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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913790/do-cigarette-graphic-warnings-encourage-smokers-to-attend-a-smoking-cessation-programme-a-quasi-experimental-study
#1
Joseph Guydish, Barbara Tajima, Thao Le, Catherine Henderson, Deborah Yip, Valerie Gruber, Wayne Garcia, Kevin L Delucchi
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed whether exposure to cigarette graphic warning labels (GWLs) increased attendance to a smoking cessation programme. METHOD: From 2014 to 2016, alternating cohorts of smokers in 3 residential drug treatment programmes received either GWLs (experimental) or transparent (control) labels placed on their cigarette packs for 30 days. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants who chose to attend a smoking cessation group after the labelling period...
December 2, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883912/development-of-potential-candidate-reference-materials-for-drugs-in-bottom-sediment-cod-and-herring-tissues
#2
Irena Baranowska, Bogusław Buszewski, Jacek Namieśnik, Piotr Konieczka, Sylwia Magiera, Halina Polkowska-Motrenko, Paweł Kościelniak, Renata Gadzała-Kopciuch, Aneta Woźniakiewicz, Zbigniew Samczyński, Kinga Kochańska, Małgorzata Rutkowska
Regular use of a reference material and participation in a proficiency testing program can improve the reliability of analytical data. This paper presents the preparation of candidate reference materials for the drugs metoprolol, propranolol, carbamazepine, naproxen, and acenocoumarol in freshwater bottom sediment and cod and herring tissues. These reference materials are not available commercially. Drugs (between 7 ng/g and 32 ng/g) were added to the samples, and the spiked samples were freeze-dried, pulverized, sieved, homogenized, bottled, and sterilized by γ-irradiation to prepare the candidate materials...
November 21, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881996/quality-of-drug-stores-storage-practices-regulatory-compliance-in-karachi-pakistan
#3
Syed Shaukat Ali Muttaqi Shah, Baqar Shyum Naqvi, Mashhad Fatima, Asif Khaliq, Abdul Latif Sheikh, Muhammad Baqar
OBJECTIVE: To assess and evaluate the drug storage quality and regulatory compliance among privately operated drug stores of Karachi Pakistan. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of drug stores located in Karachi was conducted from May to December 2013. A total of 1003 drug stores that were involved in the sales, purchase and dispensing of pharmaceutical products were approached by non-probability purposive sampling technique, and the information was collected using a close ended, structured questionnaire...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872408/active-expiration-and-the-measurement-of-central-venous-pressure
#4
Sheldon Magder, Karim Serri, Sara Verscheure, Renée Chauvin, Peter Goldberg
PURPOSE: To obtain a point prevalence estimate of alterations in central venous pressure (CVP) produced by active expiration in a consecutive series of intensive care patients. METHODS: We evaluated CVP tracings taken by the nurses at their morning shift change in a consecutive series of 60 cardiac surgery and 59 noncardiac surgery patients. We also assessed change in values due to the change in transducer level. Three physicians and a nurse instructor independently reviewed the tracings and determined whether there was evidence of forced expiration and whether it was type A, defined by decreasing CVP during expiration, or type B, defined by increasing CVP during expiration...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832357/emerging-biologics-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
REVIEW
Heyson Chi-Hey Chan, Siew Chien Ng
Early biologic therapy is recommended in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and poor prognostic factors and in those refractory to conventional medications. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents are the most commonly used biologic agents. However, some patients may not have an initial response to anti-TNF therapy, and one-third will develop loss of response over time. Anti-TNF drugs can also be associated with side effects. In addition, the use of biologics is currently limited by their cost, especially in developing countries...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815558/in-vitro-effects-of-an-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-circuit-on-the-sequestration-of-%C3%AF%C2%B5-aminocaproic-acid
#6
Deborah Wagner, Miguel Caraballo, John Waldvogel, Yuki Peterson, Duxin Sun
OBJECTIVE: To assess the in vitro effects of drug sequestration in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) on ϵ-aminocaproic acid (EACA) concentrations. METHODS AND DESIGN: This in vitro study will determine changes in EACA concentration over time in ECMO circuits. A pediatric dose of 2,500 mg was administered to whole expired blood in the simulated pediatric ECMO circuit. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 360 and 1440-minute intervals after initial administration equilibration from three different sites of the circuit: pre-oxygenator (PRE), post-oxygenator (POST) and PVC tubing (PVC) to determine the predominant site of drug loss...
November 3, 2016: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814325/fatal-cardiac-arrest-in-2-children-possible-role-of-ondansetron
#7
Scott M Brenner, Jenny Boucher
INTRODUCTION: Ondansetron is commonly used to treat vomiting in gastroenteritis, but has a United States Food and Drug Administration black box warning for risk of Q wave to T wave time interval (QT) prolongation. We report 2 pediatric cases of fatal refractory cardiac arrest after administration of ondansetron. CASES: A 10-year-old previously healthy boy presented to the emergency room with gastroenteritis symptoms. After intravenous fluids, morphine, antibiotics, and 2 doses of ondansetron, the patient became unresponsive with agonal respirations and a wide complex tachycardia consistent with ventricular tachycardia...
