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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911408/defining-substrate-specificities-for-lipase-and-phospholipase-candidates
#1
Diana X Sahonero-Canavesi, Maritza Zavaleta-Pastor, Lourdes Martínez-Aguilar, Isabel M López-Lara, Otto Geiger
Microorganisms produce a wide spectrum of (phospho)lipases that are secreted in order to make external substrates available for the organism. Alternatively, other (phospho)lipases may be physically associated with the producing organism causing a turnover of intrinsic lipids and frequently giving rise to a remodeling of the cellular membranes. Although potential (phospho)lipases can be predicted with a number of algorithms when the gene/protein sequence is available, experimental proof of the enzyme activities, substrate specificities, and potential physiological functions has frequently not been obtained...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908779/lipoprotein-lipase-does-not-increase-significantly-in-the-postprandial-plasma
#2
Nobuyoshi Ishiyama, Kouji Sakamaki, Younosuke Shimomura, Kazuhiko Kotani, Kokoro Tsuzaki, Naoki Sakane, Kazuya Miyashita, Isao Fukamachi, Junji Kobayashi, Kimber L Stanhope, Peter J Havel, Keiko Kamachi, Akira Tanaka, Yoshiharu Tokita, Tetsuo Machida, Masami Murakami, Katsuyuki Nakajima
BACKGROUND: Previous reports have shown that lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity significantly increases in the postprandial plasma associated with the increase of TG-rich lipoproteins. Therefore, we have reexamined those relationships using newly developed LPL assay with the different kinds of food intake. METHODS: Standard meal (n=81), 50g of fat (n=54), 75g of glucose (n=25) and cookie (25g fat and 75g carbohydrate fat) (n=28) were administered in generally healthy volunteers...
November 28, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908755/synthesis-evaluation-and-molecular-modelling-studies-of-2-carbazol-3-yl-2-oxoacetamide-analogues-as-a-new-class-of-potential-pancreatic-lipase-inhibitors
#3
S N C Sridhar, George Ginson, P O Venkataramana Reddy, Mukund P Tantak, Dalip Kumar, Atish T Paul
A series of twenty four 2-(carbazol-3-yl)-2-oxoacetamide analogues were synthesized, characterized and evaluated for their pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitory activity. Porcine PL was used against 4-nitrophenyl butyrate (method A) and tributyrin (methods B and C) as substrates during the PL inhibition assay. Compounds 7e, 7f and 7p exhibited potential PL inhibitory activity (IC50 values of 6.31, 8.72 and 9.58μM, respectively in method A; and Xi50 of 21.85, 21.94 and 26.2, respectively in method B). Further, inhibition kinetics of 7e, 7f and 7p against PL, using method A, revealed their competitive nature of inhibition...
November 18, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900690/a-microtiter-plate-based-assay-to-screen-for-active-and-stereoselective-hydrolytic-enzymes-in-enzyme-libraries
#4
Dominique Böttcher, Patrick Zägel, Marlen Schmidt, Uwe T Bornscheuer
A procedure for the high-throughput screening (HTS) of esterases is described. This includes a pretest for discrimination of active and inactive clones using an agar plate overlay assay, the enzyme expression in microtiter plates and the measurement of activity and enantioselectivity (E) of the esterase variants using acetates of secondary alcohols as model substrates. Acetic acid released is converted in an enzyme cascade leading to the stoichiometric formation of NADH, which is quantified in a spectrophotometer...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892655/3d-printed-polycaprolactone-carbon-nanotube-composite-scaffolds-for-cardiac-tissue-engineering
#5
Chee Meng Benjamin Ho, Abhinay Mishra, Pearlyn Teo Pei Lin, Sum Huan Ng, Wai Yee Yeong, Young-Jin Kim, Yong-Jin Yoon
Fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds with the use of novel 3D printing has gained lot of attention, however systematic investigation of biomaterials for 3D printing have not been widely explored. In this report, well-defined structures of polycaprolactone (PCL) and PCL- carbon nanotube (PCL-CNT) composite scaffolds have been designed and fabricated using a 3D printer. Conditions for 3D printing has been optimized while the effects of varying CNT percentages with PCL matrix on the thermal, mechanical and biological properties of the printed scaffolds are studied...
