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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424723/evidence-mechanism-and-alternative-chemical-seedbank-level-control-of-glyphosate-resistance-of-a-rigid-ryegrass-lolium-rigidum-biotype-from-southern-spain
#1
Pablo T Fernández-Moreno, Fernando Bastida, Rafael De Prado
Rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) is one of the most troublesome weeds in different crops in the Mediterranean region. A rigid ryegrass biotype from an olive grove in Jaén province (Andalusía, southern Spain), potentially resistant to glyphosate (RG), was tested for its resistance level through dose-response assays using a susceptible biotype (SG). To test the hypothesis of a non-target-site-based resistance, as point mutations are far less common mechanisms of glyphosate resistance, studies were also conducted to elucidate whether resistance was associated with biochemical, metabolism, molecular and/or physiological mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419967/olea-europaea-leaf-extract-and-bevacizumab-synergistically-exhibit-beneficial-efficacy-upon-human-glioblastoma-cancer-stem-cells-through-reducing-angiogenesis-and-invasion-in-vitro
#2
Gulcin Tezcan, Mevlut Ozgur Taskapilioglu, Berrin Tunca, Ahmet Bekar, Hilal Demirci, Hasan Kocaeli, Secil Ak Aksoy, Unal Egeli, Gulsah Cecener, Sahsine Tolunay
Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) that are cancer stem-cell-positive (GSC [+]) essentially cannot benefit from anti-angiogenic or anti-invasive therapy. In the present study, the potential anti-angiogenic and anti-invasive effects of Olea europaea (olive) leaf extract (OLE) were tested using GSC (+) tumours. OLE (2mg/mL) caused a significant reduction in tumour weight, vascularisation, invasiveness and migration (p=0.0001, p<0.001, p=0.004; respectively) that was associated with reducing the expression of VEGFA, MMP-2 and MMP-9...
April 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385187/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-oleuropein-on-microglia-through-regulation-of-drp1-dependent-mitochondrial-fission
#3
Junghyung Park, Ju-Sik Min, Unbin Chae, Joon Yeop Lee, Kyung-Sik Song, Hyun-Shik Lee, Hong Jun Lee, Sang-Rae Lee, Dong-Seok Lee
Oleuropein is a primary phenolic compound found in olive leaf and Fraxinus rhynchophylla. Here, we investigated the impact of oleuropein on LPS-induced BV-2 microglial cells. Oleuropein suppressed the LPS-induced increase in pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, via inhibition of ERK/p38/NF-κB activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Furthermore, it suppressed LPS-induced excessive mitochondrial fission, which regulates mitochondrial ROS generation and pro-inflammatory response by diminishing Drp1 dephosphorylation...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382717/the-origin-of-aliphatic-hydrocarbons-in-olive-oil
#4
Manuel Pineda, María Rojas, Gregorio Gálvez-Valdivieso, Miguel Aguilar
BACKGROUND: There are many substances that can interfere with olive oil quality. Some of them are well characterized, but many others have an unknown origin. Saturated hydrocarbons make an extraordinary complex family of numerous molecules, some of them present naturally in vegetable oils. When major natural saturated hydrocarbons are analyzed by standard chromatographic methods, this complex mixture of saturated hydrocarbons appears as a hump in the chromatogram and is commonly named as unresolved complex mixture (UCM) whose origin remains unknown...
April 6, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338715/salt-acclimation-process-a-comparison-between-a-sensitive-and-a-tolerant-olea-europaea-cultivar
#5
Camilla Pandolfi, Nadia Bazihizina, Cristiana Giordano, Stefano Mancuso, Elisa Azzarello
Saline soils are highly heterogeneous in time and space, and this is a critical factor influencing plant physiology and productivity. Temporal changes in soil salinity can alter plant responses to salinity, and pre-treating plants with low NaCl concentrations has been found to substantially increase salt tolerance in different species in a process called acclimation. However, it still remains unclear whether this process is common to all plants or is only expressed in certain genotypes. We addressed this question by assessing the physiological changes to 100 mM NaCl in two contrasting olive cultivars (the salt-sensitive Leccino and the salt-tolerant Frantoio), following a 1-month acclimation period with 5 or 25 mM NaCl...
