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olive leaf

Hiroki Yoshioka, Miki Tanaka, Hirohisa Fujii, Tsunemasa Nonogaki
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of a Sasa veitchii leaf extract (SE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity. METHODS: Seven-week-old male ddy mice were orally administered SE or saline for seven days. Twenty-four hours after the last SE or saline administration, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 3 g/kg CCl4 or olive oil. The mice from each group were euthanized and bled for plasma analysis 24 h after the CCl4/olive oil injection...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Silvia Tejada, Samuel Pinya, Maria Del Mar Bibiloni, Josep A Tur, Antoni Pons, Antoni Sureda
The Mediterranean diet includes olive oil as its primary source of fat. This diet is frequently associated to longevity and a lower incidence of chronic diseases thanks to its biological activities and health effects. Apart from oleic acid, olive oil contains many bioactive components including polyphenols that have been reported to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Polyphenols may for the most part be responsible for the protective effects against cardiovascular diseases associated with olive oil...
October 5, 2016: Current Drug Targets
Jun Huang, Juan Zhang, Yan Li, Jun Li, Xiao-Hua Shi
The screening of suitable insecticides is a key factor in successfully applying trunk injection technology to ornamental plants. In this study, six chemical pesticides were selected and injected into the trunks of Osmanthus fragrans to control the nettle caterpillar, Latoia lepida (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), using a no-pressure injection system. The absorption rate of the insecticides, the leaf loss due to insect damage, and the mortality and frass amount of L. lepida larvae were evaluated after 77 and 429 days...
2016: PeerJ
Marta Navarro, Francisco J Morales
The antiglycative activity of hydroxytyrosol (HT) and olive leaf extract (OLE) was investigated in wheat-flour biscuits. Quercetin (QE) and gallic acid (GA) were used as reference of antiglycative activity of phenolic compounds. HT, OLE, QE and GA were added in the range of 0.25-0.75% (w/w). Samples were compared against a control recipe baked at 180°C/20min. HT biscuit was able to inhibit efficiently the formation of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), as well as reduced the formation of overall free fluorescent AGEs and pentosidine...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Ashkan Hatami, Amir Hossein Khoshgoftarmanesh
Uniform 2-year old seedlings of a commercial olive cultivar (Olea europaea L., cv. Mahzam) were exposed or unexposed to the air pollution from the controlled burning of waste tires. The plants were supplied with zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) or synthesized Zn(Glycine)2 (Zn-Gly) or unsupplied with Zn. Exposure to air pollution resulted in oxidative damage to the olive, as indicated by the higher production of malondialdehyde (MDA). Supplement with Zn partly alleviated oxidative damage induced by the air emissions on the olive...
September 24, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Wei Li, TengFei Yu, XiaoYan Li, ChunYan Zhao
Hysteresis, related to tree sap flow and associated environmental variables, plays a critical ecological role in the comprehensive understanding of forest water use dynamics. Nevertheless, only limited researches related to this unique ecological phenomenon have been conducted to date in desert riparian forests under extreme arid regions. Populus euphratica Oliv sap flow velocity (VS) was measured during the 2012 growing season using the heat ratio method, at the same time as environmental variables, such as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and leaf water potential...
October 2015: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Oliver Binks, Patrick Meir, Lucy Rowland, Antonio Carlos Lola da Costa, Steel Silva Vasconcelos, Alex Antonio Ribeiro de Oliveira, Leandro Ferreira, Maurizio Mencuccini
Dry periods are predicted to become more frequent and severe in the future in some parts of the tropics, including Amazonia, potentially causing reduced productivity, higher tree mortality and increased emissions of stored carbon. Using a long-term (12 year) through-fall exclusion (TFE) experiment in the tropics, we test the hypothesis that trees produce leaves adapted to cope with higher levels of water stress, by examining the following leaf characteristics: area, thickness, leaf mass per area, vein density, stomatal density, the thickness of palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll and both of the epidermal layers, internal cavity volume and the average cell sizes of the palisade and spongy mesophyll...