November 28, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890602/the-endocannabinoid-hydrolysis-inhibitor-sa-57-intrinsic-antinociceptive-effects-augmented-morphine-induced-antinociception-and-attenuated-heroin-seeking-behavior-in-mice
#6
Jenny L Wilkerson, Sudeshna Ghosh, Mohammed Mustafa, Rehab A Abdullah, Micah J Niphakis, Roberto Cabrera, Rafael L Maldonado, Benjamin F Cravatt, Aron H Lichtman
Although opioids are highly efficacious analgesics, their abuse potential and other untoward side effects diminish their therapeutic utility. The addition of non-opioid analgesics offers a promising strategy to reduce required antinociceptive opioid doses that concomitantly reduce opioid-related side effects. Inhibitors of the primary endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) show opioid-sparing effects in preclinical models of pain. As simultaneous inhibition of these enzymes elicits enhanced antinociceptive effects compared with single enzyme inhibition, the present study tested whether the dual FAAH-MAGL inhibitor SA-57 [4-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 2-(methylamino)-2-oxoethyl ester] produces morphine-sparing antinociceptive effects, without major side effects associated with either drug class...
November 24, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889172/safety-assessment-of-tetragenococcus-halophilus-isolates-from-doenjang-a-korean-high-salt-fermented-soybean-paste
#7
Do-Won Jeong, Sojeong Heo, Jong-Hoon Lee
We assessed the safety of 49 Tetragenococcus halophilus strains isolated from doenjang in Korea. Minimum inhibitory concentration assays showed that all strains can be considered as susceptible to ampicillin, erythromycin, penicillin G, tetracycline, and vancomycin, but resistant to ciprofloxacin based on the Enterococcus breakpoint values provided by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility testing in 2015. Ciprofloxacin resistance was sufficiently high to consider the potential for acquisition of transmissible determinants...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872506/harmonising-adult-reference-intervals-in-australia-and-new-zealand-the-continuing-story
#8
REVIEW
Gus Koerbin, Jillian R Tate
Reference intervals (RIs) are used to help clinicians determine if a patient can be classified as being in a diseased or healthy state and there are often sound scientific and clinical reasons for differences in RIs. One of the current strategic priorities for the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists is to encourage and assist laboratories to achieve harmonisation of RIs for common clinical chemistry analytes where sound calibration and traceability are in place. This need is based on good laboratory practice, providing the clinician with results that allow appropriate and reliable clinical interpretation and progression further toward the national e-health framework and a single electronic health record...
August 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866884/microrna-biomarkers-of-pancreatic-injury-in-a-canine-model
#9
Rodney Rouse, Barry Rosenzweig, Katie Shea, Alan Knapton, Sharron Stewart, Lin Xu, Ashok Chockalingam, Leah Zadrozny, Karol Thompson
Pancreas-enriched microRNAs have been experimentally investigated in rodents as candidate serum biomarkers of pancreatic injury with several different acute pancreatic injury models. In the present study, temporal and magnitude responses of exocrine pancreas-enriched miR-216a, miR-216b, and miR-217 and endocrine-enriched miR-375 and miR-148a were measured by droplet digital PCR in serum in a caerulein model of pancreatic injury in the dog. All 5 microRNAs followed a similar time course that mirrored the responses of the conventional serum pancreatic injury biomarkers, amylase and lipase...
November 17, 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854545/mir-29b-targets-lpl-and-tdg-genes-and-regulates-apoptosis-and-triglyceride-production-in-mecs
#10
Yuwei Yang, Qiqi Pan, Boxing Sun, Runjun Yang, Xibi Fang, Xin Liu, Xianzhong Yu, Zhihui Zhao
microRNAs are involved in various biological processes by regulating the degradation or repressing the translation of target genes. In this study, the target genes of miR-29b were analyzed and predicted by bioinformatics. And lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) were selected for further validation by dual luciferase reporter assay. In addition, we investigated the effects of miR-29b on triglyceride synthesis and mammary epithelial cell (MEC) apoptosis. The result showed that luciferase activity was significantly lower in cells that miR-29b cotransfected with LPL and TDG gene reporter vectors (pmiR-RB-REPORT-LPL-WT, pmiR-RB-REPORT-TDG-WT) than in cells of miR-29b cotransfected with gene reporter vectors (pmiR-RB-REPORT-LPL-mut and pmiR-RB-REPORT-LPL-si; pmiR-RB-REPORT-TDG-mut and pmiR-RB-REPORT-TDG-si) (p < 0...
