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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222352/status-of-pharmaceuticals-in-african-water-bodies-occurrence-removal-and-analytical-methods
#1
REVIEW
Lawrence Mzukisi Madikizela, Nikita Tawanda Tavengwa, Luke Chimuka
In this review paper, the milestones and challenges that have been achieved and experienced by African Environmental Scientists regarding the assessment of water pollution caused by the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in water bodies are highlighted. The identification and quantification of pharmaceuticals in the African water bodies is important to the general public at large due to the lack of information. The consumption of pharmaceuticals to promote human health is usually followed by excretion of these drugs via urine or fecal matter due to their slight transformation in the human metabolism...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214720/treatment-efficiency-and-economic-feasibility-of-biological-oxidation-membrane-filtration-and-separation-processes-and-advanced-oxidation-for-the-purification-and-valorization-of-olive-mill-wastewater
#2
L Ioannou-Ttofa, I Michael-Kordatou, S C Fattas, A Eusebio, B Ribeiro, M Rusan, A R B Amer, S Zuraiqi, M Waismand, C Linder, Z Wiesman, J Gilron, D Fatta-Kassinos
Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a major waste stream resulting from numerous operations that occur during the production stages of olive oil. The resulting effluent contains various organic and inorganic contaminants and its environmental impact can be notable. The present work aims at investigating the efficiency of (i) jet-loop reactor with ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system (Jacto.MBR), (ii) solar photo-Fenton oxidation after coagulation/flocculation pre-treatment and (iii) integrated membrane filtration processes (i...
February 12, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210864/pharmacy-benefit-management-companies-do-they-create-value-in-the-us-healthcare-system
#3
Alan Lyles
Pharmacy benefit management companies (PBMs) perform functions in the US market-based healthcare system that may be performed by public agencies or quasi-public institutions in other nations. By aggregating lives covered under their many individual contracts with payers, PBMs have formidable negotiating power. They influence pharmaceutical insurance coverage, design the terms of coverage in a plan's drug benefit, and create competition among providers for inclusion in a plan's network. PBMs have, through intermediation, the potential to secure lower drug prices and to improve rational prescribing...
February 16, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206879/development-and-validation-of-a-green-analytical-method-for-the-determination-of-norfloxacin-in-raw-material-by-ftir-spectrophotometry
#4
Jéssica Sayuri Hisano Natori, Eliane Gandolpho Tótoli, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Norfloxacin is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, widely used in humans and animals for the treatment of urinary tract infections. It is a second-generation fluoroquinolone. Several analytical methods to analyze norfloxacin have been described in the literature. However, most of them are complex and require the use of large amounts of organic solvents. This paper describes the development and validation of a green analytical method for the determination of norfloxacin in raw material by FTIR spectrophotometry...
November 1, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198956/evaluating-pharmaceutical-waste-disposal-in-pediatric-units
#5
Maria Angélica Randoli de Almeida, Ana Maria Miranda Martins Wilson, Maria Angélica Sorgini Peterlini
OBJECTIVE: To verify the disposal of pharmaceutical waste performed in pediatric units. METHOD: A descriptive and observational study conducted in a university hospital. The convenience sample consisted of pharmaceuticals discarded during the study period. Handling and disposal during preparation and administration were observed. Data collection took place at pre-established times and was performed using a pre-validated instrument. RESULTS: 356 drugs disposals were identified (35...
November 2016: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179742/impact-of-sterile-compounding-batch-frequency-on-pharmaceutical-waste
#6
Ghalib Abbasi, Evan Gay
Purpose: To measure the impact of increasing sterile compounding batch frequency on pharmaceutical waste as it relates to cost and quantity. Methods: Pharmaceutical IV waste at a tertiary care hospital was observed and recorded for 7 days. The batching frequency of compounded sterile products (CSPs) was then increased from twice daily to 4 times daily. After a washout period, pharmaceutical IV waste was then recorded for another 7 days. The quantity of units wasted and the cost were compared between both phases to determine the impact that batching frequency has on IV waste, specifically among high- and low-cost drugs...
January 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159251/fish-viscera-protein-hydrolysates-production-potential-applications-and-functional-and-bioactive-properties
#7
REVIEW
Oscar Villamil, Henry Váquiro, José F Solanilla
The aquaculture and fishery chain is an important part of the economy of many countries around the world; in recent years it has experienced significant growth that generates more and more quantities of waste, which are mostly discarded, impacting the environment, despite having a useful chemical composition in various industrial sectors. This article presents a review of the agroindustrial potential of fish wastes, especially viscera, as a source for obtaining native protein and hydrolysates, explaining their production process, chemical composition and functional and bioactive properties that are important to the agricultural, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food and nutraceutical industry...
