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Drug disposal

S S Chung, J S Zheng, S R Burket, B W Brooks
Though antibiotic resistance (ABR) represents a major global health threat, contributions of landfill leachate to the life cycle of antibiotics and ABR development are poorly understood in rapidly urbanizing regions of developing countries. We selected one of the largest active landfills in Asia and two landfills that have been closed for 20 years to examine antibiotic occurrences in leachates and associated hazards during wet and dry season sampling events. We focused on some of the most commonly used human antibiotics in Hong Kong, one of the most populous Asian cities and the fourth most densely populated cities in the world...
March 15, 2018: Environment International
Jenna L McCauley, Renata S Leite, Valeria V Gordan, Roger B Fillingim, Gregg H Gilbert, Cyril Meyerowitz, David Cochran, D Brad Rindal, Kathleen T Brady
BACKGROUND: Minimal information exists regarding the consistency and correlates of dentists' implementation of risk mitigation strategies when prescribing opioids, including risk screening, prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) use, and patient education. METHODS: The authors conducted a Web-based, cross-sectional survey among practicing dentist members of The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network. The authors used the survey to assess pain management prescribing practices and risk mitigation implementation...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the American Dental Association
Stephane L Ngahang Kamte, Farahnaz Ranjbarian, Kevin Cianfaglione, Stefania Sut, Stefano Dall'Acqua, Maurizio Bruno, Fariba Heshmati Afshar, Romilde Iannarelli, Giovanni Benelli, Loredana Cappellacci, Anders Hofer, Filippo Maggi, Riccardo Petrelli
The Apiaceae family encompasses aromatic plants of economic importance employed in foodstuffs, beverages, perfumery, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Apiaceae are rich sources of essential oils because of the wealth of secretory structures (ducts and vittae) they are endowed with. The Apiaceae essential oils are available on an industrial level because of the wide cultivation and disposability of the bulky material from which they are extracted as well as their relatively cheap price. In the fight against protozoal infections, essential oils may represent new therapeutic options...
March 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Xin Qian, Hui Wang, Gangyi Yang, Zhengnan Gao, Yong Luo, Aimei Dong, Fang Zhang, Mingtong Xu, Shiping Liu, Xin Yang, Yanyan Chen, Guangwei Li
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the effects of pioglitazone (PIO) on insulin resistance and first phase insulin secretion among obese and lean Chinese people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Sixty-eight drug-naïve patients with T2DM were treated with PIO for 16 weeks. Before and after the treatment, insulin sensitivity was evaluated by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp test. Plasma insulin levels at 0, 3, 5, 7, and 10 min during intravenous glucose tolerance test were determined to calculate the first phase insulin secretion and pancreatic β-cell function...
March 13, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
François-André Allaert, Romain Schueller, Frederic Mabile, Laurette Vincent, Claudia Ferreira
BACKGROUND: ZENEO® (Crossject, Dijon France) is a novel pre-filled, disposable needle-free auto- injector (AI) device under development for drug deliverer in a variety of routine-use or emergency situations. At present, reported user experience and patient preferences are limited. To determine what impact different forms of user instructions may have on successful use of the ZENEO® device. METHODS: We conducted a human factors study on 134 healthy volunteers. On enrolment, subjects were provided with different instructive training material; a device quick guide plus either use of a dummy training device, an illustrated leaflet, or a demonstration video...
March 6, 2018: Panminerva Medica
Haley M Merrill, Daniel M Dean, Jay L Mottla, Steven K Neufeld, Daniel J Cuttica, Matthew M Buchanan
Background Orthopaedic surgeons frequently prescribe pain medications during the postoperative period. The efficacy of these medications at alleviating pain after foot/ankle surgery and the quantity of medication required (and conversely, leftover) are unknown. METHODS: Patients undergoing foot/ankle surgery during a 3-month period who met inclusion criteria were surveyed at their first postoperative visit. Information collected included gender, number of prescribed pills remaining, satisfaction with pain control, and willingness to surrender leftover opioids to a Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) disposal center...
