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Katie N Myers, Giancarlo Barone, Anil Ganesh, Christopher J Staples, Anna E Howard, Ryan D Beveridge, Sarah Maslen, J Mark Skehel, Spencer J Collis
It was recently discovered that vertebrate genomes contain multiple endogenised nucleotide sequences derived from the non-retroviral RNA bornavirus. Strikingly, some of these elements have been evolutionary maintained as open reading frames in host genomes for over 40 million years, suggesting that some endogenised bornavirus-derived elements (EBL) might encode functional proteins. EBLN1 is one such element established through endogenisation of the bornavirus N gene (BDV N). Here, we functionally characterise human EBLN1 as a novel regulator of genome stability...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Manon Bourg, Daniel Nobach, Sibylle Herzog, Hildburg Lange-Herbst, Anne Nesseler, Hans-Peter Hamann, Sabrina Becker, Dirk Höper, Bernd Hoffmann, Markus Eickmann, Christiane Herden
BACKGROUND: Next to various known infectious and non-infectious causes, the aetiology of non-suppurative encephalitis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) often remains unclear. Known causes in foxes imply rabies, canine distemper, toxoplasmosis, Aujeszky's disease, as well as parvovirus, adenovirus, circovirus and flavivirus infections. In this study, particular attention was paid on bornaviruses, since red foxes are predators of bicoloured white-toothed shrews, a reservoir of Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1)...
2016: Virology Journal
Dennis Rubbenstroth, Volker Schmidt, Monika Rinder, Marko Legler, Sönke Twietmeyer, Phillip Schwemmer, Victor M Corman
BACKGROUND: Avian bornaviruses are a genetically diverse group of viruses initially discovered in 2008. They are known to infect several avian orders. Bornaviruses of parrots and related species (Psittaciformes) are causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease, a chronic and often fatal neurologic disease widely distributed in captive psittacine populations. Although knowledge has considerably increased in the past years, many aspects of the biology of avian bornaviruses are still undiscovered...
2016: PloS One
Yuki Kobayashi, Masayuki Horie, Ayumi Nakano, Koichi Murata, Takuya Itou, Yoshiyuki Suzuki
Endogenous bornavirus-like nucleoprotein elements (EBLNs), the nucleotide sequence elements derived from the nucleoprotein gene of ancient bornavirus-like viruses, have been identified in many animal genomes. Here we show evidence that EBLNs encode functional proteins in their host. Some afrotherian EBLNs were observed to have been maintained for more than 83.3 million years under negative selection. Splice variants were expressed from the genomic loci of EBLNs in elephant, and some were translated into proteins...
August 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Tomoyuki Honda, Keizo Tomonaga
Vertebrate genomes contain many virus-related sequences derived from both retroviruses and non-retroviral RNA and DNA viruses. Such non-retroviral RNA sequences are possibly produced by reverse-transcription and integration of viral mRNAs of ancient RNA viruses using retrotransposon machineries. We refer to this process as transcript reversion. During an ancient bornavirus infection, transcript reversion may have left bornavirus-related sequences, known as endogenous bornavirus-like nucleoproteins (EBLNs), in the genome...
May 2016: Mobile Genetic Elements
Masayuki Horie, Takumi Akasaka, Sachiko Matsuda, Haruko Ogawa, Kunitoshi Imai
Bats of the genus Eptesicus have several non-retroviral RNA virus-derived sequences in their genomes, among which an endogenous bornavirus-like L element, named eEBLL-1, was suggested to encode functional proteins in the hosts. However, the function of eEBLL-1 remains unclear due to a lack of appropriate investigation tools, such as cultured cells expressing eEBLL-1. Here, we established a continuous cell line, named HAMOI-EnK cells, from kidney of Eptesicus nilssonii. HAMOI-EnK cells are robust and could be passaged for at least 10 months...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Antje Reuter, Masayuki Horie, Dirk Höper, Annette Ohnemus, Andreas Narr, Monika Rinder, Martin Beer, Peter Staeheli, Dennis Rubbenstroth
Avian bornaviruses are the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a widely distributed and often fatal disease in captive psittacines. Because neither specific prevention measures nor therapies against PDD and bornavirus infections are currently available, new antiviral strategies are required to improve animal health. We show here that the nucleoside analogue ribavirin inhibited bornavirus activity in a polymerase reconstitution assay and reduced viral load in avian cell lines infected with two different parrot bornaviruses...
