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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214115/warm-summers-and-moderate-winter-precipitation-boost-rhododendron-ferrugineum-l-growth-in-the-taillefer-massif-french-alps
#1
L Francon, C Corona, E Roussel, J Lopez Saez, M Stoffel
Rhododendron ferrugineum L. is a widespread dwarf shrub species growing in high-elevation, alpine environments of the Western European Alps. For this reason, analysis of its growth rings offers unique opportunities to push current dendrochronological networks into extreme environments and way beyond the treeline. Given that different species of the same genus have been successfully used in tree-ring investigations, notably in the Himalayas where Rhododendron spp. has proven to be a reliable climate proxy, this study aims at (i) evaluating the dendroclimatological potential of R...
February 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213825/pyrophosphate-hydrolysis-in-the-extremely-halophilic-archaeon-haloarcula-japonica-is-catalyzed-by-a-single-enzyme-with-a-broad-ionic-strength-range
#2
Satoshi Wakai, Akihiro Abe, Sotaro Fujii, Kaoru Nakasone, Yoshihiro Sambongi
The soluble protein fraction of the extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula japonica exhibits substantial inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) hydrolysis activity in the presence of 2-4 M NaCl (Wakai et al, J Biol Chem 288:29247-29251, 2013), which provides high ionic strength (2-4). In this study, much higher PPi hydrolysis activity was unexpectedly detected, even with 0 M NaCl in the presence of 100-200 mM MgSO4, providing a much lower ionic strength of 0.4-0.8, in the same protein fraction. Na(+) and Mg(2+) ions were required for activity under high and low ionic strength conditions, respectively...
February 17, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213708/removal-mechanisms-for-extremely-high-level-fluoroquinolone-antibiotics-in-pharmaceutical-wastewater-treatment-plants
#3
Xinyan Guo, Zheng Yan, Yi Zhang, Xiangji Kong, Deyang Kong, Zhengjun Shan, Na Wang
Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants (PWWTPs) receive industrial effluents from the plant that contain extremely high levels of antibiotics and are regarded as one of the major sources of antibiotics in the environment. Two PWWTPs have been selected in Zhejiang Province, China, to assess the removal mechanisms of fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs). PWWTP A uses activated sludge with biocarriers in a moving bed biofilm reactor in anoxic and aerobic units, and PWWTP B uses biological units under anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic conditions...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212000/radiation-hard-complementary-integrated-circuits-based-on-semiconducting-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes
#4
Julian J McMorrow, Cory D Cress, William A Gaviria Rojas, Michael L Geier, Tobin J Marks, Mark C Hersam
Increasingly complex demonstrations of integrated circuit elements based on semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) mark the maturation of this technology for use in next-generation electronics. In particular, organic materials have recently been leveraged as dopant and encapsulation layers to enable stable SWCNT-based rail-to-rail, low-power complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) logic circuits. To explore the limits of this technology in extreme environments, here we study total ionizing dose (TID) effects in enhancement-mode SWCNT-CMOS inverters that employ organic doping and encapsulation layers...
February 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211648/cognitive-development-in-preterm-infants-multi-faceted-deficits-reflect-vulnerability-of-rigorous-neurodevelopmental-pathways
#5
Jessie R Maxwell, Tracylyn R Yellowhair, Akosua Y Oppong, Jenny E Camacho, Jean R Lowe, Lauren L Jantzie, Robin K Ohls
Prematurity remains the major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, with 15 million preterm births occurring worldwide in 2010. Infants born less than 37 weeks gestation are at high risk of abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes, given that the central nervous system is extremely sensitive to an abnormal intra- and extra-uterine environment. Children born preterm have multiple neurodevelopmental sequelae involving dynamic and complex cognitive deficits. Former preterm infants have difficulty with each domain of cognition, including executive function, language, learning and memory, complex attention, perceptual-motor function and social cognition when compared to children born at term...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210023/application-of-diode-laser-in-the-treatment-of-dentine-hypersensitivity
#6
Mirjana Gojkov-Vukelic, Sanja Hadzic, Amila Zukanovic, Enes Pasic, Veriva Pavlic
INTRODUCTION: Dentine hypersensitivity is characterized by acute, sharp pain arising from the exposed dentine, most commonly in response to thermal, tactile, or chemical stimuli, and which cannot be linked to any other pathological changes in the tooth or the environment. Therapy uses various impregnating agents in the form of solutions or gels and, in more recent times, laser. AIM: The aim of this research was to examine the effects of treatment of hypersensitive dental cervix with diode laser...
