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pharmaceutical waste

Jayanta Kumar Patra, Kwang-Hyun Baek
The aim of this study was to compare the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) generated using the aqueous extracts of outer oriental melon peel (OMP) and peach. The synthesized OMP-AuNPs and peach extract (PE)-AuNPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface plasmon resonance spectra were obtained at 545 nm and 540 nm for OMP-AuNPs and PE-AuNPs, respectively...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Tanja T Radović, Svetlana D Grujić, Srđan R Kovačević, Mila D Laušević, Milan A Dimkić
In the present work, the sorption ability of 17 pharmaceutical compounds, two metabolites, and 15 pesticides (34 target compounds in total) onto four different river sediments was investigated separately. Selected compounds present the most frequently prescribed pharmaceuticals in human and animal medicine and the most frequently used pesticides in agriculture. Their presence into the surface, ground, and waste waters was confirmed into the numerous papers in literature, as well as their presence into the river sediments (for some of them)...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Qingwei Bu, Xiao Shi, Gang Yu, Jun Huang, Bin Wang, Jianbing Wang
Pharmaceuticals have been widely detected in the aquatic environment and demonstrated to be potential risks to humans and the environment. Understanding emission pathways of pharmaceuticals is essential to the control of pharmaceutical contamination for environmental management. The present study is aimed at testing the hypothesis that non-wastewater pathway is also significant to the emission of pharmaceuticals into the environment. To this end, we compared the actual production with the amount of 12 antibiotics obtained by back calculation from sewage concentrations in Beijing, Guangzhou and Chongqing...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Jayanta Kumar Patra, Kwang-Hyun Baek
This paper investigated the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous extract of silky hairs of corn (Zea mays L.) which is a waste material of the crop, as both a reducing and stabilising/capping agent. The AgNPs were characterised by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The average size of AgNPs was found to be 249...
October 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
Yunqian Dai, Eric Formo, Haoxuan Li, Jiajia Xue, Younan Xia
Precious metals are widely used as catalysts in industry. It is of critical importance to keep the precious metal ions leached from catalysts at a level below one part per million (ppm) in the final products and to recycle the expensive precious metals. Here we demonstrate a simple and effective method for scavenging precious metal ions from an aqueous solution and thereby reduce their concentrations down to the parts per billion (ppb) level. The key component is a filtration membrane comprised of titania (TiO2 ) nanofibers whose surface has been functionalized with a silane bearing amino or thiol group...
September 23, 2016: ChemSusChem
Truong Ngoc Minh, Do Tan Khang, Phung Thi Tuyen, Luong The Minh, La Hoang Anh, Nguyen Van Quan, Pham Thi Thu Ha, Nguyen Thanh Quan, Nguyen Phu Toan, Abdelnaser Abdelghany Elzaawely, Tran Dang Xuan
Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of "Chian Xen Queen" contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11...
September 14, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Ali Sharif, Muhammad Ashraf, Aqeel Javeed, Aftab Ahmed Anjum, Muhammad Furqan Akhtar, Bushra Akhtar, Ammara Saleem
Water pollution has been a major concern for agrarian societies like Pakistan. Pharmaceutical industries are amongst the foremost contributor to industrial waste. Present study addresses the generation of oxidative stress caused by 2 months exposure to pharmaceutical wastewater in rats and their response to oral treatment with vitamin E, a potent antioxidant. The rats were randomized into five groups (n = 5) named as negative control, pharmaceutical wastewater (PEW) 100 %, PEW 10 %, PEW 1 %, and PEW 100 % + vitamin E...
September 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Klaus Teichmann, Maxime Kuliberda, Gerd Schatzmayr, Thomas Pacher, Karin Zitterl-Eglseer, Anja Joachim, Franz Hadacek
Disposal of organic plant wastes and by-products from the food or pharmaceutical industries usually involves high costs. In the present study, 42 samples derived from such by-products were screened in vitro against Cryptosporidium parvum, a protozoan parasite that may contaminate drinking water and cause diarrhoea. The novel bioassay was previously established in the microtitre plate format. Human ileocaecal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8) cell cultures were seeded with C. parvum oocysts and parasite development was monitored by an indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) and microscopic assessment for clusters of secondary infection (CSI)...
2016: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Yung-Tse Hung, Hamidi Abdul Aziz, Siti Fatihah Ramli, Ruth Yu-Li Yeh, Lian-Huey Liu, Christopher Robert Huhnke
This review of literature published in 2015 focuses on waste related to chemical and allied products. The topics cover the waste management, physicochemical treatment, aerobic granular, aerobic waste treatment, anaerobic granular, anaerobic waste treatment, chemical waste, chemical wastewater, fertilizer waste, fertilizer wastewater, pesticide wastewater, pharmaceutical wastewater, ozonation. cosmetics waste, groundwater remediation, nutrient removal, nitrification denitrification, membrane biological reactor, and pesticide waste...
October 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Saravanan Govindaraju, Monica Samal, Kyusik Yun
A complete bacterialysis analysis of glucosamine-gold nanoparticle-graphene oxide (GlcN-AuNP-GO) and UV-irradiated GlcN-AuNP-GO was conducted. Analytical characterization of GlcN-AuNPs, GO and GlcN-AuNP-GO revealed UV-Vis absorbance peak at around 230 and 500nm. Microscopic characterization of prepared nanomaterials was performed by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy, and high-resolution transmission microscopy. The results confirmed that the GlcN-AuNPs were uniformly decorated on the surface and edges of graphene sheets...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Tahisa M Pedroso, Ana C D Medeiros, Herida R N Salgado
Ertapenem sodium is a polar and ionizable compound; therefore, it has little retention on traditional C18 columns in reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, even using a highly-aqueous mobile phase that can result in dewetting in the stationary phase. Thus, the most coherent process for ERTM is to develop a method for Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography. However, for the traditional methods in HILIC, the use of a highly organic mobile phase is necessary; usually an amount exceeding 80% acetonitrile is necessary...
