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Reconstruction of the. Spine

Yan Wu, Yaojun Jiang, Xueli Han, Mingyue Wang, Jianbo Gao
Background: To investigate the repeatability and accuracy of quantitative CT (QCT) measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by low-mAs using iterative model reconstruction (IMR) technique based on phantom model. Methods: European spine phantom (ESP) was selected and measured on the Philips Brilliance iCT Elite FHD machine for 10 times. Data were transmitted to the QCT PRO workstation to measure BMD (mg/cm3 ) of the ESP (L1, L2, L3). Scanning method: the voltage of X-ray tube is 120 kV, the electric current of X-ray tube output in five respective groups A-E were: 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mAs...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Hai-Hao Wu, Tao Tang, Qing-Jiang Pang, Xin-Hua Yuan, Chun-Guang Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To compare the stability of subaxial cervical anterior transpedicular screw(ATPS) fixation and three traditional fixations for three-column injury. METHODS: Six specimens of cervical spine were prepared. After measurememt of the range of motion(ROM) in intact state, the specimens were made into three-column injury models. The models were reconstructed with an anterior cervical cage, and stabilized by ATPS, anterior plate(AP), anterior plate + lateral mass screw(AP+LMS) and posterior transpedicular screw(PTPS)...
January 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Hideki Sudo, Yuichiro Abe, Terufumi Kokabu, Kei Kuroki, Akira Iwata, Norimasa Iwasaki
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, non-randomized study. OBJECTIVE: To assess surgical outcomes of multilevel facetectomy and rod curvature with simultaneous double-rod rotation technique for anatomical spinal reconstruction in thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although some surgical techniques maintain or restore thoracic kyphosis (TK), next-generation strategies for thoracic AIS should include corrections in three anatomical planes...
March 9, 2018: Spine
Joel B Huleatt, Carl W Nissen, Matthew D Milewski
The treatment of sports injuries in the skeletally immature has a unique set of complications. Growth deformity may occur after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; therefore, skeletal age is used to help guide the choice between physeal sparing and transphyseal techniques. Arthrofibrosis after tibial spine fracture fixation can be reduced by initiating immediate range of motion, and should be treated early and cautiously to avoid iatrogenic fracture. Nonunions of medial epicondyle elbow fractures are more common with nonoperative treatment, but seldom lead to clinical problems outside of certain athletes...
April 2018: Clinics in Sports Medicine
Cecilia L Dalle Ore, Darryl Lau, Jessica L Davis, Michael M Safaee, Christopher P Ames
Juvenile ossifying fibroma (JOF) is a rare benign bone tumor that occurs most frequently in the craniofacial bones of children and young adults. There are few case reports that describe its involvement outside the craniofacial skeleton, especially within the spinal column. While JOF is classified as a benign lesion, it may be locally aggressive and demonstrate a high propensity for recurrence, even after resection. Definitive surgical management may be challenging in naive cases, but it is particularly challenging in recurrent cases and when extensive spinal reconstruction is warranted...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Linton Evans, Jonathan D Olson, Yunliang Cai, Xiaoyao Fan, Keith D Paulsen, David W Roberts, Songbai Ji, S Scott Lollis
BACKGROUND: Current methods of spine registration for image guidance have a variety of limitations related to accuracy, efficiency, and cost. OBJECTIVE: To define the accuracy of stereovision-mediated co-registration of a spinal surgical field. METHODS: A total of 10 explanted porcine spines were used. Dorsal soft tissue was removed to a variable degree. Bone screw fiducials were placed in each spine and high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scanning performed...
March 6, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Junji Kamogawa, Osamu Kato, Tatsunori Morizane
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to introduce a new method of producing three-dimensional (3D) images of vertebral venous plexuses (VVPs) by 3D-MRI with and without contrast media, to identify pathoanatomical features that might accelerate or modify spinal canal stenosis. METHODS: We used a 1.5-T MRI unit with two different 3D sequences with and without contrast media. Multi planar reconstruction (MPR) images of VVPs could be obtained by volume image subtraction methods with a workstation for dural sac from whole 3D volume MPR without contrast media, using images before and after gadoteridol injection...
