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pneumonia guideline

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150897/determining-best-outcomes-from-community-acquired-pneumonia-and-how-to-achieve-them
#1
REVIEW
Jane Hadfield, Lesley Bennett
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common acute medical illness with a standard, effective treatment that was introduced before the evidenced-based medicine era. Mortality rates have improved in recent decades but improvements have been minimal when compared to other conditions such as acute coronary syndromes. The standardized approach to treatment makes CAP a target for comparative performance and outcome measures. While easy to collect, simplistic outcomes such as mortality, readmission and length of stay are difficult to interpret as they can be affected by subjective choices and health care resources...
November 17, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149880/analytical-performance-of-envisia-a-genomic-classifier-for-usual-interstitial-pneumonia
#2
Yoonha Choi, Jiayi Lu, Zhanzhi Hu, Daniel G Pankratz, Huimin Jiang, Manqiu Cao, Cristina Marchisano, Jennifer Huiras, Grazyna Fedorowicz, Mei G Wong, Jessica R Anderson, Edward Y Tom, Joshua Babiarz, Urooj Imtiaz, Neil M Barth, P Sean Walsh, Giulia C Kennedy, Jing Huang
BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines specify that diagnosis of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) requires identification of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern. While UIP can be identified by high resolution CT of the chest, the results are often inconclusive, making surgical lung biopsy necessary to reach a definitive diagnosis (Raghu et al., Am J Respir Crit Care Med 183(6):788-824, 2011). The Envisia genomic classifier differentiates UIP from non-UIP pathology in transbronchial biopsies (TBB), potentially allowing patients to avoid an invasive procedure (Brown et al...
November 17, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146662/comparative-effectiveness-of-injectable-penicillin-versus-a-combination-of-penicillin-and-gentamicin-in-children-with-pneumonia-characterised-by-indrawing-in-kenya-a-retrospective-observational-study
#3
Lucas Malla, Rafael Perera-Salazar, Emily McFadden, Mike English
OBJECTIVES: Kenyan guidelines for antibiotic treatment of pneumonia recommended treatment of pneumonia characterised by indrawing with injectable penicillin alone in inpatient settings until early 2016. At this point, they were revised becoming consistent with WHO guidance after results of a Kenyan trial provided further evidence of equivalence of oral amoxicillin and injectable penicillin. This change also made possible use of oral amoxicillin for outpatient treatment in this patient group...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143487/nurses-implementation-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-prevention-guidelines-an-observational-study-in-jordan
#4
Sami M Aloush
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention guidelines from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Thoracic Society, and the Institute for Health Care and Improvement have been published to reduce the rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia in the clinical settings; however, nurses' compliance with these guidelines is still questionable. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to assess nurses' compliance with ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention guidelines and the factors that influence their compliance...
November 15, 2017: Nursing in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129186/an-exploration-of-mortality-risk-factors-in-non-severe-pneumonia-in-children-using-clinical-data-from-kenya
#5
Timothy Tuti, Ambrose Agweyu, Paul Mwaniki, Niels Peek, Mike English
BACKGROUND: Childhood pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of mortality in children younger than 5 years old. Recent updates to World Health Organization pneumonia guidelines recommend outpatient care for a population of children previously classified as high risk. This revision has been challenged by policymakers in Africa, where mortality related to pneumonia is higher than in other regions and often complicated by comorbidities. This study aimed to identify factors that best discriminate inpatient mortality risk in non-severe pneumonia and explore whether these factors offer any added benefit over the current criteria used to identify children with pneumonia requiring inpatient care...
November 13, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128525/respiratory-rehabilitation-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-narrative-review-of-rehabilitation-techniques
#6
REVIEW
J Levy, H Prigent, D Bensmail
BACKGROUND: Respiratory disorders in multiple sclerosis (MS) are an important issue. They can occur early during the course of the disease, are associated with the neurological impairment, and can lead to pneumonia and respiratory failure, which are the main causes of death in advanced MS. Prevailing impaired expiratory muscles and cough abilities has been demonstrated in this population and might constitute a specific target for rehabilitation interventions. However, international guidelines lack recommendations regarding respiratory rehabilitation in MS...
November 8, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119848/management-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-immunocompetent-adults-updated-swedish-guidelines-2017
#7
Simon Athlin, Christer Lidman, Anders Lundqvist, Pontus Naucler, Anna C Nilsson, Carl Spindler, Kristoffer Strålin, Jonas Hedlund
Based on expert group work, Swedish recommendations for the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults are here updated. The management of sepsis-induced hypotension is addressed in detail, including monitoring and parenteral therapy. The importance of respiratory support in cases of acute respiratory failure is emphasized. Treatment with high-flow oxygen and non-invasive ventilation is recommended. The use of statins or steroids in general therapy is not found to be fully supported by evidence. In the management of pleural infection, new data show favourable effects of tissue plasminogen activator and deoxyribonuclease installation...
