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Patrick N Mwangala, Symon M Kariuki, Moses K Nyongesa, Paul Mwangi, Esther Chongwo, Charles R Newton, Amina Abubakar
Epilepsy is frequently associated with neurocognitive impairments, mental health, and psychosocial problems but these are rarely documented in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to examine the neurocognitive outcomes, depressive symptoms, and psychosocial adjustments of people with epilepsy (PWE) in Kilifi, Kenya. We evaluated the impact of these outcomes on health-related quality of life. Self-report, interviewer-administered measures of depression (Major Depression Inventory) and quality of life (RAND SF-36) were administered to 63 PWE and 83 community controls...
June 12, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Thuy-My N Truong, Taryn N McGilvery, Tove M Goldson, Samuel N Forjuoh
A previously healthy 3-month-old girl was admitted to the hospital after 1 day of fever, decreased oral intake, irritability, lethargy, and decreased activity. Examination disclosed a bulging anterior fontanelle, tachycardia (heart rate of 160 beats/minute), and urate crystals in her diaper. Lumbar puncture revealed meningitis. She was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and fluids. A urine culture was negative, but blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures came back positive for Salmonella species, nontyphoid...
July 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Katarzyna Kuczyńska, Piotr Grzonkowski, Łukasz Kacprzak, Jolanta B Zawilska
Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid used as a narcotic analgesic supplement in general and regional anesthesia as well as in management of persistent, severe chronic pain. Alarming epidemiological and forensic medicine reports, accumulated mainly during the last two decades, point to a growing increase in illicit use of fentanyl, mainly in North America and Europe. Toxicological data indicates that fentanyl use is inextricably linked with polydrug use. There are two main sources of fentanyl on the "recreational" drug market...
June 2, 2018: Forensic Science International
Ian H Stanley, James R Yancey, Christopher J Patrick, Thomas E Joiner
Suicide is a major public health problem, claiming the lives of more than 40,000 individuals in the United States each year. Efforts are needed to (a) identify those at heightened risk for suicide, utilizing objective assessment methods and (b) determine factors that may be protective against engaging in suicidal behavior, even in the context of the desire to do so. Scales RCd (demoralization) and RC9 (hypomanic activation) of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) may be valuable in this regard...
June 14, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Martina Bleyer, Tina Risch, Christian Roos, Franz-Josef Kaup, Kerstin Mätz-Rensing
  A captive-born adult female Nilgiri langur ( Semnopithecus johnii) developed an edematous swelling of the left thigh and a firm mass around the right ankle joint. The animal also suffered from lethargy and anorexia and was euthanized because of poor general condition. Necropsy revealed that the skeletal muscle of the left thigh had been replaced by a multilocular cystic mass containing numerous sand-grain-sized whitish structures. Small cysts were also present in the lung and the myocardium. The mass of the right ankle joint was histologically consistent with a myxosarcoma...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Rachel B Davy-Moyle, Leo Londoño, Elizabeth A Nelson, Carsten Bandt
OBJECTIVE: To describe the successful management of acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to oak intoxication using hemodialysis in a miniature zebu. CASE SUMMARY: A 1-year-old male intact miniature zebu was presented for evaluation of a 2-day history of lethargy, anorexia, decreased urine production, and dry, firm stool. Initial diagnostics revealed severe azotemia and the bull was presumptively diagnosed with AKI secondary to oak intoxication due to free access to oak trees in the pasture...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Surender Kumar, Gopal Agrawal, Sanjay Wazir, Anil Kumar, Sandeep Dubey, Manish Balde, Bir Singh Yadav
Background: In 2016, there was a massive outbreak of chikungunya in North India. During the epidemic, we observed many neonatal and early infantile cases of chikungunya, with a probable perinatal transmission. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out in a tertiary care neonatal centre between August 2016 and November 2016. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection was detected and confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and/or serology (anti-CHIKV IgM) in mothers and infants...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Michelle L Allen, Tobias Kulik, Salah G Keyrouz, Rajat Dhar
BACKGROUND: Induced hypertension (IH) remains the mainstay of medical management for delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, raising blood pressure above normal levels may be associated with systemic and neurological complications, of which posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) has been increasingly recognized. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the frequency and predisposing factors for PRES during IH therapy. METHODS: We identified 68 patients treated with IH from 345 SAH patients over a 3-yr period...
