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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604595/emerging-role-of-the-spleen-in-the-pharmacokinetics-of-monoclonal-antibodies-nanoparticles-and-exosomes
#1
REVIEW
Mauro Cataldi, Chiara Vigliotti, Teresa Mosca, MariaRosaria Cammarota, Domenico Capone
After being absorbed, drugs distribute in the body in part to reach target tissues, in part to be disposed in tissues where they do not exert clinically-relevant effects. Therapeutically-relevant effects are usually terminated by drug metabolism and/or elimination. The role that has been traditionally ascribed to the spleen in these fundamental pharmacokinetic processes was definitely marginal. However, due to its high blood flow and to the characteristics of its microcirculation, this organ would be expected to be significantly exposed to large, new generation drugs that can hardly penetrate in other tissues with tight endothelial barriers...
June 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597930/infection-control-guidelines-for-optometrists-2016
#2
Ka-Yee Lian, Genevieve Napper, Fiona J Stapleton, Patricia M Kiely
BACKGROUND: This paper provides an updated version of the paper: Infection control guidelines for optometrists 2007. METHODS: Information from peer-reviewed journal articles, guidelines from professional societies, and government health department and other websites and instructions from equipment manufacturers were considered in determining infection risk factors in optometric practice. They were used to revise the recommendations on disinfection, sterilisation and reprocessing procedures for instrumentation and other equipment used in optometric practice as well as personal infection control measures to be undertaken by staff...
June 9, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584109/dapagliflozin-suppresses-glucagon-signaling-in-rodent-models-of-diabetes
#3
May-Yun Wang, Xinxin Yu, Young Lee, Sara Kay McCorkle, Shiuhwei Chen, Jianping Li, Zhao V Wang, Jaime A Davidson, Philipp E Scherer, William L Holland, Roger H Unger, Michael G Roth
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a class of antidiabetic drug used for the treatment of diabetes. These drugs are thought to lower blood glucose by blocking reabsorption of glucose by SGLT2 in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney. To investigate the effect of inhibiting SGLT2 on pancreatic hormones, we treated perfused pancreata from rats with chemically induced diabetes with dapagliflozin and measured the response of glucagon secretion by alpha cells in response to elevated glucose...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578329/the-athlete-biological-passport-how-to-personalize-anti-doping-testing-across-an-athlete-s-career
#4
Neil Robinson, Pierre-Edouard Sottas, Yorck Olaf Schumacher
For decades, drug testing has been the main instrument at the disposal of anti-doping authorities. The availability in the 1980s of substances identical to those produced by the human body, including the "big 3" (erythropoietin, testosterone, and growth hormone), necessitated a new paradigm in anti-doping. The athlete biological passport (ABP) is a new paradigm, complementary to traditional drug testing, based on the personalized monitoring of doping biomarkers. Athletes who abuse doping substances do so to trigger physiological changes that provide performance enhancement...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551534/tracing-methamphetamine-and-amphetamine-sources-in-wastewater-and-receiving-waters-via-concentration-and-enantiomeric-profiling
#5
Zeqiong Xu, Peng Du, Kaiyang Li, Tingting Gao, Zhenglu Wang, Xiaofang Fu, Xiqing Li
Wastewater analysis is a promising approach to monitor illicit drug abuse of a community. However, drug use estimation via wastewater analysis may be biased by sources other than abuse. This is especially true for methamphetamine and amphetamine as their presence in wastewater may come from many sources, such as direct disposal or excretion following administration of prescription drugs. Here we traced methamphetamine and amphetamine sources via concentration and enantiomeric profiling of the two compounds from black market to receiving waters...
May 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549400/bemfola-%C3%A2-fixed-dose-pens-potentially-reduce-drug-wastage-and-associated-costs-of-infertility-treatment
#6
Graham Foxon, Paul Mitchell, Nikki Turner, Anne McConnell, Helen Kendrew, Julian Jenkins
Bemfola(®) is a recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) used during infertility treatment. One main differentiator between FSH products is their delivery device; consisting of multi-dose pens (Gonal-f(®)), vials or multi-dose preparations (Menopur(®)), or adjustable daily disposable dose pens (Bemfola(®)). To determine the potential impact of delivery device on drug wastage during infertility treatment this study retrospectively analysed Gonal-f(®) and Menopur(®) prescription and usage data from five UK clinics...
May 26, 2017: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536654/recent-advances-in-capsule-based-dry-powder-inhaler-technology
#7
REVIEW
Federico Lavorini, Massimo Pistolesi, Omar S Usmani
Pulmonary drug delivery is currently the focus of accelerated research and development because of the potential to produce maximum therapeutic benefit to patients by directly targeting drug to the site of pathology in the lungs. Among the available delivery options, the dry powder inhaler (DPI) is the preferred device for the treatment of an increasingly diverse range of diseases. However, because drug delivery from a DPI involves a complex interaction between the device and the patient, the engineering development of this medical technology is proving to be a great challenge...
