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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317923/identification-of-inhaler-technique-errors-with-a-routine-procedure-in-portuguese-community-pharmacy
#1
M Margarida Castel-Branco, Ana Fontes, Isabel V Figueiredo
Background: A correct selection of drugs prescribed, but also the choice of the appropriate inhaler device, is crucial for the control of respiratory diseases. Objective: To evaluate the inhaler technique and identify potential errors of patients when treated with inhalers by testing a routinary procedure to be implemented in any community pharmacy. Methods: Adults with asthma/COPD and under inhalation therapy were invited to demonstrate how they use their inhalers...
October 2017: Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274583/a-stability-study-of-expired-ampoules-manufactured-more-than-40-years-ago
#2
Markus Zilker, Fritz Sörgel, Ulrike Holzgrabe
Pharmaceutical manufacturers have to study the stability of drug products before marketing according to ICH guideline Q1A(R2); data of those investigations aim to set expiry dates. The expiry date on the container of a remedy assures the physician and the patient a stability of the drug in its formulation i.e. within a specification of 95-105%. Only few studies show that shelf-lives of pharmaceutical products are often longer than expiration dates. The objective of the study presented here was determining the content of nine expired ampoules manufactured in the last century and identifying the impurity profile by means of HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS, respectively...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239963/in-vitro-evaluation-of-a-novel-image-processing-device-to-estimate-surgical-blood-loss-in-suction-canisters
#3
Gerhardt Konig, Jonathan H Waters, Eric Hsieh, Bridget Philip, Vicki Ting, Gaurav Abbi, Mazyar Javidroozi, Griffeth W Tully, Gregg Adams
BACKGROUND: Clinicians are tasked with monitoring surgical blood loss. Unfortunately, there is no reliable method available to assure an accurate result. Most blood lost during surgery ends up on surgical sponges and within suction canisters. A novel Food and Drug Administration-cleared device (Triton system; Gauss Surgical, Inc, Los Altos, CA) to measure the amount of blood present on sponges using computer image analysis has been previously described. This study reports on performance of a complementary Food and Drug Administration-cleared device (Triton Canister System; Gauss Surgical, Inc, Los Altos, CA) that uses similar image analysis to measure the amount of blood in suction canisters...
December 11, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234483/the-influence-of-emerging-markets-on-the-pharmaceutical-industry
#4
REVIEW
Maya Tannoury, Zouhair Attieh
Emerging markets represent an exceptional opportunity for the pharmaceutical industry. Although a precise definition is not yet available, economists define emerging markets as developing prosperous countries in which investment is expected to result in higher income despite high risks. Qualifying a market as emerging is not merely based on the economic status of the country, but also on several criteria that render the definition applicable to each country. Jim O'Neil, retired chairman of asset management at Goldman Sachs, identified leading economies of emerging markets: Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC) and later Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) and then Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea, and Turkey (MIST), which followed years later as the second tier of nations...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189127/biosimilars-from-extrapolation-into-off-label-use
#5
Sizheng Zhao, Jagdish R Nair, Robert J Moots
BACKGROUND: Biologic drugs have revolutionised the management of many inflammatory conditions. Patent expirations have stimulated development of highly similar but non-identical molecules, the biosimilars. Extrapolation of indications is a key concept in the development of biosimilars. However, this has been met with concerns around mechanisms of action, equivalence in efficacy and immunogenicity, which are reviewed in this article. METHODS: Narrative overview composed from literature search and the authors' experience...
November 29, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173192/the-ecstacy-of-gold-patent-expirations-for-trastuzumab-bevacizumab-rituximab-and-cetuximab
#6
Tasha R Serna-Gallegos, Krishnansu S Tewari, Christopher J LaFargue
BACKGROUND: Fully humanized monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the treatment of many solid tumors, including breast, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer. Among the most widely used monoclonal antibodies in clinical oncology are cetuximab, trastuzumab, rituximab, and bevacizumab. OBJECTIVE: This article will review these four notable monoclonal antibodies, their role in clinical oncology, and the drug patents that are nearing expiration. RESULTS: They are used in both first and second line treatment regimens for multiple common malignancies...