June 8, 2018: Neurosurgery
René Kurz, Julia Huemer, Elvira Muchitsch, Martha Feucht
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prospectively the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Drug-naïve children who met the DSM-V criteria for a diagnosis of ASD were recruited from a day care center, specialized in long-term treatment of children and adolescents with ASD. Symptom assessment was performed using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) before (base-line) and after 12 months (follow-up) of CBT...
May 30, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Roberto Bermúdez, Ana Paula Losada, Ana Manuela de Azevedo, Jorge Guerra-Varela, David Pérez-Fernández, Laura Sánchez, Francesc Padrós, Barbara Nowak, María Isabel Quiroga
Zebrafish has become a popular research model in the last years, and several diseases affecting zebrafish research facilities have been reported. However, only one case of naturally occurring viral infections was described for this species. In 2015, infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) was detected in zebrafish from a research facility in Spain. Affected fish showed lethargy, loss of appetite, abnormal swimming, distention of the coelomic cavity and, in the most severe cases, respiratory distress, pale gills and petechial haemorrhages at the base of fins...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
M B Spitznagel, D M Jacobson, M D Cox, M D Carlson
Caregiver burden, found in many clients with a chronically or terminally ill companion animal, has been linked to poorer psychosocial function in the client and greater utilization of non-billable veterinary services. To reduce client caregiver burden, its determinants must first be identified. This study examined if companion animal clinical signs and problem behaviors predict veterinary client burden within broader client- and patient-based risk factor models. Data were collected in two phases. Phase 1 included 238 companion animal owners, including those with a sick companion animal (n=119) and matched healthy controls (n=119) recruited online...
June 2018: Veterinary Journal
M J Rodríguez-Castaño, B Iglesias, L Arruza
BACKGROUND: Complications of intravenous lipid administration are relatively uncommon. However, inadvertent rapid infusion of intravenous fat emulsion (IVFE) is an inherent risk when fats are infused separately from the dextrose-amino acid solution. CASE REPORT: Extremely preterm infant, born at 25 weeks and 6 days of gestational age weighing 920 g, who inadvertently received a massive overdose of IVFE due to a device failure. He developed lethargy, apnea, metabolic acidosis and hemodynamic instability requiring mechanical ventilation and inotropic support...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
Mona Khalaj, Amene Saghazadeh, Elham Shirazi, Mohammad-Reza Shalbafan, Kaveh Alavi, Mitera Hakim Shooshtari, Fatemeh Yousefi Laksari, Maryamalsadat Hosseini, Mohammad-Reza Mohammadi, Shahin Akhondzadeh
Inflammation as well as glutamate excitotoxicity have been proposed to participate in the propagation of autism. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endocannabinoid proven to prevent glutamatergic toxicity and inhibit inflammatory responses simultaneously. The present randomized, parallel group, double-blind placebo-controlled trial is the first study depicted to probe the efficacy of co-treatment with risperidone and PEA over 10 weeks in children with autism. Seventy children (aged 4-12 years) with autism and moderate to severe symptoms of irritability were randomly assigned to two treatment regimens...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
S K Cordeiro, R C Daro, H Seung, W Klein-Schwartz, H K Kim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: New synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) are synthesized each year to evade U.S. governmental regulation and sold for recreational use. Our aim was to estimate the changes in the clinical effects and patient disposition associated with SCRA exposure from 2010 to 2015. DESIGN: A retrospective observational cohort study SETTING: National Poison Data System that collects data on reports of poisonings from 55 U.S. poison centers. PARTICIPANTS: 19,388 isolated SCRA cases between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015 were identified...
