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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513570/a-study-of-the-protective-properties-of-iraqi-olive-leaves-against-oxidation-and-pathogenic-bacteria-in-food-applications
#1
Ammar B Altemimi
There is an ancient and prodigious history of olive trees because of their nutritional, medicinal, and traditional uses. Intensive studies have been conducted on olive leaves because they have many positive and beneficial effects for human health. In this study, different solvents were used to examine the olive leaves for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and their possible food applications. The obtained results showed that the amounts of phenolic compounds of the olive leaf were 190.44 ± 0.50, 173 ± 1...
May 17, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511694/ethephon-induced-oxidative-stress-in-the-olive-leaf-abscission-zone-enables-development-of-a-selective-abscission-compound
#2
S Goldental-Cohen, C Burstein, I Biton, S Ben Sasson, A Sadeh, Y Many, A Doron-Faigenboim, H Zemach, Y Mugira, D Schneider, R Birger, S Meir, S Philosoph-Hadas, V Irihomovitch, S Lavee, B Avidan, G Ben-Ari
BACKGROUND: Table olives (Olea europaea L.), despite their widespread production, are still harvested manually. The low efficiency of manual harvesting and the rising costs of labor have reduced the profitability of this crop. A selective abscission treatment, inducing abscission of fruits but not leaves, is crucial for the adoption of mechanical harvesting of table olives. In the present work we studied the anatomical and molecular differences between the three abscission zones (AZs) of olive fruits and leaves...
May 16, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503711/bioactivity-improvement-of-olea-europaea-leaf-extract-biotransformed-by-wickerhamomyces-anomalus-enzymes
#3
Rosa Palmeri, Cristina Restuccia, Julieta Ines Monteleone, Elisa Sperlinga, Laura Siracusa, Mauro Serafini, Alberto Finamore, Giovanni Spagna
Olive leaves represent a quantitatively significant by-product of agroindustry. They are rich in phenols, mainly oleuropein, which can be hydrolyzed into several bioactive compounds, including hydroxytyrosol. In this study, water extract from olive leaves 'Biancolilla' was analyzed for polyphenol profile, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and protective effect on differentiated Caco-2 cells. The efficacy of two enzymatic treatments in promoting the release of bioactive phenols was investigated: a) enzymatic extract from Wickerhamomyces anomalus, characterized by β-glucosidase and esterase activities; b) commercial β-glucosidase...
May 13, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479728/in-vitro-toxicity-and-genotoxic-activity-of-aqueous-leaf-extracts-from-four-varieties-of-olea-europea-l
#4
Luc Verschaeve, Hayet Edziri, Roel Anthonissen, Dalenda Boujnah, Fethia Skhiri, Hechmi Chehab, Mahjoub Aouni, Maha Mastouri
AIM: Despite its therapeutic value almost nothing is known about potential adverse health effects of Olea europea L. We therefore investigated the in vitro toxicity and genotoxicity of leaf extracts of this plant. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Extracts from olive tree leaves were obtained from four different regions in Tunisia. We investigated the in vitro toxicity, genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of their aqueous extracts using the neutral red (NR) uptake, Vitotox and alkaline comet assays...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476307/isolation-of-organic-compounds-with-high-added-values-from-agro-industrial-solid-wastes
#5
Dimitris P Zagklis, Christakis A Paraskeva
Phenols are organic compounds with high antioxidant activity. Occurring mainly in plants, where they act as pigments or even as part of defense mechanisms against insects and herbivores. Given the positive impact on on human health, their isolation and purification from agricultural products is of particular interest for the production of nutritional, pharmaceutical and cosmetics supplements. In our study different materials rich in phenolic compounds were used, in order to separate the phenolic content and maximum condensation using physicochemical methods such as solvent extraction, filtration through membranes, adsorption/desorption on resins and vacuum distillation...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463797/olive-olea-europaea-leaf-methanolic-extract-prevents-hcl-ethanol-induced-gastritis-in-rats-by-attenuating-inflammation-and-augmenting-antioxidant-enzyme-activities
#6
Saleh Al-Quraishy, Mohamed S Othman, Mohamed A Dkhil, Ahmed Esmat Abdel Moneim
Gastritis is preponderantly characterized by inflammation of the lining epithelial layer and the chronic gastritis is considered as a pre-cancer lesion. For many centuries olive (Olea europaea) leaf has been used for its putative health potential, nonetheless, to date, the gastroprotective effects of olive leaves have not been studied yet. Hence, in this study we investigated whether olive leaf extract (OLE) could protect gastric mucosa against HCl/ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats. Hcl/ethanol administration caused significant damage to the gastric mucosa, as confirmed by gastric ulcer index and histological evaluation...
