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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919692/isolation-and-characterization-of-bacteriophages-with-lytic-activity-against-common-bacterial-pathogens
#1
R K Shende, S D Hirpurkar, C Sannat, Nidhi Rawat, Vinay Pandey
AIM: Present investigation was conducted to isolate and characterize bacteriophages with lytic activity against common bacterial pathogens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 samples of animal waste disposal from cattle (42) and buffalo (18) farms were collected from three different strata, i.e., top, mid, and bottom of collection tank. Samples were primarily subjected to rapid detection methods, and then isolation of phage was done by double agar layer method using Bacillus subtilis (BsH) and Escherichia coli (EH) as host system...
August 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911247/metabolic-pathways-and-pharmacokinetics-of-natural-medicines-with-low-permeability
#2
Mei Zeng, Lan Yang, Dan He, Yao Li, Mingxin Shi, Jingqing Zhang
Drug metabolism plays an important role in the drug disposal process. Differences in pharmacokinetics among individuals are the basis for personalized medicine. Natural medicines, formed by long-term evolution of nature, prioritize the action of a target protein with a drug. Natural medicines are valued for structural diversity, low toxicity, low cost, and definite biological activities. Metabolic pathway and pharmacokinetic research of natural medicines is highly beneficial for clinical dose adjustment and the development of personalized medicine...
September 14, 2017: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900329/cytotoxic-drug-dispersal-cytotoxic-safety-and-cytotoxic-waste-management-practices-and-proposed-india-specific-guidelines
#3
REVIEW
Malini R Capoor, Kumar Tapas Bhowmik
This article deals with practices related to cytotoxic drug dispersal, cytotoxic safety, and cytotoxic waste management and attempts at India-specific guidelines for their dispersal and disposal. The articles related to cytotoxic drug dispersal, cytotoxic safety, and cytotoxic waste management were reviewed from PubMed and their applicability in Indian health-care facilities (HCFs) was also reviewed. All HCFs dealing with cytotoxic drugs should consider cytotoxic policy, patient safety and health-care worker safety, and environmental monitoring program as per the available international guidelines customized as per Indian conditions...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838177/the-switch-from-trivalent-to-bivalent-oral-poliovirus-vaccine-in-the-south-east-asia-region
#4
Sunil Bahl, Andreas Hasman, Abu Obeida Eltayeb, Douglas James Noble, Arun Thapa
This analysis describes an innovative and successful approach to risk identification and mitigation in relation to the switch from trivalent to bivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) in the 11 countries of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) South-East Asia Region (SEAR) in April 2016.The strong commitment of governments and immunization professionals to polio eradication and an exemplary partnership between the WHO, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and other partners and stakeholders in the region and globally were significant contributors to the success of the OPV switch in the SEAR...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828882/medication-equipment-and-supply-costs-for-common-interventions-providing-extended-post-surgical-analgesia-following-total-knee-arthroplasty-in-us-hospitals
#5
Shelby Corman, Nishant Shah, Simon Dagenais
AIMS: To estimate the cost to hospitals of materials (i.e. medications, equipment, and supplies) required to administer common interventions for post-surgical analgesia after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), including single-injection peripheral nerve block (sPNB), continuous peripheral nerve block (cPNB), periarticular infiltration of multi-drug cocktails, continuous epidural analgesia, intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA), and local infiltration of bupivacaine liposome injectable suspension (BLIS)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808818/first-in-human-study-of-the-epichaperome-inhibitor-pu-h71-clinical-results-and-metabolic-profile
#6
Giovanna Speranza, Larry Anderson, Alice P Chen, Khanh Do, Michelle Eugeni, Marcie Weil, Larry Rubinstein, Eva Majerova, Jerry Collins, Yvonne Horneffer, Lamin Juwara, Jennifer Zlott, Rachel Bishop, Barbara A Conley, Howard Streicher, Joseph Tomaszewski, James H Doroshow, Shivaani Kummar
Background Molecular chaperone targeting has shown promise as a therapeutic approach in human cancers of various histologies and genetic backgrounds. The purine-scaffold inhibitor PU-H71 (NSC 750424), selective for Hsp90 in epichaperome networks, has demonstrated antitumor activity in multiple preclinical cancer models. The present study was a first in-human trial of PU-H71 aimed at establishing its safety and tolerability and characterizing its pharmacokinetic (PK) profile on a weekly administration schedule in human subjects with solid tumors refractory to standard treatments...
August 12, 2017: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804171/threats-posed-by-stockpiles-of-expired-pharmaceuticals-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-ugandan-perspective
#7
Pakoyo Fadhiru Kamba, Munanura Edson Ireeta, Sulah Balikuna, Bruhan Kaggwa
In some low- and middle-income countries, the national stores and public-sector health facilities contain large stocks of pharmaceuticals that are past their expiry dates. In low-income countries like Uganda, many such stockpiles are the result of donations. If not adequately monitored or regulated, expired pharmaceuticals may be repackaged and sold as counterfeits or be dumped without any thought of the potential environmental damage. The rates of pharmaceutical expiry in the supply chain need to be reduced and the disposal of expired pharmaceuticals needs to be made both timely and safe...