November 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783703/the-impact-of-methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase-c677t-polymorphism-on-patients-undergoing-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-with-methotrexate-prophylaxis
#8
Ja Min Byun, Hea-Lim Kim, Dong-Yeop Shin, Youngil Koh, Sung-Soo Yoon, Moon-Woo Seong, Sung Sup Park, Jin Hee Kim, Yun-Gyoo Lee, Inho Kim
Pharmacogenomics can explain the inter-individual differences in response to drugs, including methotrexate (MTX) used for acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) prophylaxis during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In real-world practice, preplanned MTX dose is arbitrarily modified according to observed toxicity which can lead to unexpected and severe aGVHD development. We aimed to validate the influence of MTHFR C677T polymorphism on the outcomes of allogenic HSCT in a relatively under-represented homogenous Asian population...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781100/how-can-we-achieve-universal-access-to-low-cost-treatment-for-hiv
#9
EDITORIAL
Andrew M Hill, Anton L Pozniak
Mass production of low-cost antiretrovirals (ARVs) has already allowed over 17 million individuals to access treatment for HIV infection, mainly in low-income countries. It is possible to manufacture combination ARVs for $110 per person-year, using tenofovir (TDF), lamivudine (3TC) and efavirenz (EFV). New combinations of ARVs costing as little as $60 per person-year will be available in the near future. Pre-exposure prophylaxis using TDF in combination with either 3TC or emtricitabine (FTC) could also be provided for less than $90 per person-year...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770719/epilepsy-with-myoclonic-absences-electroclinical-characteristics-in-a-distinctive-pediatric-epilepsy-phenotype
#10
Paresh Zanzmera, Ramshekhar N Menon, Kalyani Karkare, Himanshu Soni, Sujit Jagtap, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article was to study the electroclinical characteristics and seizure outcome of children with epilepsy with myoclonic absences (EMA). METHOD: In this descriptive cohort study, we reviewed clinical records of patients who met the criteria for EMA. Each patient's demographic data, birth/developmental history, seizure semiology/pattern, antiepileptic drugs (AED), clinical examination, video-electroencephalography (VEEG), and neuroimaging data were reviewed...
October 19, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766144/household-medical-waste-disposal-policy-in-israel
#11
Zohar Barnett-Itzhaki, Tamar Berman, Itamar Grotto, Eyal Schwartzberg
BACKGROUND: Large amounts of expired and unused medications accumulate in households. This potentially exposes the public to hazards due to uncontrolled use of medications. Most of the expired or unused medications that accumulate in households (household medical waste) is thrown to the garbage or flushed down to the sewage, potentially contaminating waste-water, water resources and even drinking water. There is evidence that pharmaceutical active ingredients reach the environment, including food, however the risk to public health from low level exposure to pharmaceuticals in the environment is currently unknown...
2016: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709905/complete-molecular-weight-profiling-of-low-molecular-weight-heparins-using-size-exclusion-chromatography-ion-suppressor-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#12
Joseph Zaia, Kshitij Khatri, Joshua Klein, Chun Shao, Yuewei Sheng, Rosa Viner
Low-molecular weight heparins (LMWH) prepared by partial depolymerization of unfractionated heparin are used globally to treat coagulation disorders on an outpatient basis. Patent protection for several LMWH has expired and abbreviated new drug applications have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. As a result, reverse engineering of LMWH for biosimilar LMWH has become an active global endeavor. Traditionally, the molecular weight distributions of LMWH preparations have been determined using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with optical detection...
November 1, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706432/-a-fine-line-between-legal-and-illegal-oral-drug-repackaging
#13
Heberto Arboleya Casanova, Héctor Marino Zavala Sánchez, Angélica María Hernández Fernández, Dulce Janeth González Herrera
In 2009, with the implementation of the National Hospital Pharmacy Model, Mexico began regulating single-dose drugs. The repackaging of oral drugs is fundamental and critical and should be standardized by Mexican health legislation to enable quality drugs to be dispensed. Data is required on stability, compatibility, drug interactions, containers, and repackaging methods, in order to establish a new expiration date. The literature on health regulations applicable to repackaging was analyzed, revealing major conceptual imprecisions since there is no legislation in Mexico that regulates repackaging; rather, everything is carried out according to pharmacists' recommendations and criteria...
June 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698507/case-study-of-fatal-stroke-following-intranasal-lidocaine
#14
Daniel L Moellentin, Dale Stewart, James Barbour
A 39-year-old man presented with new onset right hemiparesis and aphasia within an hour of using approximately 120 mL lidocaine 4% topical solution intranasally. Lidocaine had been prescribed over a 3-week period for pain due to multiple debridements of the nasal septum. A total of 650 mL of 4% lidocaine (26 g) had been dispensed to the patient during this time. The patient had a significant history of drug abuse, including snorting crushed tablets. Otherwise he was a healthy man with no chronic diseases or conditions...
