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testosterone dimorphism

Yadanar Moe, Chaw Kyi-Tha-Thu, Tomoko Tanaka, Hiroto Ito, Satowa Yahashi, Ken-Ichi Matsuda, Mitsuhiro Kawata, Goro Katsuura, Fumihiro Iwashige, Ichiro Sakata, Atsushi Akune, Akio Inui, Takafumi Sakai, Sonoko Ogawa, Shinji Tsukahara
We found a novel sexually dimorphic area in the dorsal hypothalamus of mice (hereafter the SDA-DH). The SDA-DH was sandwiched between two known male-biased sexually dimorphic nuclei, the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the calbindin-sexually dimorphic nucleus, and exhibited a female-biased sex difference in neuronal cell density. The density of neurons in the SDA-DH was increased in male mice by orchidectomy on the day of birth and decreased in female mice by treatment with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or estradiol within 5 days after birth...
October 11, 2016: Endocrinology
Willow R Lindsay, Douglas G Barron, Michael S Webster, Hubert Schwabl
In males it is frequently testosterone (T) that activates the expression of sexually selected morphological and behavioral displays, but the role of T in regulating similar traits in females is less clear. Here, we combine correlational data with results from T and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) manipulations in both sexes to assess the role of T in mediating sexually dimorphic coloration and morphology in the red-backed fairy-wren (Malurus melanocephalus). We show that: (1) natural variation in female expression of ornamental traits (darkened bills and red back feathers) is positively associated with age and circulating androgen titres, (2) females have the capacity to express most male-typical traits in response to exogenous T, including carotenoid-pigmented body plumage, shorter feathers, darkened bill and enlarged cloacal protuberance, but (3) appear constrained in production of male-typical melanin-pigmented plumage, and (4) low androgen levels during the pre-nuptial molt, probably because of low ovarian capacity for steroid production (or luteinizing hormone sensitivity), prevent females from developing male-like ornamentation...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Kathrine Eggers Pedersen, Robert J Letcher, Christian Sonne, Rune Dietz, Bjarne Styrishave
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are emerging in the Arctic and accumulate in brain tissues of East Greenland (EG) polar bears. In vitro studies have shown that PFASs might possess endocrine disrupting abilities and therefore the present study was conducted to investigate potential PFAS induced alterations in brain steroid concentrations. The concentrations of eleven steroid hormones were determined in eight brain regions from ten EG polar bears. Pregnenolone (PRE), the dominant progestagen, was found in mean concentrations of 5-47ng/g (ww) depending on brain region...
September 27, 2016: Environment International
Shel Hwa Yeo, Victoria Kyle, Paul G Morris, Sophie Jackman, Lydia Sinnett-Smith, Maria Schacker, Chen Chen, William H Colledge
Kisspeptin neuropeptides are encoded by the Kiss1 gene and play a critical role in the regulation of the mammalian reproductive axis. Kiss1 neurons are found in two locations in the rodent hypothalamus; one in the arcuate (ARC) and another in the RP3V region which includes the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus. Detailed mapping of the fibre distribution of Kiss1 neurons will help in understanding the action of these neurons in other regions of the brain. We have generated a transgenic mouse in which the Kiss1 coding region has been disrupted by a CRE-GFP transgene so that expression of the CRE recombinase protein is driven from the Kiss1 promoter...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Katherine M Graham, Andrew J Kouba, Cecilia J Langhorne, Ruth M Marcec, Scott T Willard
BACKGROUND: Accurate sex identification techniques are important for wildlife demographic studies and for genetic management of captive breeding colonies. Various non-invasive methods for identification of biological sex in the weakly dimorphic endangered dusky gopher frog (DGF; Lithobates sevosa) were explored to support planned recovery efforts for this species including breeding and augmentation of wild populations. METHODS: Body size (snout-vent length and body weight) measurements, observation of nuptial pads, ultrasound imaging, and urinary hormone analysis for testosterone and estrone were performed on 27 male and 19 female DGFs...
2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Yoshitaka Imamichi, Koh-Ichi Yuhki, Makoto Orisaka, Takeshi Kitano, Kuniaki Mukai, Fumitaka Ushikubi, Takanobu Taniguchi, Akihiro Umezawa, Kaoru Miyamoto, Takashi Yazawa
CONTEXT: 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) is a novel class of active androgen. However, the detail of its synthesis remains unknown for humans. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to clarify the production and properties of 11-KT in human. Design, Participants and Methods: Expression of CYP11B1 and HSD11B2 (key enzymes involved in the synthesis of 11-KT) were investigated in human gonads. The production of 11-KT was investigated in Leydig cells. Plasma concentrations of testosterone and 11-KT were measured in 10 women and 10 men of reproductive age...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Mikael Mokkonen, Esa Koskela, Tapio Mappes, Suzanne C Mills
Conflict between mates, as well as conflict between parents and offspring are due to divergent evolutionary interests of the interacting individuals. Hormone systems provide genetically based proximate mechanisms for mediating phenotypic adaptation and maladaptation characteristic of evolutionary conflict between individuals. Testosterone (T) is among the most commonly studied hormones in evolutionary biology, and as such, its role in shaping sexually dimorphic behaviors and physiology is relatively well understood, but its role in evolutionary conflict is not as clear...