March 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle International
Min Yew Thong, Yady J Manrique, Kathryn J Steadman
This study investigated 24 tablet crushing devices for drug loss using different methods to recover the crushed tablet. 24 devices were compared: 3 with disposable cups, 6 with disposable bags, 12 without separate vessels and 3 types of mortar and pestle. One paracetamol tablet was crushed and recovered by tapping the powder out. Where appropriate, depending on crusher size and manufacturer instructions, the powder was also recovered by mixing with water or food. Paracetamol recovery (quantity that can be delivered to a patient) and leftover (quantity remaining in the device) were measured using a validated UV method and the entire experiment was replicated 3 times...
2018: PloS One
Ellen M Raney, Harold J P van Bosse, Kevin G Shea, Joshua M Abzug, Richard M Schwend
INTRODUCTION: The opioid epidemic in the United States has reached crisis proportions. Urgent response is needed. Hydrocodone in combination with acetaminophen is the most prescribed drug in the United States. The most common source of opioids available for misuse is the unused portions of postoperative prescriptions. Among high school seniors, 80% of those who reported nonmedical use of prescription opioids previously had legitimate prescriptions but recreationally used leftover doses...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Wei Liu, Matyas Molnar, Carolyn Garnham, Heval Benav, Helge Rask-Andersen
The human inner ear, which is segregated by a blood/labyrinth barrier, contains resident macrophages [CD163, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA1)-, and CD68-positive cells] within the connective tissue, neurons, and supporting cells. In the lateral wall of the cochlea, these cells frequently lie close to blood vessels as perivascular macrophages. Macrophages are also shown to be recruited from blood-borne monocytes to damaged and dying hair cells induced by noise, ototoxic drugs, aging, and diphtheria toxin-induced hair cell degeneration...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Roger Jelliffe, David Bayard
The healing professions have only about four main therapeutic tools at their disposal-surgery, drugs, physical therapy, and psychotherapy. For the general profession of internal medicine, drug therapy is its primary tool. Providing an understanding of the state-of-the-art in therapeutic methods, grounded in solid scientific and mathematical rigor, is therefore of the utmost clinical importance for both physicians and clinical pharmacists. This is particularly true where rapidly evolving scientific changes require an up-to-date education upon which students can rely...
February 26, 2018: AAPS Journal
Ngoc Tuan Nguyen
Emulsifiers like polysorbate family, carboxymethyl cellulose are widely used in the preparation of drugs, vaccines, food, cosmetics, and skin care products. In this study, strain SP2 is isolated for the high-efficiency utilization of emulsifier as its sole carbon and energy source. Strain grows on the polysorbate family with generation time ranging from 0.8 to 2.2 h. It is sensitive to ampicillin, gentamicin, imipenem, penicillin, and vancomycin, but resistant to amikacin, cefoxitin, erythromycin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline...
February 24, 2018: Current Microbiology
María L Scala-Benuzzi, Julio Raba, Galo J A A Soler-Illia, Rudolf J Schneider, Germán A Messina
We report a novel and innovative electrochemical paper-based immunocapture assay (EPIA) to address the need for ultrasensitive detection of emerging pollutants without regulatory status and whose effects on environment and human health are not completely yet understood. In particular, we present the application of this system towards highly sensitive detection of the emerging pollutant ethinyl estradiol (EE2). The EPIA approach is based on the use of paper microzones modified with silica nanoparticles (SNs) and anti-EE2 specific antibodies for capture and pre-concentration of EE2 from river water samples...