November 17, 2016: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814716/the-inhibitory-activity-of-herbal-medicines-on-the-keys-enzymes-and-steps-related-to-carbohydrate-and-lipid-digestion
#11
Weerachat Sompong, Nuttapat Muangngam, Artitaya Kongpatpharnich, Chadakarn Manacharoenlarp, Chanatkarn Amorworasin, Tanyawan Suantawee, Thavaree Thilavech, Sirichai Adisakwattana
BACKGROUND: Obesity and overweight are consistently associated with metabolic disorders including hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Herbal medicines have been currently suggested as an alternative source of potentially useful antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant activities. The objective of this study was to assess the in vitro inhibitory effects of eleven herbal medicines on carbohydrate and lipid digestive enzymes and the key steps of lipid digestion including the inhibition of micelle formation and the ability to bind bile acid...
November 4, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800430/in-vitro-evaluation-of-bacteriocin-like-inhibitory-substances-produced-by-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-during-traditional-sicilian-cheese-making
#12
Giusi Macaluso, Gerlando Fiorenza, Raimondo Gaglio, Isabella Mancuso, Maria Luisa Scatassa
Bacteriocins are antimicrobial proteins produced by bacteria that inhibit the growth of other bacteria with a bactericidal or bacteriostatic mode of action. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Bacteriocinogenic LAB are generally recognised as safe (GRAS) and useful to control the frequent development of pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. For this reason they are commonly used as starter cultures in food fermentations. In this study, the authors describe the results of a screening on 699 LAB isolated from wooden vat surfaces, raw milk and traditional Sicilian cheeses, for the production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, by comparing two alternative methods...
January 18, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796094/analysis-of-the-biotechnological-potential-of-a-lentinus-crinitus-isolate-in-the-light-of-its-secretome
#13
Geison Cambri, Mirta Mittelstedt Leal de Sousa, Davi de Miranda Fonseca, Fabricio Marchini, Joana Lea Meira da Silveira, Jaime Paba
Analysis of fungal secretomes is a prospection tool for the discovery of new catalysts with biotechnological application. Since enzyme secretion is strongly modulated by environmental factors, evaluation of growth conditions is of utmost importance to achieve optimal enzyme production. Here, a non-sequenced wood-rotting fungus, L. crinitus, was used for secretome analysis by enzymatic assays and a proteomics approach. Enzyme production was assessed after culturing the fungus in five different carbon sources and three nitrogen containing compounds...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795492/proteome-analyses-of-soil-bacteria-grown-in-the-presence-of-potato-suberin-a-recalcitrant-biopolymer
#14
Amadou Sidibé, Anne-Marie Simao-Beaunoir, Sylvain Lerat, Lauriane Giroux, Vicky Toussaint, Carole Beaulieu
Suberin is a complex lipidic plant polymer found in various tissues including the potato periderm. The biological degradation of suberin is attributed to fungi. Soil samples from a potato field were used to inoculate a culture medium containing suberin as the carbon source, and a metaproteomic approach was used to identify bacteria that developed in the presence of suberin over a 60-d incubation period. The normalized spectral counts of predicted extracellular proteins produced by the soil bacterial community markedly decreased from day 5 to day 20 and then slowly increased, revealing a succession of bacteria...
October 28, 2016: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789354/does-the-commonly-used-ph-stat-method-with-back-titration-really-quantify-the-enzymatic-digestibility-of-lipid-drug-delivery-systems-a-case-study-on-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-sln
#15
Martha Heider, Gerd Hause, Karsten Mäder
Enzymatic digestion of lipid drug carriers is very important. Commonly, pancreatin induced formation of fatty acids is monitored by the pH-stat method, which provides a fast, but unspecific readout. However, according to the literature, the pKa values of long chain fatty acids are strongly dependent on the local environment and might vary between 4.2 and 10.15. The high pKa values would lead to an incomplete detection of the lipid digestion and false results. In order to investigate these issues in more detail, we produced cetyl palmitate solid lipid nanoparticles (CP-SLN) stabilized with poloxamer 188 or polysorbate 80...
