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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802847/structural-antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-activities-of-polysaccharides-extracted-from-olive-leaves
#1
Ibtihel Khemakhem, Ola Abdelhedi, Ines Trigui, Mohamed Ali Ayadi, Mohamed Bouaziz
In the present study, hot-water extraction procedure was used to recover polysaccharides from olive leaves. Primary structural characteristics were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR), Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffractometry analysis. Emulsifying capacity, Zeta (ζ) potential and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) of olive leaf polysaccharides (OLP) were investigated. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were then examined...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799642/olive-tree-olea-europaea-l-leaf-as-a-waste-by-product-of-table-olive-and-olive-oil-industry-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Selin Şahin, Mehmet Bilgin
Researches into finding new uses for by-products of table olive and olive oil industry are of great value not only to the economy, but also to the environment where olives are grown and to the human health. Since leaves represent around 10% of the total weight of olives arriving to the mill, it is worth obtaining high added-value compounds from those materials for the preparation of dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, functional food ingredients or cosmeceuticals. In this review article, olive tree (Olea europaea L...
August 11, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792904/bijective-diameters-of-gene-tree-parsimony-costs
#3
Pawel Gorecki, Oliver Eulenstein
Synthesizing median trees from a collection of gene trees under the biologically motivated gene tree parsimony (GTP) costs has provided credible species tree estimates. GTP costs are defined for each of the classic evolutionary processes. These costs count the minimum number of events necessary to reconcile the gene tree with the species tree where the leaf-genes are mapped to the leaf-species through a function called labeling. To better understand the synthesis of median trees under these costs there is an increased interest in analyzing their diameters...
August 4, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743967/pathogen-recognition-in-compatible-plant-microbe-interactions
#4
Fabio Rezzonico, Oliver Rupp, Johannes Fahrentrapp
Microbial infections in plant leaves remain a major challenge in agriculture. Hence an understanding of disease mechanisms at the molecular level is of paramount importance for identifying possible intervention points for their control. Whole-transcriptome changes during early disease stages in susceptible plant species are less well-documented than those of resistant ones. This study focuses on the differential transcriptional changes at 24 hours post inoculation (hpi) in tomato leaflets affected by three pathogens: (1) Phytophthora infestans, (2) Botrytis cinerea, and (3) Oidium neolycopersici...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740293/ultrasound-assisted-extraction-process-of-phenolic-antioxidants-from-olive-leaves-a-nutraceutical-study-using-rsm-and-lc-esi-dad-ms
#5
Habib Shirzad, Vahid Niknam, Mehdi Taheri, Hassan Ebrahimzadeh
In recent years, there has been an ever growing interest in finding new natural sources of food antioxidants. As a main fruit crop, olive is also valued due to its phenolic-containing leaves. Mathematically based optimization methods are used as powerful tools to extract different antioxidant compounds. The present study is aimed to provide an efficient extraction method for total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant ability (DPPH scavenging assay and FRAP). The effects of ultrasonic temperature (35-65 °C), ultrasonic time (5-15 min), and ethanol to water ratio (Et: W) (25-75%) were evaluated...
July 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731213/immunomodulatory-properties-of-olea-europaea-leaf-extract-in-intestinal-inflammation
#6
Teresa Vezza, Francesca Algieri, Alba Rodríguez-Nogales, José Garrido-Mesa, M Pilar Utrilla, Nassima Talhaoui, Ana María Gómez-Caravaca, Antonio Segura-Carretero, M Elena Rodríguez-Cabezas, Giovanni Monteleone, Julio Gálvez
SCOPE: Extracts from olive (Olea europaea) leaves are used in Mediterranean traditional medicine as anti-inflammatory. They contain antioxidant phenolic compounds, like oleuropeoside, which could be interesting for the treatment of inflammatory conditions associated with oxidative stress in humans, including inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: The anti-inflammatory effects of olive leaf extract (0.5-25 mg/kg) were studied in two mice models of colitis (DSS and DNBS)...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700722/anti-inflammatory-properties-of-extracts-from-chimonanthus-nitens-oliv-leaf
#7
Qi Sun, Jiajin Zhu, Feiwei Cao, Fengjia Chen
Chimonanthus nitens Oliv. (CN) is a species in the family Calycanthaceae. Its leaf is widely used to make traditional herbal tea in southern China and has a wide range of therapeutic effects. The profile of the ethanol extracts from CN leaves was identified by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Forty seven compounds were determined including organic acids, phenolic acids and derivatives, flavonoids, coumarins, fatty acids and other compounds. The effect of the CN extracts on the inflammatory damage in zebrafish and in RAW 264...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672807/solvent-free-microwave-assisted-extraction-of-polyphenols-from-olive-tree-leaves-antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-properties
#8
Selin Şahin, Ruya Samli, Ayşe Seher Birteksöz Tan, Francisco J Barba, Farid Chemat, Giancarlo Cravotto, José M Lorenzo
Response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural networks (ANN) were evaluated and compared in order to decide which method was the most appropriate to predict and optimize total phenolic content (TPC) and oleuropein yields in olive tree leaf (Oleaeuropaea) extracts, obtained after solvent-free microwave-assisted extraction (SFMAE). The SFMAE processing conditions were: microwave irradiation power 250-350 W, extraction time 2-3 min, and the amount of sample 5-10 g. Furthermore, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the olive leaf extracts, obtained under optimal extraction conditions, were assessed by several in vitro assays...
