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Paula Sosenski, Sergio Ramos-Castro, César A Domínguez, Karina Boege, Juan Fornoni
The evolution of monomorphisms from heterostylous ancestors has been related with the presence of homostyly and the loss of self-incompatibility allowing the occurrence of selfing, which could be advantageous under pollinator limitation. However, flowers of some monomorphic species show herkogamy, attraction and rewarding traits that presumably favour cross-pollination and/or a mixed mating system. This study evaluated the contributions of pollinators, breeding system and floral traits to the reproduction of Turnera velutina, a herkogamous monomorphic species...
October 22, 2016: Plant Biology
Guaraci D Cordeiro, Mardiore Pinheiro, Stefan Dötterl, Isabel Alves-Dos-Santos
Bees are the most important diurnal pollinators of angiosperms. In several groups of bees a nocturnal/crepuscular habit was developed, yet, little is known about their role in pollination and whether some plants are adapted specifically to these bees. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the reproductive biology and to understand the role of nocturnal/crepuscular bees in pollination of Campomanesia phaea (Myrtaceae), popularly named cambuci. We studied the floral biology and the breeding system of C...
October 22, 2016: Plant Biology
Eline Tommelein, Els Mehuys, Inge Van Tongelen, Mirko Petrovic, Annemie Somers, Pieter Colin, Sophie Demarche, Thierry Van Hees, Thierry Christiaens, Koen Boussery
BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to (i) determine the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) in community-dwelling older polypharmacy patients using the Ghent Older People's Prescriptions community-Pharmacy Screening (GheOP³S) tool, (ii) identify the items that account for the highest proportion of PIP and (iii) identify the patient variables that may influence the occurrence of PIP. Additionally, pharmacist-physician contacts emerging from PIP screening with the GheOP³S tool and feasibility of the GheOP³S tool in daily practice were evaluated...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Public Health
D J Gould, S Creedon, A Jeanes, N S Drey, J Chudleigh, D Moralejo
The purpose of hand hygiene is to break the chain of healthcare-associated infection. In many countries hand hygiene is regularly audited as part of quality assurance based on recommendations from the World Health Organization. Direct observation is the recommended audit method but is associated with disadvantages, including potential for being observed to alter usual behaviour. The Hawthorne effect in relation to hand hygiene is analogous with productivity improvement by increasing the frequency with which hand hygiene is undertaken...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Ko-Chiu Wu, Lih-Yau Song
Taiwan's declining birthrate has resulted in an aging population, and the needs addressed by public facilities are changing along with the shifting population structure. Visitors to urban parks filled out 869 questionnaires on the topic of inclusive design. Structural equation modeling revealed that park patrons could be categorized as those with special needs, and the general public. The biggest difference between these two groups manifests in their disparate needs concerning outdoor primary service facilities, followed by facilities related to accessibility, automation and the functions performed in open areas...
January 2017: Applied Ergonomics
David G Gallerani, Gina M Besenyi, Sonja A Wilhelm Stanis, Andrew T Kaczynski
This study explored youths' experiences and perceptions about community engagement as a result of participating in a community-based data collection project using paper and mobile technology park environmental audit tools. In July 2014, youth (ages 11-18, n=50) were recruited to participate in nine focus groups after auditing two parks each using paper, electronic, or both versions of the Community Park Audit Tool in Greenville County, SC. The focus groups explored the youths' experiences participating in the project, changes as a result of participation, suggested uses of park audit data collected, and who should use the tools...
August 27, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Alison J Parker, Neal M Williams, James D Thomson
Pollinators that collect pollen - and specifically, pollen-specialist bees - are often considered to be the best pollinators of a (host) plant. Although pollen collectors and pollen specialists often benefit host plants, especially in the pollen that they deliver (their pollination "effectiveness"), they can also exact substantial costs because they are motivated to collect as much pollen as possible, reducing the proportion of pollen removed that is subsequently delivered to stigmas (their pollination "efficiency")...
August 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Maoliosa Donald, Kerry McBrien, Wes Jackson, Braden J Manns, Marcello Tonelli, Kathryn King-Shier, Kailash Jindal, Richard Z Lewanczuk, Nairne Scott-Douglas, Ted Braun, Sharon E Straus, Christopher Naugler, Meghan J Elliott, Min Jun, Brenda R Hemmelgarn
BACKGROUND: Primary care physicians and other primary health care professionals from Alberta, Canada identified a clinical pathway as a potential tool to facilitate uptake of clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis, management and referral of adults with chronic kidney disease. We describe the development and implementation of a chronic kidney disease clinical pathway (CKD-CP; ). METHODS: The CKD-CP was developed and implemented based on the principles of the Knowledge-To-Action Cycle framework...
2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Reet Karise, Gerit Dreyersdorff, Mona Jahani, Eve Veromann, Eve Runno-Paurson, Tanel Kaart, Guy Smagghe, Marika Mänd
Botrytis cinerea Pers.:Fr. is a major plant pathogen, and a new approach is needed for its control in strawberry to minimise the increasing use of synthetic fungicides. The biofungicide Prestop-Mix, which contains Gliocladium catenulatum, is effective against Botrytis infections; however, the need for frequent applications increases the costs for farmers. Here, we demonstrate that bumble bees, Bombus terrestris L., effectively disseminate the preparation onto flowers in open field conditions. Over the course of three years, we found a highly significant decrease in the rate of Botrytis infection...
2016: Scientific Reports
Pietro Kiyoshi Maruyama, Danielle G Justino, Paulo Eugênio Oliveira
• Floral visitors differ in their efficacy as pollinators and the impact of different pollinator species on the pollen flow and plant reproduction has been frequently evaluated. In contrast, the impact of within-species foraging changes on their efficacy as pollinators has been seldom quantified. • We studied a self-incompatible shrub Palicourea rigida (Rubiaceae) and its hummingbird pollinators which adjust their behaviour according to floral resources availability. Fluorescence microscopy was used to access pollen tube growth and incompatibility reaction in pistils after a single visit of territorial or intruder hummingbirds in two populations...