2017: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522221/comparative-efficacy-and-safety-of-different-circumcisions-for-patients-with-redundant-prepuce-or-phimosis-a-network-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Chuiguo Huang, Pan Song, Changbao Xu, Ruofan Wang, Lei Wei, Xinghua Zhao
BACKGROUND: Phimosis and redundant prepuce are defined as the inability of the foreskin to be retracted behind the glans penis in uncircumcised males. To synthesize the evidence and provide the hierarchies of different circumcisions for phimosis and redundant prepuce, we performed an overall network meta-analysis (NMA) based on their comparative efficacy and safety. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Wan Fang, VIP, CNKI and CBM database were researched from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for redundant prepuce or phimosis...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503226/consumer-views-on-safety-of-over-the-counter-drugs-preferred-retailers-and-information-sources-in-sweden-after-re-regulation-of-the-pharmacy-market
#9
Tommy Westerlund, Sahra Barzi, Cecilia Bernsten
BACKGROUND: The availability of over-the-counter drugs (OTCs) has increased in Sweden since a re-regulation of the pharmacy market in 2009, through which non-pharmacy retailers became permitted to provide certain OTCs. OBJECTIVE: To examine the adult general public's views on safety, purchasing and information channels, storage and disposal of OTCs in Sweden, three years after the re-regulation of the pharmacy market. METHODS: A questionnaire study in 2012-13 in a stratified, random sample of all inhabitants in Sweden ≥ 18 years old...
January 2017: Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498785/laparoscopic-adrenalectomy-for-conn-s-syndrome-is-beneficial-to-patients-and-is-cost-effective-in-england
#10
Ioannis Christakis, John A Livesey, Gregory P Sadler, Radu Mihai
PURPOSE: Adrenalectomy has the potential to cure or improve the control of hypertension in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism due to unilateral adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome). This study assesses the patients' perception of, and costs associated with, laparoscopic adrenalectomy for Conn's syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical, radiological, operative, and pathological data were collected on patients undergoing adrenalectomy for Conn's syndrome over 8-years period in a UK tertiary referral center...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494810/education-and-equipment-for-people-who-smoke-crack-cocaine-in-canada-progress-and-limits
#11
Carol Strike, Tara Marie Watson
BACKGROUND: People who smoke crack cocaine experience a wide variety of health-related issues. However, public health programming designed for this population is limited, particularly in comparison with programming for people who inject drugs. Canadian best practice recommendations encourage needle and syringe programs (NSPs) to provide education about safer crack cocaine smoking practices, distribute safer smoking equipment, and provide options for safer disposal of used equipment. METHODS: We conducted an online survey of NSP managers across Canada to estimate the proportions of NSPs that provide education and distribute safer smoking equipment to people who smoke crack cocaine...
May 12, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494423/investigating-sources-of-pharmaceutical-pollution-survey-of-over-the-counter-and-prescription-medication-purchasing-use-and-disposal-practices-among-university-students
#12
Christine Vatovec, Emily Van Wagoner, Corey Evans
Pharmaceutical pollution in surface waters poses a range of risks to public health and aquatic ecosystems. Consumers contribute to pharmaceutical pollution via use and disposal of medications, though data on such behaviors is limited. This paper investigates the purchasing, use, and disposal practices among a population that has been researched only minimally to date, yet will determine pharmaceutical pollution for decades to come: young adults represented by a university student population. We employed an online, 21-question survey to examine behaviors related to pharmaceuticals among students at the University of Vermont (n = 358)...
May 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479760/reprocessing-and-reuse-of-urological-armamentarium-how-correct-are-we
#13
REVIEW
Krutik Vipulbhai Raval, Rajeev Chaudhari, Shahil Rameshbhai Khant, Omkar Joglekar, Dipen Patel
Healthcare is expensive for a large proportion of the population in spite of high per capita income and good health insurance penetration. In an effort to reduce cost of the procedure, reprocessing of devices was started in the late 1970s. Reprocessing practice includes various measures such as proper cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization procedures. As reprocessing is aimed at reducing cost, there is a potential risk of compromising patient safety due to cross contamination after inadequate sterilization...
