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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331829/the-pulmonary-nodule-discovered-by-pneumonia-a-case-report
#1
Dong-Mei Yuan, Jian-Ya Zhang, Yan-Wen Yao, Hui-Ming Sun, Guan-Nan Wu, E-Hong Cao, Luca Bertolaccini, Tang-Feng Lv, Yong Song
The number of patients diagnosed with pulmonary nodules increased as more patients with high risk of lung cancer choose low-dose computed tomography (CT) scans for the screening of cancer. Clinicians might get two questions from the patients: what is the definite diagnosis of the nodule? What should we do? We have already got many guidelines trying to solve these problems. There are also several prediction models for pulmonary nodules. However, guidelines are not suitable for all types of patients, and the reality of patients is more complicated...
February 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325607/japanese-clinical-practice-guideline-for-head-and-neck-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Ken-Ichi Nibu, Ryuichi Hayashi, Takahiro Asakage, Hiroya Ojiri, Yoshihiro Kimata, Takeshi Kodaira, Toshitaka Nagao, Torahiko Nakashima, Takashi Fujii, Hirofumi Fujii, Akihiro Homma, Kazuto Matsuura, Nobuya Monden, Takeshi Beppu, Nobuhiro Hanai, Tadaaki Kirita, Yuzuru Kamei, Naoki Otsuki, Naomi Kiyota, Sadamoto Zenda, Ken Omura, Koichi Omori, Tetsuo Akimoto, Kazuyoshi Kawabata, Seiji Kishimoto, Hiroya Kitano, Iwai Tohnai, Takashi Nakatsuka
OBJECTIVE: The first revision of "Japanese Clinical Practice Guideline for Head and Neck Cancer" was made in 2013 by the clinical practice guideline committee of Japan Society for Head and Neck Cancer, in response to the revision of the TNM classification. METHODS: 34 CQs (Clinical Questions) were newly adopted to describe the diagnosis and treatment methods currently considered most appropriate, and offered recommendation grade made by the consensus of the committee...
March 18, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303831/strengths-and-limitations-of-various-screening-methods-for-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-including-new-method-recommended-by-clinical-and-laboratory-standards-institute-2017-a-tertiary-care-experience
#3
Agila Kumari Pragasam, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Radha Gopi, Raziya Fathima Aslam
Carbapenemase-mediated carbapenem resistance is a major concern across the world. Rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing organisms is of great importance in clinical settings. However, it is essential to have a test with good sensitivity and specificity. The aim of the study was to compare the performance of RAPIDEC® CARBA NP and modified carbapenem inactivation method (mCIM) recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline 2017. A total of ninety carbapenem resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae have been tested...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292522/guidelines-for-the-medical-treatment-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#4
Antoni Xaubet, María Molina-Molina, Orlando Acosta, Elena Bollo, Diego Castillo, Estrella Fernández-Fabrellas, José Antonio Rodríguez-Portal, Claudia Valenzuela, Julio Ancochea
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is defined as chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia limited to the lung, with poor prognosis. The incidence has been rising in recent years probably due to improved diagnostic methods and increased life expectancy. In 2013, the SEPAR guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were published. Since then, clinical trials and meta-analyses have shown strong scientific evidence for the use of pirfenidone and nintedanib in the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis...
March 11, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291369/ultrashort-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-insert-into-pulmonary-surfactant-monolayer-via-self-rotating-poration-and-mechanical-inhibition
#5
Tongtao Yue, Yan Xu, Shixin Li, Zhen Luo, Xianren Zhang, Fang Huang
It has been widely accepted that longer single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) exhibit higher toxicity by causing severe pneumonia once inhaled, yet relatively little is known regarding the potential toxicity of ultrashort SWCNTs, which are of central importance to their development as suitable vehicles for biomedical applications. Here, by combining coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD), pulling simulations, and scaling analysis, we demonstrate that the inhalation toxicity of ultrashort SWCNTs (1.5 nm < l < 5...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288860/epidemiology-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-pathogens-isolated-from-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-icu-patients
#6
Richa Gupta, Abida Malik, Meher Rizvi, Moied Ahmed, Anuradha Singh
OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative pathogens isolated from ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) poses a grave threat in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of pathogens in ICU patients and their drug resistance profile. The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC β-lactamases and metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) was also assessed. METHODS: Tracheal aspirates were collected aseptically from 87 ICU patients between May 2012 and January 2014...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284685/identifying-priorities-to-improve-paediatric-in-hospital-antimicrobial-use-by-cross-sectional-evaluation-of-prevalence-and-appropriateness-of-prescription
#7
Walter Alfredo Goycochea-Valdivia, Francisco Moreno-Ramos, José Ramón Paño-Pardo, Francisco Javier Aracil-Santos, Fernando Baquero-Artigao, Teresa Del Rosal-Rabes, María José Mellado-Peña, Luis Escosa-García
INTRODUCTION: Information about paediatric in-hospital antimicrobial usage and prescribing patterns to guide improvement strategies is scant. We aim to use an evaluation of the prevalence and appropriateness of antimicrobial prescription to identify antimicrobial stewardship priorities in children. METHODS: A cross-sectional point study was performed on hospitalised paediatric patients in a Spanish tertiary hospital, assessing the prevalence of antimicrobial prescription (PAP) and appropriateness of antimicrobial prescription (AAP)...
