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Drug disposal

Priya Sahadeo, Robert J Weber
On March 28, 2014, The United States Pharmacopeia and The National Formulary (USP-NF) published USP General Chapter <800> Hazardous Drugs-Handling in Healthcare Settings, as open for public comment in the USP Pharmacopeial Forum (PF) 40(3). Pharmacy directors must be proactive in understanding the impact that USP <800> will have on their processes for preparing sterile products. USP General Chapter <797> pertains to the compounding of both hazardous and nonhazardous drugs. USP <800> serves as a new standard to guide the handling of hazardous drugs in order to protect patients, health care personnel, and the environment...
November 2015: Hospital Pharmacy
Ehud J Schmidt, Ronald D Watkins, Menekhem M Zviman, Michael A Guttman, Wei Wang, Henry A Halperin
BACKGROUND: Subjects undergoing cardiac arrest within a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner are currently removed from the bore and then from the MRI suite, before the delivery of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation, potentially increasing the risk of mortality. This precludes many higher-risk (acute ischemic and acute stroke) patients from undergoing MRI and MRI-guided intervention. An MRI-conditional cardiac defibrillator should enable scanning with defibrillation pads attached and the generator ON, enabling application of defibrillation within the seconds of MRI after a cardiac event...
October 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Benjamin Youenou, Edmond Hien, Amélie Deredjian, Elisabeth Brothier, Sabine Favre-Bonté, Sylvie Nazaret
This study examined the long-term effects of the landfill disposal of untreated urban waste for soil fertilization on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profiles of various human opportunistic pathogens in soils from Burkina Faso. Samples were collected at three sites in the periphery of Ouagadougou during two campaigns in 2008 and 2011. At each site, amendment led to changes in physico-chemical characteristics as shown by the increase in pH, CEC, total C, total N, and metal contents. Similarly, the numbers of total heterotrophic bacteria were higher in the amended fields than in the control ones...
September 30, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Harald Pohlmeier, Lori Berard, Claire Brulle-Wohlhueter, Junlong Wu, Raphael Dahmen, Irene Nowotny, David Klonoff
BACKGROUND: Insulin glargine 300 U/mL (Gla-300) contains the same active ingredient as glargine 100 U/mL (Gla-100), and provides the same number of units in one-third of the volume. The SoloSTAR(®) injector pen has been modified to ensure accurate administration of this reduced volume and to improve user experience. METHODS: Insulin- and pen-naïve adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) inadequately controlled with oral antihyperglycemic drugs, who had glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of 7...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Brandon C Maughan, Elliot V Hersh, Frances S Shofer, Kathryn J Wanner, Elizabeth Archer, Lee R Carrasco, Karin V Rhodes
BACKGROUND: Individuals who abuse prescription opioids often use leftover pills that were prescribed for friends or family members. Dental surgery has been identified as a common source of opioid prescriptions. We measured rates of used and unused opioids after dental surgery for a pilot program to promote safe drug disposal. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of opioid use patterns among patients undergoing surgical tooth extraction at a university-affiliated oral surgery practice...
September 16, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Peter Mertens
Remarkable progress has been achieved in the field of diabetes with the development of incretin analogues, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors and novel insulin analogues; nevertheless, there is an unmet need for additional therapeutic options. The new generation of drugs, denoted gliflozines, that specifically interfere with sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLT)-2 and exhibit a favourable impact on glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes are emerging as hopeful avenues. The resultant negative energy balance caused by glucosuria results in long-term weight losses, significantly reduced HbA1c levels approximating 0...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Moritz Beck-Broichsitter
Colloidal drug carriers could improve the therapy of numerous airway diseases. However, it remains unclear to what extent nanoscale particulate matter affects the biophysical function of the essential surface-active lining layer of the lungs, especially under predisposed conditions of airway diseases. Accordingly, the current study investigated the impact of defined polymer nanoparticles on impaired lung surfactants. Admixtures of plasma proteins (albumin and fibrinogen) to Curosurf led to a controllable decrease in surface activity (i...
