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pharmaceutical waste

Muhammad Asif, Syed Ali Raza Naqvi, Tauqir A Sherazi, Matloob Ahmad, Ameer Fawad Zahoor, Sohail Anjum Shahzad, Zaib Hussain, Hassan Mahmood, Nasir Mahmood
Natural resources right from the beginning of the human civilization has paved the way to human being to combat different challenges. The big challenge was to safe the human being from diseases and shortage of food. Plants helped the man in both areas very efficiently. No doubt when plants are used as food actually we are also taking lot of compounds of medicinal values in an excellent combination which naturally reduce the risk of diseases. Extraction and purification of several medicinally important compounds also gave the way to develop pharmaceutical industry in addition to its own therapeutic effects against different lethal diseases...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Justen J Poole, German A Gomez-Rios, Ezel Boyaci, Nathaly Reyes-Garcés, Janusz Pawliszyn
The widespread use of pharmaceuticals in both human and animal populations and the resultant contamination of surface waters from the outflow of water treatment facilities is an issue of growing concern. This has raised the need for analytical methods that can both perform rapid sample analysis and overcome the limitations of conventional analysis procedures, such as multistep workflows and tedious procedures. Coated blade spray (CBS) is a solid-phase-microextraction-based technique that enables the direct-to-mass-spectrometry analysis of extracted compounds via the use of limited organic solvent to desorb analytes and perform electrospray ionization...
October 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Heidi Ahkola, Sirkku Tuominen, Sanja Karlsson, Noora Perkola, Timo Huttula, Sami Saraperä, Aki Artimo, Taina Korpiharju, Lauri Äystö, Päivi Fjäder, Timo Assmuth, Kirsi Rosendahl, Taina Nysten
Anthropogenic chemicals in surface water and groundwater cause concern especially when the water is used in drinking water production. Due to their continuous release or spill-over at waste water treatment plants, active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are constantly present in aquatic environment and despite their low concentrations, APIs can still cause effects on the organisms. In the present study, Chemcatcher passive sampling was applied in surface water, surface water intake site, and groundwater observation wells to estimate whether the selected APIs are able to end up in drinking water supply through an artificial groundwater recharge system...
September 29, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sudarshan Kurwadkar
Groundwater is a critical resource that serve as a source of drinking water to large human population and, provide long-term water for irrigation purposes. In recent years; however, this precious resource being increasingly threatened, due to natural and anthropogenic activities. A variety of contaminants of emerging concern such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, perfluorinated compounds, endocrine disruptors, and biological agents detected in the groundwater sources of both developing and developed nations...
October 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Chunying Li, Yuhua Zhang, Chein-Chi Chang, Dong Wei, Li Wei
This is a literature review for the year 2016 regarding to activated sludge in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, sequencing batch reactor and membrane bioreactor. This article reviews process modeling and kinetic, population dynamic, pollution control, and system design and operation. Compared to past reviews, several topics show increasing concerns in 2016, like anammox process. It refers to the adsorption and biodegradation of nutrition by granular sludge, also including the emerging micropollutant like pharmaceuticals...
October 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Mirko Cucina, Chiara Tacconi, Anna Ricci, Daniela Pezzolla, Simone Sordi, Claudia Zadra, Giovanni Gigliotti
Industrial fermentations for the production of pharmaceuticals generate large volumes of wastewater that can be biologically treated to recover plant nutrients through the application of pharmaceutical-derived wastes to the soil. Nevertheless, benefits and risks associated with their recovery are still unexplored. Thus, the aim of the present work was to characterize three potential organic residues (sludge, anaerobic digestate and compost) derived from the wastewater generated by the daptomycin production process...