March 8, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283611/bacteremia-in-children-3-to-36-months-old-after-introduction-of-conjugated-pneumococcal-vaccines
#8
Tara L Greenhow, Yun-Yi Hung, Arnd Herz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In June 2010, Kaiser Permanente Northern California replaced all 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) vaccines with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Our objectives were to compare the incidence of bacteremia in children 3 to 36 months old by 3 time periods: pre-PCV7, post-PCV7/pre-PCV13, and post-PCV13. METHODS: We designed a retrospective review of the electronic medical records of all blood cultures collected on children 3 to 36 months old at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from September 1, 1998 to August 31, 2014 in outpatient clinics, in emergency departments, and in the first 24 hours of hospitalization...
March 10, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283202/nursing-students-knowledge-about-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-prevention-guidelines-effectiveness-of-a-teaching-program
#9
Sami M Aloush
This study evaluated the effectiveness of an educational course that aimed to expand student nurses' knowledge about the guidelines for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) prevention. In the pretest, the students revealed poor knowledge (mean score ± SD, 6.3 ± 2.8 out of 20). After completion of the educational program, participants in the experimental group showed a significant improvement (t105 = 14.9, P < .001). The control group showed no significant improvement. More focus on VAP prevention guidelines is essential in nursing curricula...
March 7, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281915/burden-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults-over-18%C3%A2-years-of-age
#10
Filiz Kosar, Devrim Emel Alici, Basak Hacibedel, Burcu Arpınar Yigitbas, Pejman Golabi, Caglar Cuhadaroglu
This study aimed to determine the economic burden and affecting factors in adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients (≥18 years) by retrospectively evaluating the data of two centers in Istanbul province, Turkey. Data of outpatients and inpatients with CAP from January 2013 through June 2014 were evaluated. The numbers of laboratory analyses, imaging, hospitalization days, and specialist visits were multiplied by the relevant unit costs and the costs of the relevant items per patient were obtained...
March 10, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277045/antibiotic-prescribing-in-relation-to-diagnoses-and-consultation-rates-in-belgium-the-netherlands-and-sweden-use-of-european-quality-indicators
#11
Mia Tyrstrup, Alike van der Velden, Sven Engstrom, Geert Goderis, Sigvard Molstad, Theo Verheij, Samuel Coenen, Niels Adriaenssens
OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of antibiotic prescribing in primary care in Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden using European disease-specific antibiotic prescribing quality indicators (APQI) and taking into account the threshold to consult and national guidelines. DESIGN: A retrospective observational database study. SETTING: Routine primary health care registration networks in Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden. SUBJECTS: All consultations for one of seven acute infections [upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), sinusitis, tonsillitis, otitis media, bronchitis, pneumonia and cystitis] and the antibiotic prescriptions in 2012 corresponding to these diagnoses...
March 3, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275224/aggressive-versus-conservative-antibiotic-use-to-prevent-and-treat-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-patients-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-comparison-of-two-case-series
#12
Arturo Chieregato, Paolo Malacarne, Francesco Cocciolo, Maurizio Ravaldini, Emanuele Russo, Bruno Viaggi, Michele Giardino, Carlotta Rossi, Bruno Simini, Guido Bertolini
BACKGROUND: In patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is considered a dangerous complication, prompting early aggressive antibiotic treatment and prophylaxis. While this approach increases the selection of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR), its clinical benefit has not been demonstrated. METHODS: One-year incidence of VAP in severe TBI patients (ICU stay >48 hours, with either Glasgow Coma Scale 8 or receiving intracranial pressure monitoring, or having undergone emergency surgery) and the prevalence of MDR among those who eventually developed it, were compared in two Italian intensive care units (ICUs) adopting different antibiotic approaches...
March 8, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275204/impact-of-a-national-guideline-on-antibiotic-selection-for-hospitalized-pneumonia
#13
Derek J Williams, Matthew Hall, Jeffrey S Gerber, Mark I Neuman, Adam L Hersh, Thomas V Brogan, Kavita Parikh, Sanjay Mahant, Anne J Blaschke, Samir S Shah, Carlos G Grijalva
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the impact of the 2011 Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America pneumonia guideline and hospital-level implementation efforts on antibiotic prescribing for children hospitalized with pneumonia. METHODS: We assessed inpatient antibiotic prescribing for pneumonia at 28 children's hospitals between August 2009 and March 2015. Each hospital was also surveyed regarding local implementation efforts targeting antibiotic prescribing and organizational readiness to adopt guideline recommendations...
