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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317614/snap-tests-for-pancreatitis-in-dogs-and-cats-snap-canine-pancreatic-lipase-and-snap-feline-pancreatic-lipase
#1
REVIEW
Panagiotis G Xenoulis, Jörg M Steiner
A clinical diagnosis of pancreatitis in dogs and cats can be challenging. Several diagnostic modalities have been evaluated over the years for the diagnosis of canine and feline pancreatitis, but most of these modalities have been shown to be of limited clinical use because of poor performance, limited availability, or because they are invasive, or all of these. Assays for the measurement of pancreatic lipase (PL) immunoreactivity [Specific canine PL (Spec cPL) in dogs and Specific feline PL (Spec fPL) in cats] were first developed approximately 15 years ago, and studies have shown that they are currently the serum tests of choice for the evaluation of canine and feline patients, respectively, suspected of having pancreatitis...
December 2016: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315735/very-rapid-amyloid-fibril-formation-by-a-bacterial-lipase-in-the-absence-of-a-detectable-lag-phase
#2
Fatemeh Rashno, Khosro Khajeh, Claudia Capitini, Reza H Sajedi, Maryam Monsef Shokri, Fabrizio Chiti
The conversion of proteins from their soluble states into well-organized amyloid fibrils has received abundant attention. This process typically consists of three stages: lag, growth and plateau phases. In this study, the process of amyloid fibril formation by lipase from Pseudomonas sp. after diluting out urea was examined by Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence, Congo red (CR) binding, 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (ANS) binding, dynamic light scattering (DLS), circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
March 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315508/tumor-markers-in-pancreatic-cystic-fluids-for-diagnosis-of-malignant-cysts
#3
Alexandre Levy, Theodora Popovici, Phuong-Nhi Bories
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Early diagnosis of premalignant or malignant pancreatic cysts is essential to improve prognosis. Sampling of pancreatic cyst fluid by fine-needle aspiration during endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) enables cytopathological examination combined with biochemical analysis. This study aimed to provide an aid based on biological markers for the preoperative management of patients with pancreatic cysts. METHODS: Pancreatic fluids obtained by EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration from 115 patients with cystic lesions were assayed for amylase, lipase, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA 19-9 and CA 72-4...
March 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287485/chemical-constituents-of-smilax-china-l-stems-and-their-inhibitory-activities-against-glycation-aldose-reductase-%C3%AE-glucosidase-and-lipase
#4
Hee Eun Lee, Jin Ah Kim, Wan Kyunn Whang
The search for natural inhibitors with anti-diabetes properties has gained increasing attention. Among four selected Smilacaceae family plants, Smilax china L. stems (SCS) showed significant in vitro anti-glycation and rat lens aldose reductase inhibitory activities. Bioactivity-guided isolation was performed with SCS and four solvent fractions were obtained, which in turn yielded 10 compounds, including one phenolic acid, three chlorogenic acids, four flavonoids, one stilbene, and one phenylpropanoid glycoside; their structures were elucidated using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry...
March 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277945/polymer-membrane-ion-selective-electrodes-as-a-convenient-tool-for-lipases-and-esterases-assays
#5
Maciej Cieplak, Ryszard Ostaszewski
We have proposed a novel assay for lipases and esterases activity determination based on potentiometry with ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). Enzyme preparations, obtained from the living cells, are complex mixtures of various proteins, short peptides, lipids, carbohydrates and other compounds. The most commonly used quantitative methods in enzyme studies are based on spectrophotometric or spectroflourimetric protocols which has significant limitations. They are not valid for samples that are turbid or strongly colored...
