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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338746/cost-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-africa-a-systematic-review-of-existing-literature
#1
REVIEW
Chipo Mutyambizi, Milena Pavlova, Lumbwe Chola, Charles Hongoro, Wim Groot
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing recognition that non communicable diseases impose large economic costs on households, societies and nations. However, not much is known about the magnitude of diabetes expenditure in African countries and to the best of our knowledge no systematic assessment of the literature on diabetes costs in Africa has been conducted. The aim of this paper is to capture the evidence on the cost of diabetes in Africa, review the methods used to calculate costs and identify areas for future research...
January 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325708/promising-roles-for-pharmacists-in-addressing-the-u-s-opioid-crisis
#2
Wilson M Compton, Christopher M Jones, Jack B Stein, Eric M Wargo
Overdoses of prescription or illicit opioids claimed the lives of 116 Americans each day in 2016, and the crisis continues to escalate. As healthcare systems evolve to address the crisis, the potential of pharmacists to make a positive difference is significant. In addition to utilizing available prescription drug monitoring programs to help prevent diversion of opioids, practicing pharmacists can be alert for signs of opioid misuse by patients (e.g., multiple prescriptions from different physicians) as well as inappropriate prescribing or hazardous drug combinations that physicians may not be aware of (e...
December 31, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317354/laccase-catalyzed-elimination-of-morphine-from-aqueous-systems
#3
Daniela Huber, Klaus Bleymaier, Alessandro Pellis, Robert Vielnascher, Andreas Daxbacher, Katrin J Greimel, Georg M Guebitz
Pharmaceuticals contaminate the environment for several reasons, including metabolic excretion after intake, industrial waste and improper disposal. The narcotic drug morphine is commonly utilized for chronic pain management, and the distribution of morphine in aqueous systems and in waste waters is of high concern. Here. the removal of morphine by a laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila both in its free form as well as immobilized on Accurel MP1000 beads was investigated. Complete morphine elimination was achieved within 30 min for the free and the immobilized enzyme (70% bound protein) for concentrations between 1 and 1,000 mg L-1 according to LC-TOF mass spectrometry analysis...
January 6, 2018: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310624/adhd-medication-in-offspring-of-immigrants-does-the-income-level-of-the-country-of-parental-origin-matter
#4
Arzu Arat, Viveca Östberg, Bo Burström, Anders Hjern
BACKGROUND: Child psychiatric treatment facilities vary greatly worldwide and are virtually non-existent in many low-income countries. One of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood is ADHD, with an estimated prevalence of 3-5% in Sweden. Previous studies have shown a similar prevalence of ADHD in minority and majority children in Sweden and the UK. However, clinical studies demonstrated that children from immigrant families living in Sweden received less psychiatric care than those of native-born parents...
January 8, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306167/wastewater-based-epidemiology-and-enantiomeric-profiling-for-drugs-of-abuse-in-south-african-wastewaters
#5
E Archer, E Castrignanò, B Kasprzyk-Hordern, G M Wolfaardt
The current study is aimed to introduce a wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) approach for the first time on the African continent where substance abuse data is limited. The study included the quantification of several drugs of abuse (DOA) in raw wastewater samples. Quantification of urinary metabolites as drug target residues (DTR), as well as enantiomeric profiling of chiral DOA was performed to distinguish between consumption and direct disposal into sewage. Monitoring campaigns were undertaken at two South African wastewater treatment works (WWTWs) located within two provinces of the country...
January 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295655/-not-tonight-zebrafish-the-effects-of-ruta-graveolens-on-reproduction
#6
Mohammad Navid Forsatkar, Maryam HedayatiRad, Ana Carolina Luchiari
CONTEXT: There is growing interest in the pharmacological evaluation of Rue due to its potential to treat a variety of clinical diseases. The plant seems to present potent endocrine disrupting effects, and its excretion and disposal are not a concern. OBJECTIVE: The effects of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) ethanol extract (RE) on reproductive behaviour, fertility, and steroid and thyroid hormone levels in zebrafish were investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We exposed subjects to varying concentrations of RE, and one-tenth the LC50 concentration (2...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281185/hepatitis-c-virus-enslavement-of-host-factors
#7
REVIEW
Geetika Sharma, Harsha Raheja, Saumitra Das
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has infected over 170 million people world-wide. This infection causes severe liver damage that can progress to hepatocellular carcinoma leading to death of the infected patients. Development of a cell culture model system for the study of HCV infection in the recent past has helped the researchers world-wide to understand the biology of this virus. Studies over the past decade have revealed the tricks played by the virus to sustain itself, for as long as 40 years, in the host setup without being eliminated by the immune system...