May 28, 2018: Addiction
Robert J Newman, Kimberly M Egeler, Amanda L Conkling, Mason Y Savage
A 5-year-old spayed female English Bulldog was evaluated for acute anorexia, lethargy, respiratory distress, and syncope. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed the vascular malformation of azygous continuation of the caudal vena cava with extensive thrombus formation and pulmonary arterial thromboembolic disease. The patient was hospitalized for supportive treatment and was prescribed long-term clopidogrel therapy. The patient survived to discharge and at last follow-up remained clinically stable. While this vascular malformation has been reported in canines, to the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of pulmonary thromboembolic disease in a canine concurrent with this condition...
May 24, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
C Rattaz, C Michelon, K Munir, A Baghdadli
BACKGROUND: Challenging behaviours are highly prevalent in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but little is known about the prevalence and course of these behaviours during adulthood. The aims of this study were to describe the topography of challenging behaviours in a cohort of 106 young adults with ASD and to identify the risk factors for challenging behaviours. Our secondary objective was to study the changes in challenging behaviours from adolescence to early adult years...
July 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Chad S Clancy, Arnaud J Van Wettere, Gordon A Hullinger
The brain from a field necropsied 8-month-old feedlot heifer presenting with an acute history of depression, lethargy, dyspnoea and anorexia was evaluated grossly and by histopathology. The meninges overlying the left cerebral hemisphere contained a 12 × 26 × 32 mm, dark red, soft, ovoid mass. Histologic examination of this tissue revealed a well-organized lymph node with normal architecture. Organization of reactive lymphoid tissue resembling normal lymph node architecture may occur under chronic stimulation...
May 23, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Bryan J Harvell, Stephen D Helmer, Jeanette G Ward, Elizabeth Ablah, Raymond Grundmeyer, James M Haan
Introduction: Recent studies have provided guidelines on the use of head computed tomography (CT) scans in pediatric trauma patients. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of these guidelines among concussed pediatric patients. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted of patients four years or younger with a concussion from blunt trauma. Demographics, head injury characteristics, clinical indicators for head CT scan (severe mechanism, physical exam findings of basilar skull fracture, non-frontal scalp hematoma, Glasgow Coma Scale score, loss of consciousness, neurologic deficit, altered mental status, vomiting, headache, amnesia, irritability, behavioral changes, seizures, lethargy), CT results, and hospital course were collected...
May 2018: Kansas journal of medicine
Saiful Safuan Md-Sani, Julina Md-Noor, Winn-Hui Han, Syang-Pyang Gan, Nor-Salina Rani, Hui-Loo Tan, Kanimoli Rathakrishnan, Mohd Azizuddin A-Shariffuddin, Marzilawati Abd-Rahman
BACKGROUND: Increasing incidence of dengue cases in Malaysia over the last few years has been paralleled by increased deaths. Mortality prediction models will therefore be useful in clinical management. The aim of this study is to identify factors at diagnosis of severe dengue that predicts mortality and assess predictive models based on these identified factors. METHOD: This is a retrospective cohort study of confirmed severe dengue patients that were admitted in 2014 to Hospital Kuala Lumpur...
May 21, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Hanneke Brits, Jeanie Adendorff, Dyanti Huisamen, Dahne Beukes, Kristian Botha, Hanre Herbst, Gina Joubert
BACKGROUND:  Neonatal jaundice affects one in two infants globally. The jaundice is the result of an accumulation of bilirubin as foetal haemoglobin is metabolised by the immature liver. High serum levels of bilirubin result in lethargy, poor feeding and kernicterus of the infant. AIM:  The main aim of this article was to determine the prevalence of neonatal jaundice and secondly to explore its risk factors in healthy term neonates. SETTING:  Maternity ward, National District Hospital, Bloemfontein, South Africa...
April 12, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
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