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I Raška, M Rašková, V Zikán, J Škrha
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with increased fracture risk; the underlying mechanism remains unexplained. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between body composition and bone and glucose metabolism in postmenopausal women with T2DM. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition. A total of 68 postmenopausal women with T2DM and 71 controls were eligible for the study. In contrast to normal BMD in T2DM, a similar prevalence of low-trauma fractures was observed in both groups...
October 26, 2016: Physiological Research
Joshua H F Cooper, Blake E G Collins, David R Adams, Robert A Robergs, Cheyne E Donges
Purpose. Limited data exists for the effects of sprint-interval training (SIT) and endurance training (ET) on total body composition, abdominal visceral adipose tissue, and plasma inflammation. Moreover, whether "active" or "passive" recovery in SIT provides a differential effect on these measures remains uncertain. Methods. Sedentary middle-aged men (n = 62; 49.5 ± 5.8 y; 29.7 ± 3.7 kg·m(2)) underwent abdominal computed tomography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, venepuncture, and exercise testing before and after the interventions, which included the following: 12 wks 3 d·wk(-1) ET (n = 15; 50-60 min cycling; 80% HRmax), SIT (4-10 × 30 s sprint efforts) with passive (P-SIT; n = 15) or active recovery (A-SIT; n = 15); or nonexercise control condition (CON; n = 14)...
2016: Journal of Obesity
F Marzona, N Parri, A Nocerino, M Giacalone, E Valentini, S Masi, L Bussolin
PURPOSE: Traumatic diaphragm rupture (TDR) is a rare complication of trauma in pediatric age and may be easily missed by the severity of associated injuries so that delayed emergent presentation can occur with increased rate of morbidity and mortality. No review has been available to guide clinicians through the pitfalls and the initial diagnostic approach to pediatric TDR. METHODS: A Medline thorough search on TDR was conducted using different queries. English language citations were identified during the period of January 2000 through December 2014 limiting the search to pediatric age (0-18 years)...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
P X Kuan, P W Tan, A T Jobli, A R Norsila
INTRODUCTION: Differences in systolic blood pressure reading between arms are common but could signal trouble if the discrepancy is significant. Early detection of aortic dissection could invariably determine patient's survivability. Hence, a high index of suspicion with prompt diagnostic imaging is vital for accurate diagnosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 35-year-old lady was referred from district hospital for hypertensive cardiomyopathy complicated by acute pulmonary oedema...
August 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Taulant Muka, Lauren C Blekkenhorst, Joshua R Lewis, Richar L Prince, Nicole S Erler, Albert Hofman, Oscar H Franco, Fernando Rivadeneira, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study whether dietary fat composition (n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio (PUFAs) and PUFAs and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) ratio) is associated with total body fat (TF) and body fat distribution and whether this association was modified by the presence of chronic disease in middle-aged and elderly women in two population-based cohorts in the Netherlands and Australia. METHODS: The study was performed in the Rotterdam Study (RS), a prospective cohort study among subjects aged 55 years and older (N = 1182 women) and the Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome Study (CAIFOS), a 5-year randomized controlled trial among women age 70+ (N = 891)...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
K K Bredahl, M Taudorf, L Lönn, K C Vogt, H Sillesen, J P Eiberg
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Surveillance after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is mandatory and computed tomography angiography (CTA) is considered the standard imaging modality, although patients are exposed to ionizing radiation and nephrotoxic contrast medium. The primary aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic efficacy of duplex ultrasound (DUS) and contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) using CTA as the gold standard. The secondary aim was to determine the clinical consequences of endoleaks missed by DUS and CEUS, or CTA...