January 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251257/evaluation-of-the-dosing-strategies-of-biologic-agents-and-the-theoretical-impact-of-dose-rounding
#8
Savannah Lindsey, Laura Beth Parsons, Lindsay Rosenbeck Figg, Jill Rhodes
Introduction Monoclonal antibodies possess unique pharmacokinetic properties that permit flexible dosing. Increased use and high costs of these medications have led to the development of cost-containing strategies. This study aims to quantify the cost savings and clinical impact associated with dose rounding monoclonal antibodies to the nearest vial size. Methods This study was a single-arm, retrospective chart review assessing all monoclonal antibody doses dispensed at an outpatient community infusion center associated with an academic medical center between August 2014 and August 2015...
January 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224108/negative-impact-of-testosterone-deficiency-and-5%C3%AE-reductase-inhibitors-therapy-on-metabolic-and-sexual-function-in-men
#9
Abdulmaged M Traish
Androgens are steroid hormones with pleotropic and diverse biochemical and physiological functions, and androgen deficiency exerts a negative impact on human health. Testosterone (T) either directly or via its transformation into the more potent metabolite 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) or via aromatization into estradiol (E2) modulates important biochemical signaling pathways of human physiology and plays a critical role in the growth and/or maintenance of functions in a host of tissues and organs. T and 5α-DHT play an important role in regulating physiology of the muscle, adipose tissue, liver, bone, and central nervous system, as well as reproductive and sexual functions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216482/enantiomeric-profiling-of-chiral-illicit-drugs-in-a-pan-european-study
#10
Erika Castrignanò, Zhugen Yang, Richard Bade, Jose A Baz-Lomba, Sara Castiglioni, Ana Causanilles, Adrian Covaci, Emma Gracia-Lor, Felix Hernandez, Juliet Kinyua, Ann-Kathrin McCall, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Christoph Ort, Benedek G Plósz, Pedram Ramin, Nikolaos I Rousis, Yeonsuk Ryu, Kevin V Thomas, Pim de Voogt, Ettore Zuccato, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern
The aim of this paper is to present the first study on spatial and temporal variation in the enantiomeric profile of chiral drugs in eight European cities. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) and enantioselective analysis were combined to evaluate trends in illicit drug use in the context of their consumption vs direct disposal as well as their synthetic production routes. Spatial variations in amphetamine loads were observed with higher use in Northern European cities. Enantioselective analysis showed a general enrichment of amphetamine with the R-(-)-enantiomer in wastewater indicating its abuse...
December 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215660/-prioritization-of-non-recommended-clinical-activities-in-primary-care
#11
L García Mochon, A Olry de Labry Lima, C Bermudez-Tamayo
OBJECTIVE: To prioritize non-recommended clinical activities in Primary Care (PC), from "Do not do" recommendations listed by the Sociedad Española de Medicina de Familia y Comunitaria (Semfyc), according to expert consensus (physicians, nurses and pharmacists). METHODS: The consensus for the prioritization of non-recommended practices in PC was performed through an online procedure. We used as a base the list of "do not-do" recommendations of the SEMFYC. We asked the experts to prioritize practices that should be de-adopted in PC, based on four prioritization criteria: frequency of occurrence, cost of the activity, ease of disposal and damage caused, which were scored from one to five, according to their recommendation...
December 7, 2017: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208823/zepto-precision-pulse-capsulotomy-a-new-automated-and-disposable-capsulotomy-technology
#12
David F Chang
Despite the appeal of an automated method of creating a perfectly circular anterior capsulotomy, global adoption of femtosecond laser capsulotomy (FSLC) has been limited by its high acquisition and per case cost. In addition, the femtosecond laser's large size and the need for eye docking create surgical efficiency and workflow challenges. The Zepto precision pulse capsulotomy (PPC) technology creates a circular anterior capsulotomy of a precise diameter using a disposable handpiece and tip that are used in the normal surgical sequence...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195780/waterborne-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-transmission-in-a-hematology-unit
#13
Mark I Garvey, Craig W Bradley, Elisabeth Holden
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important nosocomial pathogen that commonly colonizes hospital water supplies, including in taps and sinks. We report the transmission of P. aeruginosa from water to patients in a clinical hematology setting. METHODS: P. aeruginosa from water samples were compared to clinical isolates from hematology ward patients, via molecular typing (pulsed field gel electrophoresis). RESULTS: P. aeruginosa cultured from blood cultures from 3 patients was indistinguishable from water strains, by molecular typing...