September 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
André Luiz Pereira, Raphael Tobias de Vasconcelos Barros, Sandra Rosa Pereira
Pharmacopollution is a public health and environmental outcome of some active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC) dispersed through water and/or soil. Its most important sources are the pharmaceutical industry, healthcare facilities (e.g., hospitals), livestock, aquaculture, and households (patients' excretion and littering). The last source is the focus of this article. Research questions are "What is the Household Waste Medicine (HWM) phenomenon?", "How HWM and pharmacopollution are related?", and "Why is a reverse logistic system necessary for HWM in Brazil?" This article followed the seven steps proposed by Rother (2007) for a systematic review based on the Cochrane Handbook and the National Health Service (NHS) Center for Reviews Dissemination (CDR) Report...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Carole Treibich, Sabine Lescher, Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Bruno Ventelou
BACKGROUND: From November 2014 to November 2015, an experiment in French community pharmacies replaced traditional pre-packed boxes by per-unit dispensing of pills in the exact numbers prescribed, for 14 antibiotics. METHODS: A cluster randomised control trial was carried out in 100 pharmacies. 75 pharmacies counted out the medication by units (experimental group), the other 25 providing the treatment in the existing pharmaceutical company boxes (control group)...
2017: PloS One
Haripriya Srinivasan, Velayutham Kanayairam, Ramanibai Ravichandran
In the present study, chitin and chitosan preparation from shrimp shells Penaeus mondon and its ovarian cancer cell line (PA-1). FTIR spectrum sharp absorption peak at 1655cm(-1) is assigned to ketone C=O (α) unsaturated with chitosan. X-ray diffraction showed the presence of chitin and chitosan were strongest peak at 18.91° (β) and 29.75° (α) characters. SEM observations of chitin and chitosan surface morphologies of P. monodon showed that microfibril and porous structures. Anticancer activity of chitin and chitosan against human ovarian cancer cell line showed that chitosan an exhibited notable higher activity than chitin...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Eliane Gandolpho Tótoli, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Daptomycin (DPT) is an important antimicrobial agent used in clinical practice because it is very active against several types of medicinally challenging Gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci. In addition to concerns about the quality of the analytical methods used in the QC of drugs, there is also concern about the impact of these methods on the environment. The trend toward sustainable consumption is increasingly evident and has forced the pharmaceutical industry to reduce the generation of toxic waste...
September 1, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Pavla Sehonova, Lucie Plhalova, Jana Blahova, Veronika Doubkova, Miroslav Prokes, Frantisek Tichy, Emma Fiorino, Caterina Faggio, Zdenka Svobodova
Pharmaceuticals occur in water bodies as a consequence of their incomplete removal during waste water treatment processes. The occurence of pharmaceuticals in surface waters as well as their possible impact on aquatic vertebrates have received considerable attention in recent years. However, there is still a lack of informations on the chronic effects of widely used drugs as well as their possible mixture toxicity on non-target aquatic vertebrates as well as their possible mixture toxicity. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of naproxen sodium on early life stages of fish and evaluate its mixture toxicity with tramadol hydrochloride, which was assessed in our earlier study as a single substance...
August 31, 2017: Chemosphere
Nur Afifah Hanun Ismail, Sze Yee Wee, Ahmad Zaharin Aris
Fishes are a major protein food source for humans, with a high economic value in the aquaculture industry. Because endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have been introduced into aquatic ecosystems, the exposure of humans and animals that depend on aquatic foods, especially fishes, should be seriously considered. EDCs are emerging pollutants causing global concern because they can disrupt the endocrine system in aquatic organisms, mammals, and humans. These pollutants have been released into the environment through many sources, e...
September 8, 2017: Chemosphere
Mostafa A Shehata, Esraa M Fawaz, Mohamed K Abd El-Rahman, Ezzat M Abdel-Moety
Acquisition of the dissolution profiles of more than single active ingredient in a multi-analyte pharmaceutical formulation is a mandatory manufacturing practice that is dominated by utilization of the off-line separation-based chromatographic methods. This contribution adopts a new "Double-Track" approach with the ultimate goal of advancing the in-line potentiometric sensors to their most effective applicability for simultaneous acquisition of the dissolution profiles of two active ingredients in a binary pharmaceutical formulation...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Gabriel Vanni, Leticia Belén Escudero, Guilherme Luiz Dotto
An alternative, low-cost and efficient biosorbent, powdered grape seeds (PGS), was prepared from wastes of a wine industry, and used to remove brilliant blue (BB) and amaranth red (AR) dyes from aqueous solutions. The biosorbent was properly characterized before and after the biosorption operation. The potential of PGS to remove BB and AR dyes was investigated thought kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies. The biosorption of BB and AR was favored at pH 1.0 using biosorbent dosage of 0.500 g L(-1), being attained more than 85% of removal percentage...
