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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905652/-conflicts-of-interest-in-nephrology
#1
Sofía P Salas, Antonio Vukusich, María Isabel Catoni, Andrés Valdivieso, Emilio Roessler
Since doctors disposed of effective tools to serve their patients, they had to worry about the proper management of available resources and how to deal with the relationship with the industry that provides such resources. In this relation-ship, health professionals may be involved in conflicts of interest that they need to acknowledge and learn how to handle. This article discusses the conflicts of interest in nephrology. Its objectives are to identify those areas where such conflicts could occur; to help to solve them, always considering the best interest of patients; and to help health workers to keep in mind that they have to preserve their autonomy and professional integrity...
August 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896497/the-slippery-difficulty-of-ever-containing-drug-resistance-with-current-practices
#2
REVIEW
R Fullybright
It has previously been shown that the rate of drug resistance emergence in medicine is exponential, while we have been producing drugs at a much lower rate. Our ability to successfully contain resistance at any one time is function of how many drugs we have at our disposal to counter new resistances from pathogens. Here, we assess our level of preparedness through a mathematical comparison of the drug manufacture rate by the pharmaceutical industry with the resistance emergence rate in pathogens. To that effect, changes in the rates of growth of the drugs production and resistance emergence processes are computed over multiple time segments and compared...
November 28, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894838/direct-and-indirect-costs-for-adverse-drug-events-identified-in-medical-records-across-care-levels-and-their-distribution-among-payers
#3
Jennie Natanaelsson, Katja M Hakkarainen, Staffan Hägg, Karolina Andersson Sundell, Max Petzold, Clas Rehnberg, Anna K Jönsson, Hanna Gyllensten
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug events (ADEs) cause considerable costs in hospitals. However, little is known about costs caused by ADEs outside hospitals, effects on productivity, and how the costs are distributed among payers. OBJECTIVE: To describe the direct and indirect costs caused by ADEs, and their distribution among payers. Furthermore, to describe the distribution of patient out-of-pocket costs and lost productivity caused by ADEs according to socio-economic characteristics...
November 19, 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885205/clinical-efficacy-of-sublingual-immunotherapy-in-the-second-treated-year-for-133-patients-with-japanese-cedar-pollinosis-in-2016
#4
Atsushi Yuta, Yukiko Ogawa, Yusuke Suzuki, Masahiko Arikata, Hideaki Kozaki, Takeshi Shimizu, Nobuo Ohta
: It past 2 years in 2016 after the first purchase of the drug for sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for Japanese Cedar pollinosis (JCP). PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to clear the clinical efficacy of SLIT in the second treated year by comparing with other therapies, such as subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT), or other pharmacotherapy. METHODS: We started SLIT at our clinic in October-December, 2014. We compared the clinical efficacy in 2016, of 133 SLIT with 46 SCIT, 351 primary pharmacotherapy that started therapies before pollen dispersal, 221 pharmacotherapy that started therapies after pollen disposal, or 337 non-treatment...
2016: Arerugī, [Allergy]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867893/forum-for-injection-technique-2-0-addendum-1-insulin-use-in-indoor-settings
#5
Sanjay Kalra, Hemraj B Chandalia, Manoj Chawla, Nita Munshi, Aruna Poojary, Ami Varaiya, Prajakta Hindlekar, Mugdha Lad, Valsa Thomas, Neha Karle, A G Unnikrishnan
Insulin is a frequently used drug in the indoor setting. Comprehensive recommendations for best practice in insulin injection technique have been published by the forum for injection technique (FIT), India. This addendum focuses on insulin use in indoor settings, and complements the FIT 2.0 recommendations. It discusses insulin use and disposal in critical care and noncritical care settings. It also highlights the need to ensure continuing nursing and medical education, and frame insulin policies for such use...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860485/an-update-on-the-use-of-benzoate-phenylacetate-and-phenylbutyrate-ammonia-scavengers-for-interrogating-and-modifying-liver-nitrogen-metabolism-and-its-implications-in-urea-cycle-disorders-and-liver-disease
#6
Javier de Las Heras, Luis Aldámiz-Echevarría, María-Luz Martínez-Chantar, Teresa C Delgado
Ammonia-scavenging drugs, benzoate and phenylacetate (PA)/phenylbutyrate (PB), modulate hepatic nitrogen metabolism mainly by providing alternative pathways for nitrogen disposal. Areas Covered: We review the major findings and potential novel applications of ammonia-scavenging drugs, focusing on urea cycle disorders and liver disease. Expert Opinion: For over 40 years, ammonia-scavenging drugs have been used in the treatment of urea cycle disorders. Recently, the use of these compounds has been advocated in acute liver failure and cirrhosis for reducing hyperammonemic-induced hepatic encephalopathy...
