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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033326/genetic-discontinuity-between-the-maritime-archaic-and-beothuk-populations-in-newfoundland-canada
#1
Ana T Duggan, Alison J T Harris, Stephanie Marciniak, Ingeborg Marshall, Melanie Kuch, Andrew Kitchen, Gabriel Renaud, John Southon, Ben Fuller, Janet Young, Stuart Fiedel, G Brian Golding, Vaughan Grimes, Hendrik Poinar
Situated at the furthest northeastern edge of Canada, the island of Newfoundland (approximately 110,000 km(2)) and Labrador (approximately 295,000 km(2)) today constitute a province characterized by abundant natural resources but low population density. Both landmasses were covered by the Laurentide ice sheet during the Last Glacial Maximum (18,000 years before present [YBP]); after the glacier retreated, ice patches remained on the island until ca. 9,000 calibrated (cal) YBP [1]. Nevertheless, indigenous peoples, whose ancestors had trekked some 5,000 km from the west coast, arrived approximately 10,000 cal YBP in Labrador and ca...
October 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956762/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-spodoptera-frugiperda-ascovirus-in-vivo-provides-insights-into-how-its-apoptosis-inhibitors-and-caspase-promote-increased-synthesis-of-viral-vesicles-and-virion-progeny
#2
Heba Zaghloul, Robert Hice, Peter Arensburger, Brian A Federici
Ascoviruses are ds DNA viruses that attack caterpillars and differ from all other viruses by inducing nuclear lysis followed by cleavage of host cells into numerous anucleate vesicles in which virus replication continues as these grow in the blood. Ascoviruses are also unusual in that most encode apoptosis inhibitors and caspase or caspase-like proteins. A robust cell line to study the novel molecular biology of ascovirus replication in vitro is lacking. Therefore, we used strand-specific RNA-Seq to study transcription in vivo in third instars of Spodoptera frugiperda infected with the Spodoptera frugiperda ascovirus, a member of the type species, Spodoptera frugiperda ascovirus (SfAV-1a), sampling transcripts at different time points after infection...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890653/complete-mitochondrial-genomes-of-the-cherskii-s-sculpin-cottus-czerskii-and-siberian-taimen-hucho-taimen-reveal-genbank-entry-errors-incorrect-species-identification-and-recombinant-mitochondrial-genome
#3
Evgeniy S Balakirev, Pavel A Saveliev, Francisco J Ayala
The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome is sequenced in 2 individuals of the Cherskii's sculpin Cottus czerskii. A surprisingly high level of sequence divergence (10.3%) has been detected between the 2 genomes of C czerskii studied here and the GenBank mt genome of C czerskii (KJ956027). At the same time, a surprisingly low level of divergence (1.4%) has been detected between the GenBank C czerskii (KJ956027) and the Amur sculpin Cottus szanaga (KX762049, KX762050). We argue that the observed discrepancies are due to incorrect taxonomic identification so that the GenBank accession number KJ956027 represents actually the mt genome of C szanaga erroneously identified as C czerskii...
2017: Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739487/the-ros-mediated-activation-of-il-6-stat3-signaling-pathway-is-involved-in-the-27-hydroxycholesterol-induced-cellular-senescence-in-nerve-cells
#4
Jiao Liu, Yun Liu, Juan Chen, Chunyan Hu, Mengying Teng, Kailin Jiao, Zhaoxia Shen, Dongmei Zhu, Jia Yue, Zhong Li, Yuan Li
The oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERMs), which like endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2) induces the proliferation of ER-positive breast cancer cells in vitro. Interestingly, the observation that 27HC induces adverse effects in neural system, distinguishing it from E2. It has been suggested that high levels of circulating cholesterol increase the entry of 27HC into the brain, which may induce learning and memory impairment. Based on this evidence, 27HC may be associated with neurodegenerative processes and interrupted cholesterol homeostasis in the brain...
