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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920763/microbial-activity-response-to-solar-radiation-across-contrasting-environmental-conditions-in-salar-de-huasco-northern-chilean-altiplano
#1
Klaudia L Hernández, Beatriz Yannicelli, Lasse M Olsen, Cristina Dorador, Eduardo J Menschel, Verónica Molina, Francisco Remonsellez, Martha B Hengst, Wade H Jeffrey
In high altitude environments, extreme levels of solar radiation and important differences of ionic concentrations over narrow spatial scales may modulate microbial activity. In Salar de Huasco, a high-altitude wetland in the Andean mountains, the high diversity of microbial communities has been characterized and associated with strong environmental variability. Communities that differed in light history and environmental conditions, such as nutrient concentrations and salinity from different spatial locations, were assessed for bacterial secondary production (BSP, (3)H-leucine incorporation) response from short-term exposures to solar radiation...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920298/malate-synthase-and-%C3%AE-methylmalyl-coa-lyase-reactions-in-the-methylaspartate-cycle-in-haloarcula-hispanica
#2
Farshad Borjian, Jing Han, Jing Hou, Hua Xiang, Jan Zarzycki, Ivan A Berg
: Haloarchaea are extremely halophilic heterotrophic microorganisms belonging to the class Halobacteria (Euryarchaeota). Almost half of the haloarchaea possesses the genes coding for enzymes of the methylaspartate cycle, a recently discovered anaplerotic acetate assimilation pathway. In this cycle, the enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle together with the dedicated enzymes of the methylaspartate cycle convert two acetyl-CoA molecules to malate. The methylaspartate cycle involves two reactions catalyzed by homologous enzymes belonging to the CitE-like enzyme superfamily, the malyl-CoA lyase/thioesterase (haloarchaeal malate synthase, hMS, Hah_2476 in Haloarcula hispanica) and the β-methylmalyl-CoA lyase (hMCL, Hah_1341)...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919704/global-transcriptome-analysis-of-halolamina-sp-to-decipher-the-salt-tolerance-in-extremely-halophilic-archaea
#3
Aslıhan Kurt-Kızıldoğan, Büşra Abanoz, Sezer Okay
Extremely halophilic archaea survive in the hypersaline environments such as salt lakes or salt mines. Therefore, these microorganisms are good sources to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the tolerance to high salt concentrations. In this study, a global transcriptome analysis was conducted in an extremely halophilic archaeon, Halolamina sp. YKT1, isolated from a salt mine in Turkey. A comparative RNA-seq analysis was performed using YKT1 isolate grown either at 2.7M NaCl or 5.5M NaCl concentrations...
December 2, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918644/self-assembled-supramolecular-nanogels-as-a-safe-and-effective-drug-delivery-vector-for-cancer-therapy
#4
Chih-Chia Cheng, Mei-Chih Liang, Zhi-Sheng Liao, Jyun-Jie Huang, Duu-Jong Lee
Simple construction and manipulation of low-molecular-weight supramolecular nanogels, based on the introduction of multiple hydrogen bonding interactions, with the desired physical properties to achieve effective and safe delivery of drugs for cancer therapy remain highly challenging. Herein, a novel supramolecular oligomer cytosine (Cy)-polypropylene glycol containing self-complementary multiple hydrogen-bonded Cy moieties is developed, which undergoes spontaneous self-assembly to form nanosized particles in an aqueous environment...
December 5, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915403/a-simple-approach-for-the-development-of-urban-climatic-maps-based-on-the-urban-characteristics-in-tainan-taiwan
#5
Yu-Cheng Chen, Tzu-Ping Lin, Chien-Ting Lin
Motivated by the increasing thermal load in urban environment, this work established Urban Climatic map (UCmap) focusing on thermal environment issues based on urban development factors, e.g., land cover and building characteristics, representing thermal load of human body and ventilation path in the urban structures. In the established process of UCmap in this work, Tainan city, which is a highly developed city in southern Taiwan, is selected as the research area. A 50-m resolution grid is used to capture urban development factors and the climate data based on 1 year of mobile and fix-point measurements, from which the thermal load and the wind environment map are constructed...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915389/insertion-sequences-enrichment-in-extreme-red-sea-brine-pool-vent
#6
Ali H A Elbehery, Ramy K Aziz, Rania Siam
Mobile genetic elements are major agents of genome diversification and evolution. Limited studies addressed their characteristics, including abundance, and role in extreme habitats. One of the rare natural habitats exposed to multiple-extreme conditions, including high temperature, salinity and concentration of heavy metals, are the Red Sea brine pools. We assessed the abundance and distribution of different mobile genetic elements in four Red Sea brine pools including the world's largest known multiple-extreme deep-sea environment, the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep...