September 10, 2016: Tree Physiology
Emily R Koch, Permal Deo
BACKGROUND: Chronic hyperglycemia enhances the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), contributing to diabetic complications. Thus, controlling blood glucose levels, inhibiting the formation of AGEs and reducing ROS are key therapeutic targets in early stage type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The inhibitory effects of seven commercial liquid nutritional supplements against carbohydrate hydrolysing enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidase, was determined by dinitrosalicylic (DNS) reagent and p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside solution, respectively...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Marta Piroddi, Adriana Albini, Roberto Fabiani, Lisa Giovannelli, Cristina Luceri, Fausta Natella, Patrizia Rosignoli, Teresa Rossi, Agnese Taticchi, Maurizio Servili, Francesco Galli
Nutrigenomics data on the functional components of olive oil are still sparse, but rapidly increasing. Olive oil is the main source of fat and health-promoting component of the Mediterranean diet. Positive effects have been observed on genes involved in the pathobiology of most prevalent age- and lifestyle-related human conditions, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Other effects on health-promoting genes have been identified for bioactive components of olives and olive leafs. Omics technologies are offering unique opportunities to identify nutritional and health biomarkers associated with these gene responses, the use of which in personalized and even predictive protocols of investigation, is a main breakthrough in modern medicine and nutrition...
September 1, 2016: BioFactors
Pablo T Fernández-Moreno, Ricardo Alcantara-de la Cruz, Hugo E Cruz-Hipólito, Antonia M Rojano-Delgado, Ilias Travlos, Rafael De Prado
Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sophie Friederike Ullrich, Nils J H Averesch, Leonardo Castellanos, Young Hae Choi, Andreas Rothauer, Oliver Kayser
Duboisia species, which belong to the family of Solanaceae, are commercially cultivated in large scale, as they are main source of the pharmaceutically-used active compound scopolamine. In this study, (1)H NMR-based metabolite profiling linking primary with secondary metabolism and additional quantification via HPCL-MS with special focus on the tropane alkaloids were applied to compare leaf and root extracts of three wild types and two hybrids of Duboisia myoporoides and D. leichhardtii at different developmental stages grown under controlled conditions in climate chambers and under agricultural field plantation...
November 2016: Phytochemistry
Anna Boss, Karen S Bishop, Gareth Marlow, Matthew P G Barnett, Lynnette R Ferguson
The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE) contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO...
2016: Nutrients
Janosch Sedlacek, Andrés J Cortés, Julia Wheeler, Oliver Bossdorf, Guenter Hoch, Jaroslav Klápště, Christian Lexer, Christian Rixen, Sonja Wipf, Sophie Karrenberg, Mark van Kleunen
Alpine ecosystems are seriously threatened by climate change. One of the key mechanisms by which plants can adapt to changing environmental conditions is through evolutionary change. However, we still know little about the evolutionary potential in wild populations of long-lived alpine plants. Here, we investigated heritabilities of phenological traits, leaf size, and performance traits in natural populations of the long-lived alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea using relatedness estimates inferred from SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) markers...
June 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Ishtiaq Hassan, Anelise F Orílio, Elvira Fiallo-Olivé, Rob W Briddon, Jesús Navas-Castillo
Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) are whitefly-transmitted viruses with single-stranded DNA genomes that are frequently associated with DNA satellites. These satellites include non-coding satellites, for which the name deltasatellites has been proposed. Although the first deltasatellite was identified in the late 1990s, little is known about the effects they have on infections of their helper begomoviruses. Recently a group of deltasatellites were identified associated with sweepoviruses, a group of phylogenetically distinct begomoviruses that infect plants of the family Convolvulaceae including sweet potato...
