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Jessica Mounessa, Talayesa Buntinx-Krieg, Rosie Qin, Cory A Dunnick, Robert P Dellavalle
The incidence of malignant melanoma (MM) continues to rise in the United States. While sun protection and full body skin examinations remain the mainstay of preventative care, chemoprevention of the deadly disease has become an increasingly popular field of study. In this focused review, we discuss current findings and analyze the risks and benefits of various agents investigated for the primary and secondary chemoprevention of MM. Such agents include topical retinoids, vitamins, and supplements, Polypodium leucotomas extracts, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), statins, sunscreens, and field therapy with topical imiquimod for primary and secondary chemoprevention...
September 24, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
Rita E Morero, David S Barrington, Monique A McHenry, João P S Condack, Gloria E Barboza
Polystichum Roth is one of the largest and most taxonomically challenging fern genera. South American species have a rich and complex nomenclatural history; many of the early names are inadequately typified. Based on extensive examination of original type material, we designate eleven lectotypes (including Aspidium mohrioides, Aspidium montevidense f. imbricata, Aspidium montevidense f. squamulosa, Aspidium plicatum, Aspidium pycnolepis, Dicksonia andina, Polystichum elegans, Polystichum mohrioides f. latifolia, Polystichum multifidum var...
2016: PhytoKeys
James Q Del Rosso
Polypodium leucotomas extract is a natural product derived from a tropical fern that is available as an over-the-counter product in the United States and several other countries. A designated brand of oral Polypodium leucotomas extract has been shown in several research studies to exhibit a variety of antioxidant and photoprotective properties. Clinical research with this same formulation of Polypodium leucotomas extract has demonstrated multiple potential therapeutic applications. This article provides a thorough overview of research completed with Polypodium leucotomas extract and outlines suggested approaches for clinical use...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
Concepcion Parrado, Marta Mascaraque, Yolanda Gilaberte, Angeles Juarranz, Salvador Gonzalez
Healthier life styles include increased outdoors time practicing sports and walking. This means increased exposure to the sun, leading to higher risk of sunburn, photoaging and skin cancer. In addition to topical barrier products, oral supplementations of various botanicals endowed with antioxidant activity are emerging as novel method of photoprotection. Polypodium leucotomos extract (PL, commercial name Fernblock(®), IFC Group, Spain) is a powerful antioxidant due to its high content of phenolic compounds...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Adam J Luber, Antoanella Calame, Sharon E Jacob
A 52-year-old man with Fitzpatrick type V skin presented for evaluation of a photodistributed eruption of unknown origin. The patient reported a 20-year history of the dermatitis, with worsening severity during the past 6 years. He had required one hospital admission with intravenous methylprednisolone and two extended courses of oral prednisone (starting dose of 60 mg/d). He complained of pruritus and swelling localized to the sun-exposed areas of the forearms, face, and neck, with notable sparing of photoprotected areas of his skin...
2016: Skinmed
Ekaterina V Raikova, Olga I Raikova
Polypodium hydriforme, the only species in Polypodiozoa, which is currently considered a class of Cnidaria, and likely a sister group to Medusozoa (together with Myxozoa), is a cnidarian adapted to intracellular parasitism inside sturgeon oocytes. Free-living P. hydriforme lives on river bottoms; it walks on supporting tentacles and uses sensory tentacles to capture food and bring it to the mouth. The nervous system of free-living P. hydriforme was studied by confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry using antibodies to FMRF-amide and α-tubulin combined with phalloidin-staining of F-actin fibres...
April 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Brian Berman, Charles Ellis, Craig Elmets
The use of Polypodium leucotomos, a species of fern, has been reported to be beneficial in the treatment of atopic dermatitis, vitiligo, and psoriasis, and for prevention of polymorphic light eruption, sunburn, and squamous cell carcinoma. We review the in vivo animal, in vitro human, and human clinical studies performed to help elucidate the actions of and biologic pathways affected by P. leucotomos. These results serve as the scientific rationale and basis for the protection and effectiveness afforded by P...