December 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773618/copy-number-variants-and-vntr-length-polymorphisms-of-the-carboxyl-ester-lipase-cel-gene-as-risk-factors-in-pancreatic-cancer
#16
Monica Dalva, Khadija El Jellas, Solrun J Steine, Bente B Johansson, Monika Ringdal, Janniche Torsvik, Heike Immervoll, Dag Hoem, Felix Laemmerhirt, Peter Simon, Markus M Lerch, Stefan Johansson, Pål R Njølstad, Frank U Weiss, Karianne Fjeld, Anders Molven
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We have recently described copy number variants (CNVs) of the human carboxyl-ester lipase (CEL) gene, including a recombined deletion allele (CEL-HYB) that is a genetic risk factor for chronic pancreatitis. Associations with pancreatic disease have also been reported for the variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) region located in CEL exon 11. Here, we examined if CEL CNVs and VNTR length polymorphisms affect the risk for developing pancreatic cancer. METHODS: CEL CNVs and VNTR were genotyped in a German family with non-alcoholic chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, in 265 German and 197 Norwegian patients diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and in 882 controls...
October 11, 2016: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771900/rhoa-rho-kinase-mediates-neuronal-death-through-regulating-cpla2-activation
#17
Xiangbing Wu, Chandler L Walker, Qingbo Lu, Wei Wu, Daniel B Eddelman, Jonathan M Parish, Xiao-Ming Xu
Activation of RhoA/Rho kinase leads to growth cone collapse and neurite retraction. Although RhoA/Rho kinase inhibition has been shown to improve axon regeneration, remyelination and functional recovery, its role in neuronal cell death remains unclear. To determine whether RhoA/Rho kinase played a role in neuronal death after injury, we investigated the relationship between RhoA/Rho kinase and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), a lipase that mediates inflammation and cell death, using an in vitro neuronal death model and an in vivo contusive spinal cord injury model performed at the 10th thoracic (T10) vertebral level...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730572/characterization-of-the-depolymerizing-activity-of-commercial-lipases-and-detection-of-lipase-like-activities-in-animal-organ-extracts-using-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate-thin-film
#18
Pei-Shze Mok, Diana Hooi-Ean Ch'ng, Soo-Peng Ong, Keiji Numata, Kumar Sudesh
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] is one of the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) copolymers which can be degraded by lipases. In this study, the depolymerizing activity of different known commercial lipases was investigated via microassay using P(3HB-co-92 mol % 4HB) thin film as substrate. Non-enzymatic hydrolysis occurred under conditions in which buffers with pH 12 and 13 were added or temperature of 50 °C and above. Different concentrations of metal ions or detergents alone did not cause the film hydrolysis...
December 2016: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726599/novel-hydrolytic-extremely-halotolerant-alkaliphiles-from-mature-landfill-leachate-with-key-involvement-in-maturation-process
#19
Nikolaos Remmas, Paraschos Melidis, Chrysoula Voltsi, Despoina Athanasiou, Spyridon Ntougias
Mature landfill leachate is a heavily-polluted wastewater due to its recalcitrant nature of organic matter, and high ammonia and salt content. Despite the moderate saline and alkaline nature of this habitat, no attention has been paid to the isolation and functional role of extremophiles in such environment. In this work, a total of 73 and 29 bacterial strains were isolated by using alkaline and saline media, respectively, while bacteria from mature landfill leachate growing in these media were enumerated as 1...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721053/piper-betle-and-its-bioactive-metabolite-phytol-mitigates-quorum-sensing-mediated-virulence-factors-and-biofilm-of-nosocomial-pathogen-serratia-marcescens-in-vitro
#20
Ramanathan Srinivasan, Kannan Rama Devi, Arunachalam Kannappan, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Arumugam Veera Ravi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Piper betle, a tropical creeper plant belongs to the family Piperaceae. The leaves of this plant have been well known for their therapeutic, religious and ceremonial value in South and Southeast Asia. It has also been reported to possess several biological activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic, insecticidal and gastroprotective activities and used as a common ingredient in indigenous medicines. In Indian system of ayurvedic medicine, P...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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