August 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Mark E Diebel, Lawrence N Diebel, David M Liberati
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a chronic low grade inflammatory condition associated with the elaboration of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines from adipose tissue. Gender dimorphism, (in part due to sex hormones) has been identified after injury and hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that the sex hormones estrogen (E2) and testosterone (DHT) have disparate effects on inflammatory mediator production from adipose tissue under stress conditions. This was studied in an in vitro model. METHODS: Mature adipocytes differentiated from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) were co cultured (2:1) with macrophages (RAW 264...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Motoyo Maruyama, Masahiko Fujisawa, Makoto Yokosuka, Toru R Saito, Shinichi Hayama, Toshio Akimoto, Yoji Hakamata
Several drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes exhibit sexual dimorphism depending on the pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretory patterns. However, the mechanism underlying CYP sexual dimorphism remains unclear. We previously established a transgenic (Alb-DsRed2 Tg) rat that expressed red fluorescent DsRed2 protein, particularly in hepatocytes, to visualize cell differentiation and multiplication and found that hepatic DsRed2 expression exhibited sexual dimorphism that was limited to adult males. In this study, we compared the expression patterns between sexual dimorphic Cyps and DsRed2 in Tg rats after experimentally reversing the GH secretory patterns in males and females...
June 29, 2016: Experimental Animals
S Nakamura, Y Uenoyama, K Ikegami, M Dai, Y Watanabe, C Takahashi, M Hirabayashi, H Tsukamura, K-I Maeda
Rodents show apparent sex differences in their sexual behaviours. The present study using Kiss1 KO rats aims to evaluate the role of kisspeptin in defeminisation/masculinisation of the brain mechanism that controls sexual behaviours. Castrated adult Kiss1 KO males treated with testosterone showed no male sexual behaviours, but evidenced oestrogen-induced lordosis behaviours as found in wild-type females. The size of some sexual dimorphic nuclei of Kiss1 KO male rats is similar to that of females. Plasma testosterone levels at embryonic day 18 and postnatal day (PND) 0 in Kiss1 KO males were high, similar to wild-type males, indicating that perinatal testosterone is secreted in a kisspeptin-independent manner...
June 25, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Andrea Olmos-Ortiz, Janice García-Quiroz, Rebeca López-Marure, Irma González-Curiel, Bruno Rivas-Santiago, Aleida Olivares, Euclides Avila, David Barrera, Ali Halhali, Felipe Caldiño, Fernando Larrea, Lorenza Díaz
Male fetus and neonates show increased immune vulnerability compared to females, which results in a higher risk of perinatal infections. These differences could partially be due to sex steroids differential modulation of vitamin D metabolism; since calcitriol, the most active vitamin D metabolite, regulates immune responses and transcriptionally induces the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin in the human placenta. Calcitriol availability depends on CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 expression, the cytochromes involved in its synthesis and degradation, respectively...
October 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Michael W Pankhurst, Yih Harng Chong, Ian S McLennan
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a gonadal hormone, which induces aspects of the male phenotype, and influences ovarian follicular recruitment. AMH is synthesized as a proprotein (proAMH), which is incompletely cleaved to the receptor-competent AMHN ,C AMH ELISAs have not distinguished between proAMH and AMHN ,C; consequently, the physiological ranges of circulating proAMH and AMHN ,C are unknown. A novel proAMH ELISA has been used to assay serum proAMH in humans. Total AMH was also measured, enabling the AMHN ,C concentration to be calculated...
May 2016: Physiological Reports
David A Puts, Alexander K Hill, Drew H Bailey, Robert S Walker, Drew Rendall, John R Wheatley, Lisa L M Welling, Khytam Dawood, Rodrigo Cárdenas, Robert P Burriss, Nina G Jablonski, Mark D Shriver, Daniel Weiss, Adriano R Lameira, Coren L Apicella, Michael J Owren, Claudia Barelli, Mary E Glenn, Gabriel Ramos-Fernandez
In many primates, including humans, the vocalizations of males and females differ dramatically, with male vocalizations and vocal anatomy often seeming to exaggerate apparent body size. These traits may be favoured by sexual selection because low-frequency male vocalizations intimidate rivals and/or attract females, but this hypothesis has not been systematically tested across primates, nor is it clear why competitors and potential mates should attend to vocalization frequencies. Here we show across anthropoids that sexual dimorphism in fundamental frequency (F0) increased during evolutionary transitions towards polygyny, and decreased during transitions towards monogamy...
