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pharmaceutical waste

Febelyn Reguyal, Ajit K Sarmah
Recent studies have shown the widespread occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment leading to increasing global concern on their potential adverse effects in the environment and public health. In this study, we evaluated the use of magnetic biochar derived from pine sawdust, one of New Zealand's major wood wastes, to remove an emerging contaminant, sulfamethoxazole (SMX), at different pH, ionic strength, natural organic matter (NOM) and a competing compound, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2). In single-solute system, the sorption of SMX onto magnetic biochar was found to be highly pH-dependent and slightly increased with increase in ionic strength...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sabine Vogler, Roger H P F de Rooij
BACKGROUND: Despite potentially considerable implications for public health, the environment and public funds, medicine waste is an under-researched topic. This study aims to analyse medicines drawn from household garbage in Vienna (Austria) and to assess possible financial implications for public payers. METHODS: Four pharmaceutical waste samples collected by the Vienna Municipal Waste Department between April 2015 and January 2016 were investigated with regard to their content...
February 10, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Eric Vozzola, Michael Overcash, Evan Griffing
Cleanroom garments serve a critical role in such industries as pharmaceuticals, life sciences, and semiconductor manufacturing. These textiles are available in reusable and disposable alternatives. In this report, the environmental sustainability of cleanroom coveralls is examined using life cycle assessment technology. The complete supply chain, manufacture, use, and end-of-life phases for reusable and disposable cleanroom coveralls are compared on a cradle-to-end-of-life cycle basis. Three industry representative coveralls are examined: a reusable woven polyethylene terephthalate (PET) coverall, a disposable flash spunbonded high density polyethylene (HDPE) coverall, and a disposable spunbond-meltblown-spunbond polypropylene (SMS PP) coverall...
February 14, 2018: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
Jing-Long Han, Xue Xia, Muhammad Rizwan Haider, Wen-Li Jiang, Yu Tao, Mei-Jun Liu, Hong-Cheng Wang, Yang-Cheng Ding, Ya-Nan Hou, Hao-Yi Cheng, Ai-Jie Wang
Some refractory organic matters or soluble microbial products remained in the effluents of refractory organic wastewater after biological secondary treatment and need an advanced treatment before final disposal. Graphene oxide (GO) was known to have potential to be the next generation membrane material. The functional organics/inorganic salts separation GO membrane preparation and application in wastewater advanced treatment could reduce energy or chemicals consumption and avoid organics/inorganic salts mixed concentrate waste problems after nanofiltration or reverse osmosis...
February 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Lizziane de Francisco, Diana Pinto, Hélen Rosseto, Lucas Toledo, Rafaela Santos, Flávia Tobaldini-Valério, Terezinha Svidzinski, Marcos Bruschi, Bruno Sarmento, M Beatriz P P Oliveira, Francisca Rodrigues
Propolis is a natural adhesive resinous compound produced by honeybees to protect hives from bacteria and fungi, being extremely expensive for food industry. During propolis production, a resinous by-product is formed. This resinous waste is currently undervalued and underexploited. Accordingly, in this study the proximate physical and chemical quality, as well as the antioxidant activity, radical scavenging activity and cell viability of this by-product were evaluated and compared with propolis in order to boost new applications in food and pharmaceutical industries...
March 2018: Food Research International
Diogo L R Novo, Rodrigo M Pereira, Carla A Hartwig, Clarissa M M Santos, Marcia F Mesko
In this work a feasible method for chloride and sulfate determination in calcium carbonate pharmaceutical raw material and commercial tablets by ion chromatography after microwave-induced combustion was developed. The analytes were released from matrix by combustion in closed system pressurized with oxygen. Starch as volatilization aid, 100mmolL-1 HNO3 as absorbing solution and 5min of microwave irradiation time were used. Recovery tests using standard solutions were performed for the accuracy evaluation. A mixture of calcium carbonate pharmaceutical raw material or commercial tablets, starch and a certified reference material was also used as a type of recovery test...
May 1, 2018: Talanta
Cornelius Rimayi, David Odusanya, Jana M Weiss, Jacob de Boer, Luke Chimuka
A quantitative assessment of pollutants of emerging concern in the Hartbeespoort Dam catchment area was conducted using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to establish the occurrence, source and distribution of 15 environmental pollutants, including 10 pharmaceuticals, 1 pesticide and 4 steroid hormones. Seasonal sampling was conducted in the Hartbeespoort Lake using sub-surface grab sampling to determine the lake's ecological status and obtain data for establishment of progressive operational monitoring...