April 29, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461019/polar-and-apolar-extra-virgin-olive-oil-and-leaf-extracts-as-a-promising-anti-inflammatory-natural-treatment-for-osteoarthritis
#7
Houda Nsir, Marta Anna Szychlinska, Venera Cardile, Adriana Carol Eleonora Graziano, Rosanna Avola, Hanen Esafi, Alessandra Bendini, Mokhtar Zarouk, Carla Loreto, Venerando Rapisarda, Paola Castrogiovanni, Giuseppe Musumeci
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disease with important socio-economic impact. Looking for a novel natural treatment represents an important challenge and a public health objective. A wide range of previous studies highlighted the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties especially of phenolic compounds present in olive oil. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Tunisian Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) extracts in an in vitro OA model. To this aim we evaluated the polar and apolar olive oil fractions and olive leaf extract...
April 28, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452059/arrhenius-equation-modeling-for-the-shelf-life-prediction-of-tomato-paste-containing-a-natural-preservative
#8
Seid Mahdi Jafari, Mohammad Ganje, Danial Dehnad, Vahid Ghanbari, Javad Hajitabar
BACKGROUND: In this study, shelf life of tomato paste with microencapsulated olive leaf extract was compared with samples containing commercial preservatives by accelerated shelf life testing. Based on previous studies, it has been shown that olive leaf extract as a rich source of phenolic compounds can have antimicrobial properties; so we proposed application of its encapsulated form to improve the storage stability of tomato paste. RESULTS: Regarding Total Soluble Solids, control and the sample containing 1000 ppm sodium benzoate represented the lowest (1...
April 28, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424723/evidence-mechanism-and-alternative-chemical-seedbank-level-control-of-glyphosate-resistance-of-a-rigid-ryegrass-lolium-rigidum-biotype-from-southern-spain
#9
Pablo T Fernández-Moreno, Fernando Bastida, Rafael De Prado
Rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) is one of the most troublesome weeds in different crops in the Mediterranean region. A rigid ryegrass biotype from an olive grove in Jaén province (Andalusía, southern Spain), potentially resistant to glyphosate (RG), was tested for its resistance level through dose-response assays using a susceptible biotype (SG). To test the hypothesis of a non-target-site-based resistance, as point mutations are far less common mechanisms of glyphosate resistance, studies were also conducted to elucidate whether resistance was associated with biochemical, metabolism, molecular and/or physiological mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419967/olea-europaea-leaf-extract-and-bevacizumab-synergistically-exhibit-beneficial-efficacy-upon-human-glioblastoma-cancer-stem-cells-through-reducing-angiogenesis-and-invasion-in-vitro
#10
Gulcin Tezcan, Mevlut Ozgur Taskapilioglu, Berrin Tunca, Ahmet Bekar, Hilal Demirci, Hasan Kocaeli, Secil Ak Aksoy, Unal Egeli, Gulsah Cecener, Sahsine Tolunay
Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) that are cancer stem-cell-positive (GSC [+]) essentially cannot benefit from anti-angiogenic or anti-invasive therapy. In the present study, the potential anti-angiogenic and anti-invasive effects of Olea europaea (olive) leaf extract (OLE) were tested using GSC (+) tumours. OLE (2mg/mL) caused a significant reduction in tumour weight, vascularisation, invasiveness and migration (p=0.0001, p<0.001, p=0.004; respectively) that was associated with reducing the expression of VEGFA, MMP-2 and MMP-9...