April 27, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Ho-Jun Seo, Young-Eun Jung, Hyun Kook Lim, Yoo-Hyun Um, Chang Uk Lee, Jeong-Ho Chae
OBJECTIVE: The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low frequency (LF) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)...
May 31, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Changwoo Han, Hwallip Bae, Yu-Sang Lee, Sung-Doo Won, Dai Jin Kim
OBJECTIVE: The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. METHODS: In this study, we recruited 87 male patients with alcohol dependence from the alcohol center of one psychiatric hospital and 52 healthy male volunteers who were all employees in the same hospital as controls...
May 31, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Abraham Zarazúa, Aliesha González-Arenas, Gabriela Ramírez-Vélez, Blanca Bazán-Perkins, Christian Guerra-Araiza, María G Campos-Lara
The role of sex hormones in lung is known. The three main sex steroid receptors, estrogen, progesterone, and androgen, have not been sufficiently studied in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC), and the sex hormone regulation on these receptors is unknown. We examined the presence and regulation of sex hormone receptors in female and male rat ASMC by Western blotting and flow cytometry. Gonadectomized rats were treated with 17β-estradiol, progesterone, 17β-estradiol + progesterone, or testosterone. ASMC were enzymatically isolated from tracheas and bronchi...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Cheng-Wei Lai, Hsiao-Ling Chen, Tung-Chou Tsai, Te-Wei Chu, Shang-Hsun Yang, Kowit-Yu Chong, Chuan-Mu Chen
Sexually dimorphic gene expression is commonly found in the liver, and many of these genes are linked to different incidences of liver diseases between sexes. However, the mechanism of sexually dimorphic expression is still not fully understood. In this study, a pCAG-eGFP transgenic mouse strain with a specific transgene integration site in the Akr1A1 locus presented male-biased EGFP expression in the liver, and the expression was activated by testosterone during puberty. The integration of the pCAG-eGFP transgene altered the epigenetic regulation of the adjacent chromatin, including increased binding of STAT5b, a sexually dimorphic expression regulator, and the transformation of DNA methylation from hypermethylation into male-biased hypomethylation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jessica A McCoy, Heather J Hamlin, LeeAnne Thayer, Louis J Guillette, Benjamin B Parrott
Incubation temperatures experienced by developing embryos exert powerful influences over gonadal sex determination and differentiation in many species. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling these impacts remain largely unknown. We utilize the American alligator to investigate the sensitivity of the reproductive system to thermal signals experienced during development and ask specifically whether individuals of the same sex, yet derived from different incubation temperatures display persistent variation in the expression patterns of sex biased transcripts and plasma sex hormones...
April 11, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Gang Chen, Ye Zou, Xuan Zhang, Lingfei Xu, Qiaoyun Hu, Ting Li, Chenjuan Yao, Shali Yu, Xiaoke Wang, Chun Wang
β-actin, a cytoskeletal protein, is the most widely used housekeeping gene. Although housekeeping genes are expressed in all tissues, the β-actin gene is expressed in certain cell types because of differential binding of transcriptional factors to the regulatory elements of the gene. The expression and localization of β-actin protein in the submandibular glands (SMG) of mice were investigated in this study, using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. In ICR and C57BL/6J mice, the levels of β-actin protein in the SMG of females are significantly higher than those in the SMG of males...
July 2016: Cell Biology International
Carolyn R Hodges-Simeon, Katherine N Hanson Sobraske, Theodore Samore, Michael Gurven, Steven J C Gaulin
Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) has been proposed as a sexually dimorphic signal in humans that develops under the influence of pubertal testosterone (T); however, no studies have examined the association between fWHR and T during the phase in which facial growth is canalized--adolescence. In a sample of adolescent Tsimane males, we evaluate the relationship between T, known T-derived traits (i.e. strength and voice pitch), and craniofacial measurements. If fWHR variation derives from T's effect on craniofacial growth during adolescence, several predictions should be supported: 1) fWHR should increase with age as T increases, 2) fWHR should reflect adolescent T (rather than adult T per se), 3) fWHR should exhibit velocity changes during adolescence in parallel with the pubertal spurt in T, 4) fWHR should correlate with T after controlling for age and other potential confounds, and 5) fWHR should show strong associations with other T-derived traits...
2016: PloS One
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