March 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303146/an-assessment-of-genetic-diversity-and-drought-tolerance-in-argan-tree-argania-spinosa-populations-potential-for-the-development-of-improved-drought-tolerance
#6
Abdelghani Chakhchar, Matthew Haworth, Cherkaoui El Modafar, Marco Lauteri, Claudia Mattioni, Said Wahbi, Mauro Centritto
The argan tree (Argania spinosa) occurs in a restricted area of Southwestern Morocco characterized by low water availability and high evapotranspirative demand. Despite the adaptation of the argan tree to drought stress, the extent of the argan forest has declined markedly due to increased aridity, land use changes and the expansion of olive cultivation. The oil of the argan seed is used for cooking and as the basis for numerous cosmetics. The identification of argan tree varieties with enhanced drought tolerance may minimize the economic losses associated with the decline of the argan forest and constrain the spread of desertification...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290298/evaluation-of-an-olive-leaf-extract-as-a-natural-source-of-antiglycative-compounds
#7
Marta Navarro, Francisco J Morales
Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs) have been associated to diabetes, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Mitigating the formation of AGEs is a strategy to avoid detrimental physiopathological effects of age-related chronic diseases. An olive leaf extract (OLE), obtained under acidic conditions, and two fractions, obtained by solid-phase extraction, were characterized by LC-MS/MS. Antiglycative capacity of OLE and fractions were investigated in different in vitro models. The OLE significantly inhibited the formation of Amadori products at the early stage as well as the formation of fluorescent AGEs at the advanced stage of the glycation...
February 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229142/olive-leaf-extract-concentrated-in-hydroxytyrosol-attenuates-protein-carbonylation-and-the-formation-of-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-a-hepatic-cell-line-hepg2
#8
Marta Navarro, Francisco J Morales, Sonia Ramos
Glycation takes place both at the cellular level and at the extracellular matrix level and generates, consequently, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) associated with chronic diseases and the aging process. Two olive leaf extracts concentrated in (i) oleuropein (OLE-A; 93.9 mg oleuropein g(-1)) and (ii) hydroxytyrosol (OLE-B; 54.5 mg hydroxytyrosol g(-1)) were evaluated according to their antiglycative and antioxidant capacity in vitro. OLE-B exerted the highest anti-AGE effect in different glycation models (IC50: 0...
February 23, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211527/depth-specific-fluctuations-of-gene-expression-and-protein-abundance-modulate-the-photophysiology-in-the-seagrass-posidonia-oceanica
#9
Gabriele Procaccini, Miriam Ruocco, Lázaro Marín-Guirao, Emanuela Dattolo, Christophe Brunet, Daniela D'Esposito, Chiara Lauritano, Silvia Mazzuca, Ilia Anna Serra, Letizia Bernardo, Amalia Piro, Sven Beer, Mats Björk, Martin Gullström, Pimchanok Buapet, Lina M Rasmusson, Paulo Felisberto, Sylvie Gobert, John W Runcie, João Silva, Irene Olivé, Monya M Costa, Isabel Barrote, Rui Santos
Here we present the results of a multiple organizational level analysis conceived to identify acclimative/adaptive strategies exhibited by the seagrass Posidonia oceanica to the daily fluctuations in the light environment, at contrasting depths. We assessed changes in photophysiological parameters, leaf respiration, pigments, and protein and mRNA expression levels. The results show that the diel oscillations of P. oceanica photophysiological and respiratory responses were related to transcripts and proteins expression of the genes involved in those processes and that there was a response asynchrony between shallow and deep plants probably caused by the strong differences in the light environment...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210244/assessment-of-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-olive-leaf-extract-against-foodborne-bacterial-pathogens
#10
Yanhong Liu, Lindsay C McKeever, Nasir S A Malik
Olive leaf extract (OLE) has been used traditionally as a herbal supplement since it contains polyphenolic compounds with beneficial properties ranging from increasing energy levels, lowering blood pressure, and supporting the cardiovascular and immune systems. In addition to the beneficial effects on human health, OLE also has antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of OLE against major foodborne pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella Enteritidis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168624/antimicrobial-activity-of-endophytic-fungi-from-olive-tree-leaves
#11
Cynthia Malhadas, Ricardo Malheiro, José Alberto Pereira, Paula Guedes de Pinho, Paula Baptista
In this study, the antimicrobial potential of three fungal endophytes from leaves of Olea europaea L. was evaluated and the host plant extract effect in the antimicrobial activity was examined. The volatile compounds produced by endophytes were identified by GC/MS and further correlated with the antimicrobial activity. In potato dextrose agar, both Penicillium commune and Penicillium canescens were the most effective inhibiting Gram-positive and -negative bacteria (up to 2.7-fold compared to 30 µg/mL chloramphenicol), whereas Alternaria alternata was most effective inhibiting yeasts (up to 8...