June 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659130/what-makes-a-successful-species-traits-facilitating-survival-in-altered-tropical-forests
#9
Mareike Hirschfeld, Mark-Oliver Rödel
BACKGROUND: Ongoing conversion, disturbance and fragmentation of tropical forests stress this ecosystem and cause the decline or disappearance of many species. Particular traits have been identified which indicate an increasing extinction risk of a species, but traits facilitating survival in altered habitats have mostly been neglected. Here we search for traits that make a species tolerant to disturbances, thus independent of pristine forests. We identify the fauna that have an increasing effect on the ecosystem and its functioning in our human-dominated landscapes...
June 28, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651535/molecular-phylogeny-reveals-food-plasticity-in-the-evolution-of-true-ladybird-beetles-coleoptera-coccinellidae-coccinellini
#10
Hermes E Escalona, Andreas Zwick, Hao-Sen Li, Jiahui Li, Xingmin Wang, Hong Pang, Diana Hartley, Lars S Jermiin, Oldřich Nedvěd, Bernhard Misof, Oliver Niehuis, Adam Ślipiński, Wioletta Tomaszewska
BACKGROUND: The tribe Coccinellini is a group of relatively large ladybird beetles that exhibits remarkable morphological and biological diversity. Many species are aphidophagous, feeding as larvae and adults on aphids, but some species also feed on other hemipterous insects (i.e., heteropterans, psyllids, whiteflies), beetle and moth larvae, pollen, fungal spores, and even plant tissue. Several species are biological control agents or widespread invasive species (e.g., Harmonia axyridis (Pallas))...
June 26, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637415/study-on-adsorption-and-sustained-release-of-eucommia-ulmoides-oliv-leaf-extracts-on-activated-carbon
#11
Sheng Zhang, Xiang-Zhou Li, Zhao-Yan Zeng
Activated carbon (AC) was employed in this study as the sustained release carrier and its capability for adsorption and sustained release of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. leaf extracts was systematically investigated. Acid or alkali modified AC was assessed for its ability to adsorb and sustain release of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. leaf extracts according to a variety of adsorption/release rate and composition. Results demonstrated that the adsorption rate for the differently modified AC reached above 80 %, the adsorption of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv...
June 21, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633378/the-cost-of-avoiding-freezing-in-stems-trade-off-between-xylem-resistance-to-cavitation-and-supercooling-capacity-in-woody-plants
#12
Nadia S Arias, Fabián G Scholz, Guillermo Goldstein, Sandra J Bucci
Stems and leaves of Olea europaea L. (olive) avoid freezing damage by substantial supercooling during the winter season. Physiological changes during acclimation to low temperatures were studied in five olive cultivars. Water relations and hydraulic traits, ice nucleation temperature (INT) and temperatures resulting in 50% damage (LT50) were determined. All cultivars showed a gradual decrease in INT and LT50 from the dry and warm summer to the wet and cold winter in Patagonia, Argentina. During acclimation to low temperatures there was an increase in leaf cell wall rigidity and stomatal conductance (gs), as well as a decrease in leaf apoplastic water content, leaf water potential (Ψ), sap flow and stem hydraulic conductivity (ks)...
June 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572799/an-endophytic-bacterial-strain-isolated-from-eucommia-ulmoides-inhibits-southern-corn-leaf-blight
#13
Ting Ding, Bo Su, Xiaojie Chen, Shanshan Xie, Shuangyue Gu, Qi Wang, Dayue Huang, Haiyang Jiang
Bacillus subtilis DZSY21 isolated from the leaves of Eucommia ulmoides oliv. was labeled by antibiotic marker and found to effectively colonize the leaves of maize plant. Agar diffusion assays and biocontrol effect experiments showed that strain DZSY21 and its lipopeptides had antagonistic activity against Bipolaris maydis, as well as high biocontrol effects on southern corn leaf blight caused by B. maydis. Using MALDI-TOF-MS analysis, we detected the presence of antimicrobial surfactin A, surfactin B, and fengycin in the strain DZSY21...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559631/effect-of-olive-leaf-extract-rich-in-oleuropein-on-the-quality-of-virgin-olive-oil
#14
Selin Şahin, Ezgi Sayım, Mehmet Bilgin
Effect of olive leaf extract rich in oleuropein on the quality of virgin olive oil was investigated. After extracting the dried and ground olive leaves with the assistance of homogenizer, the dried extract was partially dissolved into the oil to increase the oxidative stability of the oil. A face central composite design through response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of enrichment conditions (extract content, time and mixing speed) on the responses, total phenolic content and oleuropein concentration of the enriched olive oil...