November 22, 2017: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147871/an-optimized-and-feasible-preparation-technique-for-the-industrial-production-of-hydrogel-patches
#7
Wei-Ze Li, Wen-Xia Han, Xu-Liang Hao, Ning Zhao, Xi-Feng Zhai, Li-Bin Yang, Shu-Miao He, Yu-Chuan Cheng, Han Zhang, Li-Na Fu, Yan Zhang, Ze Liang
For hydrogel patches, the laboratory tests could not fully reveal the existing problems of full scale of industrial production, and there are few studies about the preparation technique for the industrial manufacturing process of hydrogel patches. So, the purpose of this work was to elucidate the effects of mainly technological operation and its parameters on the performance of hydrogel patches at the industrial-scale production. The results revealed the following: (1) the aqueous phase was obtained by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) along with tartaric acid dissolved in purified water, then feeding this into a vacuum mixer as a whole in one batch, thus extended the crosslinking reaction time of hydrogel paste (matrix) and allowed the operation of coating/cutting-off to be carried out easily, and there was no permeation of backing layer; (2) the gel strength of the hydrogel patches increased with the increase of working temperature, however, once the temperature exceeded 35 ± 2 °C, the hydrogel paste would lose water severely and the resultant physical crosslinking structure which has lower gel/cohesive strength would easily bring gelatinization/residues during application; (3) the relative humidity (RH) of the standing-workshop was dynamically controlled (namely at 35 ± 2 °C, keeping the RH at 55 ± 5% for 4 days, then 65 ± 5% for 2 days), which would make patches with satisfactory characteristics such as better flexibility, higher adhesive force, smooth flat matrix surface, and without gelatinization/residues and warped edge during the using process; (4) the aging of the packaged hydrogel patches was very sensitive to storage temperature, higher temperature, higher gel strength and lower adhesiveness...
November 16, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118680/mapping-of-standards-to-facilitate-immunization-information-exchange-through-two-dimensional-bar-coding-of-vaccine-products
#8
Saira N Haque, Suzanne West, Alan O'Connor
Purpose: A two-dimensional barcode that includes both static information (vaccine identifier) and variable information (expiration date and lot number) can facilitate streamlined documentation and sharing of vaccine administration. We sought to identify how vaccine tracking information in the two-dimensional barcode is represented in systems that are used by pharmacies, providers, and public health agencies. Methods: We identified and reviewed relevant information technology standards that govern data storage and exchange for providers, pharmacy systems, billing systems, and manufacturers to identify how each system codes the vaccine identifier, expiration date, and lot number...
2017: Perspectives in Health Information Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094099/improving-access-to-cancer-treatments-the-role-of-biosimilars
#9
Rakesh Chopra, Gilberto Lopes
Biologics play a key role in cancer treatment and are principal components of many therapeutic regimens. However, they require complex manufacturing processes, resulting in high cost and occasional shortages in supply. The cost of biologics limits accessibility of cancer treatment for many patients. Effective and affordable cancer therapies are needed globally, more so in developing countries, where health care resources can be limited. Biosimilars, which have biologic activity comparable to their corresponding reference drugs and are often more cost effective, have the potential to enhance treatment accessibility for patients and provide alternatives for decision makers (ie, prescribers, regulators, payers, policymakers, and drug developers)...
October 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063594/late-7-days-systemic-postnatal-corticosteroids-for-prevention-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-preterm-infants
#10
REVIEW
Lex W Doyle, Jeanie L Cheong, Richard A Ehrenkranz, Henry L Halliday
BACKGROUND: Many preterm infants who survive go on to develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia, probably as the result of persistent inflammation in the lungs. Corticosteroids have powerful anti-inflammatory effects and have been used to treat individuals with established bronchopulmonary dysplasia. However, it is unclear whether any beneficial effects outweigh the adverse effects of these drugs. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relative benefits and adverse effects of late systemic postnatal corticosteroid treatment (> 7 days) for preterm infants with evolving or established bronchopulmonary dysplasia...
