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Qi Li, Jiayong Yang, Yilin Chen, Xinyi Zhou, Dengyue Chen, Yang Li, Xuan Zhu
Combination cancer therapy with various kinds of therapeutic approaches could improve the effectiveness of treatment while reducing side effects. Herein, we elaborately developed a theranostics nano-platform based on magnetic polydopamine (MPDA) coated with hyaluronic acid-methotrexate conjugates (MPDA@HA-MTX) for chemo-photothermal treatment (PTT). In this nano-platform, Fe3O4 served as the core was applied as contrast agent for T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and early-phase magnet targeting...
July 16, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Michael Nelson, Trevon Adams, Christiana Ojo, Margaret A Carroll, Edward J Catapane
Manganese is a neurotoxin causing manganism, a Parkinson-like clinical disorder. Manganese has been shown to interfere with dopaminergic neurotransmission, but the neurotoxic mechanism involved is not fully resolved. In the bivalve mollusc Crassostrea virginica also known as the eastern oyster, beating rates of lateral cilia of the gill are controlled by dopaminergic-serotonergic innervation originating from their cerebral and visceral ganglia. Terminal release of dopamine activates D2-like receptors on these gill cells inhibiting adenylyl cyclase and slowing cilia beating rates...
July 13, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Adriana Ramos-Ruiz, James A Field, Wenjie Sun, Reyes Sierra-Alvarez
Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a material widely used in electronic devices. Disposal of electronic waste containing GaAs in municipal solid waste landfills raises concerns about the public health and ecological risks associated with the potential release of toxic arsenic (As) species. In this study, different tests were performed to investigate the leaching behavior of particulate GaAs in aqueous solutions. In the U.S. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and California Waste Extraction Test (WET), the concentrations of As released from the GaAs particles were about 2...
July 2018: Waste Management
Sampan Attri, Gunjan Goel
The present study investigated the effect of polyphenol rich Sea buckthorn berries juice (SBJ) on colonic microbial composition and diversity using in vitro simulated gut model. The release of polyphenols, their antioxidant activity and impact on microbial diversity was evaluated under long term fermentation for 21 days. The treatment of colonic reactors with basal feed supplemented with SBJ resulted in an increase in population and diversity of beneficial bacteria as revealed by viable cell count and PCR-DGGE...
September 2018: Food Research International
Mariah L Hoye, Melissa R Regan, Leah A Jensen, Allison M Lake, Linga V Reddy, Svetlana Vidensky, Jean-Philippe Richard, Nicholas J Maragakis, Jeffrey D Rothstein, Joseph D Dougherty, Timothy M Miller
We recently demonstrated that microRNA-218 (miR-218) is greatly enriched in motor neurons and is released extracellularly in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model rats. To determine if the released, motor neuron-derived miR-218 may have a functional role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, we examined the effect of miR-218 on neighbouring astrocytes. Surprisingly, we found that extracellular, motor neuron-derived miR-218 can be taken up by astrocytes and is sufficient to downregulate an important glutamate transporter in astrocytes [excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2)]...
July 10, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Dimosthenis Giamouridis, Mei Hua Gao, N Chin Lai, Zhen Tan, Young Chul Kim, Tracy Guo, Atsushi Miyanohara, Matthijs W Blankesteijn, Erik A L Biessen, H Kirk Hammond
BACKGROUND: Peptide infusions of the corticotropin releasing factor family, including urocortin 2, stresscopin, and urocortin 3 (UCn3) have favorable acute effects in clinical heart failure (HF), but their short half-lives make them unsuited for chronic therapy. Here we ask whether UCn3 gene transfer, which provides sustained elevation of plasma UCn3 levels, increases function of the failing heart. METHODS: HF was induced by transmural left ventricular (LV) cryoinjury in mice...