November 1, 2016: Talanta
Francisco Juliá-Hernández, Morgane Gaydou, Eloisa Serrano, Manuel van Gemmeren, Ruben Martin
The sustainable utilization of available feedstock materials for preparing valuable compounds holds great promise to revolutionize approaches in organic synthesis. In this regard, the implementation of abundant and inexpensive carbon dioxide (CO2) as a C1 building block has recently attracted considerable attention. Among the different alternatives in CO2 fixation, the preparation of carboxylic acids, relevant motifs in pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, is particularly appealing, thus providing a rapid and unconventional entry to building blocks that are typically prepared via waste-producing protocols...
August 2016: Top Curr Chem (J)
Annabel Nieter, Sebastian Kelle, Diana Linke, Ralf G Berger
Agro-industrial side-streams are abundant and renewable resources of hydroxycinnamic acids with potential applications as antioxidants and preservatives in the food, health, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) from Schizophyllum commune were functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris with extracellular activities of 6000UL(-1). The recombinant enzymes, ScFaeD1 and ScFaeD2, released ferulic acid from destarched wheat bran and sugar beet pectin. Overnight incubation of coffee pulp released caffeic (>60%), ferulic (>80%) and p-coumaric acid (100%) indicating applicability for the valorization of food processing wastes and enhanced biomass degradation...
November 2016: Bioresource Technology
Hugo Olvera-Vargas, Sébastien Leroy, Michael Rivard, Nihal Oturan, Mehmet Oturan, Didier Buisson
Some widely prescribed drugs are sparsely metabolized and end up in the environment. They can thus be a focal point of ecotoxicity, either themselves or their environmental transformation products. In this context, we present a study concerning furosemide, a diuretic, which is mainly excreted unchanged. We investigated its biotransformation by two environmental fungi, Aspergillus candidus and Cunninghamella echinulata. The assessment of its ecotoxicity and that of its metabolites was performed using the Microtox test (ISO 11348-3) with Vibrio fischeri marine bacteria...
August 25, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Linda C Giudice
A growing body of evidence suggests that environmental contaminants, including natural gas, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, and air pollution, are posing major threats to human reproductive health. Many chemicals are in commonly used personal care products, linings of food containers, pesticides, and toys, as well as in discarded electronic waste, textile treatments, and indoor and outdoor air and soil. They travel across borders through trade, food, wind, and water. Reproductive and other health effects can be incurred by exposures in utero, in the neonatal or adolescent periods, or in adulthood and can have transgenerational effects...
September 15, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Veena Das, Sanjeev Satyanarayan, Shanta Satyanarayan
Gum arabic is multifunctional and used in food products, pharmaceutical, confectionery, cosmetic, printing and textile industry. Gum arabic has an excellent market and its production is being increased to meet the market demand. In the process, huge quantity of solid waste is generated during its refining process. An attempt has been made to vermicompost this organic waste using Eudrilus eugeniae. This research work is first of its kind. Literature on this substrate has not been reported anywhere else for vermicomposting...
September 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Parimal Pal, Pallabi Das, Sankha Chakrabortty, Ritwik Thakura
Dynamic modelling and simulation of a nanofiltration-forward osmosis integrated complete system was done along with economic evaluation to pave the way for scale up of such a system for treating hazardous pharmaceutical wastes. The system operated in a closed loop not only protects surface water from the onslaught of hazardous industrial wastewater but also saves on cost of fresh water by turning wastewater recyclable at affordable price. The success of dynamic modelling in capturing the relevant transport phenomena is well reflected in high overall correlation coefficient value (R (2) > 0...
August 12, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Heba M Mohamed, Nesrine T Lamie
In the past few decades the analytical community has been focused on eliminating or reducing the usage of hazardous chemicals and solvents, in different analytical methodologies, that have been ascertained to be extremely dangerous to human health and environment. In this context, environmentally friendly, green, or clean practices have been implemented in different research areas. This study presents a greener alternative of conventional RP-HPLC methods for the simultaneous determination and quantitative analysis of a pharmaceutical ternary mixture composed of telmisartan, hydrochlorothiazide, and amlodipine besylate, using an ecofriendly mobile phase and short run time with the least amount of waste production...
September 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Dominic van der Waals, Leo E Heim, Christian Gedig, Fabian Herbrik, Simona Vallazza, Martin H G Prechtl
Methylated amines are highly important for a variety of pharmaceutical and agrochemical applications. Existing routes for their formation result in the production of large amounts of waste or require high reaction temperatures, both of which impact the ecological and economical footprint of the methodologies. Herein, we report the ruthenium-catalyzed reductive methylation of a range of aliphatic amines, using paraformaldehyde as both substrate and hydrogen source, in combination with water. This reaction proceeds under mild aqueous reaction conditions...
September 8, 2016: ChemSusChem
Maciej Bilek, Jacek Namieśnik
For a long time, chromatographic techniques and techniques related to them have stimulated the development of new procedures in the field of pharmaceutical analysis. The newly developed methods, characterized by improved metrological parameters, allow for more accurate testing of, among others, the composition of raw materials, intermediates and final products. The chromatographic techniques also enable studies on waste generated in research laboratories and factories producing pharmaceuticals and parapharmaceuticals...
May 2016: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
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