October 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061013/-the-development-of-biosimilars-in-oncology
#11
S Y Jiang, Y K Shi
With the extensive application in clinical practice, biological medicine plays a significant role in both treatment and supportive care in oncology. With the expiration of original drug patents, biosimilars emerge. The biosimilars are defined as biological drugs that are be highly similar but not identical to the biological reference. Their development and evaluation procedure are different from those of small molecular chemical generics. Biosimilars are expected to reduce the health care costs worldwide. The booming developments of biosimilars, such as rituximab, trastuzumab and bevacizumab in medical oncology can optimize the clinical strategies, offer patients more treatment options and reduce the medical expenditure...
October 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046744/clinical-and-epidemiological-characteristics-of-patients-with-acute-drug-intoxication-admitted-to-icu
#12
Jose Orsini, Nanda Din, Ershad Elahi, Anthony Gomez, Salil Rajayer, Ryan Malik, Elie Jean
Background: Drug overdose continues to be the most common cause of acute poisoning worldwide. There has been a substantial increase in drug overdose incidence and prevalence over the past decade, probably as a result of the emergence of new synthetic designer drugs. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with acute drug intoxication admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Methods: A single center, prospective, observational study was conducted among all adult patients with clinical signs suggestive of acute drug intoxication admitted from the Emergency Department (ED) to ICU during a 6-month period (September to March)...
October 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045954/-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-as-leading-manifestation-of-methylmalonic-aciduria-clinical-characteristics-and-gene-testing-in-15-cases
#13
X Q Liu, H Yan, J X Qiu, C Y Zhang, J G Qi, X Zhang, H J Xiao, Y L Yang, Y H Chen, J B DU
OBJECTIVE: To deepen our understanding of Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) associated pulmonary hypertension (PH) by analyzing the characteristics of clinical presentation, pulmonary high resolusion CT(HRCT), treatment response and gene mutation. METHODS: This study includes 15 cases of pediatric patients with MMA associated PH diagnosed and treated in Peking University First Hospital pediatric department between May 2012 and May 2016 with symptoms of PH as their leading presentation...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045922/the-impact-of-expired-commercial-drugs-on-non-target-marine-species-a-case-study-with-the-use-of-a-battery-of-biomarkers-in-hemocytes-of-mussels
#14
Nektarios Politakis, Alexia Belavgeni, Ioanna Efthimiou, Nikolina Charalampous, Chara Kourkouta, Stefanos Dailianis
The present study investigated the effects of two expired commercial medicines, like Buscopan Plus and Mesulid, commonly classified as household medical wastes, on hemocytes of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mussel hemocytes' lysosomal membrane stability (in terms of neutral red retention assay), superoxide anions (O2(·)(-)) and nitric oxides (NO, in terms of nitrites) production, lipid peroxidation (in terms of malondialdehyde/MDA content) and the formation of nuclear abnormalities (using the micronucleus/MN assay) were assessed in hemocytes of mussels treated for 7 days with appropriate amounts of each drug (the concentrations of active substances were considered in each case, due to the absence of data related with the excipients) as well as in hemocytes of post-treated/recovered mussels (7 days post-treatment/recovery period)...
October 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042067/malignant-external-otitis-the-shifting-treatment-paradigm
#15
Daniel A Carlton, Enrique E Perez, Eric E Smouha
IMPORTANCE: Malignant external otitis (MEO) is an aggressive infection occurring in immunocompromised hosts. Increasing antimicrobial resistance is making the disease more difficult to treat. OBJECTIVE: Determine if there has been a shift in the microbiology and outcomes of MEO. DESIGN: A retrospective case series at a tertiary care institution. SETTING: Inpatient and outpatient tertiary care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 12 cases of recent MEO were reviewed...