June 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137573/rapid-proteomics-to-prospect-and-validate-novel-bacterial-metabolism-induced-by-environmental-burden
#8
C L Yu, S Brooks, Y Li, M Subramanian, R Summers, M Pope
Understanding the pathophysiology of genes and enzymes involved in caffeine metabolism can have extracurricular benefits, such as providing distinct methylxanthines as intermediates for pharmaceutical synthesis, and also improve environmental waste remediation. The strains Pseudomonas putida CBB5 and CES may provide insights into these applications because they may both be induced to degrade caffeine, yet the latter thrives in concentrations >8.0gL(-1); threefold higher than any other bacteria. We took a novel approach toward identifying the enzymatic pathways in both Pseudomonas sp...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130988/single-and-multi-component-adsorption-of-psychiatric-pharmaceuticals-onto-alternative-and-commercial-carbons
#9
Vânia Calisto, Guilaine Jaria, Carla Patrícia Silva, Catarina I A Ferreira, Marta Otero, Valdemar I Esteves
This work describes the adsorptive removal of three widely consumed psychiatric pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, paroxetine and oxazepam) from ultrapure water. Two different adsorbents were used: a commercial activated carbon and a non-activated waste-based carbon (PS800-150-HCl), produced by pyrolysis of primary paper mill sludge. These adsorbents were used in single, binary and ternary batch experiments in order to determine the adsorption kinetics and equilibrium isotherms of the considered pharmaceuticals...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128923/base-mediated-hydroamination-of-alkynes
#10
Monika Patel, Rakesh K Saunthwal, Akhilesh K Verma
Inter- or intramolecular hydroamination reactions are a paradigmatic example of modern sustainable organic chemistry, as they are a catalytic, 100% atom-economical, and waste-free process of fundamental simplicity in which an amine is added to an alkyne substrate. Many enamines are found in many natural and synthetic compounds possessing interesting physiological and biological activities. The development of synthetic protocols for such molecules and their transformation is a persistent research topic in pharmaceutical and organic chemistry...
January 27, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128839/proanthocyanidins-purified-from-fruit-pericarp-of-clausena-lansium-lour-skeels-as-efficient-tyrosinase-inhibitors-structure-evaluation-inhibitory-activity-and-molecular-mechanism
#11
Wei-Ming Chai, Mei-Zhen Lin, Hui-Ling Feng, Zheng-Rong Zou, Ying-Xia Wang
Fruit pericarp of Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels, a food waste, was selected as a raw material for proanthocyanidins. The proanthocyanidins' structures were integrally analyzed using three methods: matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The results elucidated that these compounds were composed of prodelphinidin (75%) and procyanidin (25%) with a degree of polymerization (DP) up to the 20-mers...
January 27, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128021/drug-product-immobilization-in-recycled-polyethylene-polypropylene-reclaimed-from-municipal-solid-waste-experimental-and-numerical-assessment
#12
Walid Saad, Wael Slika, Zara Mawla, George Saad
Recently, there has been a growing interest in identifying suitable routes for the disposal of pharmaceutical wastes. This study investigates the potential of matrix materials composed of recycled polyethylene/polypropylene reclaimed from municipal solid wastes at immobilizing pharmaceutical solid wastes. Diclofenac (DF) drug product was embedded in boards of recycled plastic material, and leaching in water was assessed at various temperatures. DF concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and revealed a maximum leachable fraction of 4% under accelerated conditions of 70°C, and less than 0...
January 27, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124947/differentiating-sarcopenia-and-cachexia-among-patients-with-cancer
#13
Sarah J Peterson, Marisa Mozer
Patients with cancer are at an increased risk for muscle loss via 2 distinct mechanisms: sarcopenia, defined as the age-associated decrease in muscle mass related to changes in muscle synthesis signaling pathways, and/or cachexia, defined as cytokine-mediated degradation of muscle and adipose depots. Both wasting disorders are prevalent; among patients with cancer, 15%-50% are sarcopenic and 25%-80% are cachectic. Muscle mass may be difficult to quantify in overweight/obese individuals. Often, overweight/obese patients with cancer are assumed to be normally nourished when in fact severe muscle depletion may be present...
February 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121532/boosting-a-drug-s-market-share-can-cross-a-dangerous-line
#14
Thomas Reinke
Hub programs have emerged as a profitable new line of business in the sales and distribution side of the pharmaceutical industry that has got more than its fair share of wheeling and dealing. But they spell trouble if they spark collusion, threaten patients, or waste federal dollars.