July 13, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
Emily J Camm, Kimberley J Botting, Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri
The development of the fetal heart is exquisitely controlled by a multitude of factors, ranging from humoral to mechanical forces. The gatekeeper regulating many of these factors is the placenta, an external fetal organ. As such, resistance within the placental vascular bed has a direct influence on the fetal circulation and therefore, the developing heart. In addition, the placenta serves as the interface between the mother and fetus, controlling substrate exchange and release of hormones into both circulations...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Viviana Greco, Alida Spalloni, Victor Corasolla Carregari, Luisa Pieroni, Silvia Persichilli, Nicola B Mercuri, Andrea Urbani, Patrizia Longone
Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is an endogenous gasotransmitter recognized as an essential body product with a dual, biphasic action. It can function as an antioxidant and a cytoprotective, but also as a poison with a high probability of causing brain damage when present at noxious levels. In a previous study, we measured toxic liquoral levels of H₂S in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and in the familial ALS (fALS) mouse model, SOD1G93A. In addition, we experimentally demonstrated that H₂S is extremely and selectively toxic to motor neurons, and that it is released by glial cells and increases Ca2+ concentration in motor neurons due to a lack of ATP...
July 10, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Alan Leviton, Elizabeth N Allred, Robert M Joseph, T Michael O'Shea, Joseph Majzoub, Karl C K Kuban
AIM: To evaluate the relationship between corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) expression in the placenta and the risk of school-related dysfunctions at age 10 years among children born extremely preterm (EP). METHODS: CRH expression was measured in the placenta of 761 EP children, who had the following assessments at age 10 years: Differential Ability Scales, Oral and Written Language Scales, the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-III, NEPSY-II, and the Child Symptom Inventory-4...
July 10, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
H Veselá, O Mudrák, J Frouz
Here we explore the idea that keeping dead standing (marcescent) biomass plants can reduce its nutrient (N, P) content. Later after biomass falling to ground this may result in substantial changes in nutrient turnover with consequences for plant competitive interactions. To explore the effects standing dead biomass we used Calamagrostis epigejos as a model species. It is a common expansive grass, which after senescence retain a large proportion of the plant remains as dead standing biomass. We determined the biomass, N and P concentrations of living biomass, standing dead biomass, and lying dead biomass at young and old successional sites on the post-mining heap near Sokolov...
July 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sophie Putman, Florian Boureau, Julien Girard, Henri Migaud, Gilles Pasquier
Patellar complications are a source of poor total knee arthroplasty (TKA) outcomes that can require re-operation or prosthetic revision. Complications can occur with or without patellar resurfacing. The objective of this work is to answer six questions. (1) Have risk factors been identified, and can they help to prevent patellar complications? Patellar complications are associated with valgus, obesity, lateral retinacular release, and a thin patella. Selecting a prosthetic trochlea that will ensure proper patellar tracking is important...
July 7, 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Chelsea M Ickes, Keith R Cadwallader
This is the first sensory study to evaluate the effects of ethanol concentration on flavor perception of distilled spirits. Dilution series of two rums (R1 and R2) were evaluated to gain insight into the effects of ethanol concentration on the flavor perception of distilled spirits. Rums were diluted 1:2 (v/v) either with pure water to a final alcohol by volume (ABV) of 20% (R1-W and R2-W) or with an aqueous 40% ABV solution (R1-E and R2-E). The later dilution accounted for the flavor dilution effect while keeping the ethanol concentration the same as the original liquors...
June 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Martijn J J Finken, Manouk van der Steen, Carolina C J Smeets, Marie J E Walenkamp, Christiaan de Bruin, Anita C S Hokken-Koelega, Jan M Wit
Children born small-for-gestational age (SGA), defined as a birth weight and/or length <-2 SDS, comprise a heterogeneous group. The causes of SGA are multifactorial and include maternal life-style and obstetric factors, placental dysfunction, and numerous fetal (epi)genetic abnormalities. Short-term consequences of SGA include increased risks of hypothermia, polycythemia, and hypoglycemia. Although the majority of SGA infants show catch-up growth by 2 years of age, approximately 10% remain short. Short children born SGA are amenable to growth hormone (GH) treatment, which increases their adult height by on average 1...