March 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168022/links-between-soil-microbial-communities-and-plant-traits-in-a-species-rich-grassland-under-long-term-climate-change
#12
Emma J Sayer, Anna E Oliver, Jason D Fridley, Andrew P Askew, Robert T E Mills, J Philip Grime
Climate change can influence soil microorganisms directly by altering their growth and activity but also indirectly via effects on the vegetation, which modifies the availability of resources. Direct impacts of climate change on soil microorganisms can occur rapidly, whereas indirect effects mediated by shifts in plant community composition are not immediately apparent and likely to increase over time. We used molecular fingerprinting of bacterial and fungal communities in the soil to investigate the effects of 17 years of temperature and rainfall manipulations in a species-rich grassland near Buxton, UK...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167291/elucidation-of-the-possible-mechanism-of-analgesic-actions-of-butanol-leaf-fraction-of-olax-subscorpioidea-oliv
#13
Saidi Odoma, Abdulkadir Umar Zezi, Nuhu Mohammed Danjuma, Abubakar Ahmed, Muhammed Garba Magaji
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Preparations of Olax subscorpioidea have been used traditionally for the management of pains, inflammatory diseases, yellow fever, cancer and rheumatism. Previously, the analgesic activity of its leaf extract have been reported. Furthermore, an analgesic assay guided fractionation showed that the butanol soluble fraction is the most active. However, the mechanism of this activity remains to be elucidated. This present study investigated the possible pharmacological mechanisms involved in the analgesic activity of the butanol leaf fraction of Olax subscorpioidea (BFOS) using the acetic acid induced writhing test in mice...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137214/phytochemical-constituents-ches-and-urease-inhibition-antiproliferative-and-antioxidant-properties-of-elaeagnus-umbellata-thunb
#14
Tevfik Ozen, Semiha Yenigun, Muhammed Altun, Ibrahim Demirtas
Due to the common ethnopharmacological used or scientifically examined biochemical properties, Elaeagnaceae family, Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. (autumn olive) was worth investigated. In this investigation, we revealed antioxidant, antiproliferative and enzyme inhibition activities of the water, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of E. umbellata as well as contents of their phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid, lycopene and b-carotene. The antioxidant activity was screened by phosphomolybdenum assay...
January 27, 2017: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123157/olive-and-ginkgo-extracts-as-potential-cataract-therapy-with-differential-inhibitory-activity-on-aldose-reductase
#15
Diaaeldin Mohamed Abdelkawi Elimam, Ahmed Salah Uddin Ibrahim, Gregory Ing Liou, Farid Abd-Elrehim Abd-Elaziz Badria
Aldose reductase (AR) has been the leading target in the treatment of diabetic cataract. Although numerous synthetic AR inhibitors (ARI) have been identified, their adverse side effects currently preclude their use. Olive leaf extract (OLE) as well as ginkgo leaf extract (GLE) are natural supplements that have wide therapeutic indices and a plethora of salutary effects during diabetes that so far untested on sugar cataract progression. As such, the present study sought to evaluate the AR-inhibiting properties of OLE and GLE using the isolated enzyme from rabbit lens...
January 26, 2017: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100919/preventive-effect-of-eucommia-leaf-extract-on-aortic-media-hypertrophy-in-wistar-kyoto-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#16
Shingo Hosoo, Masahiro Koyama, Akira Watanabe, Ryuya Ishida, Tetsuya Hirata, Yasuyo Yamaguchi, Hiroo Yamasaki, Keiji Wada, Yukihito Higashi, Kozo Nakamura
Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaf extract (ELE) has been shown to have anti-hypertensive and anti-obesity effects in rats that are fed a high-fat diet (HFD). To explore the effects of chronic administration of ELE on body weight, blood pressure and aortic media thickness, 7-week-old male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were orally administered a normal diet, a 30% HFD, or a 5% ELE plus HFD ad libitum for 10 weeks. The HFD treatment caused mild obesity and hypertension in the normotensive rats, while rats receiving both ELE and the HFD had significantly lower body weights, less visceral and perirenal fat, lower blood pressure and thinner aortic media than the control rats receiving the HFD only...