March 9, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274449/covalent-immobilization-of-lipase-onto-aminopropyl-functionalized-hydroxyapatite-encapsulated-%C3%AE-fe2o3-nanoparticles-a-magnetic-biocatalyst-for-interesterification-of-soybean-oil
#6
Wenlei Xie, Xuezhen Zang
Hydroxyapatite-encapsulated γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were prepared, and lipase from Candida rugosa was then covalently bound onto the magnetic materials via covalent linkages. The magnetic carrier and immobilized lipase were characterized by enzyme activity assays, XRD, FT-IR, TEM, VSM and N2 adsorption-desorption techniques. Results demonstrated that γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were coated with the hydroxyapatite, and the lipase was indeed tethered to the magnetic carriers without damage to their structure. The immobilized lipase showed a strong magnetic responsiveness and displayed high catalytic activities towards the interesterification of soybean oil...
July 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267914/activity-based-protein-profiling-leads-to-identification-of-novel-protein-targets-for-nerve-agent-vx
#7
Dan Carmany, Andrew J Walz, Fu-Lian Hsu, Bernard Benton, David Burnett, Jennifer Gibbons, Daan Noort, Trevor Glaros, Jennifer W Sekowski
Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents continue to be a threat at home and abroad during the war against terrorism. Human exposure to nerve agents such as VX results in a cascade of toxic effects relative to the exposure level including ocular miosis, excessive secretions, convulsions, seizures, and death. The primary mechanism behind these overt symptoms is the disruption of cholinergic pathways. While much is known about the primary toxicity mechanisms of nerve agents, there remains a paucity of information regarding impacts on other pathways and systemic effects...
March 16, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236622/antidiabetic-antioxidant-and-hypolipidemic-potential-of-sonchus-asper-hill
#8
Rahmat Ali Khan
Context • The recently growing occurrence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in the world is of immense concern. Sonchus asper Hill (SA) is traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes and urinary disorders in Pakistan. Objective • The present study intended to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of a Sonchus asper methanol extract (SAME) in rats. Design • Thirty male, Sprague-Dawley rats, from 180 to 190 g each, were randomly divided into 5 groups of 6 rats each and received the following treatments: (1) group 1 (untreated control group) administered distilled water only; (2) group 2 administered 200 mg/kg of SAME only; (3) group 3 (diabetic control group) administered 55 mg/kg body weight (BW) of streptozotocin (STZ) in distilled water to induce diabetes; (4) group 4 administered 55 mg/kg BW of STZ in distilled water to induce diabetes and given 100 mg/kg of SAME; and (5) group 5 administered 55 mg/kg BW of STZ to induce diabetes and administered 200 mg/kg of SAME...
February 27, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224723/synthetic-extreme-environments-overlooked-sources-of-potential-biotechnologically-relevant-microorganisms
#9
Timothy Sibanda, Ramganesh Selvarajan, Memory Tekere
Synthetic extreme environments like carwash effluent tanks and drains are potential sources of biotechnologically important microorganisms and molecules which have, however, remained unexplored. Using culture- and molecular-based methods, a total of 17 bacterial isolates belonging to the genera Shewanella, Proteus, Paenibacillus, Enterobacter and Citrobacter, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and Pantoea were identified. Hydrocarbon utilization and enzyme production screening assays showed that Aeromonas sp. CAC11, Paenibacillus sp...