November 18, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847690/release-of-moxifloxacin-from-contact-lenses-using-an-in-vitro-eye-model-impact-of-artificial-tear-fluid-composition-and-mechanical-rubbing
#7
Chau-Minh Phan, Magdalena Bajgrowicz-Cieslak, Lakshman N Subbaraman, Lyndon Jones
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the release of moxifloxacin from a variety of daily disposable (DD) contact lenses (CLs) under various conditions using a novel in vitro eye model. METHODS: Four commercially available DD conventional hydrogel (CH) CLs (nelfilcon A, omafilcon A, etafilcon A, and ocufilcon B) and three silicone hydrogel (SH) CLs (somofilcon A, narafilcon A, and delefilcon A) were evaluated. These lenses were incubated in moxifloxacin for 24 hours...
November 2016: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827989/activated-carbon-based-system-for-the-disposal-of-psychoactive-medications
#8
Yang Song, Mahima Manian, William Fowler, Andrew Korey, Ajay Kumar Banga
The misuse and improper disposal of psychoactive medications is a major safety and environmental concern. Hence, the proper disposal of these medications is critically important. A drug deactivation system which contains activated carbon offers a unique disposal method. In the present study, deactivation efficiency of this system was tested by using three model psychoactive drugs. HPLC validation was performed for each drug to ensure that the analytical method employed was suitable for its intended use. The method was found to be specific, accurate and precise for analyzing the drugs...
November 7, 2016: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819720/male-idiopathic-infertility-and-the-tp53-polymorphism-in-codon-72
#9
M P de Morais, R F Curado, K S F E Silva, K K V O Moura, J T Arruda
Many environmental agents affect the development of male germ cells at different stages. Apoptosis is common during normal spermatogenesis; it plays an important role in controlling the number of germ cells and the disposal of defective stem cells to produce functional sperm. The presence of p53 in primary spermatocytes suggests that it plays a role in the prophase of meiosis. p53 is expressed in the testis in both spermatocytes and spermatogonia. This suggests that the p53 gene (TP53) is important for apoptosis regulation during spermatogenesis, and may be associated with male infertility...
November 3, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807697/the-role-and-future-of-ffa1-as-a-therapeutic-target
#10
Julien Ghislain, Vincent Poitout
Of the 415 million people suffering from diabetes worldwide, 90% have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia and occurs in obese individuals as a result of insulin resistance and inadequate insulin levels. Accordingly, diabetes drugs are tailored to enhance glucose disposal or target the pancreatic islet β cell to increase insulin secretion. The majority of the present-day insulin secretagogues, however, increase the risk of iatrogenic hypoglycemia, and hence alternatives are actively sought...
November 3, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798721/tools-techniques-organisation-and-culture-of-the-cadd-group-at-sygnature-discovery
#11
Steve A St-Gallay, Colin P Sambrook-Smith
Computer-aided drug design encompasses a wide variety of tools and techniques, and can be implemented with a range of organisational structures and focus in different organisations. Here we outline the computational chemistry skills within Sygnature Discovery, along with the software and hardware at our disposal, and briefly discuss the methods that are not employed and why. The goal of the group is to provide support for design and analysis in order to improve the quality of compounds synthesised and reduce the timelines of drug discovery projects, and we reveal how this is achieved at Sygnature...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797283/from-dispensed-to-disposed-evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-disposal-programs-through-a-comparison-with-prescription-drug-monitoring-program-data
#12
Kathleen L Egan, Eric Gregory, Michael Sparks, Mark Wolfson
BACKGROUND: Organized disposal of controlled medications, such as take-back events and permanent drug donation boxes, is a prevention strategy that has been widely used to reduce the availability of controlled medications for diversion or abuse. However, little is known as to whether this strategy actually reduces the overall availability of these medications for the purposes of diversion or abuse. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the number and types of controlled medications that were disposed through organized efforts to the number dispensed in local communities...
October 31, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785801/regulatory-verification-on-safe-use-of-cytotoxic-drugs-in-veterinary-clinics-and-animal-hospitals
#13
V Fung, M Seneviratne
BACKGROUND: Veterinarians are increasingly being asked to provide chemotherapy for veterinary patients. However, chemotherapy agents have cytotoxic effects that can pose a health risk to workers from exposure. There are no published studies examining cytotoxic drug (CTD) contamination in veterinary practices in Australia. METHODS: CTD use at 13 veterinary clinics and animal hospitals across New South Wales (NSW) was verified for compliance with Work, Health and Safety (WHS) legislation on the effectiveness of exposure control measures...