February 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Khawla Ben Jeddou, Fatma Bouaziz, Claire Boisset Helbert, Oumèma Nouri-Ellouz, Sameh Maktouf, Semia Ellouz-Chaabouni, Raoudha Ellouz-Ghorbel
Enzymatic hydrolysis of water-soluble polysaccharides from potato peel waste (PPPW) generates low molecular weight oligosaccharides with a yield of 63%. The oligosaccharides generated from potato peel polysaccharides (OPPP) were purified by Superdex-30 column. The results showed the presence of 8 peaks (OPPP1-OPPP8). The identification of all the fractions by chromatography analysis (GC-FID) illustrated that the most prominent residues were glucose with traces of galactose, arabinose and rhamnose. Finally, mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-ToF) analysis showed that the generated oligosaccharides were heterogeneous and contained different degree of polymerization (DP)...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sarah A P Pereira, Susana P F Costa, Edite Cunha, Marieta L C Passos, André R S T Araújo, M Lúcia M F S Saraiva
Antipsychotic (AP) drugs are becoming accumulated in terrestrial and aqueous resources due to their actual consumption. Thus, the search of methods for assessing the contamination load of these drugs is mandatory. The COD is a key parameter used for monitoring water quality upon the assessment of the effect of polluting agents on the oxygen level. Thus, the present work aims to assess the chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels of several typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs in order to obtain structure-activity relationships...
February 1, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yonggang Wang, Xu Wang, Mingwei Li, Jing Dong, Changhong Sun, Guanyi Chen
This study focuses on the application of combining membrane bioreactor (MBR) treatment with reverse osmosis (RO) or nanofiltration (NF) membrane treatment for removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in municipal wastewater. Twenty-seven PPCPs were measured in real influent with lowest average concentration being trimethoprim (7.12 ng/L) and the highest being caffeine (18.4 ng/L). The results suggest that the MBR system effectively removes the PPCPs with an efficiency of between 41.08% and 95...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Lucía López-Hortas, Patricia Pérez-Larrán, María Jesús González-Muñoz, Elena Falqué, Herminia Domínguez
Ursolic acid (UA) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid widely found in herbs, leaves, flowers and fruits; update information on the major natural sources or agro-industrial wastes is presented. Traditional (maceration, Soxhlet and heat reflux) and modern (microwave-, ultrasound-, accelerated solvent- and supercritical fluid) extraction and purification technologies of UA, as well as some patented process, are summarized. The great interest in this bioactive compound is related to the beneficial effects in human health due to antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, chemopreventive, cardioprotective, antihyperlipidemic and hypoglycemic activities, and others...
January 2018: Food Research International
Aysha Hamad Alneyadi, Muhammad A Rauf, S Salman Ashraf
Water contamination by various recalcitrant organic aromatic compounds is an emerging environmental issue that is increasingly attracting the attention of environmental scientists. A great majority of these recalcitrant pollutants are industrial wastes, textile dyes, pharmaceuticals, hormones, and personal care products that are discharged into wastewater. Not surprisingly, various chemical, physical, and biological strategies have been proposed and developed to remove and/or degrade these pollutants from contaminated water bodies...
January 31, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Tariq M Alhawassi, Hatem A Abuelizz, Mansour Almetwazi, Mansour A Mahmoud, Ahmed Alghamdi, Yazed S Alruthia, Nasser BinDhim, Khalid A Alburikan, Yousif A Asiri, Peter J Pitts
Low-quality medicines deliver sub-optimal clinical outcomes and waste precious health resources. It is important to ensure that public funds are spent on healthcare technologies that meet national regulatory bodies such as the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA), quality standards for safety, efficacy, and quality. Medicines quality is a complicated combination of pre-market regulatory specifications, appropriate sourcing of ingredients (active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), excipients, etc.), manufacturing processes, healthcare ecosystem communications, and regular and robust pharmacovigilance practices...