September 2016: Journal of General Virology
Ian Tizard, Judith Ball, George Stoica, Susan Payne
Natural bornavirus infections and their resulting diseases are largely restricted to horses and sheep in Central Europe. The disease also occurs naturally in cats, and can be induced experimentally in laboratory rodents and numerous other mammals. Borna disease virus-1 (BoDV-1), the cause of most cases of mammalian Borna disease, is a negative-stranded RNA virus that replicates within the nucleus of target cells. It causes severe, often lethal, encephalitis in susceptible species. Recent events, especially the discovery of numerous new species of bornaviruses in birds and a report of an acute, lethal bornaviral encephalitis in humans, apparently acquired from squirrels, have revived interest in this remarkable family of viruses...
May 23, 2016: Animal Health Research Reviews
Masayuki Horie, Yuki Kobayashi, Tomoyuki Honda, Kan Fujino, Takumi Akasaka, Claudia Kohl, Gudrun Wibbelt, Kristin Mühldorfer, Andreas Kurth, Marcel A Müller, Victor M Corman, Nadine Gillich, Yoshiyuki Suzuki, Martin Schwemmle, Keizo Tomonaga
Endogenous bornavirus-like L (EBLL) elements are inheritable sequences derived from ancient bornavirus L genes that encode a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) in many eukaryotic genomes. Here, we demonstrate that bats of the genus Eptesicus have preserved for more than 11.8 million years an EBLL element named eEBLL-1, which has an intact open reading frame of 1,718 codons. The eEBLL-1 coding sequence revealed that functional motifs essential for mononegaviral RdRp activity are well conserved in the EBLL-1 genes...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ryo Komorizono, Akiko Makino, Masayuki Horie, Tomoyuki Honda, Keizo Tomonaga
In this study, the genome sequence of a new parrot bornavirus-5 (PaBV-5) detected in Eclectus roratus was determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genus Bornavirus is divided into three major clades and that PaBV-5 belongs to clade 2, which contains avian viruses that exhibit infectivity to mammalian cells. Sequence comparisons of the regions known to interact with host factors indicated that the clade 2 avian viruses possess sequences intermediate between the clade 1 mammalian viruses and the clade 3 avian viruses, suggesting that the identified regions might contribute to the differences in virological properties between the three clades...
June 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Anne K Piepenbring, Dirk Enderlein, Sibylle Herzog, Basim Al-Ibadi, Ursula Heffels-Redmann, Julia Heckmann, Hildburg Lange-Herbst, Christiane Herden, Michael Lierz
Psittaciform 1 bornavirus (PaBV) has already been shown to be the aetiologic agent of proventricular dilatation disease, a significant disease of birds. However, the pathogenesis of PaBV infection has not yet been resolved and valid data regarding the pathogenicity of different PaBV species are lacking. Thus, the present study was aimed to characterize the influence of two different PaBV species on the course of disease. Eighteen cockatiels were inoculated intracerebrally (i.c.) or intravenously (i.v.) with a PaBV-2 isolate under the same conditions as in a previous study using PaBV-4...
2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Peng He, Lin Sun, Dan Zhu, Hong Zhang, Liang Zhang, Yujie Guo, Siwen Liu, Jingjing Zhou, Xiaoyan Xu, Peng Xie
Endogenous bornavirus-like nucleoprotein elements (EBLNs) have been discovered in the genomes of various animals including humans, whose functions have been seldom studied. To explore the biological functions of human EBLNs, we constructed a lentiviral vector expressing a short-hairpin RNA against human EBLN1, which successfully inhibited EBLN1 expression by above 80% in infected human oligodendroglia cells (OL cells). We found that EBLN1 silencing suppressed cell proliferation, induced G2/M phase arrest, and promoted apoptosis in OL cells...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Anders F Thomsen, Jesper B Nielsen, Charlotte K Hjulsager, Mariann Chriél, Dale A Smith, Mads F Bertelsen
To investigate aquatic bird bornavirus 1 in Europe, we examined 333 brains from hunter-killed geese in Denmark in 2014. Seven samples were positive by reverse transcription PCR and were 98.2%-99.8% identical; they were also 97.4%-98.1% identical to reference strains of aquatic bird bornavirus 1 from geese in North America.
December 2015: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jie Cui, Lin-Fa Wang
Bats globally harbor viruses in order Mononegavirales, such as lyssaviruses and henipaviruses; however, little is known about their relationships with bornaviruses. Previous studies showed that viral fossils of bornaviral origin are embedded in the genomes of several mammalian species such as primates, indicative of an ancient origin of exogenous bornaviruses. In this study, we mined the available 10 bat genomes and recreated a clear evolutionary relationship of endogenous bornaviral elements and bats. Comparative genomics showed that endogenization of bornaviral elements frequently occurred in vesper bats, harboring EBLLs (endogenous bornavirus-like L elements) in their genomes...
