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avian flu

Tiziano Gaiotto, Simon E Hufton
Cross-neutralising monoclonal antibodies against influenza hemagglutinin (HA) are of considerable interest as both therapeutics and diagnostic tools. We have recently described five different single domain antibodies (nanobodies) which share this cross-neutralising activity and suggest their small size, high stability, and cleft binding properties may present distinct advantages over equivalent conventional antibodies. We have used yeast display in combination with deep mutational scanning to give residue level resolution of positions in the antibody-HA interface which are crucial for binding...
2016: PloS One
K Rajkumar, A Bhattacharya, S David, S Hari Balaji, R Hariharan, M Jayakumar, N Balaji
AIM: This study was conducted to assess the extent of knowledge, awareness, attitude, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock owners in Puducherry region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 250 livestock farmers were selected randomly from eight revenue villages. And each farmer was interviewed with a questionnaire containing both open- and close-ended questions on various aspects of zoonotic diseases, a total of 49 questionnaires were framed to assess the source and transmission of infection to the farmers and to test their knowledge and awareness about zoonotic diseases...
September 2016: Veterinary World
Nadia Ali Rimi, Rebeca Sultana, Kazi Ishtiak-Ahmed, Md Zahidur Rahman, Marufa Hasin, M Saiful Islam, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Nazmun Nahar, Emily S Gurley, Stephen P Luby
BACKGROUND: The spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus among poultry and humans has raised global concerns and has motivated government and public health organizations to initiate interventions to prevent the transmission of HPAI. In Bangladesh, H5N1 became endemic in poultry and seven human H5N1 cases have been reported since 2007, including one fatality. This study piloted messages to increase awareness about avian influenza and its prevention in two rural communities, and explored change in villagers' awareness and behaviors attributable to the intervention...
2016: BMC Public Health
Pengfei Wei, Zelang Cai, Jinwen Hua, Weijia Yu, Jiajie Chen, Kang Kang, Congling Qiu, Lanlan Ye, Jiayun Hu, Kunmei Ji
Over the recent decades, China experienced several emerging virus outbreaks including those caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome- (SARS-) coronavirus (Cov), H5N1 virus, and H7N9 virus. The SARS tragedy revealed faults in China's infectious disease prevention system, propelling the Chinese government to enact reforms that enabled better combating of the subsequent H1N1 and H7N9 avian flu epidemics. The system is buttressed by three fundamental, mutually reinforcing components: (1) enduring government administration reforms, including legislation establishing a unified public health emergency management system; (2) prioritized funding for biotechnology and biomedicine industrialization, especially in the areas of pathogen identification, drug production, and the development of vaccines and diagnostics; and (3) increasing investment for public health and establishment of a rapid-response infectious diseases prevention and control system...
2016: BioMed Research International
S R Mehta, V P Singh, Suman Kumar, Rajan Kapoor, R Ananthakrishnan
Influenza A (H5N1) virus infects a variety of animals, birds and humans. Present ongoing epidemic of this deadly virus in poultry livestock and humans has had major economic and health repercussions. It causes a wide spectrum of clinical features in human beings ranging from mild respiratory tract infection to a fatal pneumonia leading to multi organ system failure. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, aided by lab features like lymphopaenia and non-specific chest X-ray findings. Diagnostic tests are being evolved for rapid and specific diagnosis...
February 2005: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Stefanie E LaZerte, Hans Slabbekoorn, Ken A Otter
Urban noise can interfere with avian communication through masking, but birds can reduce this interference by altering their vocalizations. Although several experimental studies indicate that birds can rapidly change their vocalizations in response to sudden increases in ambient noise, none have investigated whether this is a learned response that depends on previous exposure. Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) change the frequency of their songs in response to both fluctuating traffic noise and experimental noise...
June 29, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
(no author information available yet)
Media reports about an infection of a different nature, avian flu, are often contradictory and sometimes confusing, which can prompt patients and clients to turn to healthcare professionals for advice about the disease.
December 1, 2005: Nursing Management (Harrow)
Komatra Chuengsatiansup
This paper situates the ethnography of avian flu within the geo-political context of a new epidemiologic transition. Drawing on anthropological experience and insight, this paper examines areas of enquiry in which an ethnographic approach could contribute to a better implementation of prevention and control measures. Within the context of newly emerging diseases and accelerated globalization, the task of ethnography needs to extend far beyond the local. This paper reveals two major global issues that the ethnography of epidemiologic transition must take into consideration: (1) Global agro-industrial capitalism, and (2) global politics in the context of international health organizations and multi-national drug companies...
April 2008: Anthropology & Medicine
Siwi Padmawati, Mark Nichter
This pilot study suggests that it is more appropriate to think of avian flu as a bio-social and bio-political challenge for Indonesia than merely an epidemiological challenge involving a disease of zoonotic origin. Our examination of popular perceptions of avian flu in Central Java reveals important differences of opinion about which types of fowl are responsible for avian flu transmission and the degree of risk H5N1 poses to humans. The opinions of backyard farmers and commercial poultry farmers are motivated by different forms of practical logic and are differentially influenced by media accounts, government education programmes, foreign aid and rumours about who stands to profit from the disease...
April 2008: Anthropology & Medicine
Letian Zhang, Tianshu Pan
Based on ethnographic research conducted in the summer of 2006, this paper examines local responses to the imminent threat of avian flu in Haining County of Zhejiang Province. During our field investigation, we conducted interviews with officials from local medical institutions (including the hospitals, the animal husbandry and veterinary station, and health clinics), to bureaus of public health and agro-economy. We also visited chicken farms, restaurants and farming households. We address the following factors that commonly structured the perceptions and actions of different social actors in the area of study: The changing mode of information-sharing and communication practices in the local communities; the official drive to professionalize the emergency response management system in the county; and the coping mechanisms that helped the villagers and town residents to weather the storm of avian flu...