July 2016: Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113077/performance-of-an-anaerobic-membrane-bioreactor-for-pharmaceutical-wastewater-treatment
#15
Jan Svojitka, Lukáš Dvořák, Martin Studer, Jürg Oliver Straub, Heinz Frömelt, Thomas Wintgens
Anaerobic treatment of wastewater and waste organic solvents originating from the pharmaceutical and chemical industries was tested in a pilot anaerobic membrane bioreactor, which was operated for 580days under different operational conditions. The goal was to test the long-term treatment efficiency and identify inhibitory factors. The highest COD removal of up to 97% was observed when the influent concentration was increased by the addition of methanol (up to 25gL(-1) as COD). Varying and generally lower COD removal efficiency (around 78%) was observed when the anaerobic membrane bioreactor was operated with incoming pharmaceutical wastewater as sole carbon source...
April 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112087/tackling-the-climate-targets-set-by-the-paris-agreement-cop-21-green-leadership-empowers-public-hospitals-to-overcome-obstacles-and-challenges-in-a-resource-constrained-environment
#16
E Weimann, B Patel
The healthcare sector itself contributes to climate change, the creation of hazardous waste, use of toxic metals such as mercury, and water and air pollution. To mitigate the effect of healthcare provision on the deteriorating environment and avoid creating further challenges for already burdened health systems, Global Green Hospitals was formed as a global network. Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH), as the leading academic hospital in Africa, joined the network in 2014. Since then, several projects have been initiated to reduce the amount of general waste, energy consumption and food waste, and create an environmentally friendlier and more sustainable hospital in a resource-constrained public healthcare setting...
December 21, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110630/healthcare-waste-management-during-disasters-and-its-effects-on-climate-change-lessons-from-2010-earthquake-and-cholera-tragedies-in-haiti
#17
Emilia M Raila, David O Anderson
Despite growing effects of human activities on climate change throughout the world, and global South in particular, scientists are yet to understand how poor healthcare waste management practices in an emergency influences the climate change. This article presents new findings on climate change risks of healthcare waste disposal during and after the 2010 earthquake and cholera disasters in Haiti. The researchers analysed quantities of healthcare waste incinerated by the United Nations Mission in Haiti for 60 months (2009 to 2013)...
January 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107915/a-clean-photometric-method-for-the-determination-of-losartan-potassium-in-pharmaceuticals-exploiting-light-scattering-effect-and-employing-a-multicommuted-flow-analysis-approach
#18
Manoel J A Lima, Boaventura F Reis
This paper describes an environmentally friendly procedure for the determination of losartan potassium (Los-K) in pharmaceuticals. The photometric method was based on the light scattering effect due to particles suspension, which were formed by the reaction of Los-K with Cu (II) ions. The method was automated employing a multicommuted flow analysis approach, implemented using solenoid mini-pumps for fluid propelling and a homemade LED based photometer. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the procedure showed a linear relationship in the concentration range of 23...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098803/optimization-of-the-production-of-1-phenylethanol-using-enzymes-from-flowers-of-tea-camellia-sinensis-plants
#19
Fang Dong, Ying Zhou, Lanting Zeng, Naoharu Watanabe, Xinguo Su, Ziyin Yang
1-Phenylethanol (1PE) can be used as a fragrance in food flavoring and cosmetic industries and as an intermediate in the pharmaceutical industry. 1PE can be synthesized from acetophenone, and the cost of 1PE is higher than the cost of acetophenone. Therefore, it is important to establish an effective and low-cost approach for producing 1PE. Our previous studies found that tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers, which are an abundant and waste resource, contained enzymes that could transform acetophenone to 1PE. In the present study, we extracted crude enzymes from tea flowers and optimized the production conditions of 1PE using response surface methodology...
January 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092003/validated-electrochemical-and-chromatographic-quantifications-of-some-antibiotic-residues-in-pharmaceutical-industrial-waste-water
#20
Heba K Ibrahim, Mona M Abdel-Moety, Sherif A Abdel-Gawad, Medhat A Al-Ghobashy, Mohamed Abdel Kawy
Realistic implementation of ion selective electrodes (ISEs) into environmental monitoring programs has always been a challenging task. This could be largely attributed to difficulties in validation of ISE assay results. In this study, the electrochemical response of amoxicillin trihydrate (AMX), ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CPLX), trimethoprim (TMP), and norfloxacin (NFLX) was studied by the fabrication of sensitive membrane electrodes belonging to two types of ISEs, which are polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane electrodes and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes...
January 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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