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pharmaceutical waste

Thangavelu Kokulnathan, Jeyaraj Vinoth Kumar, Shen-Ming Chen, Raj Karthik, Arumugam Elangovan, Velluchamy Muthuraj
In the modern world, the contamination of ecosystem by human and veterinary pharmaceutical drugs through the metabolic excretion, improper disposal/industrial waste has been subjected to a hot issue. Therefore, exploitation of exclusive structured material and reliable technique is a necessary task to the precise detection of drugs. With this regards, we made an effort for the fabrication of novel one-dimensional (1D) stannous tungstate nanorods (β-SnW NRs) via simple sonochemical approach and used as an electrochemical sensor for the detection of antipsychotic drug chlorpromazine (CPZ) for the first time...
June 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Krzysztof Piaskowski, Renata Świderska-Dąbrowska, Paweł K Zarzycki
Synthetic dyes or colorants are key chemicals for various industries producing textiles, food, cosmetics, pharmaceutics, printer inks, leather, and plastics. Nowadays, the textile industry is the major consumer of dyes. The mass of synthetic colorants used by this industry is estimated at the level of 1 ÷ 3 × 105 tons, in comparison with the total annual consumption of around 7 × 105 tons worldwide. Synthetic dyes are relatively easy to detect but difficult to eliminate from wastewater and surface water ecosystems because of their aromatic chemical structure...
April 18, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Manuela M Moreira, M Fátima Barroso, João Vasconcellos Porto, M J Ramalhosa, Jaroslava Švarc-Gajić, Letícia Estevinho, Simone Morais, Cristina Delerue-Matos
Since annually a high amount of wastes is produced in vine pruning, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of vine shoots from two Portuguese grape varieties (Touriga Nacional - TN and Tinta Roriz - TR) to be used as a natural source of phenolic compounds. To reach this goal, three techniques were explored, namely microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), subcritical water extraction (SWE) and conventional extraction (CE). The phenolic composition of the extracts, antioxidant and biological activities were evaluated by spectrophotometry and chromatography...
April 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Alexandra Moschona, Maria Liakopoulou-Kyriakides
Grapes (Vitis vinifera) are produced in large amounts worldwide and mostly are used for winemaking. Their untreated wastes are rich in valuable secondary metabolites, such as phenolics. Thus, in this study, white and red wine wastes ("Malagouzia" and "Syrah" variety) were investigated for their added value phenolics, which were analyzed by HPLC-ESI/MS and subsequently encapsulated in several polymers. Extracts from all wastes gave high amounts of total phenolics (13±2.72-22±2.69 mg g-1 ) and possessed high antioxidant activity (67-97%)...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Microencapsulation
Małgorzata Grzesiuk, Damian Mielecki, Tomasz Pilżys, Damian Garbicz, Michał Marcinkowski, Elżbieta Grzesiuk
The waste of commonly used medicines is known to contaminate freshwater ecosystems. Pharmaceuticals can be toxic, mutagenic, or modifying to freshwater organisms even at low concentrations if consider their permanent presence in the environment. Chemotherapeutics used to treat cancer, and in particular alkylating agents, contribute significantly to this form of pollution, the latter introducing cytotoxic and/or mutagenic lesions to the DNA and RNA of organisms which can be disruptive to their cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the alkylating anticancer agent cyclophosphamide (CP) on Daphnia magna clones...
2018: PloS One
Fan Zhu
Konjac glucomannan (KGM) is a major polysaccharide from the corm of Amorphophallus konjac. Native KGM has limited uses and has been chemically/physically/enzymatically modified to expand the range of functional properties. This mini-review summarises the recent advances of modifying KGM for diverse food and nonfood applications, focusing on the chemical and physical modifications. The chemical methods include substitution, grafting, cross-linking, oxidation, and deacetylation, whereas the physical modifications are electrospinning, microfluidic spinning, γ-irradiation, extrusion, and electric field processing...