November 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766144/household-medical-waste-disposal-policy-in-israel
#14
Zohar Barnett-Itzhaki, Tamar Berman, Itamar Grotto, Eyal Schwartzberg
BACKGROUND: Large amounts of expired and unused medications accumulate in households. This potentially exposes the public to hazards due to uncontrolled use of medications. Most of the expired or unused medications that accumulate in households (household medical waste) is thrown to the garbage or flushed down to the sewage, potentially contaminating waste-water, water resources and even drinking water. There is evidence that pharmaceutical active ingredients reach the environment, including food, however the risk to public health from low level exposure to pharmaceuticals in the environment is currently unknown...
2016: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753989/sy-10-3-sglt2-inhibitors-as-potential-antihypertensive-and-renoprotective-agents
#15
Peter Mertens
Remarkable progress has been achieved in the field of diabetes with the development of incretin analogues, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors and novel insulin analogues; nevertheless, there is an unmet need for additional therapeutic options. The new generation of drugs, denoted gliflozines, that specifically interfere with sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLT)-2 and exhibit a favourable impact on glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes are emerging as hopeful avenues. The resultant negative energy balance caused by glucosuria results in long-term weight losses, significantly reduced HbA1c levels approximating 0...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729683/usp-800-key-considerations-and-changes-for-health-systems
#16
EDITORIAL
Priya Sahadeo, Robert J Weber
On March 28, 2014, The United States Pharmacopeia and The National Formulary (USP-NF) published USP General Chapter <800> Hazardous Drugs-Handling in Healthcare Settings, as open for public comment in the USP Pharmacopeial Forum (PF) 40(3). Pharmacy directors must be proactive in understanding the impact that USP <800> will have on their processes for preparing sterile products. USP General Chapter <797> pertains to the compounding of both hazardous and nonhazardous drugs. USP <800> serves as a new standard to guide the handling of hazardous drugs in order to protect patients, health care personnel, and the environment...
November 2015: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729363/a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-conditional-external-cardiac-defibrillator-for-resuscitation-within-the-magnetic-resonance-imaging-scanner-bore
#17
Ehud J Schmidt, Ronald D Watkins, Menekhem M Zviman, Michael A Guttman, Wei Wang, Henry A Halperin
BACKGROUND: Subjects undergoing cardiac arrest within a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner are currently removed from the bore and then from the MRI suite, before the delivery of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation, potentially increasing the risk of mortality. This precludes many higher-risk (acute ischemic and acute stroke) patients from undergoing MRI and MRI-guided intervention. An MRI-conditional cardiac defibrillator should enable scanning with defibrillation pads attached and the generator ON, enabling application of defibrillation within the seconds of MRI after a cardiac event...
October 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696161/impact-of-untreated-urban-waste-on-the-prevalence-and-antibiotic-resistance-profiles-of-human-opportunistic-pathogens-in-agricultural-soils-from-burkina-faso
#18
Benjamin Youenou, Edmond Hien, Amélie Deredjian, Elisabeth Brothier, Sabine Favre-Bonté, Sylvie Nazaret
This study examined the long-term effects of the landfill disposal of untreated urban waste for soil fertilization on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profiles of various human opportunistic pathogens in soils from Burkina Faso. Samples were collected at three sites in the periphery of Ouagadougou during two campaigns in 2008 and 2011. At each site, amendment led to changes in physico-chemical characteristics as shown by the increase in pH, CEC, total C, total N, and metal contents. Similarly, the numbers of total heterotrophic bacteria were higher in the amended fields than in the control ones...
September 30, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664062/ease-of-use-of-the-insulin-glargine-300-u-ml-pen-injector-in-insulin-na%C3%A3-ve-people-with-type-2-diabetes
#19
Harald Pohlmeier, Lori Berard, Claire Brulle-Wohlhueter, Junlong Wu, Raphael Dahmen, Irene Nowotny, David Klonoff
BACKGROUND: Insulin glargine 300 U/mL (Gla-300) contains the same active ingredient as glargine 100 U/mL (Gla-100), and provides the same number of units in one-third of the volume. The SoloSTAR(®) injector pen has been modified to ensure accurate administration of this reduced volume and to improve user experience. METHODS: Insulin- and pen-naïve adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) inadequately controlled with oral antihyperglycemic drugs, who had glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of 7...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663358/unused-opioid-analgesics-and-drug-disposal-following-outpatient-dental-surgery-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Brandon C Maughan, Elliot V Hersh, Frances S Shofer, Kathryn J Wanner, Elizabeth Archer, Lee R Carrasco, Karin V Rhodes
BACKGROUND: Individuals who abuse prescription opioids often use leftover pills that were prescribed for friends or family members. Dental surgery has been identified as a common source of opioid prescriptions. We measured rates of used and unused opioids after dental surgery for a pilot program to promote safe drug disposal. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of opioid use patterns among patients undergoing surgical tooth extraction at a university-affiliated oral surgery practice...
September 16, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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