December 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719149/cadmium-induced-toxicity-is-rescued-by-curcumin-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Mohammad Mohajeri, Mehdi Rezaee, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most common environmental and occupational heavy metals with extended distribution. Exposure to Cd may be associated with several deleterious consequences on the liver, bones, kidneys, lungs, testes, brain, immunological, and cardiovascular systems. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as the main mechanism behind its toxicity causes oxidative stress and subsequent damages to lipids, proteins, and DNA. Therefore, antioxidants along with chelating agents have shown promising outcomes against Cd-induced toxicity...
July 18, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583077/identification-of-conserved-genes-triggering-puberty-in-european-sea-bass-males-dicentrarchus-labrax-by-microarray-expression-profiling
#6
Mercedes Blázquez, Paula Medina, Berta Crespo, Ana Gómez, Silvia Zanuy
BACKGROUND: Spermatogenesis is a complex process characterized by the activation and/or repression of a number of genes in a spatio-temporal manner. Pubertal development in males starts with the onset of the first spermatogenesis and implies the division of primary spermatogonia and their subsequent entry into meiosis. This study is aimed at the characterization of genes involved in the onset of puberty in European sea bass, and constitutes the first transcriptomic approach focused on meiosis in this species...
June 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541865/multipoint-suture-fixation-technique-for-abdominal-wall-reconstruction-with-component-separation-and-onlay-biological-mesh-placement
#7
Brad Denney, Jorge I de la Torre
Component separation with mesh reinforcement has become the primary modality for complex abdominal wall reconstruction. However, many fundamental questions remain unanswered, such as whether underlay versus overlay mesh placement is superior, and what is the best means of suture fixation technique for mesh placement? This study presents the senior author's technique for onlay biologic mesh placement with multipoint suture fixation in combination with component separation and its subsequent low recurrence rates...
May 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540257/dynamic-interaction-of-enterovirus-71-and-dendritic-cells-in-infected-neonatal-rhesus-macaques
#8
Ting Zhao, Zhixiao Zhang, Ying Zhang, Min Feng, Shengtao Fan, Lichun Wang, Longding Liu, Xi Wang, Qinglin Wang, Xiaolong Zhang, Jingjing Wang, Yun Liao, Zhanlong He, Shuaiyao Lu, Huai Yang, Qihan Li
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main pathogens responsible for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Infection with EV71 can lead to severe clinical disease via extensive infections of either the respiratory or alimentary tracts in children. Based on the previous pathological study of EV71 infections in neonatal rhesus macaques, our work using this animal model and an EV71 chimera that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-EV71) primarily explored where EV71 localizes and proliferates, and the subsequent initiation of the pathological process...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358596/endophytic-actinobacteria-diversity-secondary-metabolism-and-mechanisms-to-unsilence-biosynthetic-gene-clusters
#9
Raghavan Dinesh, Veeraraghavan Srinivasan, Sheeja T E, Muthuswamy Anandaraj, Hamza Srambikkal
Endophytic actinobacteria, which reside in the inner tissues of host plants, are gaining serious attention due to their capacity to produce a plethora of secondary metabolites (e.g. antibiotics) possessing a wide variety of biological activity with diverse functions. This review encompasses the recent reports on endophytic actinobacterial species diversity, in planta habitats and mechanisms underlying their mode of entry into plants. Besides, their metabolic potential, novel bioactive compounds they produce and mechanisms to unravel their hidden metabolic repertoire by activation of cryptic or silent biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) for eliciting novel secondary metabolite production are discussed...
March 30, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358432/irgd-as-a-tumor%C3%A2-penetrating-peptide-for-cancer-therapy-review
#10
Hong Yin, Jie Yang, Qing Zhang, Jie Yang, Haiyu Wang, Jinjing Xu, Junnian Zheng
As a tumor-targeting and ‑penetrating peptide, iRGD binds to αv integrins and neuropilin‑1 receptors, which are expressed at high levels on tumor cells and the surfaces of vasculature. Subsequently, iRGD penetrates deep into the tumor parenchyma with antitumor drugs, imaging agents, immune modulators and biological products. These substances are either chemically linked to the peptide or co‑injected with the peptide. The iRGD peptide can be readily synthesized, exhibits significantly improved penetration, compared with traditional peptides, and can effectively inhibit tumor metastasis...