2016: Scientific Reports
Elvira Fiallo-Olivé, Remedios Tovar, Jesús Navas-Castillo
Deltasatellites are small noncoding DNA satellites associated with begomoviruses. The study presented here has investigated the biology of two deltasatellites found in wild malvaceous plants in the New World (NW). Infectious clones of two NW deltasatellites (from Malvastrum coromandelianum and Sidastrum micranthum) and associated begomoviruses were constructed. Infectivity in Nicotiana benthamiana and their natural malvaceous hosts was assessed. The NW deltasatellites were not able to spread autonomously in planta, whereas they were maintained by the associated bipartite begomovirus...
July 11, 2016: New Phytologist
Nur H A Bahar, F Yoko Ishida, Lasantha K Weerasinghe, Rossella Guerrieri, Odhran S O'Sullivan, Keith J Bloomfield, Gregory P Asner, Roberta E Martin, Jon Lloyd, Yadvinder Malhi, Oliver L Phillips, Patrick Meir, Norma Salinas, Eric G Cosio, Tomas F Domingues, Carlos A Quesada, Felipe Sinca, Alberto Escudero Vega, Paola P Zuloaga Ccorimanya, Jhon Del Aguila-Pasquel, Katherine Quispe Huaypar, Israel Cuba Torres, Rosalbina Butrón Loayza, Yulina Pelaez Tapia, Judit Huaman Ovalle, Benedict M Long, John R Evans, Owen K Atkin
We examined whether variations in photosynthetic capacity are linked to variations in the environment and/or associated leaf traits for tropical moist forests (TMFs) in the Andes/western Amazon regions of Peru. We compared photosynthetic capacity (maximal rate of carboxylation of Rubisco (Vcmax ), and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax )), leaf mass, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) per unit leaf area (Ma , Na and Pa , respectively), and chlorophyll from 210 species at 18 field sites along a 3300-m elevation gradient...
July 8, 2016: New Phytologist
Tuncer Şimşek, Uğur Altınışık, İsmail Erşan, Hasan Şahin, Betül Altınışık, Mesut Erbaş, Çiğdem Pala
BACKGROUND: Oleuropein is known to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. An important aim of anesthetic management in ocular surgery is to keep the intraocular pressure under control. Studies have researched a variety of prophylactic materials used to prevent increases in intraocular pressure. We aimed to research the effects of oleuropein on intraocular pressure (IOP) during general anaesthesia. METHODS: Fourteen New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into two groups of seven...
2016: SpringerPlus
Nataša Zorić, Nevenka Kopjar, Klara Kraljić, Nada Oršolić, Siniša Tomić, Ivan Kosalec
Olive leaf extract is characterized by a high content of polyphenols (oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and their derivatives), which is associated with its therapeutic properties. The objective of the present research was to evaluate the antifungal activity of olive leaf extract against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and C. dubliniensis CBS 7987 strains. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extract were determined by several in vitro assays. The extract showed a concentration depended effect on the viability of C...
September 1, 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica
P Shakeri, Z Durmic, J Vadhanabhuti, P E Vercoe
BACKGROUND: The industrial processing of olive generates a high quantity of by-products. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of products derived from olive trees, i.e. leaves, fruits or kernels as a sole substrate (part A), and crude extract from leaves combined with a substrate (part B) on rumen microbial fermentation in an in vitro batch fermentation system. In this study, total gas production, methane production, and concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and ammonia in ruminal fluid were measured...
July 4, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
M Moudache, M Colon, C Nerín, F Zaidi
The antioxidant activity of olive leaf (OL) and cake (OC) extracts with different solvents was evaluated. 70% of aqueous ethanol extract of OL was chosen as the most antioxidant extract based on antiradical activity (DPPH) (95.4±0.3%) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) (0.82±0.07g equivalent Trolox per g of solution) assays. This OL extract was incorporated in two multilayer materials consisting of (i) polyethylene/polyethylene (PE/PE) film and (ii) polyethylene/paper (PE/P). These multilayers were exposed to a gas stream enriched in free radicals to evaluate the scavenging capacity of both materials...
December 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
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