December 3, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915388/microbial-diversity-in-degraded-and-non-degraded-petroleum-samples-and-comparison-across-oil-reservoirs-at-local-and-global-scales
#7
Isabel Natalia Sierra-Garcia, Bruna M Dellagnezze, Viviane P Santos, Michel R Chaves B, Ramsés Capilla, Eugenio V Santos Neto, Neil Gray, Valeria M Oliveira
Microorganisms have shown their ability to colonize extreme environments including deep subsurface petroleum reservoirs. Physicochemical parameters may vary greatly among petroleum reservoirs worldwide and so do the microbial communities inhabiting these different environments. The present work aimed at the characterization of the microbiota in biodegraded and non-degraded petroleum samples from three Brazilian reservoirs and the comparison of microbial community diversity across oil reservoirs at local and global scales using 16S rRNA clone libraries...
December 3, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915378/mother-infant-interactions-and-regional-brain-volumes-in-infancy-an-mri-study
#8
Vaheshta Sethna, Inês Pote, Siying Wang, Maria Gudbrandsen, Anna Blasi, Caroline McCusker, Eileen Daly, Emily Perry, Kerrie P H Adams, Maria Kuklisova-Murgasova, Paula Busuulwa, Sarah Lloyd-Fox, Lynne Murray, Mark H Johnson, Steven C R Williams, Declan G M Murphy, Michael C Craig, Grainne M McAlonan
It is generally agreed that the human brain is responsive to environmental influences, and that the male brain may be particularly sensitive to early adversity. However, this is largely based on retrospective studies of older children and adolescents exposed to extreme environments in childhood. Less is understood about how normative variations in parent-child interactions are associated with the development of the infant brain in typical settings. To address this, we used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the relationship between observational measures of mother-infant interactions and regional brain volumes in a community sample of 3- to 6-month-old infants (N = 39)...
December 3, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915067/the-feasibility-and-effects-of-acupuncture-in-an-adolescent-nordic-ski-population
#9
Kristin L Garlanger, William H Fredericks, Alexander Do, Brent A Bauer, Edward R Laskowski
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the use and effectiveness of acupuncture in adults post exercise have been well documented. Fewer studies involving acupuncture have been completed in the adolescent athlete population. To our knowledge there are no published studies that investigate the use of acupuncture in adolescent athletes within their field of play. OBJECTIVE: To primarily assess the feasibility of performing acupuncture in adolescent Nordic skiers within their athletic environment, and secondarily to measure the effect of acupuncture on muscle soreness and sense of well-being...
November 30, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912863/circadian-rhythm-and-sleep-during-prolonged-antarctic-residence-at-chinese-zhongshan-station
#10
Nan Chen, Quan Wu, Yanlei Xiong, Guang Chen, Dandan Song, Chengli Xu
OBJECTIVE: Residence at Zhongshan Station (69°22'24″S, 76°22'40″E) for over 1 year exposes winter-over members to marked changes of light-dark cycle, ranging from the constant daylight of polar days to the constant darkness of polar nights, in addition to geographic and social isolation. This extreme photoperiodic environment may increase the risk of sleep disturbances and circadian desynchrony. The aim of this study was to investigate the circadian rhythm and sleep phase of Chinese winter-over expeditioners at Zhongshan Station...
December 2016: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910691/compact-ecei-system-with-in-vessel-reflective-optics-for-west
#11
Y B Nam, H K Park, W Lee, G S Yun, M Kim, R Sabot, D Elbeze, P Lotte, J Shen
An electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) diagnostic system for WEST (W Environment for Steady state Tokamak) is under development to study the MHD instabilities affected by tungsten impurities. The system will provide 2-D Te fluctuation images (width × height = ∼18 cm × ∼ 34 cm at low field side and ∼13 cm × ∼ 39 cm at high field side) from a poloidal cross section with high spatial (≤1.7 cm) and temporal (≤2 μs) resolutions. While the key concept and electronic structure are similar to that of prior ECEI systems on other tokamak devices such as KSTAR, DIII-D, or ASDEX-U, part of the imaging optics have to be placed inside the vacuum vessel in order to resolve issues on limited installation space and longer beam path to the detector position...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909222/associations-between-environmental-factors-and-hospital-admissions-for-sickle-cell-disease
#12
Frédéric B Piel, Sanjay Tewari, Valentine Brousse, Antonis Analitis, Anna Font, Stephan Menzel, Subarna Chakravorty, Swee Lay Thein, Baba Inusa, Paul Telfer, Marianne de Montalembert, Gary W Fuller, Klea Katsouyanni, David C Rees
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an increasing global health burden. This inherited disease is characterised by a remarkable phenotypic heterogeneity, which can only partly be explained by genetic factors. Environmental factors are likely to play an important role but studies of their impact on disease severity are limited and their results are often inconsistent. This study investigated associations between a range of environmental factors and hospital admissions of young patients with SCD in London and in Paris between 2008 and 2012...
December 1, 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908665/diffuse-resistance-courtship-in-the-scorpion-rhopalurus-rochai-scorpiones-buthidae
#13
Shayanne Chantall-Rocha, Hilton F Japyassú
Male-female courtship signals are frequently subject to arms races, with patterns of behaviour evolving reciprocally to manipulate the reproductive output. Female resistance should be particularly effective when asymmetrical offspring care occurs under low and unpredictable resource distribution, because this would increase maternal costs. Our hypothesis is that under these conditions females will evolve diffuse mating strategies to avoid predictable exploitation by male optimal counter tactics. Mating in scorpions is a complex process, and female resistance occurs through specific behaviours...