October 16, 2016: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Metin Ercan, Mehmet Aziret, Kerem Karaman, Birol Bostancı, Musa Akoğlu
INTRODUCTION: Diaphragmatic hernia secondary to traumatic rupture is a rare entity which can occur after stab wound injuries or blunt abdominal traumas. We aimed to report successfully management of dual mesh repair for a large diaphragmatic defect. CASE REPORT: A 66-year-old male was admitted with a right sided diaphragmatic hernia which occurred ten years ago due to a traffic accident. He had abdominal pain with worsened breath. Chest X-ray showed an elevated right diaphragm...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Jacinthe Leclerc, Marie Arsenault, Jean-Pierre Després, Patrice Brassard, Valérie Gaudreault, Jean Bergeron, Natalie Alméras, Angelo Tremblay, Audrey Auclair, Marie-Kristelle Ross, Stéphanie Denault-Bissonnette, Paul Poirier
BACKGROUND: Abdominal obesity and presence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are associated with cardiac abnormalities. Among those, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is the most frequently encountered in clinical practice. Few studies evaluated the reversibility of LVDD by an approach promoting lifestyle modifications in abdominally obese subjects with MetS. METHODS: We assessed the impact of a 1-year lifestyle modification program combining nutritional and physical activity counseling on LVDD and metabolic profile of abdominally obese men with MetS...
October 18, 2016: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Robert P Olympia, Robert Wilkinson, Jennifer Dunnick, Brendan J Dougherty, Debra Zauner
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to describe pediatric emergency department (ED) referrals from urgent care centers and to determine the percentage of referrals considered essential and serious. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted between April 2013 and April 2015 on patients younger than 21 years referred directly to an ED in central Pennsylvania from surrounding urgent care centers. Referrals were considered essential or serious based on investigations/procedures performed or medications/consultations received in the ED...
October 8, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
A Spek, B Szabados, B Ziegelmüller, C Stief, M D'Anastasi, M Staehler
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the usage of different guidelines and to estimate the impact of changed recommendation in routine management, therapy and follow-up of patients with renal cell cancer (RCC). METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire was sent to 600 urologists in Germany. Twenty-seven percent of them were included in the analysis. The questions were about the practice setting, surgical and medical treatment of RCC, follow-up modalities, knowledge and usage of RCC guidelines...
October 18, 2016: Urologia Internationalis
Zulfa Abrahams, Naomi Levitt, Maia Lesosky, Gary Maartens, Joel Dave
Long-term use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increases the risk of developing lipodystrophy. Few studies from Africa have used longitudinal data to assess the development of lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy. We use clinical anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to describe changes in body fat distribution over a 24-month period in individuals initiated on ART. A convenience sample of black South Africans (55 men and 132 women) were recruited and followed for 24 months after commencing ART...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Nazan Ülgen-Tekerek, Başak Akyıldız, Alper Özcan, Ayşe Betül Ergül, Cüneyt Turan, Serdal Özcan
Late presentation of congenital diaphragmatic hernia is 5-30% of all congenital diaphragma hernia cases. It can present as Morgagni, Bochdalek and paraesophageal hernia. Misdiagnosis can result in significant morbiditiy. A 17-month-old girl presented with vomiting and abdominal pain. On physical examination, circulatory disturbance, cyanosis, abdominal distantion were present. Her O2 saturation was 60% and she was tachycardic (180 bpm) and tachypneic (58 bpm) with hypotension (60/35 mmhg). Patient's heart and mediastinum were shifted into the right hemithorax on the chest X-ray...
November 2015: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
D A Khubezov, S N Trushin, K V Puchkov, D K Puchkov, A Yu Ogorel'tsev
AIM: to present the results of treatment of rectal foreign bodies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 15-year outcomes of 112 patients with rectal foreign bodies were analyzed. RESULTS: Outpatient and hospital care were applied in 52 (46%) and 60 (54%) of cases respectively. Transanal removal was made in 97 (87%) patients including 28 (25%) cases of general anaesthesia. 14 (13%) patients underwent surgery. Colostomy was performed in 7 (6%) cases. We presented cases of foreign bodies removal through laparotomy, colotomy and SILS-assisted transanal approach...