April 2017: Urology Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476111/single-use-and-conventional-bronchoscopes-for-broncho-alveolar-lavage-bal-in-research-a-comparative-study-nct-02515591
#14
Seher Raza Zaidi, Andrea M Collins, Elena Mitsi, Jesús Reiné, Kayleigh Davies, Angela D Wright, Jessica Owugha, Richard Fitzgerald, Amitava Ganguli, Stephen B Gordon, Daniela Mulari Ferreira, Jamie Rylance
BACKGROUND: Broncho alveolar lavage (BAL) is widely used for investigative research to study innate, cellular and humoral immune responses, and in early phase drug trials. Conventional (multiple use) flexible bronchoscopes have time and monetary costs associated with cleaning, and carries a small risk of cross infection. Single use bronchoscopes may provide an alternative, but have not been evaluated in this context. METHODS: Healthy volunteers underwent bronchoscopy at a day-case clinical research unit using the Ambu® aScope(TM) single-use flexible intubation bronchoscope...
May 5, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475869/glucose-sensing-by-skeletal-myocytes-couples-nutrient-signaling-to-systemic-homeostasis
#15
Zhuo-Xian Meng, Jianke Gong, Zhimin Chen, Jingxia Sun, Yuanyuan Xiao, Lin Wang, Yaqiang Li, Jianfeng Liu, X Z Shawn Xu, Jiandie D Lin
Skeletal muscle is a major site of postprandial glucose disposal. Inadequate insulin action in skeletal myocytes contributes to hyperglycemia in diabetes. Although glucose is known to stimulate insulin secretion by β cells, whether it directly engages nutrient signaling pathways in skeletal muscle to maintain systemic glucose homeostasis remains largely unexplored. Here we identified the Baf60c-Deptor-AKT pathway as a target of muscle glucose sensing that augments insulin action in skeletal myocytes. Genetic activation of this pathway improved postprandial glucose disposal in mice, whereas its muscle-specific ablation impaired insulin action and led to postprandial glucose intolerance...
May 4, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447980/disposable-dosators-for-pulmonary-insufflation-of-therapeutic-agents-to-small-animals
#16
Phillip G Durham, Shumaila N Hanif, Lucia Garcia Contreras, Ellen F Young, Miriam S Braunstein, Anthony J Hickey
Development of new therapeutic products requires efficacy testing in an animal model. The pulmonary route of administration can be utilized to deliver drugs locally and systemically. Evaluation of dry powder aerosols necessitates an efficient dispersion mechanism to maintain high concentrations in an exposure chamber or for direct endotracheal administration. While solutions exist to expose animals by passive inhalation to dry powder aerosols, most require masses of powder in large excess of the dose delivered...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426354/-it-goes-on-everywhere-injection-drug-use-in-canadian-federal-prisons
#17
Emily van der Meulen
BACKGROUND: International and Canadian research on in-prison injection drug use has documented the frequency of its occurrence as well as some of the resulting consequences such as increased prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C virus. Access to prison-based harm reduction programing is thus important. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to learn from former prisoner experiences and insights on in-prison injection drug use in order to advance and improve access to harm reduction options, in particular prison-based needle and syringe programs (PNSPs)...
June 7, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426265/transdermal-iontophoresis-patch-with-reverse-electrodialysis
#18
Joon Lee, Kilsung Kwon, Minyoung Kim, Joonhong Min, Nathaniel S Hwang, Won-Serk Kim
Reverse electrodialysis (RED) technology generates energy from the salinity gradient by contacting waters with different salinity. Herein, we develop the disposable skin patch using this eco-friendly energy. The current density, which can be controlled easily without special circuit, is enough to iontophoretic drug delivery. In vitro study, this iontophoretic system enhanced the transdermal delivery of peptide, which is difficult to penetrate the skin barrier by simple diffusion. We design the disposable iontophoretic skin patch using RED system and suggest this patch can be apply on new cosmetic patch or disposable drug patch...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394190/technology-derived-storage-solutions-for-stabilizing-insulin-in-extreme-weather-conditions-i-the-vivicap-1-device
#19
Andreas Pfützner, Gidi Pesach, Ron Nagar
BACKGROUND: Injectable life-saving drugs should not be exposed to temperatures <4°C/39°F or >30°C/86°F. Frequently, weather conditions exceed these temperature thresholds in many countries. Insulin is to be kept at 4-8°C/~ 39-47°F until use and once opened, is supposed to be stable for up to 31 days at room temperature (exception: 42 days for insulin levemir). Extremely hot or cold external temperature can lead to insulin degradation in a very short time with loss of its glucose-lowering efficacy...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393101/assessment-of-medication-use-among-university-students-in-ethiopia
#20
Dessalegn Asmelashe Gelayee, Gashaw Binega
Background. The extent, nature, and determinants of medication use of individuals can be known from drug utilization studies. Objectives. This study intended to determine medication consumption, sharing, storage, and disposal practices of university students in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 404 university students selected through stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS version 20 statistical software...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
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