September 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Fawzia A Ibrahim, Medhat A Al-Ghobashy, Mohamed K Abd El-Rahman, Ibrahim F Abo-Elmagd
Gemifloxacin (GEM) is a broad-spectrum quinolone antibiotic. The presence of GEM residuals in industrial and hospital wastewater has been associated with genotoxicity and antibiotic resistance. In this contribution, the photodegradation of GEM using titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs)/H2O2 as a catalyst was optimized to eliminate residual drug and its photodegradates with antibacterial activity. A half-factorial design was implemented, investigating the effects of pH, initial concentration, H2O2 concentration, TiO2NP loading, and irradiation time...
October 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
D Lucas, F Castellet-Rovira, M Villagrasa, M Badia-Fabregat, D Barceló, T Vicent, G Caminal, M Sarrà, S Rodríguez-Mozaz
The contribution of the sorption processes in the elimination of pharmaceuticals (PhACs) during the fungal treatment of wastewater has been evaluated in this work. The sorption of four PhACs (carbamazepine, diclofenac, iopromide and venlafaxine) by 6 different fungi was first evaluated in batch experiments. Concentrations of PhACs in both liquid and solid (biomass) matrices from the fungal treatment were measured. Contribution of the sorption to the total removal of pollutants ranged between 3% and 13% in relation to the initial amount...
January 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Rahele Rostamian, Hassan Behnejad
The adsorption behavior of tetracycline (TCN), doxycycline (DCN) as the most common antibiotics in veterinary and ciprofloxacin (CPN) onto graphene oxide nanosheets (GOS) in aqueous solution was evaluated. The four factors influencing the adsorption of antibiotics (initial concentration, pH, temperature and contact time) were studied. The results showed that initial pH ∼ 6 to 7 and contact time ∼ 100 - 200min are optimum for each drug. The monolayer adsorption capacity was reduced with the increasing temperature from 25°C to 45°C...
August 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Raqueli Altamiranda Bittencourt, Marysabel Pinto Telis Silveira, Marília Cruz Guttier, Fernanda Fernandes Miranda, Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi
Introduction: Well-planned and executed pharmaceutical services (PS) are important for proper treatment of the population's health needs, thus enabling the access to essential drugs and promoting their rational use. Objective: To assess the situation of PS in the city of Uruguaiana (State of Rio Grande do Sul), Brazil. Methods: This cross-sectional study was applied to 650 interviews between June and September of 2013 in 11 Basic Health Units (UBS) and in the Main Pharmacy of the city...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
Yasunori Nio, Masayuki Tanaka, Yoshihiko Hirozane, Yo Muraki, Mitsugi Okawara, Masatoshi Hazama, Takanori Matsuo
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common inherited muscular dystrophy. Patients experience DMD in their 20s from cardiac or respiratory failure related to progressive muscle wasting. Currently, the only treatments for the symptoms of DMD are available. Muscle fibrosis, a DMD feature, leads to reduced muscle function and muscle mass, and hampers pharmaceutical therapeutic efficacy. Although antifibrotic agents may be useful, none is currently approved. Phosphodiesterase (PDE)-4 inhibitors have exhibited antifibrotic effects in human and animal models...
August 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Purabi R Ghosh, Derek Fawcett, Shashi B Sharma, Gerrard E J Poinern
The quantities of organic waste produced globally by aquacultural and horticulture are extremely large and offer an attractive renewable source of biomolecules and bioactive compounds. The availability of such large and diverse sources of waste materials creates a unique opportunity to develop new recycling and food waste utilisation strategies. The aim of this review is to report the current status of research in the emerging field of producing high-value nanoparticles from food waste. Eco-friendly biogenic processes are quite rapid, and are usually carried out at normal room temperature and pressure...
July 25, 2017: Materials
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