2016: Khirurgiia
Iana M de Araujo, Carlos E G Salmon, Andressa K Nahas, Marcello H Nogueira-Barbosa, Jorge Elias Junior, Francisco Ja de Paula
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of bone mass and marrow adipose tissue (MAT) with other fat depots, insulin resistance, bone remodeling markers, adipokines and glucose control in type 2 diabetes and obesity. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study; comprised 24 controls (C), 26 obese (O) and 28 type 2 diabetes. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to determine bone mineral density (BMD). Blood samples were collected for biochemical measurements. 1H Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to assess MAT in the L3 vertebra and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess intrahepatic lipids, visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
Min Yang, Jie Lin, Xiaoguang Ma, Chaonan Zhu, Chen Wei, Lu Wang, Jingjing Jiao, Shankuan Zhu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations of regional body fat distribution with metabolic risk factors among Chinese. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Truncal fat (TF) and leg fat (LF) were measured by dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) among 947 adults, and abdominal visceral fat (VAT) and subcutaneous fat (SAT), upper leg SAT were measured by magnetic resonance image (MRI) among 103 adults during 2008-2013. Metabolic risk factors included fasting blood glucose, total triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and metabolic syndrome (MetS)...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
A Michaud, J Tordjman, M Pelletier, Y Liu, S Laforest, S Noël, G Le Naour, C Bouchard, K Clément, A Tchernof
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue fibrosis is a relatively new notion and its relationship with visceral obesity and cardiometabolic alterations remains unclear, particularly in moderate obesity. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine if total and pericellular collagen accumulation are relevant for the pathophysiology of visceral obesity and related cardiometabolic risk. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Surgical omental (OM) and subcutaneous (SC) fat samples were obtained in 56 women (age: 47...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Ann Arens, Leila Ben-Youssef, Sandra Hayashi, Craig Smollin
BACKGROUND: The ghost pepper, or "bhut jolokia," is one of the hottest chili peppers in the world. Ghost peppers have a measured "heat" of > 1,000,000 Scoville heat units (SHU), more than twice the strength of a habanero pepper. To our knowledge, no significant adverse effects of ghost pepper ingestion have been reported. CASE REPORT: A 47-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with severe abdominal and chest pain subsequent to violent retching and vomiting after eating ghost peppers as part of a contest...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Vidya Ramasamy, Harvey Teo, Victor Samuel Rajadurai, Suresh Chandran
A female preterm infant was born to a non-consanguineous couple at 35 weeks of gestation. On day 8 of life, while on full feeds, she developed prolonged apnoea and bradycardia, requiring respiratory support. Her abdomen was soft with unremarkable serial abdominal X-rays. Her septic screen was negative. Metabolic acidosis was worsening despite treatment. Echocardiography showed evidence of high pulmonary pressures. With further deterioration, an ultrasound scan of the abdomen was requested in view of the rising suspicion of abdominal pathology in the absence of sepsis and metabolic disorders...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Charles Sabin, Tibor Füzik, Karel Škubník, Lenka Pálková, A Michael Lindberg, Pavel Plevka
: Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1) is a human pathogen from the Kobuvirus genus of the Picornaviridae family. Worldwide, 80-95% of adults have antibodies against the virus. AiV-1 infections are associated with nausea, gastroenteritis, and fever. Unlike most picornaviruses, kobuvirus capsids are composed of only three types of subunits: VP0, VP1, and VP3. Here we present the structure of the AiV-1 virion determined to a resolution of 2.1 Å using X-ray crystallography. The surface loops puff of VP0 and knob of VP3 in AiV-1 are shorter than those in other picornaviruses...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
Jérôme Molimard, Rebecca Bonnaire, Reynald Convert, Woo Suck Han, Paul Calmels
OBJECTIVE: Although it is only a part of their therapeutic effect, the mechanical effect of compression or contention medical devices (CCMD) is always claimed by the manufacturers. However, the mechanism between the pressure application zone and the targeted organ is complex. It involves a purely passive mechanical effect and mechanisms related to the tonic postural system. Various strategies can be implemented to show the effectiveness of a mechanical action; among them, biomechanical modeling is a able to consider complex mechanical effects before any clinical trial...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
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