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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678157/psycho-social-impact-of-stillbirths-on-women-and-their-families-in-tamil-nadu-india-a-qualitative-study
#1
Vijayaprasad Gopichandran, Sudharshini Subramaniam, Maria Jusler Kalsingh
BACKGROUND: Stillbirth has serious psycho-social consequences on the parents and on the family. The psychological impact of stillbirth is strongly influenced by the social and cultural context. There is very scarce information on this from the Indian context. This qualitative study was conducted to understand the psycho-social impact, aggravating factors, coping styles and health system response to stillbirths. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews with mothers who experienced stillbirth in the past 1 year and their families...
April 20, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662017/use-of-unpalatable-forages-by-ruminants-the-influence-of-experience-with-the-biophysical-and-social-environment
#2
REVIEW
Roberto A Distel, Juan J Villalba
Unpalatable forage resources (low nutrient density, potentially toxic metabolites) are widespread and represent a challenge for ruminant nutrition, health, and welfare. Our objective was to synthesize the role of biophysical and social experience on the use of unpalatable forages by ruminants, and highlight derived behavioural solutions for the well-being of soils, plants, and animals. Environmental experiences early in life modulate gene expression and promote learning, which alters morpho-physiological and psychological mechanisms that modify behavioural responses and change food and habitat selection...
April 14, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643263/health-state-utilities-for-patient-s-current-health-from-bipolar-type-i-disorder
#3
Masoumeh Banihashemian, Arash Rashidian, Faeze Gholamian, Mahboubeh Parsaeian, Najmeh Moradi, Homayoun Amini
BACKGROUND: Bipolar Type I Disorder (BID) is a disabling mental disorder among young adults that places enormous psychological, social, and economic burdens on patients, their families, and health care systems and decreases quality of life (QOL). Few studies have investigated the quality-adjusted life-years (QALY), health state preferences, and utilities in patients with BID. AIM OF STUDY: The aim of this study was to elicit health state utilities for current health among a sample of individuals with BID irrespective of their clinical conditions at the time of evaluation...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623033/aggression-social-stress-and-the-immune-system-in-humans-and-animal-models
#4
REVIEW
Aki Takahashi, Meghan E Flanigan, Bruce S McEwen, Scott J Russo
Social stress can lead to the development of psychological problems ranging from exaggerated anxiety and depression to antisocial and violence-related behaviors. Increasing evidence suggests that the immune system is involved in responses to social stress in adulthood. For example, human studies show that individuals with high aggression traits display heightened inflammatory cytokine levels and dysregulated immune responses such as slower wound healing. Similar findings have been observed in patients with depression, and comorbidity of depression and aggression was correlated with stronger immune dysregulation...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614388/who-are-the-european-youths-willing-to-engage-in-radicalisation-a-multidisciplinary-review-of-their-psychological-and-social-profiles
#5
Nicolas Campelo, Alice Oppetit, Françoise Neau, David Cohen, Guillaume Bronsard
BACKGROUND: A new model of radicalisation has appeared in Western countries since the 2010s. Radical groups are smaller, less hierarchical and are mainly composed of young, homegrown individuals. The aim of this review is to decipher the profiles of the European adolescents and young adults who have embraced the cause of radical Islamism and to define the role of psychiatry in dealing with this issue. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in several databases from January 2010 to July 2017 and reviewed the relevant studies that included European adolescents and/or young adults and presented empirical data...
March 31, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587181/the-social-mobile-autopsy-the-evolution-of-psychological-autopsy-with-new-technologies-in-forensic-investigations-on-suicide
#6
REVIEW
I Aquila, M A Sacco, S Gratteri, M Sirianni, P De Fazio, P Ricci
Suicide is a huge deal in general public health, representing the second cause of mortality in young people worldwide. The suicidal setting analysis is usually performed through psychological autopsy, a method of investigation commonly used to study what leads to suicide. Psychological autopsy, though, requires the involvement of family and friends, or the finding of a diary or a suicide note. Nowadays, this is not always possible, especially during adolescence, the more if we consider new categories of people that are more used to live in a web dimension, than in a real one...
December 11, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573870/what-low-back-pain-is-and-why-we-need-to-pay-attention
#7
REVIEW
Jan Hartvigsen, Mark J Hancock, Alice Kongsted, Quinette Louw, Manuela L Ferreira, Stéphane Genevay, Damian Hoy, Jaro Karppinen, Glenn Pransky, Joachim Sieper, Rob J Smeets, Martin Underwood
Low back pain is a very common symptom. It occurs in high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries and all age groups from children to the elderly population. Globally, years lived with disability caused by low back pain increased by 54% between 1990 and 2015, mainly because of population increase and ageing, with the biggest increase seen in low-income and middle-income countries. Low back pain is now the leading cause of disability worldwide. For nearly all people with low back pain, it is not possible to identify a specific nociceptive cause...