November 28, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907880/release-of-1-3-5-trinitroperhydro-1-3-5-triazine-rdx-from-polymer-bonded-explosives-pbxn-109-into-water-by-artificial-weathering
#14
M Kumar, M K Ladyman, N Mai, T Temple, F Coulon
Polymer-bonded explosives (PBX) fulfil the need for insensitive munitions. However, the environmental impacts of PBX are unclear, even though it is likely that PBX residues from low-order detonations and unexploded ordnance are deposited on military training ranges. The release of high explosives from the polymer matrix into the environment has not been studied in detail, although as polymers degrade slowly in the environment we anticipate high explosives to be released into the environment. In this study, PBXN-109 (nominally 64% RDX) samples were exposed to variable UK climatic conditions reproduced in the laboratory to determine the effects of temperature, UV irradiation and rainfall on the release of RDX from the polymer binder...
November 28, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906527/behavioral-epigenetics
#15
David S Moore
Why do we grow up to have the traits we do? Most 20th century scientists answered this question by referring only to our genes and our environments. But recent discoveries in the emerging field of behavioral epigenetics have revealed factors at the interface between genes and environments that also play crucial roles in development. These factors affect how genes work; scientists now know that what matters as much as which genes you have (and what environments you encounter) is how your genes are affected by their contexts...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905471/evidence-of-genotypic-adaptation-to-the-exposure-to-volcanic-risk-at-the-dopamine-receptor-drd4-locus
#16
Charlotte Faurie, Clement Mettling, Mohamed Ali Bchir, Danang Sri Hadmoko, Carine Heitz, Evi Dwi Lestari, Michel Raymond, Marc Willinger
Humans have colonized and adapted to extremely diverse environments, and the genetic basis of some such adaptations, for example to high altitude, is understood. In some cases, local or regional variation in selection pressure could also cause behavioural adaptations. Numerous genes influence behaviour, such as alleles at the dopamine receptor locus D4 (DRD4), which are associated with attitude toward risk in experimental settings. We demonstrate genetic differentiation for this gene, but not for five unlinked microsatellite loci, between high- and low risk environments around Mount Merapi, an active volcano in Java, Indonesia...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900683/constructing-and-screening-a-metagenomic-library-of-a-cold-and-alkaline-extreme-environment
#17
Mikkel A Glaring, Jan K Vester, Peter Stougaard
Natural cold or alkaline environments are common on Earth. A rare combination of these two extremes is found in the permanently cold (less than 6 °C) and alkaline (pH above 10) ikaite columns in the Ikka Fjord in Southern Greenland. Bioprospecting efforts have established the ikaite columns as a source of bacteria and enzymes adapted to these conditions. They have also highlighted the limitations of cultivation-based methods in this extreme environment and metagenomic approaches may provide access to novel extremophilic enzymes from the uncultured majority of bacteria...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898850/genetic-evaluations-for-growth-heat-tolerance-in-angus-cattle
#18
H L Bradford, B O Fragomeni, J K Bertrand, D A L Lourenco, I Misztal
The objectives were to assess the impact of heat stress and to develop a model for genetic evaluation of growth heat tolerance in Angus cattle. The American Angus Association provided weaning weight (WW) and yearling weight (YW) data, and records from the Upper South region were used because of the hot climatic conditions. Heat stress was characterized by a weaning (yearling) heat load function defined as the mean temperature-humidity index (THI) units greater than 75 (70) for 30 (150) d prior to the weigh date...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898162/residual-limb-skin-temperature-and-thermal-comfort-in-people-with-amputation-during-activity-in-a-cold-environment
#19
Ava D Segal, Glenn K Klute
Thermal comfort remains a common problem for people with lower-limb amputation. Both donning a prosthesis and engaging in activity at room temperature can increase residual limb skin temperature; however, the effects of activity on skin temperature and comfort in more extreme environments remain unknown. We examined residual limb skin temperatures and perceived thermal comfort (PTC; 11-point Likert scale) of participants with unilateral transtibial amputation (n = 8) who were snowshoeing in a cold environment...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897369/double-side-cocatalytic-activation-of-anodic-tio2-nanotube-membranes-with-sputter-coated-pt-for-photocatalytic-h2-generation-from-water-ethanol-mixtures
#20
Gihoon Cha, Marco Altomare, Nhat Truong Nguyen, Nicola Taccardi, Kiyoung Lee, Patrik Schmuki
Self-standing TiO2 nanotube layers in the form of membranes are fabricated by self-organizing anodization of Ti metal and a potential shock technique. The membranes were then decorated by sputtering different Pt amounts i) only at the top, ii) only at the bottom or iii) at both top and bottom of the tube layers. The Pt-decorated membranes are transferred either in tube top up or in tube top down configuration onto FTO slides and investigated after crystallization as photocatalysts for H2 generation using either front or back-side light irradiation...
November 29, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
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