June 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385187/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-oleuropein-on-microglia-through-regulation-of-drp1-dependent-mitochondrial-fission
#11
Junghyung Park, Ju-Sik Min, Unbin Chae, Joon Yeop Lee, Kyung-Sik Song, Hyun-Shik Lee, Hong Jun Lee, Sang-Rae Lee, Dong-Seok Lee
Oleuropein is a primary phenolic compound found in olive leaf and Fraxinus rhynchophylla. Here, we investigated the impact of oleuropein on LPS-induced BV-2 microglial cells. Oleuropein suppressed the LPS-induced increase in pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, via inhibition of ERK/p38/NF-κB activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Furthermore, it suppressed LPS-induced excessive mitochondrial fission, which regulates mitochondrial ROS generation and pro-inflammatory response by diminishing Drp1 dephosphorylation...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382717/the-origin-of-aliphatic-hydrocarbons-in-olive-oil
#12
Manuel Pineda, María Rojas, Gregorio Gálvez-Valdivieso, Miguel Aguilar
BACKGROUND: There are many substances that can interfere with olive oil quality. Some of them are well characterized, but many others have an unknown origin. Saturated hydrocarbons make an extraordinary complex family of numerous molecules, some of them present naturally in vegetable oils. When major natural saturated hydrocarbons are analyzed by standard chromatographic methods, this complex mixture of saturated hydrocarbons appears as a hump in the chromatogram and is commonly named as unresolved complex mixture (UCM) whose origin remains unknown...
April 6, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338715/salt-acclimation-process-a-comparison-between-a-sensitive-and-a-tolerant-olea-europaea-cultivar
#13
Camilla Pandolfi, Nadia Bazihizina, Cristiana Giordano, Stefano Mancuso, Elisa Azzarello
Saline soils are highly heterogeneous in time and space, and this is a critical factor influencing plant physiology and productivity. Temporal changes in soil salinity can alter plant responses to salinity, and pre-treating plants with low NaCl concentrations has been found to substantially increase salt tolerance in different species in a process called acclimation. However, it still remains unclear whether this process is common to all plants or is only expressed in certain genotypes. We addressed this question by assessing the physiological changes to 100 mM NaCl in two contrasting olive cultivars (the salt-sensitive Leccino and the salt-tolerant Frantoio), following a 1-month acclimation period with 5 or 25 mM NaCl...
March 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303146/an-assessment-of-genetic-diversity-and-drought-tolerance-in-argan-tree-argania-spinosa-populations-potential-for-the-development-of-improved-drought-tolerance
#14
Abdelghani Chakhchar, Matthew Haworth, Cherkaoui El Modafar, Marco Lauteri, Claudia Mattioni, Said Wahbi, Mauro Centritto
The argan tree (Argania spinosa) occurs in a restricted area of Southwestern Morocco characterized by low water availability and high evapotranspirative demand. Despite the adaptation of the argan tree to drought stress, the extent of the argan forest has declined markedly due to increased aridity, land use changes and the expansion of olive cultivation. The oil of the argan seed is used for cooking and as the basis for numerous cosmetics. The identification of argan tree varieties with enhanced drought tolerance may minimize the economic losses associated with the decline of the argan forest and constrain the spread of desertification...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290298/evaluation-of-an-olive-leaf-extract-as-a-natural-source-of-antiglycative-compounds
#15
Marta Navarro, Francisco J Morales
Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs) have been associated to diabetes, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Mitigating the formation of AGEs is a strategy to avoid detrimental physiopathological effects of age-related chronic diseases. An olive leaf extract (OLE), obtained under acidic conditions, and two fractions, obtained by solid-phase extraction, were characterized by LC-MS/MS. Antiglycative capacity of OLE and fractions were investigated in different in vitro models. The OLE significantly inhibited the formation of Amadori products at the early stage as well as the formation of fluorescent AGEs at the advanced stage of the glycation...