August 8, 2016: Plant Biology
Amparo Lazaro, Thomas Tscheulin, Jelle Devalez, Georgios Nakas, Anastasia Stefanaki, Effie Hanlidou, Theodora Petanidou
The structure of pollination networks is an important indicator of ecosystem stability and functioning. Livestock grazing is a frequent land use practice that directly affects the abundance and diversity of flowers and pollinators and, therefore, may indirectly affect the structure of pollination networks. We studied how grazing intensity affected the structure of plant-flower visitor networks along a wide range of grazing intensities by sheep and goats, using data from 11 Mediterranean plant-flower visitor communities from Lesvos Island, Greece...
April 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Luan Tavares Pinheiro, João Fabrício Mota Rodrigues, Diva Maria Borges-Nojosa
BACKGROUND: The attitudes and perceptions of people toward animals are influenced by sociodemographic factors, such as formal education and gender, and by personal experience. Understanding these interactions is critical for the establishment of conservation strategies for animals that have conflictual relationships with humans, such as snakes. Our study aims to explain how perceptions and the human fear of snakes vary and are influenced by formal education and gender. In addition, it aims to show how prior interaction with these animals influence these perceptions and the human fear toward snakes and how these perceptions and fear influence the importance of conservation of these animals...
2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Heesook Son, Young-Hee Yom
AIMS: To examine the individual determinants that influence satisfaction with medical services at the emergency department and to compare the factors that influence satisfaction for the patients, compared with their companions. METHODS: Using data from the 2009 Korea Health Panel Survey, Andersen's behavioral model was used to examine the factors that affect satisfaction with service. A logistic regression analysis was conducted with the data. RESULTS: Patients who were older, female, and employed were more satisfied with the service, as were patients who visited more frequently and those who had non-surgical treatment...
June 15, 2016: Japan Journal of Nursing Science: JJNS
Maha A Bahammam
OBJECTIVES: To test the psychometric properties of an adapted Arabic version of the state trait anxiety-form Y (STAI-Y) in Saudi adult dental patients.  METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the published Arabic version of the STAI-Y was evaluated by 2 experienced bilingual professionals for its compatibility with Saudi culture and revised prior to testing. Three hundred and eighty-seven patients attending dental clinics for treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry Hospital, King Abdullah University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, participated in the study...
June 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Maximilian L Allen, Veronica Yovovich, Christopher C Wilmers
Successful communication is critical to the fitness of individuals and maintenance of populations, but less is known regarding the social contexts and reactions to scent marking by other individuals in solitary carnivores, including pumas. We evaluated the responses of resident male pumas to visitation and scent marking by potential competitors (other male pumas) and potential mates (female pumas) by capturing and marking 46 pumas (Puma concolor), and documenting scent marking behaviours using motion-triggered video cameras...
2016: Scientific Reports
Daniele de Fátima Alves Venâncio, Lyderson Facio Viccini, Andrea Pereira Luizi-Ponzo, Fábio Prezoto
Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson (Verbenaceae) is a herbal aromatic shrub with medicinal properties. Natural populations of this species are allogamous and self-incompatible. Therefore, this plant species relies on pollinators to outcross and maintain the genetic variability. Here, we investigated the floral phenology, pollen morphology, the floral visitor entomofauna, and the influence of climatic factors on the frequency of visits in L. alba flowers. The study was conducted at Federal University of Juiz de Fora Plant Experimental Area, southeast Brazil...
May 11, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Roger E Thomas
PURPOSE: To identify if there is enough evidence at low risk-of-bias to prevent influenza transmission by vaccinating health-care workers (HCWs), patients and visitors; screening for laboratory-proven influenza all entering hospitals; screening asymptomatic individuals; identifying influenza supershedders; hand-washing and mask-wearing by HCWs, patients and visitors; and cleaning hospital rooms and equipment. PRINCIPAL RESULTS: Vaccination reduces influenza episodes of vaccinated (4...
June 8, 2016: Vaccine
Eileen F Baker, John C Moskop, Joel M Geiderman, Kenneth V Iserson, Catherine A Marco, Arthur R Derse
Emergency physicians frequently interact with law enforcement officers and patients in their custody. As always, the emergency physician's primary professional responsibility is to promote patient welfare, and his or her first duty is to the patient. Emergency physicians should treat criminals, suspects, and prisoners with the same respect and attention they afford other patients while ensuring the safety of staff, visitors, and other patients. Respect for patient privacy and protection of confidentiality are of paramount importance to the patient-physician relationship...
May 4, 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Shaun A Goho
BACKGROUND: Scientists conducting research into household air or dust pollution must decide whether, when, and how to disclose to study participants their individual results. A variety of considerations factor into this decision, but one factor that has not received attention until now is the possibility that study participants' receipt of their results might create legal duties under environmental, property, landlord-tenant, or other laws. OBJECTIVES & METHODS: This review examines relevant laws and regulations and explores the scope of participants' legal duties and the resulting legal and ethical consequences for researchers...
May 6, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Bum Sik Chin, Jae Yoon Kim, Sara Gianella, Myunghee Lee
BACKGROUND: Travel-related risks for infectious diseases vary depending on travel patterns such as purpose, destination, and duration. In this study, we describe the patterns of travel and prescription of vaccines as well as malaria prophylaxis medication (MPM) at a travel clinic in South Korea to identify the gaps to fill for the optimization of pre-travel consultation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of travel clinic visitors in 2011 was constructed and early one-third of the visitors of each month were reviewed...
March 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
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