February 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Beth Okamura, Alexander Gruhl
Recent evidence places the problematic Polypodium, a parasite of fish eggs, firmly as sister taxon to Myxozoa within the Cnidaria. This resolution suggests a single route to endoparasitism in Cnidaria, with larval stages of a common ancestor exploiting fish as first hosts. It also enables new interpretations and insights regarding evolutionary transitions associated with endoparasitism.
April 2016: Trends in Parasitology
Ricardo Bosch, Neena Philips, Jorge A Suárez-Pérez, Angeles Juarranz, Avani Devmurari, Jovinna Chalensouk-Khaosaat, Salvador González
Photoaging and photocarcinogenesis are primarily due to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which alters DNA, cellular antioxidant balance, signal transduction pathways, immunology, and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The DNA alterations include UV radiation induced thymine-thymine dimers and loss of tumor suppressor gene p53. UV radiation reduces cellular antioxidant status by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the resultant oxidative stress alters signal transduction pathways such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), the nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κB)/p65, the janus kinase (JAK), signal transduction and activation of transcription (STAT) and the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)...
2015: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Wen-ting Zhang, Yin-xia Zhao, Ai-guo Meng, Chun-yan Liu, Jing-yu Duan, Huan-kai Yao, Yan Li
OBJECTIVE: To further reveal the chemical constituents of Polypodium hastatum, volatile components from this plant were investigated. METHODS: The volatile components were extracted under reflux from the whole plant of Polypodium hastatum, and then analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by GC-MS. RESULTS: 60 volatile components were detected and of all components detected, the structures and relative contents of 34 volatile compounds were elucidated...
May 2015: Zhong Yao Cai, Zhongyaocai, Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials
C Llorens, M Argentina, N Rojas, J Westbrook, J Dumais, X Noblin
Leptosporangiate ferns have evolved an ingenious cavitation catapult to disperse their spores. The mechanism relies almost entirely on the annulus, a row of 12-25 cells, which successively: (i) stores energy by evaporation of the cells' content, (ii) triggers the catapult by internal cavitation, and (iii) controls the time scales of energy release to ensure efficient spore ejection. The confluence of these three biomechanical functions within the confines of a single structure suggests a level of sophistication that goes beyond most man-made devices where specific structures or parts rarely serve more than one function...
January 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
E Sally Chang, Moran Neuhof, Nimrod D Rubinstein, Arik Diamant, Hervé Philippe, Dorothée Huchon, Paulyn Cartwright
The Myxozoa comprise over 2,000 species of microscopic obligate parasites that use both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts as part of their life cycle. Although the evolutionary origin of myxozoans has been elusive, a close relationship with cnidarians, a group that includes corals, sea anemones, jellyfish, and hydroids, is supported by some phylogenetic studies and the observation that the distinctive myxozoan structure, the polar capsule, is remarkably similar to the stinging structures (nematocysts) in cnidarians...
December 1, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Timothy S Murbach, Erzsébet Béres, Adél Vértesi, Róbert Glávits, Gábor Hirka, John R Endres, Amy E Clewell, Ilona Pasics Szakonyiné
A battery of toxicological studies was conducted in accordance with internationally accepted standards to investigate the genotoxicity and repeated-dose oral toxicity of Fernblock(®), a commercial aqueous extraction of the leaves of the tropical fern Polypodium leucotomos used for its oral and topical photoprotective properties. No evidence of mutagenicity was observed in a bacterial reverse mutation test or in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test nor was any genotoxic activity observed in an in vivo mouse micronucleus test...