March 20, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564851/-holistic-healthcare-for-the-aged-concepts-and-strategies
#8
Jing-Jy Wang, Yueh-Ying Yang, Mei-Yin Liu
Advancing medical technology continues to extend the average human life span, resulting in population aging globally as well as in Taiwan. The challenges posed by aging society increase not only medical and care costs but also the burden on pension funds and the social welfare system. In addition, there is currently a desperate need for many well-trained health providers as well as a friendly and comprehensive long-term care system. However, attention should not simply focus on medical payments and long-term care, as this may prolong the length of unhealthy living years for the aged and further strain national finances...
April 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540116/introducing-specialist-integrated-mental-health-care-in-lebanon-the-psychosis-recovery-outreach-program
#9
Joseph El-Khoury, Rassil Ghazzaoui, Amanda Ahmad
The recognition of mental health needs in developing countries is growing in parallel with increased public awareness of and reduced stigma toward mental illness. With resources still limited in these countries, creating economically viable health care models is essential. These models are often adapted from already established and tested systems in industrialized nations. The Psychosis Recovery Outreach Program (PROP) at the American University of Beirut is an initiative that exemplifies the global transfer of knowledge, experience, and skills...
March 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538627/objectively-measured-social-integration-is-associated-with-an-immune-risk-phenotype-following-marital-separation
#10
Karen Hasselmo, Matthias R Mehl, Allison M Tackman, Angela L Carey, Anne M Wertheimer, Raymond P Stowe, David A Sbarra
Background: Close relationships play an integral role in human development, and robust evidence links marital separation and divorce to poor health outcomes. Social integration may play a key role in this association. In many ways, the study of marital separation and divorce provides an ideal model system for a more complete understanding of the association between life stress and physical health. Purpose: The current study investigated associations among objectively measured social integration, psychological distress, and biomarkers of immune health in recently separated adults (N = 49)...
February 5, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525978/mental-footnotes-knowledge-constructivism-from-logical-thinking-and-personal-beliefs-to-social-rationality-and-spiritual-freedom
#11
Jose Luis Vilchez
Cognition is an efficient but limited system that deals with mundane tasks. Daily life demands the system to save energy in order to be able to solve other more relevant tasks. Reasoning out every single problem would immeasurably increase our mental load and fatigue. Our minds avoid this waste of resources by taking shortcuts when reasoning. Outputs from previous episodes of reasoning turn into pieces of implicit information. These outputs go on to constitute the meanings that we give to things or circumstances, which in turn become the general framework where other reasonings occur...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524339/becoming-who-you-are-an-integrative-review-of-self-determination-theory-and-personality-systems-interactions-theory
#12
Sander L Koole, Caroline Schlinkert, Tobias Maldei, Nicola Baumann
One of the enduring missions of personality science is to unravel what it takes to become a fully functioning person. In the present article, the authors address this matter from the perspectives of self-determination theory (SDT) and personality systems interactions (PSI) theory. SDT a) is rooted in humanistic psychology; b) has emphasized a first-person perspective on motivation and personality; c) posits that the person, supported by the social environment, naturally moves towards growth through the satisfaction of basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521513/considerations-for-the-cost-effective-management-of-hepatic-encephalopathy
#13
Steven L Flamm
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric complication commonly associated with liver disease, namely cirrhosis. The inability of the liver to metabolize ammonia results in a buildup of ammonia, which can cross the blood-brain barrier and cause significant neurocognitive impairment. Up to 80% of patients with cirrhosis will experience HE and a large proportion of these patients are at high risk of recurrent HE. There are several factors to consider when developing a cost-effective approach to managing HE, such as patient compliance, the adverse event (AE) profile of drug therapy, efficacy of drug therapy, and relative cost-benefits of drug therapy...