May 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253720/the-potential-roles-of-vesicle-enclosed-mirnas-in-communication-between-macrophages-and-cancer-cells-in-tumor-microenvironment
#11
M Korabecna, L Koutova, P Tesarova
Functional microRNA (miRNA) molecules are transported in extracellular vesicles among tumor cells and cells of the immune system. Macrophages as integral components of tumor microenvironment are known as potential contributors to tumor growth and progression. We searched for studies which could provide a direct link between the particular miRNAs transported between cancer cells and macrophages and experimental evidence of subsequent alterations in biological functions of target cells. The validated targets of such microRNAs were found using miRWalk database...
March 3, 2017: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250142/safety-of-biologic-and-nonbiologic-disease-modifying-antirheumatic-drug-therapy-in-veterans-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#12
Mary Jane Burton, Jeffrey R Curtis, Shuo Yang, Lang Chen, Jasvinder A Singh, Ted R Mikuls, Kevin L Winthrop, John W Baddley
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy on hepatotoxicity among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: We identified biologic and nonbiologic treatment episodes of patients with RA using the 1997-2011 national data from the US Veterans Health Administration. Eligible episodes had HCV infection (defined by detectable HCV RNA) and subsequently initiated a new biologic or nonbiologic DMARD...
May 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223408/inducing-circular-rna-formation-using-the-crispr-endoribonuclease-csy4
#13
Erin K Borchardt, Rita M Meganck, Heather A Vincent, Christopher B Ball, Silvia B V Ramos, Nathaniel J Moorman, William F Marzluff, Aravind Asokan
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are highly stable, covalently closed RNAs that are regulated in a spatiotemporal manner and whose functions are largely unknown. These molecules have the potential to be incorporated into engineered systems with broad technological implications. Here we describe a switch for inducing back-splicing of an engineered circRNA that relies on the CRISPR endoribonuclease, Csy4, as an activator of circularization. The endoribonuclease activity and 3' end-stabilizing properties of Csy4 are particularly suited for this task...
May 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182401/agos-a-plug-and-play-method-for-the-assembly-of-artificial-gene-operons-into-functional-biosynthetic-gene-clusters
#14
Patrick Basitta, Lucia Westrich, Manuela Rösch, Andreas Kulik, Bertolt Gust, Alexander Kristian Apel
The generation of novel secondary metabolites by reengineering or refactoring biochemical pathways is a rewarding but also challenging goal of synthetic biology. For this, the development of tools for the reconstruction of secondary metabolite gene clusters as well as the challenge of understanding the obstacles in this process is of great interest. The artificial gene operon assembly system (AGOS) is a plug-and-play method developed as a tool to consecutively assemble artificial gene operons into a destination vector and subsequently express them under the control of a de-repressed promoter in a Streptomyces host strain...
February 20, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130827/advanced-glycation-end-products-stimulate-gene-expression-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-23
#15
Ludmilla Bär, Kristin Wächter, Nicole Wege, Alexander Navarrete Santos, Andreas Simm, Michael Föller
SCOPE: Osteoblasts produce fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a hormone inhibiting renal phosphate reabsorption and the formation of biologically active vitamin D, calcitriol. FGF23-deficient mice age rapidly and develop age-associated diseases at least in part due to massive calcification. Elevated FGF23 serum levels are detected in patients suffering from acute and chronic renal, cardiovascular, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are sugar-modified proteins, nucleic acid, and lipids which contribute to these disorders...