May 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551177/new-semi-synthetic-analogs-of-oleuropein-show-improved-anticancer-activity-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#15
Pinelopi Samara, Nikoleta Christoforidou, Christelle Lemus, Aikaterini Argyropoulou, Kyriaki Ioannou, Konstantina Vougogiannopoulou, Nektarios Aligiannis, Efthimios Paronis, Nicolas Gaboriaud-Kolar, Ourania Tsitsilonis, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis
Oleuropein is a glucosylated seco-iridoid present in olive fruits and leaves. Due to its broad spectrum of biological activities, including anticancer properties, oleuropein has attracted scientific attention for the past 20 years. The promising antiproliferative activity of an olive leaf extract enriched in oleuropein against a series of human cancer cell lines, prompted us to proceed with the semi-synthesis of 51 analogs of oleuropein. Following their initial screening against the estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cell line SKBR3, 7 analogs were shown to display significant cytotoxicity and were further tested against 6 additional solid tumor-derived and leukemic cell lines...
September 8, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536589/the-role-of-polyphenoloxidase-peroxidase-and-%C3%AE-glucosidase-in-phenolics-accumulation-in-olea-europaea-l-fruits-under-different-water-regimes
#16
Marco Cirilli, Giovanni Caruso, Clizia Gennai, Stefania Urbani, Eleonora Frioni, Maurizio Ruzzi, Maurizio Servili, Riccardo Gucci, Elia Poerio, Rosario Muleo
Olive fruits and oils contain an array of compounds that contribute to their sensory and nutritional properties. Phenolic compounds in virgin oil and olive-derived products have been proven to be highly beneficial for human health, eliciting increasing attention from the food industry and consumers. Although phenolic compounds in olive fruit and oil have been extensively investigated, allowing the identification of the main classes of metabolites and their accumulation patterns, knowledge of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms regulating phenolic metabolism remains scarce...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513570/a-study-of-the-protective-properties-of-iraqi-olive-leaves-against-oxidation-and-pathogenic-bacteria-in-food-applications
#17
Ammar B Altemimi
There is an ancient and prodigious history of olive trees because of their nutritional, medicinal, and traditional uses. Intensive studies have been conducted on olive leaves because they have many positive and beneficial effects for human health. In this study, different solvents were used to examine the olive leaves for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and their possible food applications. The obtained results showed that the amounts of phenolic compounds of the olive leaf were 190.44 ± 0.50, 173 ± 1...
May 17, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511694/ethephon-induced-oxidative-stress-in-the-olive-leaf-abscission-zone-enables-development-of-a-selective-abscission-compound
#18
S Goldental-Cohen, C Burstein, I Biton, S Ben Sasson, A Sadeh, Y Many, A Doron-Faigenboim, H Zemach, Y Mugira, D Schneider, R Birger, S Meir, S Philosoph-Hadas, V Irihomovitch, S Lavee, B Avidan, G Ben-Ari
BACKGROUND: Table olives (Olea europaea L.), despite their widespread production, are still harvested manually. The low efficiency of manual harvesting and the rising costs of labor have reduced the profitability of this crop. A selective abscission treatment, inducing abscission of fruits but not leaves, is crucial for the adoption of mechanical harvesting of table olives. In the present work we studied the anatomical and molecular differences between the three abscission zones (AZs) of olive fruits and leaves...
May 16, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503711/bioactivity-improvement-of-olea-europaea-leaf-extract-biotransformed-by-wickerhamomyces-anomalus-enzymes
#19
Rosa Palmeri, Cristina Restuccia, Julieta Ines Monteleone, Elisa Sperlinga, Laura Siracusa, Mauro Serafini, Alberto Finamore, Giovanni Spagna
Olive leaves represent a quantitatively significant by-product of agroindustry. They are rich in phenols, mainly oleuropein, which can be hydrolyzed into several bioactive compounds, including hydroxytyrosol. In this study, water extract from olive leaves 'Biancolilla' was analyzed for polyphenol profile, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and protective effect on differentiated Caco-2 cells. The efficacy of two enzymatic treatments in promoting the release of bioactive phenols was investigated: a) enzymatic extract from Wickerhamomyces anomalus, characterized by β-glucosidase and esterase activities; b) commercial β-glucosidase...
June 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479728/in-vitro-toxicity-and-genotoxic-activity-of-aqueous-leaf-extracts-from-four-varieties-of-olea-europea-l
#20
Luc Verschaeve, Hayet Edziri, Roel Anthonissen, Dalenda Boujnah, Fethia Skhiri, Hechmi Chehab, Mahjoub Aouni, Maha Mastouri
AIM: Despite its therapeutic value almost nothing is known about potential adverse health effects of Olea europea L. We therefore investigated the in vitro toxicity and genotoxicity of leaf extracts of this plant. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Extracts from olive tree leaves were obtained from four different regions in Tunisia. We investigated the in vitro toxicity, genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of their aqueous extracts using the neutral red (NR) uptake, Vitotox and alkaline comet assays...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
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