August 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779983/supramolecular-structure-of-glibenclamide-and-%C3%AE-cyclodextrins-complexes
#8
David Lucio, Juan Manuel Irache, María Font, María Cristina Martínez-Ohárriz
Glibenclamide is an antidiabetic drug showing low bioavailability as consequence of its low solubility. To solve this drawback, the interaction with cyclodextrins has been proposed. The formation of GB-βCDs inclusion complexes was carried out using different methods, βCD derivatives and drug-to-cyclodextrin ratios. The structures of the corresponding complexes have been studied by molecular modelling, X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. The dissolution behavior of inclusion complexes has been compared to that of pure GB...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768328/prescription-opioid-analgesics-commonly-unused-after-surgery-a-systematic-review
#9
Mark C Bicket, Jane J Long, Peter J Pronovost, G Caleb Alexander, Christopher L Wu
Importance: Prescription opioid analgesics play an important role in the treatment of postoperative pain; however, unused opioids may be diverted for nonmedical use and contribute to opioid-related injuries and deaths. Objective: To quantify how commonly postoperative prescription opioids are unused, why they remain unused, and what practices are followed regarding their storage and disposal. Evidence Review: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from database inception to October 18, 2016, for studies describing opioid oversupply for adults after a surgical procedure...
August 2, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754611/transdermal-delivery-of-gentamicin-using-dissolving-microneedle-arrays-for-potential-treatment-of-neonatal-sepsis
#10
Patricia González-Vázquez, Eneko Larrañeta, Maelíosa T C McCrudden, Courtney Jarrahian, Annie Rein-Weston, Manjari Quintanar-Solares, Darin Zehrung, Helen McCarthy, Aaron J Courtenay, Ryan F Donnelly
Neonatal infections are a leading cause of childhood mortality in low-resource settings. World Health Organization guidelines for outpatient treatment of possible serious bacterial infection (PSBI) in neonates and young infants when referral for hospital treatment is not feasible include intramuscular gentamicin (GEN) and oral amoxicillin. GEN is supplied as an aqueous solution of gentamicin sulphate in vials or ampoules and requires health care workers to be trained in dose calculation or selection of an appropriate dose based on the patient's weight band and to have access to safe injection supplies and appropriate sharps disposal...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741429/rapid-systemic-delivery-of-zolmitriptan-using-an-adhesive-dermally-applied-microarray
#11
Donald J Kellerman, Mahmoud Ameri, Stewart J Tepper
Adhesive Dermally-Applied Microarray (ADAM) is a device for intracutaneous drug administration consisting of a 3 cm(2) disposable array of drug-coated titanium microprojections on an adhesive backing. It is applied using a low cost, reusable, handheld applicator. Microprojections penetrate the stratum corneum, delivering drug proximal to capillaries with limited likelihood of pain. The pharmacokinetics of zolmitriptan delivery using ADAM was evaluated in 20 healthy volunteers. Median tmax was <20 min, comparable to subcutaneous sumatriptan...
July 25, 2017: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737994/impact-of-a-patient-support-program-on-patient-adherence-to-adalimumab-and-direct-medical-costs-in-crohn-s-disease-ulcerative-colitis-rheumatoid-arthritis-psoriasis-psoriatic-arthritis-and-ankylosing-spondylitis
#12
David T Rubin, Manish Mittal, Matthew Davis, Scott Johnson, Jingdong Chao, Martha Skup
BACKGROUND: AbbVie provides a free-to-patient patient support program (PSP) to assist adalimumab-treated patients with medication costs, nurse support, injection training, pen disposal, and medication reminders. The impact of these services on patient adherence to adalimumab and direct medical costs associated with autoimmune disease has not been assessed. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the relationship between participation in a PSP and outcomes (adalimumab adherence, persistence, and direct medical costs) in patients initiating adalimumab treatment...
August 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726640/c1q-tnf-related-protein-6-ctrp6-links-obesity-to-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#13
Xia Lei, Marcus M Seldin, Hannah C Little, Nicholas Choy, Thomas Klonisch, G William Wong
Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, and metabolic regulators linking obesity to inflammation have therefore received much attention. Secreted C1q/TNF-related proteins (CTRPs) are one such group of regulators that regulate glucose and fat metabolism in peripheral tissues and modulate inflammation in adipose tissue. We have previously shown that expression of CTRP6 is up-regulated in leptin-deficient mice and, conversely, down-regulated by the anti-diabetic drug rosiglitazone. Here, we provide evidence for a novel role of CTRP6 in modulating both inflammation and insulin sensitivity...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724243/extensively-and-multi-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-recovered-from-technosol-at-a-dump-site-in-croatia
#14
Jasna Hrenovic, Goran Durn, Martina Seruga Music, Svjetlana Dekic, Tamara Troskot-Corbic, Dijana Skoric
In a karst pit above City of Rijeka in Croatia the hazardous industrial waste was continuously disposed from 1955 to 1990, and later it was periodically used as an illegal dump site. The surface part of a technosol at the edge of dump was analysed mineralogically, geochemically and bacteriologically. From the technosol rich in petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals three isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii were recovered. Isolates from technosol shared many features that are previously described for clinically isolates: the affiliation to IC1 and 2, multi-drug resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant (XDR) antibiotic resistance profile, carbapenem resistance mediated by blaOXA72 and blaOXA23 genes, and the expression of virulence factors...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719840/environmental-and-human-health-challenges-of-industrial-livestock-and-poultry-farming-in-china-and-their-mitigation
#15
REVIEW
Yuanan Hu, Hefa Cheng, Shu Tao
Driven by the growing demand for food products of animal origin, industrial livestock and poultry production has become increasingly popular and is on the track of becoming an important source of environmental pollution in China. Although concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have higher production efficiency and profitability with less resource consumption compared to the traditional family-based and "free range" farming, they bring significant environmental pollution concerns and pose public health risks...
