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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890604/gender-dimorphism-in-pediatric-osa-is-it-for-real
#1
REVIEW
Pablo E Brockmann, Dorit Koren, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, David Gozal
In epidemiologic studies focused on adults, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has higher prevalence in men than in women. The evidence supporting a gender-related discrepant prevalence of OSA is however much more tenuous in children. Here, we aimed to review the evidence concerning gender- based differences in the prevalence of OSA in children, and if so, to examine the evidence with the intent to identify potential factors that may account for this putative association. Gender-based perception and reporting of clinical manifestations of OSA may be modulated by several social and cultural factors in children...
November 23, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875569/are-men-s-perceptions-of-sexually-dimorphic-vocal-characteristics-related-to-their-testosterone-levels
#2
Michal Kandrik, Amanda C Hahn, Joanna Wincenciak, Claire I Fisher, Katarzyna Pisanski, David R Feinberg, Lisa M DeBruine, Benedict C Jones
Feminine physical characteristics in women are positively correlated with markers of their mate quality. Previous research on men's judgments of women's facial attractiveness suggests that men show stronger preferences for feminine characteristics in women's faces when their own testosterone levels are relatively high. Such results could reflect stronger preferences for high quality mates when mating motivation is strong and/or following success in male-male competition. Given these findings, the current study investigated whether a similar effect of testosterone occurs for men's preferences for feminine characteristics in women's voices...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872000/is-testosterone-a-food-for-the-brain
#3
REVIEW
Giacomo Ciocca, Erika Limoncin, Eleonora Carosa, Stefania Di Sante, Giovanni L Gravina, Daniele Mollaioli, Daniele Gianfrilli, Andrea Lenzi, Emmanuele A Jannini
INTRODUCTION: Testosterone is fundamental for psychological, sexological, cognitive, and reproductive aspects, and its lack or reduction largely impacts the quality of life in males and females. AIM: Therefore, the aim of this review is to describe the role of testosterone in the neurophysiology of the brain and related aspects regarding the quality of general and sexual life. METHODS: We listed and discussed the principal studies on the role of testosterone in the brain regarding sexual health, psychopathological conditions, and the elderly...
January 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871978/differences-in-testosterone-and-its-precursors-by-sex-of-the-offspring-in-meconium
#4
Alexander J Frey, Bo Y Park, Emily R Schriver, Daniel R Feldman, Samuel Parry, Lisa A Croen, Daniele M Fallin, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Craig J Newschaffer, Nathaniel W Snyder
Prenatal metabolism exerts profound effects on development. The first stool of the newborn, meconium, provides a window into the prenatal metabolic environment. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of meconium as a novel matrix to quantify prenatal steroid levels. We quantified parameters of analytical interest regarding the use of meconium, including sample stability. We hypothesized that meconium steroid content would differ by sex, prompting analysis of meconium to test effects of prenatal steroid metabolism...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845378/sex-specific-effects-of-testosterone-on-the-sexually-dimorphic-transcriptome-and-epigenome-of-embryonic-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#5
Matthew S Bramble, Lara Roach, Allen Lipson, Neerja Vashist, Ascia Eskin, Tuck Ngun, Jason E Gosschalk, Steven Klein, Hayk Barseghyan, Valerie A Arboleda, Eric Vilain
The mechanisms by which sex differences in the mammalian brain arise are poorly understood, but are influenced by a combination of underlying genetic differences and gonadal hormone exposure. Using a mouse embryonic neural stem cell (eNSC) model to understand early events contributing to sexually dimorphic brain development, we identified novel interactions between chromosomal sex and hormonal exposure that are instrumental to early brain sex differences. RNA-sequencing identified 103 transcripts that were differentially expressed between XX and XY eNSCs at baseline (FDR = 0...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815372/female-mice-with-an-xy-sex-chromosome-complement-develop-severe-angiotensin-ii-induced-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms
#6
Yasir Alsiraj, Sean E Thatcher, Richard Charnigo, Chen Kuey, Eric Blalock, Alan Daugherty, Lisa A Cassis
BACKGROUND: -Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a deadly pathology with strong sexual dimorphism. Similar to humans, female mice exhibit far lower incidences of angiotensin II (AngII)-induced AAAs than males. In addition to sex hormones, the X and Y sex chromosomes, and their unique complements of genes, may contribute to sexually dimorphic AAA pathology. Here, we defined the effect of female (XX) versus male (XY) sex chromosome complement on AngII-induced AAA formation and rupture in phenotypically female mice...