November 9, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109700/exploring-the-genome-and-phenotype-of-multi-drug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-of-clinical-origin
#8
João Anes, Daniel Hurley, Marta Martins, Séamus Fanning
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important nosocomial pathogen with an extraordinary resistant phenotype due to a combination of acquired resistant-elements and efflux mechanisms. In this study a detailed molecular characterization of 11 K. pneumoniae isolates of clinical origin was carried out. Eleven clinical isolates were tested for their susceptibilities, by disk diffusion and broth microdilution and interpreted according to CLSI guidelines. Efflux activity was determined by measuring the extrusion of ethidium bromide and biofilm formation was assessed following static growth in Müeller-Hinton and minimal media M9 broths at two temperatures and time points...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105576/clinical-signs-of-hypoxaemia-in-children-aged-2%C3%A2-months-to-5%C3%A2-years-with-acute-respiratory-distress-in-switzerland-and-senegal
#9
Lucie von der Weid, Mario Gehri, Boubacar Camara, Aliou Thiongane, Andrès Pascual, Jean-Yves Pauchard
BACKGROUND: Hypoxaemia is a predictor of pneumonia-related mortality. WHO published recommendations for oxygen therapy based on clinical signs which state that, when oxygen is plentiful, it should be given to children with central cyanosis, inability to drink, severe chest indrawing, RR >70 breaths/min, grunting with every breath (in young infants) or those who display head nodding. These guidelines, however, are based on a few studies only. AIM: To assess the accuracy of combinations of clinical signs which predict hypoxaemia in pre-school children aged 2 months to 5 years with acute respiratory distress in hospitals in Switzerland and Senegal...
November 6, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091975/treatment-trends-and-outcomes-in-healthcare-associated-pneumonia
#10
Sarah Haessler, Tara Lagu, Peter K Lindenauer, Daniel J Skiest, Aruna Priya, Penelope S Pekow, Marya D Zilberberg, Thomas L Higgins, Michael B Rothberg
BACKGROUND: The American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines for management of healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP), first published in 2005, have been controversial regarding the selection of empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics, whether the criteria for HCAP predicts the likelihood of infection with multidrug resistant organisms, and whether HCAP patients have improved outcomes when treated with empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study at 488 US hospitals from July 2007 to November 2011...
November 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080708/classification-of-cough-as-a-symptom-in-adults-and-management-algorithms-chest-guideline-and-expert-panel-report
#11
Richard S Irwin, Cynthia L French, Anne B Chang, Kenneth W Altman
BACKGROUND: We performed systematic reviews using the population, intervention, comparison, outcome (PICO) format to answer the following key clinical question: Are the CHEST 2006 classifications of acute, subacute and chronic cough and associated management algorithms in adults that were based on durations of cough useful? METHODS: We used the CHEST Expert Cough Panel's protocol for the systematic reviews and the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) methodological guidelines and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework...
November 9, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077003/antibiotic-prescribing-for-uncomplicated-acute-bronchitis-is-highest-in-younger-adults
#12
Larissa Grigoryan, Roger Zoorob, Jesal Shah, Haijun Wang, Monisha Arya, Barbara W Trautner
Reducing inappropriate antibiotic prescribing is currently a global health priority. Current guidelines recommend against antibiotic treatment for acute uncomplicated bronchitis. We studied antibiotic prescribing patterns for uncomplicated acute bronchitis and identified predictors of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. We used the Epic Clarity database (electronic medical record system) to identify all adult patients with acute bronchitis in family medicine clinics from 2011 to 2016. We excluded factors that could justify antibiotic use, such as suspected pneumonia, COPD or immunocompromising conditions...
October 27, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076932/evaluation-of-the-clinical-utility-of-a-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-bacteremia-in-children-a-retrospective-diagnostic-accuracy-study
#13
Jane Murphy, Sadhbh O' Rourke, Mary Corcoran, Nicola O' Sullivan, Robert Cunney, Richard Drew
BACKGROUND: The widespread uptake of pneumococcal vaccines has substantially reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease, such that pneumococcal bacteremia in children is now considered a relatively rare event. The objective of this study was to ascertain the clinical utility of a Streptococcus pneumoniae real-time PCR assay compared with standard blood culture for the diagnosis of pneumococcal bacteremia in children in the post-vaccine era. METHODS: A systematic retrospective review of laboratory and patient records from Children's University Hospital, Temple Street during a 6 year period was performed...