March 8, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275200/predictors-and-outcomes-of-dysphagia-screening-after-acute-ischemic-stroke
#14
Raed A Joundi, Rosemary Martino, Gustavo Saposnik, Vasily Giannakeas, Jiming Fang, Moira K Kapral
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Guidelines advocate screening all acute stroke patients for dysphagia. However, limited data are available regarding how many and which patients are screened and how failing a swallowing screen affects patient outcomes. We sought to evaluate predictors of receiving dysphagia screening after acute ischemic stroke and outcomes after failing a screening test. METHODS: We used the Ontario Stroke Registry from April 1, 2010, to March 31, 2013, to identify patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke and determine predictors of documented dysphagia screening and outcomes after failing the screening test, including pneumonia, disability, and death...
March 8, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270910/american-society-for-enhanced-recovery-aser-and-perioperative-quality-initiative-poqi-joint-consensus-statement-on-prevention-of-postoperative-infection-within-an-enhanced-recovery-pathway-for-elective-colorectal-surgery
#15
Stefan D Holubar, Traci Hedrick, Ruchir Gupta, John Kellum, Mark Hamilton, Tong J Gan, Monty G Mythen, Andrew D Shaw, Timothy E Miller
BACKGROUND: Colorectal surgery (CRS) patients are an at-risk population who are particularly vulnerable to postoperative infectious complications. Infectious complications range from minor infections including simple cystitis and superficial wound infections to life-threatening situations such as lobar pneumonia or anastomotic leak with fecal peritonitis. Within an enhanced recovery pathway (ERP), there are multiple approaches that can be used to reduce the risk of postoperative infections...
2017: Perioperative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270546/variability-in-antibiotic-prescribing-for-community-acquired-pneumonia
#16
Lori K Handy, Matthew Bryan, Jeffrey S Gerber, Theoklis Zaoutis, Kristen A Feemster
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Published guidelines recommend amoxicillin for most children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), yet macrolides and broad-spectrum antibiotics are more commonly prescribed. We aimed to determine the patient and clinician characteristics associated with the prescription of amoxicillin versus macrolide or broad-spectrum antibiotics for CAP. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study in an outpatient pediatric primary care network from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2013...
March 7, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267082/guidelines-for-the-prophylaxis-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-pjp-in-children-with-solid-tumors
#17
Rebecca Proudfoot, Bob Phillips, Sophie Wilne
Although it is well-established that children undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplants and treatment for leukemia should be offered prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, the risk for children with solid malignancies is less certain. This guideline has been developed with the aim of standardizing practice and optimizing the benefit versus risk of prophylactic medication in this group of patients. P. jirovecii pneumonia has a high mortality rate even with prompt antimicrobial treatment. Since prophylaxis with co-trimoxazole is safe, effective, and inexpensive, we suggest that all children with malignancies undergoing immunosuppressive therapy are offered prophylaxis unless there are clear contraindications...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266699/rapidly-progressive-and-almost-lethal-pneumonia
#18
Juancarlo Martínez-González, Carlos Robles-Arias, William Rodríguez-Cintrón
We herein describe the case of a 65-year-old male patient who presented with Osler's triad, which is the combination of endocarditis, pneumonia, and meningitis. This report is even more unusual since the pathogen isolated was the invasive and virulent strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3. The clinical entity described is also called Austrian syndrome. Even though rare in this antibiotic era, the syndrome remains one of high morbidity and mortality. This particular case is of paramount importance for the clinician reader...
March 2017: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264558/a-natural-lipotrisaccharide-and-its-derivatives-selectively-lyse-streptococcus-pneumoniae-via-interaction-with-cell-membrane
#19
Bo Liu, Xue Liu, Jing-Ren Zhang, Gang Liu
A natural lipotrisaccharide (NP000778, 1a), a new triglycosidic tri-O-substituted glycolipid isolated from the Morinda citrifolia plant, and its chemical derivatives were identified to be active against major Gram-positive pathogens, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae. Additional evidence indicated that 1a and its synthetic derivatives exerted their bactericidal activities against S. pneumoniae by selectively targeting the bacterial membrane, leading to the rapid lysis of the pneumococci. Efficient synthesis of 1a and its derivatives was performed using an application of the intramolecular aglycon delivery (IAD) reaction to establish its structure-activity relationships (SARs)...
March 14, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264021/antimicrobial-use-in-paediatric-patients-in-a-teaching-hospital-in-ethiopia
#20
Hafte Kahsay Kebede, Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Tewodros Eyob Woldehaimanot, Kabaye Kumela Goro
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics use in in children are different from adults due to a lack of data on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of drugs, different physiological spectrum, pediatrics populations being vulnerable to the majority of the illnesses, and the adverse effect of their irrational use is more serious. However, antibiotic use is not explored much in a paediatric population. The current study focused on antibiotic use among pediatric population using data from a tertiary hospital in Ethiopia...
2017: PloS One
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