December 2016: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208666/the-mechanisms-and-biomedical-applications-of-an-nir-bodipy-based-switchable-fluorescent-probe
#7
Bingbing Cheng, Venugopal Bandi, Shuai Yu, Francis D'Souza, Kytai T Nguyen, Yi Hong, Liping Tang, Baohong Yuan
Highly environment-sensitive fluorophores have been desired for many biomedical applications. Because of the noninvasive operation, high sensitivity, and high specificity to the microenvironment change, they can be used as excellent probes for fluorescence sensing/imaging, cell tracking/imaging, molecular imaging for cancer, and so on (i.e., polarity, viscosity, temperature, or pH measurement). In this work, investigations of the switching mechanism of a recently reported near-infrared environment-sensitive fluorophore, ADP(CA)₂, were conducted...
February 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208133/how-truncating-are-truncating-languages-evidence-from-russian-and-german
#8
Tamara V Rathcke
Russian and German have pr eviously been described as 'truncating', or cutting off target frequencies of the phrase-final pitch trajectories when the time available for voicing is compromised. However, supporting evidence is rare and limited to only a few pitch categories. This paper reports a production study conducted to document pitch adjustments to linguistic materials, in which the amount of voicing available for the realization of a pitch pattern varies from relatively long to extremely short. Productions of nuclear H+L*, H* and L*+H pitch accents followed by a low boundary tone were investigated in the two languages...
February 23, 2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207738/testing-the-limits-of-gradient-sensing
#9
Vinal Lakhani, Timothy C Elston
The ability to detect a chemical gradient is fundamental to many cellular processes. In multicellular organisms gradient sensing plays an important role in many physiological processes such as wound healing and development. Unicellular organisms use gradient sensing to move (chemotaxis) or grow (chemotropism) towards a favorable environment. Some cells are capable of detecting extremely shallow gradients, even in the presence of significant molecular-level noise. For example, yeast have been reported to detect pheromone gradients as shallow as 0...
February 16, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207180/assembly-of-the-outermost-spore-layer-pieces-of-the-puzzle-are-coming-together
#10
George C Stewart
Certain endospore-forming soil dwelling bacteria are important human, animal, or insect pathogens. These organisms produce spores containing an outer layer, the exosporium. The exosporium is the site of interactions between the spore and the soil environment and between the spore and the infected host during the initial stages of infection. The composition and assembly process of the exosporium are poorly understood. This is partly due to the extreme stability of the exosporium that has proven to be refractive to existing methods to deconstruct the intact structure into its component parts...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206828/validity-of-the-timed-25-foot-walk-as-an-ambulatory-performance-outcome-measure-for-multiple-sclerosis
#11
Robert W Motl, Jeffrey A Cohen, Ralph Benedict, Glenn Phillips, Nicholas LaRocca, Lynn D Hudson, Richard Rudick
The Multiple Sclerosis Outcome Assessments Consortium (MSOAC) includes representatives from advocacy organizations, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), academic institutions, and industry partners along with persons living with multiple sclerosis (MS). One of the MSOAC goals is acceptance and qualification by regulators of performance outcomes that are highly reliable and valid, practical, cost-effective, and meaningful in MS...
February 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206823/the-effect-of-high-dose-ionizing-radiation-on-the-isolated-photobiont-of-the-astrobiological-model-lichen-circinaria-gyrosa
#12
Joachim Meeßen, Theresa Backhaus, Annette Brandt, Marina Raguse, Ute Böttger, Jean-Pierre de Vera, Rosa de la Torre
Lichen symbioses between fungi and algae represent successful life strategies to colonize the most extreme terrestrial habitats. Consequently, space exposure and simulation experiments have demonstrated lichens' high capacity for survival, and thus, they have become models in astrobiological research with which to discern the limits and limitations of terrestrial life. In a series of ground-based irradiation experiments, the STARLIFE campaign investigated the resistance of astrobiological model organisms to galactic cosmic radiation, which is one of the lethal stressors of extraterrestrial environments...
February 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206708/physiological-metabolic-and-biotechnological-features-of-extremely-thermophilic-microorganisms
#13
REVIEW
James A Counts, Benjamin M Zeldes, Laura L Lee, Christopher T Straub, Michael W W Adams, Robert M Kelly
The current upper thermal limit for life as we know it is approximately 120°C. Microorganisms that grow optimally at temperatures of 75°C and above are usually referred to as 'extreme thermophiles' and include both bacteria and archaea. For over a century, there has been great scientific curiosity in the basic tenets that support life in thermal biotopes on earth and potentially on other solar bodies. Extreme thermophiles can be aerobes, anaerobes, autotrophs, heterotrophs, or chemolithotrophs, and are found in diverse environments including shallow marine fissures, deep sea hydrothermal vents, terrestrial hot springs-basically, anywhere there is hot water...