October 25, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075300/adherence-to-integrated-management-of-childhood-illnesses-guideline-in-treating-south-sudanese-children-with-cough-or-difficulty-in-breathing
#14
Jonathan Izudi, Stanley Anyigu, David Ndungutse
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia substantially kills children aged 2-59 months in South Sudan. However, information on health workers adherence to Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) guideline in treating children with cough/difficulty in breathing remains scarce. This study assessed factors associated with adherence to IMCI guideline in Aweil East County, South Sudan. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 232 health workers from 36 health facilities...
2017: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073317/the-diagnostic-yield-of-noninvasive-microbiologic-sputum-sampling-in-a-cohort-of-patients-with-clinically-diagnosed-hospital-acquired-pneumonia
#15
Elliot L Naidus, Mary T Lasalvia, Edward R Marcantonio, Shoshana J Herzig
The clinical predictors of positive sputum culture have not been previously reported in hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), and data on yield of sputum culture in this setting are scant. Current Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines for HAP recommend noninvasive sputum sampling, though the data for this practice are limited. We assessed the yield of sputum culture in HAP cases at an academic medical center from January 2007 to July 2013. HAP cases were identifi ed by International Classifi cation of Diseases, Ninth Revision-Clinical Modifi cation codes for bacterial pneumonia and all cases were validated by chart review...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071221/evaluating-adherence-of-health-care-team-to-standard-guideline-of-colistin-use-at-intensive-care-units-of-a-referral-hospital-in-shiraz-southwest-of-iran
#16
Afsaneh Vazin, Iman Karimzadeh, Atiyeh Zand, Nazafarin Hatami-Mazinani, Dena Firouzabadi
Purpose: To evaluate colistin use according to global standard drug consumption in intensive care units of a referral hospital in Shiraz, Iran Methods: A prospective, interventional study was performed during an 11 month period on 100 patients admitted to ICUs of a teaching hospital being treated with colistin for at least 3 subsequent doses. Required demographic, clinical, and paraclinical data were gathered by a pharmacist. Fifteen indexes were considered to evaluate colistin use. A clinical pharmacist reviewed indication and dose of colistin at the time of prescribing this agent...
September 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067039/management-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-by-family-physicians
#17
Saima Akhter, Nadeem Rizvi, Sajeer Bhura, Usman Ali Warraich
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP)is a major burden on health systemwith significant mortality and morbidity. Family Physicians(FPs)can play important role. To determine management strategies and prescription of FPs regarding CAP. METHODS: A multicenter cross sectional survey was done in 10 cities of Pakistan from November 2014 to January 2015. Self-administered questionnaire was filled by 110 Family Physicians. RESULTS: Of total 71% of FPs reported to work in high prevalence areas for respiratory ailments...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066051/impact-of-pretreatment-interstitial-lung-disease-on-radiation-pneumonitis-and-survival-in-patients-treated-with-lung-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-sbrt
#18
Daniel Glick, Stephen Lyen, Sonja Kandel, Shane Shapera, Lisa W Le, Patricia Lindsay, Olive Wong, Andrea Bezjak, Anthony Brade, B C John Cho, Andrew Hope, Alexander Sun, Meredith Giuliani
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of interstitial lung disease (ILD) on radiation pneumonitis (RP) and overall survival (OS) in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). METHODS: Patients treated with lung SBRT from 2004 to 2015 were included. Pretreatment computed tomography scans were reviewed and classified for interstitial changes by thoracic radiologists using American Thoracic Society guidelines and Washko and Kazerooni scores...
July 10, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063891/identification-of-carbapenemase-mediated-resistance-among-enterobacteriaceae-bloodstream-isolates-a-molecular-study-from-india
#19
Srujana Mohanty, Mittal Gajanand, Rajni Gaind
Acquired resistance in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) conferred by carbapenemases is a major concern worldwide. Consecutive, non-duplicate isolates of Escherichia coli (EC) and Klebsiella pneumoniae from clinically diagnosed bloodstream infections were screened for the presence of carbapenem resistance by standard disk-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration breakpoints using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Carbapenemase-encoding genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061148/integrated-community-case-management-by-drug-sellers-influences-appropriate-treatment-of-paediatric-febrile-illness-in-south-western-uganda-a-quasi-experimental-study
#20
Freddy Eric Kitutu, Joan Nakayaga Kalyango, Chrispus Mayora, Katarina Ekholm Selling, Stefan Peterson, Henry Wamani
BACKGROUND: Fever case management is a major challenge for improved child health globally, despite existence of cheap and effective child survival health technologies. The integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) intervention of paediatric febrile illnesses though adopted by Uganda's Ministry of Health to be implemented by community health workers, has not addressed the inaccess to life-saving medicines and diagnostics. Therefore, the iCCM intervention was implemented in private drug shops and evaluated for its effect on appropriate treatment of paediatric fever in a low malaria transmission setting in South Western Uganda...
October 23, 2017: Malaria Journal
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