August 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117364/selective-inhibition-of-ebola-entry-with-selective-estrogen-receptor-modulators-by-disrupting-the-endolysosomal-calcium
#16
Hanlu Fan, Xiaohong Du, Jingyuan Zhang, Han Zheng, Xiaohui Lu, Qihui Wu, Haifeng Li, Han Wang, Yi Shi, George Gao, Zhuan Zhou, Dun-Xian Tan, Xiangdong Li
The Ebola crisis occurred in West-Africa highlights the urgency for its clinical treatments. Currently, no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapeutics are available. Several FDA-approved drugs, including selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), possess selective anti-Ebola activities. However, the inhibitory mechanisms of these drugs remain elusive. By analyzing the structures of SERMs and their incidental biological activity (cholesterol accumulation), we hypothesized that this incidental biological activity induced by SERMs could be a plausible mechanism as to their inhibitory effects on Ebola infection...
January 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095623/xenopus-as-a-model-for-studies-in-mechanical-stress-and-cell-division
#17
REVIEW
Georgina A Stooke-Vaughan, Lance A Davidson, Sarah Woolner
We exist in a physical world, and cells within biological tissues must respond appropriately to both environmental forces and forces generated within the tissue to ensure normal development and homeostasis. Cell division is required for normal tissue growth and maintenance, but both the direction and rate of cell division must be tightly controlled to avoid diseases of over-proliferation such as cancer. Recent studies have shown that mechanical cues can cause mitotic entry and orient the mitotic spindle, suggesting that physical force could play a role in patterning tissue growth...
January 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027556/overexpression-of-tp53-tp53i3-and-birc5-alterations-of-gene-regulation-of-apoptosis-and-aging-of-human-immune-cells-in-a-remote-period-after-radiation-exposure
#18
I N Ilienko, D A Bazyka
OBJECTIVE: To identify a contributive role of changes in gene regulation of apoptosis and telomere length at tran scriptional and translational levels to the formation of radiation induced effects in immune system. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Study groups included 310 Chornobyl (Chornobyl) cleanup workers (dose of external expo sure (360.82 ± 32.3) mSv; age 58.9 ± 0.6 (M ± SD) years) and control (n = 77; age (52.9 ± 0.64) (M ± SD) years). Expression of CD95, phosphatidylserine receptors, bcl2 and p53 proteins was studied by flow cytometry; the relative expression (RQ) of BAX, BIRC5, FASLG, MADD, MAPK14, TP53, TP53I3, TERT, TERF1, TERF2 genes was performed using 7900 HT Fast RT PCR System and TagMan technology...
December 2016: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977806/integrated-activity-and-genetic-profiling-of-secreted-peptidases-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-reveals-an-aspartyl-peptidase-required-for-low-ph-survival-and-virulence
#19
Starlynn C Clarke, Phillip A Dumesic, Christina M Homer, Anthony J O'Donoghue, Florencia La Greca, Lenka Pallova, Pavel Majer, Hiten D Madhani, Charles S Craik
The opportunistic fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is a major cause of mortality in immunocompromised individuals, resulting in more than 600,000 deaths per year. Many human fungal pathogens secrete peptidases that influence virulence, but in most cases the substrate specificity and regulation of these enzymes remains poorly understood. The paucity of such information is a roadblock to our understanding of the biological functions of peptidases and whether or not these enzymes are viable therapeutic targets...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966523/functional-screening-for-anti-cmv-biologics-identifies-a-broadly-neutralizing-epitope-of-an-essential-envelope-protein
#20
Thomas J Gardner, Kathryn R Stein, J Andrew Duty, Toni M Schwarz, Vanessa M Noriega, Thomas Kraus, Thomas M Moran, Domenico Tortorella
The prototypic β-herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (CMV) establishes life-long persistence within its human host. The CMV envelope consists of various protein complexes that enable wide viral tropism. More specifically, the glycoprotein complex gH/gL/gO (gH-trimer) is required for infection of all cell types, while the gH/gL/UL128/130/131a (gH-pentamer) complex imparts specificity in infecting epithelial, endothelial and myeloid cells. Here we utilize state-of-the-art robotics and a high-throughput neutralization assay to screen and identify monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the gH glycoproteins that display broad-spectrum properties to inhibit virus infection and dissemination...
December 14, 2016: Nature Communications
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