November 4, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726418/a-sexually-dimorphic-area-of-the-dorsal-hypothalamus-in-mice-and-common-marmosets
#7
Yadanar Moe, Chaw Kyi-Tha-Thu, Tomoko Tanaka, Hiroto Ito, Satowa Yahashi, Ken-Ichi Matsuda, Mitsuhiro Kawata, Goro Katsuura, Fumihiro Iwashige, Ichiro Sakata, Atsushi Akune, Akio Inui, Takafumi Sakai, Sonoko Ogawa, Shinji Tsukahara
We found a novel sexually dimorphic area (SDA) in the dorsal hypothalamus (DH) of mice. The SDA-DH was sandwiched between 2 known male-biased sexually dimorphic nuclei, the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the calbindin-sexually dimorphic nucleus, and exhibited a female-biased sex difference in neuronal cell density. The density of neurons in the SDA-DH was increased in male mice by orchidectomy on the day of birth and decreased in female mice by treatment with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or estradiol within 5 days after birth...
December 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707865/testosterone-activates-sexual-dimorphism-including-male-typical-carotenoid-but-not-melanin-plumage-pigmentation-in-a-female-bird
#8
Willow R Lindsay, Douglas G Barron, Michael S Webster, Hubert Schwabl
In males it is frequently testosterone (T) that activates the expression of sexually selected morphological and behavioral displays, but the role of T in regulating similar traits in females is less clear. Here, we combine correlational data with results from T and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) manipulations in both sexes to assess the role of T in mediating sexually dimorphic coloration and morphology in the red-backed fairy-wren (Malurus melanocephalus). We show that: (1) natural variation in female expression of ornamental traits (darkened bills and red back feathers) is positively associated with age and circulating androgen titres, (2) females have the capacity to express most male-typical traits in response to exogenous T, including carotenoid-pigmented body plumage, shorter feathers, darkened bill and enlarged cloacal protuberance, but (3) appear constrained in production of male-typical melanin-pigmented plumage, and (4) low androgen levels during the pre-nuptial molt, probably because of low ovarian capacity for steroid production (or luteinizing hormone sensitivity), prevent females from developing male-like ornamentation...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692342/per-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances-pfass-new-endocrine-disruptors-in-polar-bears-ursus-maritimus
#9
Kathrine Eggers Pedersen, Robert J Letcher, Christian Sonne, Rune Dietz, Bjarne Styrishave
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are emerging in the Arctic and accumulate in brain tissues of East Greenland (EG) polar bears. In vitro studies have shown that PFASs might possess endocrine disrupting abilities and therefore the present study was conducted to investigate potential PFAS induced alterations in brain steroid concentrations. The concentrations of eleven steroid hormones were determined in eight brain regions from ten EG polar bears. Pregnenolone (PRE), the dominant progestagen, was found in mean concentrations of 5-47ng/g (ww) depending on brain region...
September 27, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663274/visualization-of-kiss1-neuron-distribution-using-a-kiss1-cre-transgenic-mouse
#10
Shel Hwa Yeo, Victoria Kyle, Paul G Morris, Sophie Jackman, Lydia Sinnett-Smith, Maria Schacker, Chen Chen, William H Colledge
Kisspeptin neuropeptides are encoded by the Kiss1 gene and play a critical role in the regulation of the mammalian reproductive axis. Kiss1 neurons are found in two locations in the rodent hypothalamus; one in the arcuate (ARC) and another in the RP3V region which includes the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus. Detailed mapping of the fibre distribution of Kiss1 neurons will help in understanding the action of these neurons in other regions of the brain. We have generated a transgenic mouse in which the Kiss1 coding region has been disrupted by a CRE-GFP transgene so that expression of the CRE recombinase protein is driven from the Kiss1 promoter...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484119/biological-sex-identification-in-the-endangered-dusky-gopher-frog-lithobates-sevosa-a-comparison-of-body-size-measurements-secondary-sex-characteristics-ultrasound-imaging-and-urinary-hormone-analysis-methods
#11
Katherine M Graham, Andrew J Kouba, Cecilia J Langhorne, Ruth M Marcec, Scott T Willard
BACKGROUND: Accurate sex identification techniques are important for wildlife demographic studies and for genetic management of captive breeding colonies. Various non-invasive methods for identification of biological sex in the weakly dimorphic endangered dusky gopher frog (DGF; Lithobates sevosa) were explored to support planned recovery efforts for this species including breeding and augmentation of wild populations. METHODS: Body size (snout-vent length and body weight) measurements, observation of nuptial pads, ultrasound imaging, and urinary hormone analysis for testosterone and estrone were performed on 27 male and 19 female DGFs...