February 16, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206677/human-adaptation-to-arsenic-in-andean-populations-of-the-atacama-desert
#14
Mario Apata, Bernado Arriaza, Elena Llop, Mauricio Moraga
OBJECTIVES: Quebrada Camarones, in the Atacama Desert, has the highest arsenic levels in the Americas (>1,000 µg/L). However, the Camarones people have subsisted in this adverse environment during the last 7,000 years and have not presented any epidemiological emergencies. Therefore, to solve this conundrum we compared the frequencies of four protective genetic variants of the AS3MT gene associated with efficient arsenic metabolization, between the living populations of Camarones and two other populations historically exposed to lower levels of arsenic...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205388/hydrogen-or-formate-alternative-key-players-in-methanogenic-degradation
#15
REVIEW
Bernhard Schink, Dominik Montag, Anja Keller, Nicolai Müller
Hydrogen and formate are important electron carriers in methanogenic degradation in anoxic environments such as sediments, sewage sludge digestors, and biogas reactors. Especially in the terminal steps of methanogenesis, they determine the energy budgets of secondary (syntrophically) fermenting bacteria and their methanogenic partners. The literature provides considerable data on hydrogen pool sizes in such habitats, but little data exist for formate concentrations due to technical difficulties in formate determination at low concentration...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198896/size-dependent-stability-of-cobalt-nanoparticles-on-silica-under-high-conversion-fischer-tropsch-environment
#16
Moritz Wolf, Hendrik Kotzé, Nico Fischer, Michael Claeys
Highly monodisperse cobalt crystallites, supported on Stöber silica spheres, as model catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were exposed to simulated high conversion environments in the presence and absence of CO utilising an in house developed in situ magnetometer. The catalyst comprising the smallest crystallites in the metallic state (average diameter of 3.2 nm) experienced pronounced oxidation whilst the ratio of H2O to H2 was increased stepwise to simulate CO conversions from 26% up to complete conversion...
February 15, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197128/drivers-of-bacterial-maintenance-and-minimal-energy-requirements
#17
Christopher P Kempes, Peter M van Bodegom, David Wolpert, Eric Libby, Jan Amend, Tori Hoehler
Microbes maintain themselves through a variety of processes. Several of these processes can be reduced or shut down entirely when resource availability declines. In pure culture conditions with ample substrate supply, a relationship between the maximum growth rate and the energy invested in maintenance has been reported widely. However, at the other end of the resources spectrum, bacteria are so extremely limited by energy that no growth occurs and metabolism is constrained to the most essential functions only...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195437/water-requirements-and-drinking-rates-of-homing-pigeons-a-consideration-for-exposure-risk-of-migratory-birds
#18
Cristina R Perez, John K Moye, Chris A Pritsos
Access to water along a bird's migratory flyway is essential during the vital process of migration. Because of the scarcity of water in some environments, there is potential for migratory birds to encounter and drink from contaminated bodies of water. Ingestion of contaminated water may cause injury and compromise flying ability, leading to a disruption of migration. To determine injury to birds from potential exposure, it is essential to not only know the concentration of a given contaminant in the water but also the quantity and rate of water consumption by the birds...
February 13, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194374/regenerative-potential-of-the-cartilaginous-tissue-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-update-limitations-and-challenges
#19
Ivana Beatrice Mânica da Cruz, Antônio Lourenço Severo, Verônica Farina Azzolin, Luiz Filipe Machado Garcia, André Kuhn, Osvandré Lech
Advances in the studies with adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have turned tissue regenerative therapy into a promising tool in many areas of medicine. In orthopedics, one of the main challenges has been the regeneration of cartilage tissue, mainly in diarthroses. In the induction of the MSCs, in addition to cytodifferentiation, the microenvironmental context of the tissue to be regenerated and an appropriate spatial arrangement are extremely important factors. Furthermore, it is known that MSC differentiation is fundamentally determined by mechanisms such as cell proliferation (mitosis), biochemical-molecular interactions, movement, cell adhesion, and apoptosis...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193867/genetic-signature-of-natural-selection-in-first-americans
#20
Carlos Eduardo G Amorim, Kelly Nunes, Diogo Meyer, David Comas, Maria Cátira Bortolini, Francisco Mauro Salzano, Tábita Hünemeier
When humans moved from Asia toward the Americas over 18,000 y ago and eventually peopled the New World they encountered a new environment with extreme climate conditions and distinct dietary resources. These environmental and dietary pressures may have led to instances of genetic adaptation with the potential to influence the phenotypic variation in extant Native American populations. An example of such an event is the evolution of the fatty acid desaturases (FADS) genes, which have been claimed to harbor signals of positive selection in Inuit populations due to adaptation to the cold Greenland Arctic climate and to a protein-rich diet...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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