August 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
John Price
Pharmacovigilance (PV) is under unprecedented stress from fundamental changes in a booming pharmaceutical industry, from the challenges of creating and maintaining an increasingly complex PV system in a globally diverse regulatory environment, and from unpredicted consequences of historical PV cost-reduction strategies. At the same time, talent availability lags demand, and many PV professionals may no longer be finding personal fulfillment in their careers. The situation creates risks for companies. Advantages and disadvantages of potential strategies to address this increasing problem at a corporate and industry level and in collaboration with regulatory agencies are discussed, as well as opportunities to adopt new technologies, including artificial intelligence and machine-learning to automate pharmacovigilance operations...
March 28, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Ahed Zyoud, Maysaa Ateeq, Muath H Helal, Samer H Zyoud, Hikmat S Hilal
Photo-catalytic degradation of waste pharmaceutics, with solar radiation, is described here as a feasible method to purify pre-contaminated soils. Phenazopyridine has been used as a model soil contaminant. Two different nano-size powders have been first examined as catalysts, namely commercial TiO2 (anatase) and commercial ZnO. As the ZnO showed higher catalytic efficiency, the study was then focused on it. The commercial ZnO powder was then compared with lab-prepared ZnO powder, and the latter shows relatively higher efficiency...
March 30, 2018: Environmental Technology
Bruno Henrique Schafhauser, Lauren A Kristofco, Cíntia Mara Ribas de Oliveira, Bryan W Brooks
Environmental observations of antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals have received attention as indicators of an urbanizing global water cycle. When connections between environment and development of antibiotic resistance (ABR) are considered, it is increasingly important to understand the life cycle of antibiotics. Here we examined the global occurrence of erythromycin (ERY) in: 1. wastewater effluent, inland waters, drinking water, groundwater, and estuarine and coastal systems; 2. sewage sludge, biosolids and sediments; and 3...
March 24, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Emanuele F Lessa, Matheus L Nunes, André R Fajardo
Waste coffee-grounds (WCG), a poorly explored source of biocompounds, were combined with chitosan (Cs) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in order to obtain composites. Overall, WCG showed a good interaction with the polymeric matrix and good dispersibility up to 10 wt-%. At 5 wt-% WCG, the composite exhibited a noticeable enhancement (from 10 to 44%) of the adsorption of pharmaceuticals (metamizol (MET), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), acetaminophen (ACE), and caffeine (CAF)) as compared to the pristine sample...
June 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Ana Carolina Kogawa, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Rifaximin, an oral antimicrobial, has many advantages because it is selective intestine, has minimal adverse effects and is used for the treatment of some diseases such as hepatic encephalopathy, irritable bowel syndrome, travelers' diarrhea, ulcerative colitis, Clostridium difficile and acute diarrhea. Rifaximin in the form of 200 mg tablets is commercially available. The crystalline α form is therapeutically safe and effective. In most of the official compendia, rifaximin has no monograph and in none of them is there a monograph for rifaximin tablets...
March 26, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Linke Ge, Qianqian Dong, Crispin Halsall, Chang-Er L Chen, Jun Li, Degao Wang, Peng Zhang, Ziwei Yao
Antibiotics are ubiquitous pollutants in aquatic systems and can exist as different dissociated species depending on the water pH. New knowledge of their multivariate photochemical behavior (i.e., the photobehavior of different ionized forms) is needed to improve our understanding on the fate and possible remediation of these pharmaceuticals in surface and waste waters. In this study, the photochemical degradation of aqueous tetracycline (TC) and its dissociated forms (TCH2 0 , TCH- , and TC2- ) was investigated...