2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428878/11-ketotestosterone-is-a-major-androgen-produced-in-human-gonads
#12
Yoshitaka Imamichi, Koh-Ichi Yuhki, Makoto Orisaka, Takeshi Kitano, Kuniaki Mukai, Fumitaka Ushikubi, Takanobu Taniguchi, Akihiro Umezawa, Kaoru Miyamoto, Takashi Yazawa
CONTEXT: 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) is a novel class of active androgen. However, the detail of its synthesis remains unknown for humans. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to clarify the production and properties of 11-KT in human. Design, Participants and Methods: Expression of CYP11B1 and HSD11B2 (key enzymes involved in the synthesis of 11-KT) were investigated in human gonads. The production of 11-KT was investigated in Leydig cells. Plasma concentrations of testosterone and 11-KT were measured in 10 women and 10 men of reproductive age...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400975/evolutionary-conflict-between-maternal-and-paternal-interests-integration-with-evolutionary-endocrinology
#13
Mikael Mokkonen, Esa Koskela, Tapio Mappes, Suzanne C Mills
Conflict between mates, as well as conflict between parents and offspring are due to divergent evolutionary interests of the interacting individuals. Hormone systems provide genetically based proximate mechanisms for mediating phenotypic adaptation and maladaptation characteristic of evolutionary conflict between individuals. Testosterone (T) is among the most commonly studied hormones in evolutionary biology, and as such, its role in shaping sexually dimorphic behaviors and physiology is relatively well understood, but its role in evolutionary conflict is not as clear...
August 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389130/gender-dimorphism-in-adipose-tissue-response-to-stress-conditions-a-plausible-mechanism-to-explain-the-conflicting-data-regarding-trauma-and-obesity
#14
Mark E Diebel, Lawrence N Diebel, David M Liberati
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a chronic low grade inflammatory condition associated with the elaboration of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines from adipose tissue. Gender dimorphism, (in part due to sex hormones) has been identified after injury and hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that the sex hormones estrogen (E2) and testosterone (DHT) have disparate effects on inflammatory mediator production from adipose tissue under stress conditions. This was studied in an in vitro model. METHODS: Mature adipocytes differentiated from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) were co cultured (2:1) with macrophages (RAW 264...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356855/a-new-in-vivo-analysis-model-to-detect-sexually-dimorphic-rat-liver-cytochrome-p450-gene-expression-dependent-on-growth-hormone-secretory-patterns
#15
Motoyo Maruyama, Masahiko Fujisawa, Makoto Yokosuka, Toru R Saito, Shin-Ichi Hayama, Toshio Akimoto, Yoji Hakamata
Several drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes exhibit sexual dimorphism depending on the pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretory patterns. However, the mechanism underlying CYP sexual dimorphism remains unclear. We previously established a transgenic (Alb-DsRed2 Tg) rat that expressed red fluorescent DsRed2 protein, particularly in hepatocytes, to visualize cell differentiation and multiplication and found that hepatic DsRed2 expression exhibited sexual dimorphism that was limited to adult males. In this study, we compared the expression patterns between sexual dimorphic Cyps and DsRed2 in Tg rats after experimentally reversing the GH secretory patterns in males and females...