February 22, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218303/a-combination-of-mutational-and-computational-scanning-guides-the-design-of-an-artificial-ligand-binding-controlled-lipase
#10
Marco Kaschner, Oliver Schillinger, Timo Fettweiss, Christina Nutschel, Frank Krause, Alexander Fulton, Birgit Strodel, Andreas Stadler, Karl-Erich Jaeger, Ulrich Krauss
Allostery, i.e. the control of enzyme activity by a small molecule at a location distant from the enzyme's active site, represents a mechanism essential for sustaining life. The rational design of allostery is a non-trivial task but can be achieved by fusion of a sensory domain, which responds to environmental stimuli with a change in its structure. Hereby, the site of domain fusion is difficult to predict. We here explore the possibility to rationally engineer allostery into the naturally not allosterically regulated Bacillus subtilis lipase A, by fusion of the citrate-binding sensor-domain of the CitA sensory-kinase of Klebsiella pneumoniae...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197985/inonotus-obliquus-polysaccharide-regulates-gut-microbiota-of-chronic-pancreatitis-in-mice
#11
Yang Hu, Chunying Teng, Sumei Yu, Xin Wang, Jinsong Liang, Xin Bai, Liying Dong, Tao Song, Min Yu, Juanjuan Qu
Polysaccharide is efficient in attenuation of metabolic ailments and modulation of gut microbiota as prebiotics. The therapeutic effect of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide (IOP) on chronic pancreatitis (CP) in mice has been validated in our previous study. However, it is not clear whether IOP is conducive to maintaining the homeostasis between gut microbiota and host. The aim of this study is to testify the potential effects of IOP on gut microbiota composition and diversity in mice with CP. The changes in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), lipase and trypsin levels were measured by commercial assay kits, meanwhile the gut microbiota composition and diversity were analyzed by high throughput sequencing...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146410/almond-skin-polyphenol-extract-inhibits-inflammation-and-promotes-lipolysis-in-differentiated-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#12
Wen-Chung Huang, Chi-Yuan Chen, Shu-Ju Wu
Studies have shown that polyphenols reduce the risk of inflammation-related diseases and upregulates energy expenditure in adipose tissue. Here, we investigated the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory and antiobesity effects of almond skin polyphenol extract (ASP) in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The antioxidant effects of ASP were measured based on DPPH radical scavenging activity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and total phenolic content. Differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were treated with ASP. Subsequently, lipolysis proteins and transcription factors of adipogenesis were measured...
February 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143661/novel-therapy-for-pancreatic-fistula-using-adipose-derived-stem-cell-sheets-treated-with-mannose
#13
Hirokazu Kaneko, Toshio Kokuryo, Yukihiro Yokoyama, Junpei Yamaguchi, Tokunori Yamamoto, Rei Shibata, Momokazu Gotoh, Toyoaki Murohara, Akira Ito, Masato Nagino
BACKGROUND: Given that no studies have reported the use of adipose-derived stem cell sheets for the prevention of pancreatic fistulas, it is unclear whether adipose-derived stem cell sheets are effective at preventing this complication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of novel therapy for the prevention of pancreatic fistulas using adipose-derived stem cell sheets treated with mannose. METHODS: The rat pancreatic duct (splenic duct) and surrounding pancreatic parenchyma were transected to induce a pancreatic fistula...
January 28, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134758/functional-elucidation-of-nemopilema-nomurai-and-cyanea-nozakii-nematocyst-venoms-lytic-activity-using-mass-spectrometry-and-zymography
#14
Yang Yue, Huahua Yu, Rongfeng Li, Ronge Xing, Song Liu, Kecheng Li, Xueqin Wang, Xiaolin Chen, Pengcheng Li
BACKGROUND: Medusozoans utilize explosively discharging penetrant nematocysts to inject venom into prey. These venoms are composed of highly complex proteins and peptides with extensive bioactivities, as observed in vitro. Diverse enzymatic toxins have been putatively identified in the venom of jellyfish, Nemopilema nomurai and Cyanea nozakii, through examination of their proteomes and transcriptomes. However, functional examination of putative enzymatic components identified in proteomic approaches to elucidate potential bioactivities is critically needed...
January 26, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119444/label-free-measurement-of-the-yeast-short-chain-tag-lipase-activity-by-esi-ms-after-one-step-esterification
#15
Hye Jin Ham, Jongcheol Seo, Hye-Joo Yoon, Seung Koo Shin
Triacylglycerol (TAG) lipases hydrolyze ester bonds in TAG and release diacylglycerol (DAG), monoacylglycerol (MAG), and FA. We present a one-step chemical derivatization method for label-free quantification of a mixture of TAG, DAG, and MAG following lipase assay by ESI-MS. Because the ionization efficiencies of TAG, DAG, and MAG are not identical, lipase reaction products, DAG and MAG, are derivatized to TAG species by esterifying their hydroxyl groups using acyl chloride, whose acyl chain contains one less (or one more) -CH2 group than that of substrate TAG...
