Cunningham, Shayan Moazeni, Gregoire Ruffenach, Soban Umar, Mansoureh Eghbali
Epidemiologic studies have previously suggested that premenopausal females have reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) when compared to age-matched males, and the incidence and severity of CVD increases postmenopause. The lower incidence of cardiovascular disease in women during reproductive age is attributed at least in part to estrogen (E2). E2 binds to the traditional E2 receptors (ERs), estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ), as well as the more recently identified G-protein-coupled ER (GPR30), and can exert both genomic and non-genomic actions...
October 24, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
Luana Tenorio-Lopes, Mathilde S Henry, Danuzia Marques, Marie-Ève Tremblay, Guy Drolet, Frederic Bretzner, Richard Kinkead
Respiratory manifestations of panic disorder (PD) include a greater respiratory instability and enhanced responsiveness to CO2 compared to normal individuals. While the prevalence of PD is ~3 times greater in women compared with men, the origins of this sexual dimorphism remain poorly understood. Much like PD patients, adult female rats previously subjected to neonatal maternal separation (NMS) show an increase in their ventilatory response to CO2 . Because this effect of NMS is not observed in males, we hypothesized that testosterone prevents NMS-induced hyper-responsiveness to CO2 ...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
D Ashley Monks, Melissa M Holmes
Sexual dimorphism in skeletal muscle is prominent in mammals, with males typically having larger and stronger muscles than females. Furthermore, neuromuscular systems with sexual functions are remarkably sexually dimorphic in a wide variety of vertebrates. Endocrine mechanisms are of central importance for sexual differentiation of these traits, and anabolic actions of gonadal testosterone have been intensively studied. Here we review the relationship between androgen receptor (AR) and sexual differentiation of neuromuscular systems...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Tereza Schořálková, Lukáš Kratochvíl, Lukáš Kubička
Squamate reptiles are a highly diversified vertebrate group with extensive variability in social behavior and sexual dimorphism. However, hormonal control of these traits has not previously been investigated in sufficient depth in many squamate lineages. Here, we studied the hormonal control of male sexual behavior, aggressiveness, copulatory organ (hemipenis) size and sex recognition in the gecko Paroedura picta, comparing ovariectomized females, ovariectomized females treated with exogenous dihydrotestosterone (DHT), ovariectomized females treated with exogenous testosterone (T), control females and males...
January 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Hiwa Mohammadi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Zohreh Rahimi, Faezeh Faghihi, Habibolah Khazaie, Hashem Farhangdoost, Masoud Mehrpour
Developmental stuttering is known to be a sexually dimorphic and male-biased speech motor control disorder. In the present case-control study, we investigated the relationship between developmental stuttering and steroid hormones. Serum levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), oestradiol, progesterone, cortisol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), as well as the 2nd/4th digit ratio (2D:4D), an indicator of prenatal testosterone level, were compared between children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS)...
October 6, 2017: Brain and Language
Masahiro Morishita, Sho Maejima, Shinji Tsukahara
We recently reported a female-biased sexually dimorphic area in the mouse brain in the boundary region between the preoptic area and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). We reexamined this area and found that it is a ventral part of the principal nucleus of the BNST (BNSTp). The BNSTp is a male-biased sexually dimorphic nucleus, but the ventral part of the BNSTp (BNSTpv) exhibits female-biased sex differences in volume and neuron number. The volume and neuron number of the BNSTpv were increased in males by neonatal orchiectomy and decreased in females by treatment with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or estradiol within 5 days after birth...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
Wei Wang, Hua Zhu, Ying Dong, ZhaoHui Tian, Tian Dong, HongXia Hu, CuiJuan Niu
Molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation of sturgeon, a primitive fish species, is extraordinarily important due to the valuable caviar; however, it is still poorly known. The present work aimed to identify the major genes involved in regulating gonadal development of sterlet, a small species of sturgeon, from 13 candidate genes which have been shown to relate to gonadal differentiation and development in other teleost fish. The sex and gonadal development of sterlets were determined by histological observation and levels of sex steroids testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), and 17β-estradiol (E2) in serum...
December 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Sébastien Jaillon, Kevin Berthenet, Cecilia Garlanda
Sexual dimorphisms account for differences in clinical manifestations or incidence of infectious or autoimmune diseases and malignancy between females and males. Females develop enhanced innate and adaptive immune responses than males and are less susceptible to many infections of bacterial, viral, parasitic, and fungal origin and malignancies but in contrast, they are more prone to develop autoimmune diseases. The higher susceptibility to infections in males is observed from birth to adulthood, suggesting that sex chromosomes and not sex hormones have a major role in sexual dimorphism in innate immunity...
September 30, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Dorota Lutyk, Makhsud Tagirov, Szymon Drobniak, Joanna Rutkowska
Sexual dimorphism in prenatal development is widespread among vertebrates, including birds. Its mechanism remains unclear, although it has been attributed to the effect of maternal steroid hormones. The aim of this study was to investigate how increased levels of steroid hormones in the eggs influence early embryonic development of male and female offspring. We also asked whether maternal hormones take part in the control of sex-specific expression of the genes involved in prenatal development. We experimentally manipulated hormones' concentrations in the egg yolk by injecting zebra finch females prior to ovulation with testosterone or corticosterone...
December 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Nicholas B Pollock, Stephanie Feigin, Marko Drazenovic, Henry B John-Alder
Sexual differences in adult body size (sexual size dimorphism; SSD) and color (sexual dichromatism) are widespread, and both male- and female-biased dimorphisms are observed even among closely related species. A growing body of evidence indicates testosterone (T) can regulate growth, thus the development of SSD, and sexual dichromatism. However, the mechanism(s) underlying these effects are conjectural, including possible conversions of T to estradiol (E2) or 5 α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In the present study, we hypothesized that effects of T are physiological responses mediated by androgen receptors, and we tested two specific predictions: 1) that DHT would mimic effects of T by inhibiting growth and enhancing coloration, and 2) that removal of endogenous T via surgical castration would stimulate growth...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Diana Weiting Tan, Syed Zulqarnain Gilani, Murray T Maybery, Ajmal Mian, Anna Hunt, Mark Walters, Andrew J O Whitehouse
Elevated prenatal testosterone exposure has been associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and facial masculinity. By employing three-dimensional (3D) photogrammetry, the current study investigated whether prepubescent boys and girls with ASD present increased facial masculinity compared to typically-developing controls. There were two phases to this research. 3D facial images were obtained from a normative sample of 48 boys and 53 girls (3.01-12.44 years old) to determine typical facial masculinity/femininity...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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