November 1, 2016: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344056/neonatal-kisspeptin-is-steroid-independently-required-for-defeminisation-and-peripubertal-kisspeptin-induced-testosterone-is-required-for-masculinisation-of-the-brain-a-behavioural-study-using-kiss1-ko-rats
#16
S Nakamura, Y Uenoyama, K Ikegami, M Dai, Y Watanabe, C Takahashi, M Hirabayashi, H Tsukamura, K-I Maeda
Rodents show apparent sex differences in their sexual behaviours. The present study using Kiss1 KO rats aims to evaluate the role of kisspeptin in defeminisation/masculinisation of the brain mechanism that controls sexual behaviours. Castrated adult Kiss1 KO males treated with testosterone showed no male sexual behaviours, but evidenced oestrogen-induced lordosis behaviours as found in wild-type females. The size of some sexual dimorphic nuclei of Kiss1 KO male rats is similar to that of females. Plasma testosterone levels at embryonic day 18 and postnatal day (PND) 0 in Kiss1 KO males were high, similar to wild-type males, indicating that perinatal testosterone is secreted in a kisspeptin-independent manner...
June 25, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27210415/evidence-of-sexual-dimorphism-in-placental-vitamin-d-metabolism-testosterone-inhibits-calcitriol-dependent-cathelicidin-expression
#17
Andrea Olmos-Ortiz, Janice García-Quiroz, Rebeca López-Marure, Irma González-Curiel, Bruno Rivas-Santiago, Aleida Olivares, Euclides Avila, David Barrera, Ali Halhali, Felipe Caldiño, Fernando Larrea, Lorenza Díaz
Male fetus and neonates show increased immune vulnerability compared to females, which results in a higher risk of perinatal infections. These differences could partially be due to sex steroids differential modulation of vitamin D metabolism; since calcitriol, the most active vitamin D metabolite, regulates immune responses and transcriptionally induces the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin in the human placenta. Calcitriol availability depends on CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 expression, the cytochromes involved in its synthesis and degradation, respectively...
October 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147497/relative-levels-of-the-proprotein-and-cleavage-activated-form-of-circulating-human-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-are-sexually-dimorphic-and-variable-during-the-life-cycle
#18
Michael W Pankhurst, Yih Harng Chong, Ian S McLennan
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a gonadal hormone, which induces aspects of the male phenotype, and influences ovarian follicular recruitment. AMH is synthesized as a proprotein (proAMH), which is incompletely cleaved to the receptor-competent AMHN ,C AMH ELISAs have not distinguished between proAMH and AMHN ,C; consequently, the physiological ranges of circulating proAMH and AMHN ,C are unknown. A novel proAMH ELISA has been used to assay serum proAMH in humans. Total AMH was also measured, enabling the AMHN ,C concentration to be calculated...
May 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27122553/sexual-selection-on-male-vocal-fundamental-frequency-in-humans-and-other-anthropoids
#19
David A Puts, Alexander K Hill, Drew H Bailey, Robert S Walker, Drew Rendall, John R Wheatley, Lisa L M Welling, Khytam Dawood, Rodrigo Cárdenas, Robert P Burriss, Nina G Jablonski, Mark D Shriver, Daniel Weiss, Adriano R Lameira, Coren L Apicella, Michael J Owren, Claudia Barelli, Mary E Glenn, Gabriel Ramos-Fernandez
In many primates, including humans, the vocalizations of males and females differ dramatically, with male vocalizations and vocal anatomy often seeming to exaggerate apparent body size. These traits may be favoured by sexual selection because low-frequency male vocalizations intimidate rivals and/or attract females, but this hypothesis has not been systematically tested across primates, nor is it clear why competitors and potential mates should attend to vocalization frequencies. Here we show across anthropoids that sexual dimorphism in fundamental frequency (F0) increased during evolutionary transitions towards polygyny, and decreased during transitions towards monogamy...
April 27, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121426/adjunctive-low-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-over-the-right-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-patients-with-treatment-resistant-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Ho-Jun Seo, Young-Eun Jung, Hyun Kook Lim, Yoo-Hyun Um, Chang Uk Lee, Jeong-Ho Chae
OBJECTIVE: The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low frequency (LF) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)...
May 31, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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