February 23, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Idio Alves de Sousa Filho, Tatiane Martins Lobo, Cesar Koppe Grisolia, Ingrid Távora Weber, Marly Eiko Osugi
Etoposide is an antineoplastic agent used for treating lung cancer, testicular cancer, breast cancer, pediatric cancers, and lymphomas. It is a pollutant due to its mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. Disposal of waste from this drug is still insufficiently safe, and there is no appropriate waste treatment. Therefore, it is important to use advanced oxidative processes (AOPs) for the treatment and disposal of medicines like this. The use of strontium stannate (SrSnO3 ) as a catalyst in heterogeneous photocatalysis reactions has emerged as an alternative for the removal of organic pollutants...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jianping Qi, Jie Zhuang, Yongjiu Lv, Yi Lu, Wei Wu
The microfold cells (M cells) residing in the outmost follicle-associated epithelia (FAE) of Peyer's patches capture foreign particles and hand over to sub-FAE lymphatics, where the particles are retained and disposed subsequently. A concept of "dome trap" is proposed to highlight the significance of this mechanism. For oral immunization, it is better to exploit the entrapment capacity to maximize immune response, whereas for drug delivery it is better to overcome the dome trap to transport drugs into the systemic circulation...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Swapnil Talkar, Sagar Dhoble, Anuradha Majumdar, Vandana Patravale
Nanoparticles have specific physicochemical properties different to bulk materials of the same composition and such properties make them very attractive for commercial and medical applications. Mucoadhesive nanoparticulate dosage forms are designed to enable prolonged retention of these nanoparticles at the site of application, providing a controlled drug release for improved therapeutic outcome. Moreover, drug delivery across the mucosa bypasses the first-pass hepatic metabolism and avoids the degradation by gastrointestinal enzymes...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
M S Golvardi Yazdi, M Naderizadeh, R Afzalipour, H A Abedi, M Radmehr, R Golvardi Yazdi, Sh Salari Pashaghi
Introduction: Many items are needed for dressing including sterile dressing set, antiseptic and washing solutions, leucoplast tape, waste bin for infectious garbage, waste bin for noninfectious garbage, safe disposal trash for sharp cutting instruments, bedpan and sometimes drugs. All the items are laid out on a simple wheeled trolley. The multiplicity of items together with problems in placing tools on trolley, forgetting some items, disturbing sterile condition, falling and damaging equipment and the need for at least two people for each procedure, all are the reasons to design and develop Automatic Trolley for Washing and Dressing the Wounds...
December 2017: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
Maryam Alehashem, Shadi Baniasadi
BACKGROUND: A great number of antineoplastic drugs (ANPDs) are used globally in cancer treatment. Due to their adverse health effects, occupational exposure to ANPDs is considered a potential health risk to health care workers. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to evaluate safe-handling practices of ANPDs, exposure controls, and adverse health implications for health care providers exposed to ANDPs. METHODS: Prevention measures, including engineering, administrative, and work practice controls, as well as personal protective equipment (PPE), were recorded daily through a questionnaire for six weeks...
2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Ediomo-Ubong Nelson
BACKGROUND: There is abundant literature on the impact of law enforcement on cannabis markets, but scant literature on the effects of law enforcement on cannabis users. This study undertook a qualitative exploration of police crackdowns as a form of structural violence and examined their impact on the well-being of street cannabis users in a Nigerian city. METHODS: The study was qualitative and descriptive. It was carried out in Uyo, southern Nigeria. Ninety-seven (97) frequent cannabis users (78 males and 19 females) took part...
January 29, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Gemechu Ameya, Tsegaye Tsalla, Fasil Getu, Eyob Getu
BACKGROUND: Diarrheal diseases continue to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years. Salmonella and Shigella specious are the major enteric pathogen causing diarrhea among children worldwide. Examination of stool sample is the most sensitive method to diagnose diarrheal disease in children. This study aimed to determining the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and associated factor of Salmonella and Shigella infection among under five children...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Miloš Dvořák, Knut Fredrik Seip, Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard, Pavel Kubáň
Manual handling of microliter volumes of samples and reagents is usually prone to errors and may have direct consequence on the overall performance of microextraction process. Direct connection of a syringe pump and a disposable microextraction unit using flexible polymeric tubing was employed for semi-automated liquid handling in micro-electromembrane extraction (μ-EME). A three-phase μ-EME system was formed by consecutive withdrawal of microliter volumes of donor solution, free liquid membrane (FLM) and acceptor solution into the unit...
April 16, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
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