July 4, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Hua-Di Yang, Meng-Ting Xia, Yi-Feng Shao, Pian Ying
RATIONALE: Recurrent ovarian hemorrhage resulting in ovarian infarction may lead to a life-threatening intraperitoneal hemorrhage in women with bleeding disorders such as aplastic anemia (AA). Moreover, it is seen as ovarian tumors in the diagnosis. The authors report a clinical case with the aim of sharing our experiences and exploring the ways to diagnose, treat, and avoid ovarian hemorrhage. PATIENTS CONCERNS: A 48-year-old woman with AA had suffered from a serious abdominal distension for the past 24 hours, which had occurred intermittently for the past 15 years...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sydney Ryan, Nanette Dudley, Michael Green, Charles Pruitt, Geoffrey Jackman
Intrathecal baclofen pumps are commonly used in pediatric patients with spastic cerebral palsy. Baclofen binds to γ-aminobutyric acid receptors to inhibit both monosynaptic and polysynaptic reflexes at the spinal cord level. The blockade stops the release of excitatory transmitters and thereby decreases muscle contraction. It is commonly used for lower limb spasticity and has been shown to improve postural ability and functional status. The US Food and Drug Administration has approved baclofen for the treatment of spasticity of cerebral or spinal origin in adult and pediatric patients 4 years or older...
July 5, 2018: Pediatrics
Megan Murgatroyd, Staffan Roos, Richard Evans, Alex Sansom, D Philip Whitfield, David Sexton, Robin Reid, Justin Grant, Arjun Amar
1.For many species there is evidence that breeding performance changes as an individual ages. In iteroparous species, breeding performance often increases through early-life and is expected to level out or even decline (senesce) later in life. Furthermore, an individual's sex and conditions experienced in early-life can affect breeding performance and how this changes with age. 2.Long-term monitoring of individuals from reintroduced populations can provide unique opportunities to explore age-related trends in breeding performance that might otherwise be logistically challenging...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
I Belyansky, H Reza Zahiri, Z Sanford, A S Weltz, A Park
BACKGROUND: The enhanced-view totally extraperitoneal (eTEP) hernia repair technique was first described for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair and later applied to laparoscopic ventral and incisional hernia repair. We present our center's early operative outcomes utilizing principles of this technique during robotic ventral and incisional hernia repair for implementation of the robotic eTEP Rives-Stoppa (eRS) and eTEP transversus abdominis release (eTAR) techniques. METHODS: A review of a prospectively maintained database of hernia patients was conducted identifying 37 patients who underwent robotic eTEP for ventral, incisional, flank or parastomal hernia repair between March and October 2017...
July 4, 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
Robert Weil, Emmanuel Laplantine, Shannel Curic, Pierre Génin
Optineurin (Optn) is a 577 aa protein encoded by the Optn gene. Mutations of Optn are associated with normal tension glaucoma and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and its gene has also been linked to the development of Paget's disease of bone and Crohn's disease. Optn is involved in diverse cellular functions, including NF-κB regulation, membrane trafficking, exocytosis, vesicle transport, reorganization of actin and microtubules, cell cycle control, and autophagy. Besides its role in xenophagy and autophagy of aggregates, Optn has been identified as a primary autophagy receptor, among the five adaptors that translocate to mitochondria during mitophagy...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Szymon W Manka, Carolyn A Moores
Microtubules form from longitudinally and laterally assembling tubulin α-β dimers. The assembly induces strain in tubulin, resulting in cycles of microtubule catastrophe and regrowth. This 'dynamic instability' is governed by GTP hydrolysis that renders the microtubule lattice unstable, but it is unclear how. We used a human microtubule nucleating and stabilizing neuronal protein, doublecortin, and high-resolution cryo-EM to capture tubulin's elusive hydrolysis intermediate GDP•Pi state, alongside the prehydrolysis analog GMPCPP state and the posthydrolysis GDP state with and without an anticancer drug, Taxol...
July 2, 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
A J Delaney, J W Crane, N M Holmes, J Fam, R F Westbrook
The two main sub-divisions of the Central amygdala (CeA), the lateral-capsular (CeA-LC) and the medial (CeA-M), contain extensive networks of inhibitory interneurons. We have previously shown that activation of GABAB -receptors reduces excitatory transmission between axons of the pontine parabrachial nucleus and neurons of the CeA-LC by inhibiting glutamate release from presynaptic terminals13 . Here we have characterised GABAB -receptor activation on other excitatory and inhibitory projections within the CeA...
July 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
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