March 25, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jakob Rehrl, Anssi-Pekka Karttunen, Niels Nicolaï, Theresa Hörmann, Martin Horn, Ossi Korhonen, Ingmar Nopens, Thomas De Beer, Johannes G Khinast
One major advantage of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing over traditional batch manufacturing is the possibility of enhanced in-process control, reducing out-of-specification and waste material by appropriate discharge strategies. The decision on material discharge can be based on the measurement of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) concentration at specific locations in the production line via process analytic technology (PAT), e.g. near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers. The implementation of the PAT instruments is associated with monetary investment and the long term operation requires techniques avoiding sensor drifts...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Ahmed S Fayed, Mamdouh R Rezk, Hoda M Marzouk, Samah S Abbas
In the present decade, great importance has been focused on the development of green analytical methods (GAM) as eco-friendly techniques. Minimizing the wastes, analysis time, hazardous reagents, sample size and energy are the main important principles for development of GAM. This manuscript describes a green, novel, rapid, accurate and reliable capillary zone electrophoresis method (CZE) for the simultaneous separation and determination of zofenopril calcium (ZOF) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in presence of two major impurities of HCT, namely; chlorothiazide (CT) and salamide (DSA)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Lau Kia Kian, Mohammad Jawaid, Hidayah Ariffin, Zoheb Karim
Roselle fiber is a renewable and sustainable agricultural waste enriched with cellulose polysaccharides. The isolation of Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) from roselle-derived microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is an alternative approach to recover the agricultural roselle plant residue. In the present study, acid hydrolysis with different reaction time was carried out to degrade the roselle-derived MCC to form NCC. The characterizations of isolated NCC were conducted through Fourier Transform Infrared Ray (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
S S Chung, J S Zheng, S R Burket, B W Brooks
Though antibiotic resistance (ABR) represents a major global health threat, contributions of landfill leachate to the life cycle of antibiotics and ABR development are poorly understood in rapidly urbanizing regions of developing countries. We selected one of the largest active landfills in Asia and two landfills that have been closed for 20 years to examine antibiotic occurrences in leachates and associated hazards during wet and dry season sampling events. We focused on some of the most commonly used human antibiotics in Hong Kong, one of the most populous Asian cities and the fourth most densely populated cities in the world...
March 15, 2018: Environment International
K Jena, J P Pandey, Ruchi Kumari, A K Sinha, V P Gupta, G P Singh
The present study, investigates the properties of sericin extracted from tasar silk fiber waste (TSFW). Separation of residual sericin from TSFW was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The molecular weight distribution of sericin was examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The results suggested that TSFW sericin represented a family of proteins with wide-ranging molecular weight distribution (11-245 kDa). Structural determination by FTIR revealed the presence of both α-helical and β-sheet structures...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Fotouh R Mansour, Neil D Danielson
Solvent-terminated dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (ST-DLLME) is a special mode of DLLME in which a demulsifying solvent is injected into the cloudy mixture of sample/extractant to break the emulsion and induce phase separation. The demulsification process starts by flocculation of the dispersed microdroplets by Ostwald ripening or coalescence to form larger droplets. Then, the extractant either floats or sinks depending on its density as compared with that for the aqueous sample. The demulsifier should have high surface activity and low surface tension in order to be capable of inducing phase separation...
August 3, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Guilaine Jaria, Carla Patrícia Silva, João A B P Oliveira, Sérgio M Santos, María Victoria Gil, Marta Otero, Vânia Calisto, Valdemar I Esteves
The wide occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments urges the development of cost-effective solutions for their removal from water. In a circular economy context, primary paper mill sludge (PS) was used to produce activated carbon (AC) aiming the adsorptive removal of these contaminants. The use of low-cost precursors for the preparation of ACs capable of competing with commercial ACs continues to be a challenge. A full factorial design of four factors (pyrolysis temperature, residence time, precursor/activating agent ratio, and type of activating agent) at two levels was applied to the production of AC using PS as precursor...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Fabio Tonin, Isabel W C E Arends
Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a pharmaceutical ingredient widely used in clinics. As bile acid it solubilizes cholesterol gallstones and improves the liver function in case of cholestatic diseases. UDCA can be obtained from cholic acid (CA), which is the most abundant and least expensive bile acid available. The now available chemical routes for the obtainment of UDCA yield about 30% of final product. For these syntheses several protection and deprotection steps requiring toxic and dangerous reagents have to be performed, leading to the production of a series of waste products...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
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