October 11, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Kate S Collison, Angela Inglis, Sherin Shibin, Bernard Andres, Rosario Ubungen, Jennifer Thiam, Princess Mata, Futwan A Al-Mohanna
: We have previously showed that lifetime exposure to aspartame, commencing in utero via the mother's diet, may impair insulin tolerance and cause behavioral deficits in adulthood via mechanisms which are incompletely understood. The role of the CNS in regulating glucose homeostasis has been highlighted by recent delineation of the gut-brain axis, in which N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors (NMDARs) are important in maintaining glucose homeostasis, in addition to regulating certain aspects of behavior...
September 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Filiz Kuralay, Selma Tunç, Ferhat Bozduman, Lutfi Oksuz, Aysegul Uygun Oksuz
In the present work, preparation of titanium dioxide coated graphene (TiO2/graphene) and the use of this nanocomposite modified electrode for electrochemical biosensing applications were detailed. The nanocomposite was prepared with radio frequency (rf) rotating plasma method which serves homogeneous distribution of TiO2 onto graphene. TiO2/graphene was characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Then, this nanocomposite was dissolved in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7...
November 1, 2016: Talanta
Mattia Altini, Marna Bernabini, Paolo Marchetti, Laura Orlando, Barbara Rebesco, Valeria Sirna
PURPOSE: Medication errors in oncology may cause severe damage to patients, professionals, and the environment. The Italian Ministry of Health issued Raccomandazione 14 to provide guidelines for prevention of errors while using antineoplastic drugs. This work aimed at analyzing Raccomandazione 14 through the different viewpoints of the hospital pharmacist, the nurse, the oncologist, and the hospital director. METHODS: Twenty-seven Italian healthcare organizations participated in a self-assessment survey evaluating compliance with Raccomandazione 14 within the oncology, hematology, and pharmacy departments...
August 29, 2016: Tumori
Christine Vatovec, Patrick Phillips, Emily Van Wagoner, Tia-Marie Scott, Edward Furlong
Pharmaceutical pollution in surface waters poses risks to human and ecosystem health. Wastewater treatment facilities are primary sources of pharmaceutical pollutants, but little is known about the factors that affect drugs entering the wastewater stream. This paper investigates the effects of student pharmaceutical use and disposal behaviors and an annual demographic shift on pharmaceutical pollution in a university town. We sampled wastewater effluent during a ten-day annual spring student move-out period at the University of Vermont...
August 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Eiman H Al Kaabi, Ayman W El-Hattab
The urea cycle is the main pathway for the disposal of excess nitrogen. Carbamoylphosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of urea cycle, is activated by N-acetylglutamate (NAG), and thus N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) is an essential part of the urea cycle. Although NAGS deficiency is the rarest urea cycle disorder, it is the only one that can be specifically and effectively treated by a drug, N-carbamylglutamate, a stable structural analogous of NAG that activates CPS1. Here we report an infant with NAGS deficiency who presented with neonatal hyperammonemia...
September 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
Ratree Sawangjit, Tahir Mehmood Khan, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
AIMS: To critically appraise the evidence for effectiveness of pharmacy-based needle/syringe exchange programs (Pharmacy-based NSPs) on risk behaviors (RBs), HIV/HCV prevalence, and economic outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis SETTING: PRIMARY CARE SETTING: PARTICIPANTS: Of 1,568 studies screened, 14 studies with N = 7035 PWID were included. MEASURES: PubMed, Embase, Web of Sciences, CENTRAL, and Cochrane review databases were searched without language restriction from their inception through January 27, 2016...
August 27, 2016: Addiction
Chris S Ivanoff, Jie Jayne Wu, Hadi Mirzajani, Cheng Cheng, Quan Yuan, Stepan Kevorkyan, Radostina Gaydarova, Desislava Tomlekova
AC electrokinetics (ACEK) has been shown to deliver certain drugs into human teeth more effectively than diffusion. However, using electrical wires to power intraoral ACEK devices poses risks to patients. The study demonstrates a novel interdigitated electrode arrays (IDE) assembly powered by inductive coupling to induce ACEK effects at appropriate frequencies to motivate drugs wirelessly. A signal generator produces the modulating signal, which multiplies with the carrier signal to produce the amplitude modulated (AM) signal...