March 7, 2018: Japanese Journal of Radiology
Danika Paulo, Alexa Semonche, Rachana Tyagi
BACKGROUND: Giant invasive spinal schwannomas (GISS) comprise a rare, specific subtype of schwannomas that extend over two spinal levels, erode vertebral bodies and invade extraspinal tissues. Optimal surgical management of resulting spinal instability has yet to be determined, and overall there is limited published literature on GISS. We report an innovative method used to treat a rare case of lumbosacral GISS using a triangular frame reconstruction to reconnect the spinal column to the pelvis after tumor debulking...
March 3, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Md Mohibbullah, Jae-Suk Choi, Mohammad Maqueshudul Haque Bhuiyan, Md Nazmul Haque, Md Khalilur Rahman, Il Soo Moon, Yong-Ki Hong
Exogenous neurotrophins can induce neuronal differentiation, outgrowth, survival, and synaptic function in the central nervous system. In primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons, an ethanol extract of the red alga Gracilariopsis chorda (GCE) and its active compound arachidonic acid (AA) significantly increased the densities of dendritic filopodia and spines, promoted the expression of presynaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), induced robust synaptogenesis, and increased the expression of cell division control protein 42 (CDC42) and actin-related protein 2 (ARP2), which are important for actin organization in dendritic protrusions, and facilitated presynaptic plasticity by increasing the size of the synaptic vesicle pool at presynaptic nerve terminals...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Adam E M Eltorai, Wesley M Durand, Jack M Haglin, Lee E Rubin, Arnold-Peter C Weiss, Alan H Daniels
Understanding trends in reimbursement is critical to the financial sustainability of orthopedic practices. Little research has examined physician fee trends over time for orthopedic procedures. This study evaluated trends in Medicare reimbursements for orthopedic surgical procedures. The Medicare Physician Fee Schedule was examined for Current Procedural Terminology code values for the most common orthopedic and nonorthopedic procedures between 2000 and 2016. Prices were adjusted for inflation to 2016-dollar values...
March 1, 2018: Orthopedics
Shaofu Wang, Jing Li, Guohua Lü, Bing Wang, Xiaobin Wang
PURPOSE: Hemivertebra of the cervical spine is a rare but complex spinal malformation. To our knowledge, only one publication describes excision of an upper-middle cervical (between C2 and C4) hemivertebra. We present our experience with two cases of C3 hemivertebra resection and torticollis correction via a combined anterior-posterior-anterior surgical approach and short segment fixation. METHODS: Two 12-year-old patients with torticollis due to congenital C3 hemivertebra underwent surgery consisting of combined anterior vertebral body osteotomy, posterior element resection with segment instrumentation and deformity correction, and iliac bone graft reconstruction and fixation via an anterior approach...
February 28, 2018: European Spine Journal
Luz M Suarez, Samuel Alberquilla, Jose R García-Montes, Rosario Moratalla
In toxin-based models of Parkinson's disease (PD), striatal projection neurons (SPNs) exhibit dendritic atrophy and spine loss concurrent with an increase in excitability. Chronic L-DOPA-treatment that induces dyskinesia selectively restores spine density and excitability in indirect pathway SPNs (iSPNs), whereas spine loss and hyper-excitability persist in direct pathway SPNs (dSPNs). These alterations have only been characterized in toxin-based models of PD, raising the possibility that they are an artifact of exposure to the toxin, which may engage compensatory mechanisms independent of the PD-like pathology or due to the loss of dopaminergic afferents...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Nicolás Pereira, Diego Valenzuela, Günther Mangelsdorff, Matías Kufeke, Ricardo Roa
Design and preoperative planning of microsurgical flaps are fundamental steps for successful surgery. Currently, computed tomographic angiography is considered the gold standard, and new technologies such as thermography could complement its usefulness. The aim of this study was to determine the concordance between thermographic images obtained with a smartphone thermal camera and computed tomographic angiography for detecting perforators using the anterolateral thigh flap area as a model. A concordance study of diagnostic tests was performed in patients who underwent limb reconstruction in 2016...