April 2008: Anthropology & Medicine
Juan-Carlos Saiz, Ángela Vázquez-Calvo, Ana B Blázquez, Teresa Merino-Ramos, Estela Escribano-Romero, Miguel A Martín-Acebes
Since the beginning of this century, humanity has been facing a new emerging, or re-emerging, virus threat almost every year: West Nile, Influenza A, avian flu, dengue, Chikungunya, SARS, MERS, Ebola, and now Zika, the latest newcomer. Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and later on in humans in Nigeria. The virus was mainly confined to the African continent until it was detected in south-east Asia the 1980's, then in the Micronesia in 2007 and, more recently in the Americas in 2014, where it has displayed an explosive spread, as advised by the World Health Organization, which resulted in the infection of hundreds of thousands of people...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kevin Yana Njabo, Linda Zanontian, Basma N Sheta, Ahmed Samy, Shereen Galal, Frederic Paik Schoenberg, Thomas B Smith
H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) continues to cause mortality in poultry and threaten human health at a panzootic scale in Egypt since it was reported in 2006. While the early focus has been in Asia, recent evidence suggests that Egypt is an emerging epicenter for the disease. Despite control measures, epizootic transmission of the disease continues. Here, we investigate the persistence of HPAIV across wild passerine birds and domestic poultry between 2009 and 2012 and the potential risk for continuous viral transmission in Egypt...
May 1, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Ye Zhang, Xiaodan Li, Shumei Zou, Hong Bo, Libo Dong, Rongbao Gao, Dayan Wang, Yuelong Shu
Abstract: To investigate the distribution of avian influenza virus in environmental samples from live poultry markets (LPM) in China, samples were collected and tested by nucleic acid during 2009-2013 season. Each sample was tested by real-time RT PCR using flu A specific primers. If any real-time PCR was positive, the sample was inoculated into specific-pathogen-free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs for viral isolation. The results indicated that the positive rate of nucleic acid in enviromental samples exhibited seasonality...
November 2015: Bing du Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Virology
Linda Brunotte, Martin Beer, Masayuki Horie, Martin Schwemmle
The identification of influenza A-like genomic sequences in bats suggests the existence of distinct lineages of chiropteran influenza viruses in South and Central America. These viruses share similarities with conventional influenza A viruses but lack the canonical receptor-binding property and neuraminidase function. The inability to isolate infectious bat influenza viruses impeded further studies, however, reverse genetic analysis provided new insights into the molecular biology of these viruses. In this review, we highlight the recent developments in the field of the newly discovered bat-derived influenza A-like viruses...
February 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Nyuk Sian Chong, Benoit Dionne, Robert Smith
Depopulation of birds has always been an effective method not only to control the transmission of avian influenza in bird populations but also to eliminate influenza viruses. We introduce a Filippov avian-only model with culling of susceptible and/or infected birds. For each susceptible threshold level [Formula: see text], we derive the phase portrait for the dynamical system as we vary the infected threshold level [Formula: see text], focusing on the existence of endemic states; the endemic states are represented by real equilibria, pseudoequilibria and pseudo-attractors...
September 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Anice C Lowen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 7, 2016: Nature
Merav Ben Natan, Shirley Zilberstein, Diana Alaev
UNLABELLED: Nursing students are the future nursing workforce. Exploring factors associated with nursing students' willingness to report for duty during an avian influenza (flu) pandemic, might help nurse managers develop strategies in advance for efficient management of personnel during a pandemic of avian flu. AIM: To examine the factors associated with the willingness of future nursing workforce to report for duty during an avian flu pandemic, using the theory of self-efficacy...
2015: Research and Theory for Nursing Practice
Yu-Kun Zhang, Jian Li, Jian-Ping Yang, Ying Zhan, Jun Chen
BACKGROUND: A novel reassortant avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus was found to infect three Chinese residents, the first H7N9 infection in humans in Asia. Chest computed tomography (CT) for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) diagnosis is not only expensive but also exposes patients to radiation and might cause patients to be at risk of infection during transportation; in addition, chest radiography cannot be used to monitor the lung repeatedly in real time. Therefore, the routine use of bedside lung ultrasonography for critically ill patients with ARDS is especially valuable...
2015: Virology Journal
Ramona Ludolph, Marta Nobile, Uwe Hartung, Silvana Castaldi, Peter J Schulz
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to assess the long-term secondary effects of personal experience with the H1N1 pandemic of 2009/2010 and the perception of the institutional reaction to it on Italians' willingness to get vaccinated in case of a novel influenza pandemic. DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted 140 face-to-face interviews in the Registry Office of the Municipality of Milan, Italy, from October to December 2012. RESULTS: Willingness to get vaccinated during a novel influenza pandemic was best predicted by having been vaccinated against the seasonal flu in the past (OR=5...
July 16, 2015: Journal of Public Health Research
Tapati Sarkar, Sukhen Das, Antara De, Papiya Nandy, Shiladitya Chattopadhyay, Mamta Chawla-Sarkar, Ashesh Nandy
The sudden emergence of a human infecting strain of H7N9 influenza virus in China in 2013 leading to fatalities in about 30% of the cases has caused wide concern that additional mutations in the strain leading to human to human transmission could lead to a deadly pandemic. It may happen in a short time span as the outbreak of H7N9 is more and more recurrent, which implies that H7N9 evolution is speeding up. H7N9 flu strains were not known to infect humans before this attack in China in February 2013 and it was solely an avian strain...
December 2015: Computational Biology and Chemistry
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