May 25, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030133/use-of-a-national-database-as-a-tool-to-identify-primary-medication-non-adherence-the-estonian-eprescription-system
#16
Ott Laius, Heti Pisarev, Daisy Volmer, Sulev Kõks, Aare Märtson, Katre Maasalu
BACKGROUND: Medication adherence can be divided into primary and secondary adherence. Primary medication non-adherence (PMN) occurs when a patient does not obtain medicine with their initial prescription. Secondary non-adherence measures prescription refills among patients who previously filled their first prescription. While secondary non-adherence has been studied thoroughly, PMN has been assessed less extensively, due to lack of available data. Estonian ePrescription system might prove a valuable tool for this...
October 5, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989802/clopidogrel-loading-dose-versus-maintenance-dose-to-treat-patients-with-acute-ischaemic-stroke-in-china-class-china-results-from-a-prospective-double-blind-randomised-clinical-trial
#17
Ying Zhao, Wanyong Yang, Zefeng Tan, Wenmin Wang, Weimin Xiao, Jinsheng Zeng, Anding Xu
AIM: The role of clopidogrel in treating patients with acute ischaemic stroke is unclear. We have conducted the clinical trial in order to evaluate the efficacy and safety of clopidogrel with a loading dose in treating patients with non-cardiogenic acute ischaemic stroke. METHOD: Clopidogrel loading dose versus maintenance dose to treat patients with acute ischaemic stroke in China (CLASS-China) was a prospective, randomised, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial in China...
September 2017: Stroke and Vascular Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974512/impact-of-the-commercialization-of-three-generic-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockers-on-adverse-events-in-quebec-canada-a-population-based-time-series-analysis
#18
Jacinthe Leclerc, Claudia Blais, Louis Rochette, Denis Hamel, Line Guénette, Paul Poirier
BACKGROUND: Once the patent of a brand-name drug expires, generic drugs are commercialized, and substitution from brand-name to generics may occur. Generic drug equivalence is evaluated through comparative bioavailability studies. Few studies have assessed outcomes after generic drug commercialization at a population level. We evaluated the impact of 3 generic angiotensin II receptor blockers commercialization on adverse events: hospitalizations or emergency room consultations. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is an interrupted time series analysis using the Quebec Integrated Chronic Disease Surveillance System...
October 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972699/ledipasvir-and-sofosbuvir-for-untreated-hcv-genotype-1-infection-in-end-stage-renal-disease-patients-a-prospective-observational-study
#19
Mandarapu Surendra, Sree Bhushan Raju, Nimmagadda Sridhar, Bangillapati Vijay Kiran, Goli Rajesh, Golla Anvesh, Nallagasu Raju
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in end stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with increased mortality. Recently, numerous directly acting antiviral agents have been approved for the management of HCV. Ledipasvir along with Sofosbuvir has been approved for management of genotype 1 infection in patients with eGFR ≥30 mL/min. However, there is paucity of data regarding its role in the management of patients on dialysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a single center prospective open label observational study to assess the safety and efficacy of Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir in hemodialysis (HD) patients who were diagnosed with HCV genotype 1 infection...
October 3, 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956648/evaluation-of-an-activated-carbon-based-deactivation-system-for-the-disposal-of-highly-abused-opioid-medications
#20
Xinyi Gao, Pooja Bakshi, Sindhu Sunkara Ganti, Mahima Manian, Andrew Korey, William Fowler, Ajay K Banga
CONTEXT: The improper disposal of unused prescription opioids has a potential for abuse as well as environmental contamination. Consequently, there is an imperative need for an environmentally safe, convenient, and effective drug disposal system. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to analyze the deactivation efficiency of the disposal system employing four model opioid drugs of high abuse potential. METHODS: The deactivation system used in this investigation is an activated granular carbon based disposal system in the form of a pouch, which can be used to safely and effectively deactivate unused or expired medications...
October 17, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
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