March 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109854/histone-methyltransferase-aflrmta-gene-is-involved-in-the-morphogenesis-mycotoxin-biosynthesis-and-pathogenicity-of-aspergillus-flavus
#16
Yu Li, Yizi He, Xing Li, Opemipo Esther Fasoyin, Yule Hu, Yaju Liu, Jun Yuan, Zhenhong Zhuang, Shihua Wang
Arginine methyltransferases catalyze the posttranslational methylation of arginine, which is involved in a range of important biological processes. aflrmtA gene, an arginine methyltransferase was deleted from Aspergillus flavus in this study by homologous recombination. In morphogenesis assay, aflrmtA was found to down-regulate conidiation by regulating the activity of brlA and abaA genes. It was also found to increase sclerotia formation by up-regulating the expression of nsdC and nsdD genes. In mycotoxin biosynthesis, aflrmtA gene was found to significantly up-regulate the biosynthesis of AFB1 in PDA and PDB media by improving the expression of aflR, aflC and aflK, but it was of no effect in YES medium...
January 19, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106397/kinetics-of-detergent-induced-activation-and-inhibition-of-a-minimal-lipase
#17
Daniel Kübler, Anna Bergmann, Lukas Weger, Kim N Ingenbosch, Kerstin Hoffmann-Jacobsen
Detergents are commonly applied in lipase assays to solubilize sparingly soluble model substrates. However, detergents affect lipases as well as substrates in multiple ways. The effect of detergents on lipase activity is commonly attributed to conformational changes in the lid region. This study deals with the effect of the nonionic detergent, poly(ethylene glycol) dodecyl ether, on a lipase that does not contain a lid sequence, lipase A from Bacillus subtilis (BSLA). We show that BSLA activity depends strongly on the detergent concentration and the dependency profile changes with pH...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081181/aronia-melanocarpa-extract-ameliorates-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-through-ppar%C3%AE-2-downregulation
#18
Chung-Hwa Park, Jung-Hee Kim, Eun Byul Lee, Wonhee Hur, Oh-Joo Kwon, Hyoung-Jin Park, Seung Kew Yoon
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Studies have demonstrated that anthocyanin-rich foods may improve hyperlipidemia and ameliorate hepatic steatosis. Here, effects of Aronia melanocarpa (AM), known to be rich of anthocyanins, on hepatic lipid metabolism and adipogenic genes were determined. AM was treated to C57BL/6N mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) or to FL83B cells treated with free fatty acid (FFA). Changes in levels of lipids, enzymes and hormones were observed, and expressions of adipogenic genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism were detected by PCR, Western blotting and luciferase assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043634/mycobacterial-excretory-secretory-31-protein-with-serine-protease-and-lipase-activities-an-immunogen-and-drug-target-against-tuberculosis-infection
#19
Bhaskar C Harinath
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) has been declared as a global emergency by the World Health Organization in 1993 and still remains one of the world's biggest threats. Worldwide, 9.6 million people have been estimated to have fallen ill with TB in 2014: 5.4 million men, 3.2 million women, and 1.0 million children. To reduce this burden, detection and treatment gaps must be addressed and new tools developed (Global TB report 2015). METHODS: Seroreactivity of the purified excretory secretory (ES) antigens ES-31, ES-43, ES-41, and ES-6 have been assessed in pulmonary TB (fresh, relapse, chronic, and latent), extrapulmonary TB, and in human immunodeficiency virus-TB coinfection...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025036/decreased-eicosapentaenoic-acid-levels-in-acne-vulgaris-reveals-the-presence-of-a-proinflammatory-state
#20
İbrahim Aslan, Filiz Özcan, Taner Karaarslan, Ebru Kıraç, Mutay Aslan
This study aimed to determine circulating levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and measure circulating protein levels of angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3), ANGPTL4, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in patients with acne vulgaris. Serum from 21 control subjects and 31 acne vulgaris patients were evaluated for levels of arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n- 6), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, C20:3n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3)...
January 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
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