March 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Yongli Wang, Xiangyang Wang
PURPOSE: To report a minimum 12 months follow-up results of our improved bone graft method For upper cervica surgery with posterior approach. METHODS: 52 consecutive patients which included odontoid nonunion in 33 patients, atlantoaxial instability in 11 patients and occipito-cervical deformity in 8 patients who underwent posterior C1-C2 transarticular screw /screw-rod internal fixation ( 41 cases )and occipitocervical fusion ( 11 cases ) with the improved bone graft technique...
February 21, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Zai-Hua Zhao, Gang Zheng, Tao Wang, Ke-Jun Du, Xiao Han, Wen-Jing Luo, Xue-Feng Shen, Jing-Yuan Chen
Lead (Pb) is known to impair children's cognitive function. It has been previously shown that developmental Pb exposure alters dendritic spine formation in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. However, the underlying mechanism has not yet been defined. In this study, a low-level gestational Pb exposure (GLE) rat model was employed to investigate the impact of Pb on the spine density of the hippocampal pyramidal neurons and its regulatory mechanism. Pb exposure resulted in impaired performance of the rats in the Morris water maze tasks, and in decreased EPSC amplitudes in hippocampal CA3-CA1 regions...
February 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ravish Shammi Patel, Chetan Anil Dhamne, Anil Gopinathan, Nishant Kumar, Naresh Kumar
PURPOSE: Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) of spine are conventionally treated with en-bloc resection or intralesional excision/curettage and reconstruction or filling of defects with bone cement. For the treatment of upper cervical ABCs, en-bloc resections are often not desirable considering the risk/benefit ratio while the risk of recurrence after intralesional excision is high. Hence, alternative management options are often necessary. We describe our clinical experience with one such treatment alternative-denosumab for the treatment of ABC of Atlas...
February 22, 2018: European Spine Journal
John R Holroyd, Sue Edyvean
OBJECTIVE: To review doses to patients undergoing cervical spine CT examinations in the UK. METHODS: A data collection form was developed and distributed to medical physicists and radiographers via e-mail distribution lists. The form requested details of CT scanners, exposure protocols and patient dose index information. RESULTS: Data were received for 73 scanners. It was seen that 97% of scanners used automatic exposure control, and 60% of scanners used an iterative reconstruction technique for cervical spine examinations...
February 22, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Cailey Bromer, Thomas M Bartol, Jared B Bowden, Dusten D Hubbard, Dakota C Hanka, Paola V Gonzalez, Masaaki Kuwajima, John M Mendenhall, Patrick H Parker, Wickliffe C Abraham, Terrence J Sejnowski, Kristen M Harris
An approach combining signal detection theory and precise 3D reconstructions from serial section electron microscopy (3DEM) was used to investigate synaptic plasticity and information storage capacity at medial perforant path synapses in adult hippocampal dentate gyrus in vivo. Induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) markedly increased the frequencies of both small and large spines measured 30 minutes later. This bidirectional expansion resulted in heterosynaptic counterbalancing of total synaptic area per unit length of granule cell dendrite...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Irene Espadas, Thomas W Maddox, Felipe de Vicente
Objectives The objective of this study was to define safe corridors for the optimal placement of bicortical implants in the feline cervical spine (C2-T1) using CT. Methods CT images of feline cervical spines (n = 16) were reviewed retrospectively. Multiplanar reconstructions were used to define the optimal safe corridors. Safe corridors were defined by their angle of insertion, width and length. The insertion point within the vertebral body was also described. Vertebral measurements were compared between vertebrae using multilevel linear regression, and left and right measurements within vertebrae were compared with the paired samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
John Duff, Mir M Hussain, Noelle Klocke, Jonathan A Harris, Soumya S Yandamuri, Lukas Bobinski, Roy T Daniel, Brandon S Bucklen
BACKGROUND: Cervical vertebral body fractures generally are treated through an anterior-posterior approach. Cervical pedicle screws offer an alternative to circumferential fixation. This biomechanical study quantifies whether cervical pedicle screws alone can restore the stability of a three-column vertebral body fracture, making standard 360° reconstruction unnecessary. METHODS: Range of motion (2.0 Nm) in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation was tested on 10 cadaveric specimens (five/group) at C2-T1 with a spine kinematics simulator...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
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