November 2015: Viruses
Jianhua Guo, Ian Tizard
Although several new avian bornaviruses have recently been described, information on their evolution, virulence, and sequence are often limited. Here we report the complete genome sequence of parrot bornavirus 5 (PaBV-5) isolated from a case of proventricular dilatation disease in a Palm cockatoo (Probosciger aterrimus). The complete genome consists of 8842 nucleotides with distinct 5' and 3' end sequences. This virus shares nucleotide sequence identities of 69-74 % with other bornaviruses in the genomic regions excluding the 5' and 3' terminal sequences...
December 2015: Virus Genes
Masayuki Horie, Yukiko Sassa, Haruko Iki, Kazumasa Ebisawa, Hideto Fukushi, Tokuma Yanai, Keizo Tomonaga
Avian bornaviruses (ABVs) were recently discovered as the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). Although molecular epidemiological studies revealed that ABVs exist in Japan, no Japanese isolate has been reported thus far. In this study, we isolated four strains of Psittaciform 1 bornavirus from psittacine birds affected by PDD using QT6 quail cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report to isolate ABVs in Japan and to show that QT6 cells are available for ABV isolation. These isolates and QT6 cells would be powerful tools for elucidating the fundamental biology and pathogenicity of ABVs...
February 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Kozue Sofuku, Nicholas F Parrish, Tomoyuki Honda, Keizo Tomonaga
Endogenous bornavirus-like nucleoprotein elements (EBLNs) are DNA sequences in vertebrate genomes formed by the retrotransposon-mediated integration of ancient bornavirus sequence. Thus, EBLNs evidence a mechanism of retrotransposon-mediated RNA-to-DNA information flow from environment to animals. Although EBLNs are non-transposable, they share some features with retrotransposons. Here, to test whether hosts control the expression of EBLNs similarly to retrotransposons, we profiled the transcription of all Homo sapiens EBLNs (hsEBLN-1 to hsEBLN-7)...
September 8, 2015: Cell Reports
Yukiko Sassa, Vuong Nghia Bui, Keisuke Saitoh, Yukiko Watanabe, Satoshi Koyama, Daiji Endoh, Masayuki Horie, Keizo Tomonaga, Tetsuya Furuya, Makoto Nagai, Tsutomu Omatsu, Kunitoshi Imai, Haruko Ogawa, Tetsuya Mizutani
Bornaviruses (family Bornaviridae) are non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Avian bornaviruses (ABVs), which are causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease, are a genetically diverse group with at least 15 genotypes, including parrot bornaviruses (PaBVs) and aquatic bird bornavirus 1(ABBV-1). Borna disease virus 1(BoDV-1), which infects mammals and causes neurological diseases, has also been reported to infect avian species, although the numbers of the cases have been markedly fewer than those of ABVs...
October 2015: Virus Genes
Nicholas F Parrish, Kan Fujino, Yusuke Shiromoto, Yuka W Iwasaki, Hongseok Ha, Jinchuan Xing, Akiko Makino, Satomi Kuramochi-Miyagawa, Toru Nakano, Haruhiko Siomi, Tomoyuki Honda, Keizo Tomonaga
Endogenous bornavirus-like nucleoprotein elements (EBLNs) are sequences within vertebrate genomes derived from reverse transcription and integration of ancient bornaviral nucleoprotein mRNA via the host retrotransposon machinery. While species with EBLNs appear relatively resistant to bornaviral disease, the nature of this association is unclear. We hypothesized that EBLNs could give rise to antiviral interfering RNA in the form of PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), a class of small RNA known to silence transposons but not exogenous viruses...
October 2015: RNA
Szilvia Marton, Krisztián Bányai, János Gál, Katalin Ihász, Renáta Kugler, György Lengyel, Ferenc Jakab, Tamás Bakonyi, Szilvia L Farkas
In this study, we determined the sequence of the coding region of an avian bornavirus detected in a blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna) with pathological/histopathological changes characteristic of proventricular dilatation disease. The genomic organization of the macaw bornavirus is similar to that of other bornaviruses, and its nucleotide sequence is nearly identical to the available partial parrot bornavirus 5 (PaBV-5) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains formed a monophyletic group distinct from other mammalian and avian bornaviruses and in calculations performed with matrix protein coding sequences, the PaBV-5 and PaBV-6 genotypes formed a common cluster, suggesting that according to the recently accepted classification system for bornaviruses, these two genotypes may belong to a new species, provisionally named Psittaciform 2 bornavirus...
November 2015: Archives of Virology
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