January 19, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067965/rp-hplc-dad-esi-qtof-ms-based-metabolic-profiling-of-the-potential-olea-europaea-by-product-wood-and-its-comparison-with-leaf-counterpart
#17
Sonda Ammar, Maria Del Mar Contreras, Boutheina Gargouri, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Mohamed Bouaziz
INTRODUCTION: Olea europaea L. organs such as leaves, stems and roots have been associated with numerous in vivo and in vitro biological activities and used for traditional medicinal purposes. However, tree wood is an untapped resource with little information about their chemical composition. OBJECTIVE: That is why, the objective of this study is to increase the knowledge about phytochemicals from 'Chemlali' olive wood by means of mass spectrometry-based analyses...
May 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060487/how-does-the-amount-and-composition-of-pm-deposited-on-platanus-acerifolia-leaves-change-across-different-cities-in-europe
#18
Chiara Baldacchini, Ana Castanheiro, Nairuhi Maghakyan, Gregorio Sgrigna, Jolien Verhelst, Rocío Alonso, Jorge H Amorim, Patrick Bellan, Danijela Đunisijević Bojović, Jürgen Breuste, Oliver Bühler, Ilie C Cântar, Paloma Cariñanos, Giulia Carriero, Galina Churkina, Lucian Dinca, Raffaela Esposito, Stanisław W Gawroński, Maren Kern, Didier Le Thiec, Marco Moretti, Tine Ningal, Eleni C Rantzoudi, Iztok Sinjur, Biljana Stojanova, Mira Aničić Urošević, Violeta Velikova, Ivana Živojinović, Lilit Sahakyan, Carlo Calfapietra, Roeland Samson
Particulate matter (PM) deposited on Platanus acerifolia tree leaves has been sampled in the urban areas of 28 European cities, over 20 countries, with the aim of testing leaf deposited particles as indicator of atmospheric PM concentration and composition. Leaves have been collected close to streets characterized by heavy traffic and within urban parks. Leaf surface density, dimensions, and elemental composition of leaf deposited particles have been compared with leaf magnetic content, and discussed in connection with air quality data...
January 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035149/optimization-of-a-green-extraction-method-for-the-recovery-of-polyphenols-from-olive-leaf-using-cyclodextrins-and-glycerin-as-co-solvents
#19
Ioannis Mourtzinos, Eleni Anastasopoulou, Athanasios Petrou, Spyros Grigorakis, Dimitris Makris, Costas G Biliaderis
Olive leaf, an agricultural by-product, was studied for the valorization of its biophenols using green extraction techniques; i.e. non-toxic and eco-friendly extraction solvents were used, involving water and glycerol. 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (CD), was also employed as an enhancer of the extraction, since cyclodextrins (CD's) are known to improve the extractability of olive leaf polyphenols by forming water soluble inclusion complexes. The process was optimized by implementing a central composite (Box-Behnken) experimental design and response surface methodology, taking into consideration the following independent variables: glycerol concentration (Cgl), CD concentration (CCD) and temperature (T)...
November 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011361/unexpected-effect-of-dry-olive-leaf-extract-on-the-level-of-dna-damage-in-lymphocytes-of-lead-intoxicated-workers-before-and-after-cana2edta-chelation-therapy
#20
Andrea Čabarkapa, Dragana Dekanski, Lada Živković, Mirjana Milanović-Čabarkapa, Vladan Bajić, Dijana Topalović, Francesca Giampieri, Massimiliano Gasparrini, Maurizio Battino, Biljana Spremo-Potparević
The CaNa2EDTA chelation therapy is often practiced with antioxidant supplementation. Dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) is natural product with antioxidant and DNA protective properties. The effects of DOLE on the levels of DNA damage were investigated ex vivo in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of 19 workers occupationally exposed to lead (Pb), before and after CaNa2EDTA chelation therapy. DOLE demonstrated pronounced radical scavenging activity in concentrations ≥1 mg/mL, and showed no genotoxicity per se, in concentrations 0...
December 21, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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