December 2015: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Pier Giacomo Calzavara-Pinton, Maria Teresa Rossi, Arianna Zanca, Mariachiara Arisi, Salvador Gonzalez, Marina Venturini
BACKGROUND: The effects on the inflammatory and tanning responses of sunlight/UVR of several oral antioxidants are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: Assess intensity, time course of the inflammatory, and tanning responses to increasing dosages of solar-simulated radiation (SSR) at baseline and after oral supplementation of an extract of Polypodium leucotomos (PLE). METHODS: Ten healthy subjects underwent phototesting with SSR with a visual and spectrophotometrical assessment of the responses with or without daily oral supplementation of two tablets containing 240 mg of PLE for a total of 15 days...
January 2016: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
Brandon E Cohen, Nada Elbuluk, Euphemia W Mu, Seth J Orlow
Vitiligo is a common, acquired disorder of skin pigmentation that can significantly impact quality of life. It often represents a therapeutic challenge, which has resulted in interest in alternative treatments such as herbal and vitamin supplements. In this review, we provide an overview of the most commonly studied complementary agents, describe proposed mechanisms of action, identify potential adverse effects, and discuss the primary evidence supporting their use. Our discussion focuses on L-phenylalanine, Polypodium leucotomos, khellin, Ginkgo biloba, and vitamins and minerals, including vitamins B12, C, and E, folic acid, and zinc used as monotherapy or in combination with other treatments for the management of vitiligo...
December 2015: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
Paul G Wolf, Emily B Sessa, Daniel Blaine Marchant, Fay-Wei Li, Carl J Rothfels, Erin M Sigel, Matthew A Gitzendanner, Clayton J Visger, Jo Ann Banks, Douglas E Soltis, Pamela S Soltis, Kathleen M Pryer, Joshua P Der
Ferns are one of the few remaining major clades of land plants for which a complete genome sequence is lacking. Knowledge of genome space in ferns will enable broad-scale comparative analyses of land plant genes and genomes, provide insights into genome evolution across green plants, and shed light on genetic and genomic features that characterize ferns, such as their high chromosome numbers and large genome sizes. As part of an initial exploration into fern genome space, we used a whole genome shotgun sequencing approach to obtain low-density coverage (∼0...
September 2015: Genome Biology and Evolution
Matteo Auriemma, Marta Di Nicola, Salvador Gonzalez, Stefano Piaserico, Alessandra Capo, Paolo Amerio
BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are a common premalignant skin condition. Many treatments are available for AKs. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one of the most effective treatments. However, major concerns exist on the possibility of PDT-induced DNA-mutagenesis/immunosuppression, leading to AKs recurrence/treatment failure. An extract (PLE) from the fern polypodium leucotomos reduces UV-induced immunosuppression and mutagenesis. OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of PLE to enhance the efficacy of PDT treatment, reducing AKs recurrence on the scalp...
August 2015: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Mark S Nestor, Brian Berman, Nicole Swenson
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the safety of oral Polypodium leucotomos extract administered twice daily to healthy adults for 60 days and assess its ability to provide protection against exposure to ultraviolet radiation. DESIGN: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. SETTING: A single clinical research center. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy adult men and women between 18 and 65 years of age with Fitzpatrick skin types I to IV...
February 2015: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
Richard R Winkelmann, James Del Rosso, Darrell S Rigel
Various extracts of polypodium leucotomos (PLE) applied topically or taken orally have been shown to have several beneficial antioxidant, photoprotectant, antimutagenic, and immunoregulatory effects. Modern studies have evaluated the efficacy of PLE orally as a photoprotective agent and for use in several photo-aggravated dermatologic disorders such as polymorphous light eruption, other photodermatoses, and melasma. No articles have been published evaluating the safety of PLE. We performed a PUBMED search for any randomized clinical trials related to PLE, or anapsos, a synonym...
March 2015: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Neal Bhatia
As the understanding of the immune system pathways, cytokine balances, and cellular interactions continues to expand, so must the potential applications of therapies that can impact the process of diseases instead of just controlling their symptoms. In the case of Polypodium leucotomos extract, which is derived from a tropical fern of the Polypodiaceae family, the future potential of applications in dermatology and beyond will be better understood as its incorporation into daily routines gives rise to the development of new regimens...
April 2015: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
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