February 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229142/olive-leaf-extract-concentrated-in-hydroxytyrosol-attenuates-protein-carbonylation-and-the-formation-of-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-a-hepatic-cell-line-hepg2
#16
Marta Navarro, Francisco J Morales, Sonia Ramos
Glycation takes place both at the cellular level and at the extracellular matrix level and generates, consequently, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) associated with chronic diseases and the aging process. Two olive leaf extracts concentrated in (i) oleuropein (OLE-A; 93.9 mg oleuropein g(-1)) and (ii) hydroxytyrosol (OLE-B; 54.5 mg hydroxytyrosol g(-1)) were evaluated according to their antiglycative and antioxidant capacity in vitro. OLE-B exerted the highest anti-AGE effect in different glycation models (IC50: 0...
February 23, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211527/depth-specific-fluctuations-of-gene-expression-and-protein-abundance-modulate-the-photophysiology-in-the-seagrass-posidonia-oceanica
#17
Gabriele Procaccini, Miriam Ruocco, Lázaro Marín-Guirao, Emanuela Dattolo, Christophe Brunet, Daniela D'Esposito, Chiara Lauritano, Silvia Mazzuca, Ilia Anna Serra, Letizia Bernardo, Amalia Piro, Sven Beer, Mats Björk, Martin Gullström, Pimchanok Buapet, Lina M Rasmusson, Paulo Felisberto, Sylvie Gobert, John W Runcie, João Silva, Irene Olivé, Monya M Costa, Isabel Barrote, Rui Santos
Here we present the results of a multiple organizational level analysis conceived to identify acclimative/adaptive strategies exhibited by the seagrass Posidonia oceanica to the daily fluctuations in the light environment, at contrasting depths. We assessed changes in photophysiological parameters, leaf respiration, pigments, and protein and mRNA expression levels. The results show that the diel oscillations of P. oceanica photophysiological and respiratory responses were related to transcripts and proteins expression of the genes involved in those processes and that there was a response asynchrony between shallow and deep plants probably caused by the strong differences in the light environment...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210244/assessment-of-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-olive-leaf-extract-against-foodborne-bacterial-pathogens
#18
Yanhong Liu, Lindsay C McKeever, Nasir S A Malik
Olive leaf extract (OLE) has been used traditionally as a herbal supplement since it contains polyphenolic compounds with beneficial properties ranging from increasing energy levels, lowering blood pressure, and supporting the cardiovascular and immune systems. In addition to the beneficial effects on human health, OLE also has antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of OLE against major foodborne pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella Enteritidis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168624/antimicrobial-activity-of-endophytic-fungi-from-olive-tree-leaves
#19
Cynthia Malhadas, Ricardo Malheiro, José Alberto Pereira, Paula Guedes de Pinho, Paula Baptista
In this study, the antimicrobial potential of three fungal endophytes from leaves of Olea europaea L. was evaluated and the host plant extract effect in the antimicrobial activity was examined. The volatile compounds produced by endophytes were identified by GC/MS and further correlated with the antimicrobial activity. In potato dextrose agar, both Penicillium commune and Penicillium canescens were the most effective inhibiting Gram-positive and -negative bacteria (up to 2.7-fold compared to 30 µg/mL chloramphenicol), whereas Alternaria alternata was most effective inhibiting yeasts (up to 8...
March 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168022/links-between-soil-microbial-communities-and-plant-traits-in-a-species-rich-grassland-under-long-term-climate-change
#20
Emma J Sayer, Anna E Oliver, Jason D Fridley, Andrew P Askew, Robert T E Mills, J Philip Grime
Climate change can influence soil microorganisms directly by altering their growth and activity but also indirectly via effects on the vegetation, which modifies the availability of resources. Direct impacts of climate change on soil microorganisms can occur rapidly, whereas indirect effects mediated by shifts in plant community composition are not immediately apparent and likely to increase over time. We used molecular fingerprinting of bacterial and fungal communities in the soil to investigate the effects of 17 years of temperature and rainfall manipulations in a species-rich grassland near Buxton, UK...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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