November 28, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190268/synthetic-cannabinoid-and-mitragynine-exposure-of-law-enforcement-agents-during-the-raid-of-an-illegal-laboratory-nevada-2014
#14
Loren Tapp, Jessica G Ramsey, Anita Wen, Roy Gerona
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), commonly known by the street name "Spice," are designer drugs of abuse that mimic the psychoactive effects of marijuana. Intentional SC use has resulted in multiple toxicities (1,2), but little is known about occupational SC exposure. After a federal agency's law enforcement personnel in Nevada reported irritability and feeling "high" after raiding illegal SC laboratories and processing seized SCs, a request for a health hazard evaluation was made by the agency to CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 2014 to evaluate agents' occupational SC exposures...
December 1, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187233/identification-of-o-glcnacylated-proteins-in-plasmodium-falciparum
#15
Mattis Kupferschmid, Moyira Osny Aquino-Gil, Hosam Shams-Eldin, Jörg Schmidt, Nao Yamakawa, Frédéric Krzewinski, Ralph T Schwarz, Tony Lefebvre
BACKGROUND: Post-translational modifications (PTMs) constitute a huge group of chemical modifications increasing the complexity of the proteomes of living beings. PTMs have been discussed as potential anti-malarial drug targets due to their involvement in many cell processes. O-GlcNAcylation is a widespread PTM found in different organisms including Plasmodium falciparum. The aim of this study was to identify O-GlcNAcylated proteins of P. falciparum, to learn more about the modification process and to understand its eventual functions in the Apicomplexans...
November 29, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186446/validation-of-the-i-stat%C3%A2-1-analyzer-for-postmortem-vitreous-humor-electrolytes-and-glucose-analysis
#16
Laura R Monzon, Sue Pearring, Caitlin Miller, Jay R Vargas
The analytical value of vitreous humor as a specimen in postmortem forensic toxicology has been known for some time. Numerous medical examiner laboratories outsource the analysis of this important specimen for electrolyte and glucose measurements. This can be both time-consuming and costly. The utility of the i-STAT®1 medical device to measure electrolytes and glucose in whole blood samples has been demonstrated for over two decades in a clinical setting through single-use disposable cartridges that introduce samples to the i-STAT®1...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178690/-cost-evaluation-of-organ-harvesting-in-a-belgian-academic-hospital
#17
S Bardiaux, D Martins, P Leclercq, M Pirson
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is (1) to describe the characteristics of the organ harvesting activity conducted in 2012 at the Erasme's Hospital, Brussels University Hospital, (2) to highlight the different combinations " type of donor/types of organ's retrieved " in relation to organ harvestings carried out within the hospital, and (3) to calculate the organ harvesting's cost of acts. METHODS: The study is conducted according to the hospital perspective. It assesses the consumption of medical and nursing staff resources, disposable material costs, medical device costs, drugs costs, sterile instruments and biomedical equipment costs, of the 34 organ harvesting procedures that has been conducted this year...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154197/investigation-of-the-effect-of-blood-hematocrit-and-lipid-content-on-the-blood-volume-deposited-by-a-disposable-dried-blood-spot-collection-device
#18
N Spooner, A Olatunji, K Webbley
When using dried blood spot (DBS) sampling for the quantitative bioanalysis of circulating concentrations of drugs, metabolites and endogenous analytes, it is important that a fixed volume of blood is deposited to overcome the issues associated with blood hematocrit (HCT) and homogeneity. The volumetric performance of the KTH DBS collection device was tested with radiolabelled [(14)C]-diclofenac. It was demonstrated that the device deposits a fixed volume of blood (13.5μL) regardless of the HCT (25-65%), or lipid content of the blood sample...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142744/-who-has-to-do-it-at-the-end-of-the-day-programme-officials-or-hospital-authorities-airborne-infection-control-at-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-dr-tb-centres-of-karnataka-india-a-mixed-methods-study
#19
Kibballi Madhukeshwar Akshaya, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Ottapura Prabhakaran Aslesh, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Abhay Subashrao Nirgude, Anil Singarajipura, Anil G Jacob
Background: Drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) centers admit patients with DR-TB for initiation of treatment and thereby concentrate the patients under one setting. It becomes imperative to assess the compliance of DR-TB centres to national airborne infection control (AIC) guidelines and explore the provider perspectives into reasons for unsatisfactory compliance. Methods: This mixed methods study (triangulation design) was carried out across all the six DR-TB centers of Karnataka state, India, between November 2016 and April 2017...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138943/contaminants-of-emerging-concern-in-surface-waters-in-barbados-west-indies
#20
Quincy A Edwards, Sergei M Kulikov, Leah D Garner-O'Neale, Chris D Metcalfe, Tamanna Sultana
Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including pharmaceuticals, artificial sweeteners, steroid hormones, and current-use pesticides have been detected in surface waters around the world, but to date, there have been no reports in the peer-reviewed literature on the levels of these classes of contaminants in freshwater resources in the Caribbean region. In the present study, multi-residue solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) were used to analyze grab samples of surface waters collected from five different watersheds in Barbados, West Indies...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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