January 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Clément Lacoste, Roland El Hage, Anne Bergeret, Stéphane Corn, Patrick Lacroix
Alginate derived from seaweed is a natural polysaccharide able to form stable gel through carbohydrate functional groups largely used in the food and pharmaceutical industry. This article deals with the use of sodium alginate as an adhesive binder for wood fibres/textile waste fibres biocomposites. Several aldehyde-based crosslinking agents (glyoxal, glutaraldehyde) were compared for various wood/textile waste ratios (100/0, 50/50, 60/40, 70/30 and 0/100 in weight). The fully biomass derived composites whose properties are herewith described satisfy most of the appropriate requirements for building materials...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Habibe Momeni, Seyyedeh Fatemeh Tabatabaei Fard, Aliye Arefinejad, Afsane Afzali, Farkhonde Talebi, Elham Rahmanpour Salmani
BACKGROUND: The presence of toxic and pathogenic agents in the dental waste products has made it to be classified as "hazardous waste." OBJECTIVE: To assess dental waste production rate and composition and approaches used to manage these waste products in 2017 in Birjand, Iran. METHODS: 48 dental clinics were evaluated in two months of 2017. Sampling was performed from each clinic 3 times a week. Samples were manually divided into 5 categories of chemical-pharmaceutical, infectious, semi-household, sharp and cutting materials, and toxic waste products, and weighed...
January 2018: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Daniela Huber, Klaus Bleymaier, Alessandro Pellis, Robert Vielnascher, Andreas Daxbacher, Katrin J Greimel, Georg M Guebitz
Pharmaceuticals contaminate the environment for several reasons, including metabolic excretion after intake, industrial waste and improper disposal. The narcotic drug morphine is commonly utilized for chronic pain management, and the distribution of morphine in aqueous systems and in waste waters is of high concern. Here. the removal of morphine by a laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila both in its free form as well as immobilized on Accurel MP1000 beads was investigated. Complete morphine elimination was achieved within 30 min for the free and the immobilized enzyme (70% bound protein) for concentrations between 1 and 1,000 mg L-1 according to LC-TOF mass spectrometry analysis...
January 6, 2018: New Biotechnology
William A Tarpeh, James M Barazesh, Tzahi Y Cath, Kara L Nelson
Recovering nitrogen from separately collected urine can potentially reduce costs and energy of wastewater nitrogen removal and fertilizer production. Through benchtop experiments, we demonstrate the recovery of nitrogen from urine as ammonium sulfate using electrochemical stripping, a combination of electrodialysis and membrane stripping. Nitrogen was selectively recovered with 93% efficiency in batch experiments with real urine and required 30.6 MJ kg N-1 in continuous-flow experiments (slightly less than conventional ammonia stripping)...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Lauren E Kelly, Kimberly Caswell, Mary Short, Prabhu S Parimi, Martin Offringa, Thomas Diacovo
BACKGROUND: Up to 90% of all drugs used in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) have not been clinically tested for safety and efficacy. To further drug development for neonates the pharmaceutical industry is moving towards rigorous testing, necessitating the need to development and validate biomarkers in neonates to predict response. The objective of this review is to evaluate the quality of response biomarker reporting in neonatal clinical trials. METHODS: A validated literature search strategy was applied...
August 21, 2017: Pediatric Research
Ruchanok Tinikul, Pirom Chenprakhon, Somchart Maenpuen, Pimchai Chaiyen
Phenolic acids are abundant biomass feedstock that can be derived from the processing of lignin or other byproducts from agro-industrial waste. Although phenolic acids such as p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, cinnamic acid, gallic acid, syringic acid and ferulic acid can be used directly in various applications, their value can be significantly increased when they are further modified to high value-added compounds. This review summarizes and discusses the new advances in cell free and whole-cell biocatalysis technologies for reactions important for conversion of phenolic acids including esterification, decarboxylation, amination, halogenation, hydroxylation and ring-breakage reactions...
December 26, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
Linson Lonappan, Tarek Rouissi, Satinder Kaur Brar, Mausam Verma, Rao Y Surampalli
Due to its wide occurrence in water resources and toxicity, pharmaceuticals and personal care products are becoming an emerging concern throughout the world. Application of residual/waste materials for water remediation can be a good strategy in waste management as well as in waste valorization. Herein, this dataset provides information on biochar application for the removal of emerging contaminant, diclofenac from water matrices. The data presented here is an extension of the research article explaining the mechanisms of adsorption diclofenac on biochars (Lonappan et al...
February 2018: Data in Brief
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