September 2016: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682486/-research-on-the-therapeutic-effects-of-drugs-on-patients-with-pneumoconiosis-in-china
#15
H Q Wang, T Li
Objective: To review the clinical research on the main drugs which are used to treat pneumoconiosis in China, evaluate and analyze the efficacy, and give the suggestions on the study of pneumoconiosis treatment. Methods: The data of researches on the therapeutic effects of eight main drugs on patients with pneumoconiosis in China were retrieved from CNKI and Wanfang database before Jan. 1, 2016 including polyvinylpyridine, tetrandrine, piperaquine phosphate, hydroxypiperaquine phosphate, aluminium citrate, Xinin, Xifeining and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) after consulting the related project files on the clinical treatment on the patients with pneumoconiosis, and a systematic analysis was made on the random control test (RCT) which conformed to the quality criteria in terms of five indices such as the improvement rate of respiratory system symptoms such as cough, expectoration, chest pain and dyspnea, the decrease of the respiratory system infection rate, the changes in FEV1...
July 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605638/has-the-era-of-slow-growth-for-prescription-drug-spending-ended
#16
Murray Aitken, Ernst R Berndt, David Cutler, Michael Kleinrock, Luca Maini
In the period 2005-13 the US prescription drug market grew at an average annual pace of only 1.8 percent in real terms on an invoice price basis (that is, in constant dollars and before manufacturers' rebates and discounts). But the growth rate increased dramatically in 2014, when the market expanded by 11.5 percent-which raised questions about future trends. We determined the impact of manufacturers' rebates and discounts on prices and identified the underlying factors likely to influence prescription spending over the next decade...
September 1, 2016: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582886/experience-with-biosimilar-infliximab-ct-p13-in-paediatric-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Joanna Sieczkowska, Dorota Jarzębicka, Monika Meglicka, Grzegorz Oracz, Jaroslaw Kierkus
Infliximab was the first monoclonal antibody used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Over several years, this antitumour necrosis factor (TNF) treatment proved its efficacy in both induction and maintenance therapy. In many cases this biological treatment stopped the progression of the disease, probably also decreasing morbidity and hospitalization rates, and improving patients' comfort. When the patent on infliximab started to expire, the first biosimilar of a monoclonal antibody was introduced onto the pharmacological market...
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570992/microbiological-quality-of-pediatric-oral-liquid-formulations
#18
Maria Josep Cabañas Poy, Carme Cañete Ramírez, Sabina X González di Lauro, Virginia Rodríguez Garrido, Gloria Roig Carbajosa, Aurora Fernández-Polo, Susana Clemente Bautista
The oral administration of drugs to the pediatric population involves the extemporaneous preparation of liquid formulations. These formulations have studies on their physicochemical stability, but they often lack microbiological studies. The objective of this study is to check the microbiological quality of five oral liquid formulations prepared with different excipients, which represent five major combinations, in two conditions: kept unopened until the day of the test, and in a multi-dose vial opened daily...
September 2016: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482399/analysis-of-minimum-target-prices-for-production-of-entecavir-to-treat-hepatitis-b-in-high-and-low-income-countries
#19
Andrew Hill, Dzintars Gotham, Graham Cooke, Sanjay Bhagani, Isabelle Andrieux-Meyer, Jennifer Cohn, Joseph Fortunak
BACKGROUND: In 2013, an estimated 686,000 people died from hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection worldwide. Mass treatment programmes for hepatitis B will require very low drug costs. International treatment guidelines recommend first-line monotherapy with either entecavir or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). While the basic patent on TDF expires in 2017/8, entecavir is already generic in several countries, including the US. The chemical structure of entecavir is related to abacavir, which costs <$200 per person-year in low-income countries...
2015: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473452/the-infliximab-biosimilar-in-the-treatment-of-moderate-to-severe-plaque-psoriasis
#20
Paolo Dapavo, Igor Vujic, Maria Teresa Fierro, Pietro Quaglino, Martina Sanlorenzo
BACKGROUND: The infliximab originator's patent recently expired, leading to the production of biosimilar versions of the drug. The biosimilars' efficacy was not tested on patients with psoriasis but most regulatory authorities approved their use in psoriasis because of an extrapolation of data from studies conducted in other diseases. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the use of the infliximab biosimilar (Remsima; CT-P13) in patients with psoriasis. METHODS: Objective (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index) and subjective (visual analog pain scale) measurements of disease activity were collected in 2 cohorts of patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis: cohort 1 patients switched from the infliximab originator to the infliximab biosimilar; and cohort 2 patients were infliximab-naïve and started on the infliximab biosimilar...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
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