October 2016: Biomedical Microdevices
Tomi Virtanen, Saana Eskelinen, Eila Sailas, Jaana Suvisaari
Constipation and dyspepsia are disturbing gastrointestinal symptoms that are often ignored in research on physical comorbidities of schizophrenia. The aim was to assess dyspepsia and constipation in a sample of outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum psychoses. A general practitioner performed a thorough physical health check for 275 outpatients and diagnosed constipation and dyspepsia. This study assessed the possible contribution of several sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical variables to constipation and dyspepsia using logistic regression analysis...
August 26, 2016: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
C Lindim, J van Gils, D Georgieva, O Mekenyan, I T Cousins
An emissions inventory for top consumed human pharmaceuticals in Sweden was done based on national consumption data, human metabolic rates and wastewater treatment removal rates. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals in surface waters in Swedish river basins were predicted using estimated emissions from the inventory and river discharges. Our findings indicate that the top ten emitted pharmaceuticals in our study set of 54 substances are all emitted in amounts above 0.5ton/y to both surface waters and soils. The highest emissions to water were in decreasing order for Metformin, Furosemide, Gabapentin, Atenolol and Tramadol...
August 20, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Roland A Snijder, Toine C G Egberts, Peter Lucas, Petra M A Lemmers, Frank van Bel, Annemoon M D E Timmerman
BACKGROUND: Drug administration on the neonatal intensive care unit is often associated with adverse events. This may be due to dosing errors caused by multi-infusion setups. We aim to investigate these dosing errors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: N=3 experiment using a medication schedule, multi-infusion setup (three pumps) and disposables as applied on the NICU. In-line and real-time absorption spectrophotometry was used with dyes as substitutes for pharmaceuticals. Three flow rate changes lasting 1h were initiated...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Sebastian Schuerlein, Thomas Schwarz, Steffan Krziminski, Sabine Gätzner, Anke Hoppensack, Ivo Schwedhelm, Matthias Schweinlin, Heike Walles, Jan Hansmann
Tissue Engineering (TE) bears potential to overcome the persistent shortage of donor organs in transplantation medicine. Additionally, TE products are applied as human test systems in pharmaceutical research to close the gap between animal testing and the administration of drugs to human subjects in clinical trials. However, generating a tissue requires complex culture conditions provided by bioreactors. Currently, the translation of TE technologies into clinical and industrial applications is limited due to a wide range of different tissue-specific, non-disposable bioreactor systems...
August 5, 2016: Biotechnology Journal
Sandra Gehrmann, Heike Bunjes
The possibility to prepare nanoemulsions as drug carrier systems on small scale was investigated with disposable materials. For this purpose premix membrane emulsification (premix ME) as a preparation method for nanoemulsions with narrow particle size distributions on small scale was used. The basic principle of premix ME is that the droplets of a coarse pre-emulsion get disrupted by the extrusion through a porous membrane. In order to implement the common preparation setup for premix ME with disposable materials, the suitability of different syringe filters (made from polyethersulfone, cellulose acetate, cellulose ester and nylon) and different pharmaceutically relevant emulsifiers (phospholipids, polysorbate 80 and sucrose laurate) for the preparation of nanoemulsions was investigated...
September 25, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Zhong Guo, Lindy Murphy, Viktor Stein, Wayne A Johnston, Siro Alcala-Perez, Kirill Alexandrov
Biosensors with direct electron output hold promise for nearly seamless integration with portable electronic devices. However, so far, they have been based on naturally occurring enzymes that significantly limit the spectrum of detectable analytes. Here, we present a novel biosensor architecture based on analyte-driven intermolecular recombination and activity reconstitution of a re-engineered component of glucometers: PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase. We demonstrate that this sensor architecture can be rapidly adopted for the detection of immunosuppressant drugs, α-amylase protein, or protease activity of thrombin and Factor Xa...
August 17, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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