March 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518101/dramatic-action-a-theater-based-paradigm-for-analyzing-human-interactions
#14
Yuvalal Liron, Noa Raindel, Uri Alon
Existing approaches to describe social interactions consider emotional states or use ad-hoc descriptors for microanalysis of interactions. Such descriptors are different in each context thereby limiting comparisons, and can also mix facets of meaning such as emotional states, short term tactics and long-term goals. To develop a systematic set of concepts for second-by-second social interactions, we suggest a complementary approach based on practices employed in theater. Theater uses the concept of dramatic action, the effort that one makes to change the psychological state of another...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517258/the-moral-standing-of-animals-towards-a-psychology-of-speciesism
#15
Lucius Caviola, Jim A C Everett, Nadira S Faber
We introduce and investigate the philosophical concept of 'speciesism' -the assignment of different moral worth based on species membership -as a psychological construct. In five studies, using both general population samples online and student samples, we show that speciesism is a measurable, stable construct with high interpersonal differences, that goes along with a cluster of other forms of prejudice, and is able to predict real-world decision-making and behavior. In Study 1 we present the development and empirical validation of a theoretically driven Speciesism Scale, which captures individual differences in speciesist attitudes...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503607/effect-of-somatic-experiencing-resiliency-based-trauma-treatment-training-on-quality-of-life-and-psychological-health-as-potential-markers-of-resilience-in-treating-professionals
#16
Neal E Winblad, Michael Changaris, Phyllis K Stein
Background: Individuals who treat trauma are at significant risk of vicarious traumatization and burnout. Somatic Experiencing® (SE®) is a resiliency-focused trauma treatment modality designed to address autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation and its impacted physical health and mental health symptoms e.g., anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, migraines, fibromyalgia, and chronic fatigue, etc. The SE® training supports the development of clinical skills to reduce physical health/mental health symptoms as well as increase clinician resilience...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499865/ten-year-clinical-experience-of-humanitarian-cardiothoracic-surgery-in-rwanda-building-a-platform-for-ultimate-sustainability-in-a-resource-limited-setting
#17
JaBaris D Swain, Colleen Sinnott, Suellen Breakey, Rian Hasson Charles, Gita Mody, Napthal Nyirimanzi, Ceeya Patton-Bolman, Patricia Come, Gapira Ganza, Emmanuel Rusingiza, Nathan Ruhamya, Joseph Mucumbitsi, Jorge Borges, Martin Zammert, Jochen D Muehlschlegel, Robert Oakes, Bruce Leavitt, R Morton Bolman
OBJECTIVE: Despite its near complete eradication in resource-rich countries, rheumatic heart disease remains the most common acquired cardiovascular disease in sub-Saharan Africa. With a ratio of physicians/population of 1 per 10,500, including only 4 cardiologists for a population of 11.4 million, Rwanda represents a resource-limited setting lacking the local capacity to detect and treat early cases of strep throat and perform lifesaving operations for advanced rheumatic heart disease...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498120/assessing-care-giving-demands-resources-and-costs-of-family-friend-caregivers-for-persons-with-mental-health-disorders-a-scoping-review
#18
REVIEW
Elizabeth Lin, Janet Durbin, Denise Guerriere, Tiziana Volpe, Avra Selick, Julia Kennedy, Wendy J Ungar, Donna S Lero
As mental health (MH) care has shifted from institutional settings to the community, families and friends are responsible for providing the majority of the care at home. The substantial literature on the adverse effects experienced by caregivers has focused mainly on psychological morbidity. Less attention has been paid to how caregivers for persons with MH disorders interact with larger social systems and the impacts of factors such as financial strain, lost time from leisure activities, and the availability of health and social services...
March 1, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489024/participatory-action-as-a-research-method-with-public-health-nurses
#19
Cheryl Cusack, Benita Cohen, Javier Mignone, Mariette J Chartier, Zana Lutfiyya
AIM: This article explores and describes participatory action research as a preferred method in addressing nursing practice issues. This is the first study that used participatory action research with public health nurses in Canada to develop a professional practice model. BACKGROUND: Participatory action research is a sub-category of action research that incorporates feminist and critical theory with foundations in the field of social psychology. For nurses, critical analysis of long-established beliefs and practices through participatory action research contributes to emancipatory knowledge regarding the impact of traditional hierarchies on their practice...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488896/-the-relationship-between-forgivingness-mental-health-and-psychotherapy
#20
K T Kioulos, Z H Alexandri, A T Kioulou, I D Bergiannaki
Forgivingness occupies a prominent place in religions as well as in various philosophical systems of ethics and can be defined as the free, personal distancing from feelings of rage and resentment toward a person or persons having committed an injustice. The main psychological function of forgiveness consists in allowing for the replacement of negative emotions by positive ones, such as generosity, goodness, compassion, empathy, or even love toward the offender. It must be emphasized that forgiveness is independent from reconciliation, and it is not simply a form of tolerance, justification, oblivion, underestimation, denial or amnesty...
October 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
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