July 15, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719176/investigation-on-the-electrocatalytic-determination-and-photocatalytic-degradation-of-neurotoxicity-drug-clioquinol-by-sn-moo4-2-nanoplates
#16
Raj Karthik, Jeyaraj Vinoth Kumar, Shen-Ming Chen, Kumar Seerangan, Chelladurai Karuppiah, Tse-Wei Chen, Velluchamy Muthuraj
Transition-metal molybdates have concerned enormous curiosity as supercapacitors, photocatalysts, and electrocatalysts. These materials are the best alternatives to noble-metal-based catalysts, which are generally show a limited photocatalytic and electrocatalytic activity. In addition, the antiprotozoal drug can usually pollute the environment through improper disposable and incomplete metabolism, and it is very dangerous to humans as well as aquatic animals. Therefore, here, we have studied the electrochemical determination and photodegradation of neurotoxicity clioquinol (CQL) by nanoplate-like tin molybdate (Sn(MoO4)2, denoted as SnM), which is used as both an electro- and a photocatalyst...
August 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718353/a-multiyear-assessment-of-public-response-to-a-statewide-drug-take-back-and-disposal-campaign-2010-to-2012
#17
Itzhak Yanovitzky
This study is the first to analyze public response to a drug take-back program, the American Medicine Chest Challenge, in a single state over a period of 3 years (2010-2012). The study utilized a three-wave repeated cross-sectional design and an annual phone survey conducted with a representative sample of adults ( N = 906 in 2010, N = 907 in 2011, and N = 906 in 2012), which assessed exposure to the campaign, drug disposal behaviors, possible mediators of campaign effects (risk appraisal, personal agency, normative influence, and interpersonal talk), and potential confounders...
August 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717881/a-retrospective-comparison-of-inhaled-milrinone-and-iloprost-in-post-bypass-pulmonary-hypertension
#18
Kassiani Theodoraki, Apostolos Thanopoulos, Panagiota Rellia, Evangelos Leontiadis, Dimitrios Zarkalis, Konstantinos Perreas, Theophani Antoniou
During cardiac operations, weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may prove challenging as a result of superimposed acute right ventricular dysfunction in the setting of elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the effect of inhaled milrinone versus inhaled iloprost in patients with persistent pulmonary hypertension following discontinuation of CPB. Eighteen patients with elevated PVR post-bypass were administered inhaled milrinone at a cumulative dose of 50 μg kg(-1)...
July 17, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690682/autologous-bone-marrow-derived-mononuclear-cells-transplantation-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-effect-on-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-insulin-sensitivity
#19
Shobhit Bhansali, Pinaki Dutta, Mukesh Kumar Yadav, Ashish Jain, Sunder Mudaliar, Meredith Hawkins, Anura V Kurpad, Deepak Pahwa, Ashok Kumar Yadav, Ratti Ram Sharma, Vivekanand Jha, Neelam Marwaha, Shipra Bhansali, Anil Bhansali
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance and insulin deficiency are the cardinal defects in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite the plethora of anti-diabetic medications, drugs specifically targeting the β-cells are still desired. Stem cell therapy has emerged as a novel therapeutics strategy to target β-cells; however, their mechanism of action has not been well defined. This study aims to examine the efficacy and safety of autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (ABM-MNCs) transplantation in T2DM, and explores the mechanistic insights into stem cells action through metabolic studies...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685696/an-in-vivo-rat-d-glucose-stable-isotope-homeostasis-drug-discovery-screen-a-targeted-metabolomics-approach
#20
G Caldwell, Wensheng Lang
We have developed a targeted metabolomics screen which consists of using two isotopically labeled glucose compounds to conduct a dual oral glucose tolerance test in rats. This dual isotopic oral glucose tolerance test (DIS-OGTT) can be used to select drug candidates that have "on"-target or have "off"-target effects on oral glucose absorption, hepatic glucose production or glucose disposal. The DIS-OGTT assay utilized intravenously administered [6-13C1-6, 6'-2H2]-glucose and orally administered [U-13C6] glucose to monitor glucose homeostasis...
July 7, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
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