keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

extreme environments

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341963/role-of-the-anesthesiologist-intensivist-outside-the-icu-opportunity-to-add-value-for-the-hospital-or-an-unnecessary-distraction
#1
Suzanne Bennett, Erin Grawe, Courtney Jones, Sean A Josephs, Maggie Mechlin, William E Hurford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Given the extremely expensive nature of critical care medicine, it seems logical that intensivists should play an active role in designing efficient systems of care. The true value of intensivists, however, is not well defined. RECENT FINDINGS: Anesthesiologists have taken key roles in improving patient safety in the operating room. Anesthesia-related mortality rates have decreased from 20 deaths per 100 000 anesthetics in the early 1980s to less than one death per 100 000 currently...
January 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341691/dissipative-effects-on-inertial-range-statistics-at-high-reynolds-numbers
#2
Michael Sinhuber, Gregory P Bewley, Eberhard Bodenschatz
Using the unique capabilities of the Variable Density Turbulence Tunnel at the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Göttingen, we report experimental measurements in classical grid turbulence that uncover oscillations of the velocity structure functions in the inertial range. This was made possible by measuring extremely long time series of up to 10^{10} samples of the turbulent fluctuating velocity, which corresponds to O(10^{7}) integral length scales. The measurements were conducted in a well-controlled environment at a wide range of high Reynolds numbers from R_{λ}=110 up to R_{λ}=1600, using both traditional hot-wire probes as well as the nanoscale thermal anemometry probe developed at Princeton University...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340608/could-increasing-cancer-incidence-be-tied-to-human-adaptation-of-living-in-extreme-environments
#3
Joseph Caspermeyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340255/habitat-use-in-south-west-european-skinks-genus-chalcides
#4
Daniel Escoriza, Guillem Pascual, Alberto Sánchez-Vialas
Background: Congeneric species of reptiles frequently exhibit partitioning in terms of their use of habitats or trophic resources in order to reduce competition. In this study, we investigated habitat use by two species of European skinks: Chalcides bedriagai and Chalcides striatus, based on 49 records from southern France, Spain, and Portugal. Methods: We measured three levels of niche descriptors: macroscale (climate, topography, and substrate), mesoscale (plant associations), and microscale (vegetation cover and shelters)...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339310/distant-from-input-evidence-of-regions-within-the-default-mode-network-supporting-perceptually-decoupled-and-conceptually-guided-cognition
#5
Charlotte Murphy, Elizabeth Jefferies, Shirley-Ann Rueschemeyer, Mladen Sormaz, Hao-Ting Wang, Daniel S Margulies, Jonathan Smallwood
The default mode network supports a variety of mental operations such as semantic processing, episodic memory retrieval, mental time travel and mind-wandering, yet the commonalities between these functions remains unclear. One possibility is that this system supports cognition that is independent of the immediate environment; alternatively or additionally, it might support higher-order conceptual representations that draw together multiple features. We tested these accounts using a novel paradigm that separately manipulated the availability of perceptual information to guide decision-making and the representational complexity of this information...
January 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338989/relations-between-self-reported-and-linguistic-monitoring-assessments-of-affective-experience-in-an-extreme-environment
#6
Nathan Smith
INTRODUCTION: Approaches for monitoring psychosocial health in challenging environments are needed to maintain the performance and safety of personnel. The purpose of the present research was to examine the relationship between 2 candidate methods (self-reported and linguistics) for monitoring affective experience during extreme environment activities. METHODS: A single-subject repeated-measures design was used in the present work. The participant was a 46-year-old individual scheduled to complete a self-supported ski expedition across Arctic Greenland...
January 12, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337292/a-rapid-ratiometric-enzyme-free-sensitive-single-step-mirna-detection-using-three-way-junction-based-fret-probes
#7
Qingying Luo, Lin Liu, Cai Yang, Jing Yuan, Hongtao Feng, Yan Chen, Peng Zhao, Zhiqiang Yu, Zongwen Jin
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single stranded endogenous molecules composed of only 18-24 nucleotides which are critical for gene expression regulating the translation of messenger RNAs. Conventional methods based on enzyme-assisted nucleic acid amplification techniques have many problems, such as easy contamination, high cost, susceptibility to false amplification, and tendency to have sequence mismatches.Here we report a rapid, ratiometric, enzyme-free, sensitive, and highly selective single-step miRNA detection using three-way junction assembled (or self-assembled) FRET probes...
January 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335576/ancient-balancing-selection-on-heterocyst-function-in-a-cosmopolitan-cyanobacterium
#8
Emiko B Sano, Christopher A Wall, Patrick R Hutchins, Scott R Miller
The conventional view of bacterial adaptation emphasizes the importance of rapidly evolved changes that are highly repeatable in response to similar environments and subject to loss in the absence of selection. Consequently, genetic variation is not expected to persist over long time scales for these organisms. Here, we show that a geographically widespread gene content polymorphism has surprisingly been maintained for tens of millions of years of diversification of the multicellular cyanobacterium Fischerella thermalis...
January 15, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335574/sexual-antagonism-and-the-instability-of-environmental-sex-determination
#9
Pavitra Muralidhar, Carl Veller
The sex of an organism can be determined by its genetics or its early environment. Across the animal kingdom, genetic sex determination (GSD) is far more common than environmental sex determination (ESD). Here, we propose an explanation for this pattern: the coupling of genes that bias offspring sex ratios towards one sex with genes that are beneficial in that sex but costly in the other. Gradual strengthening of the sex-specific tendency of this association eventuates in a neo-sex chromosome; that is, GSD...
January 15, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335493/biophysical-feedbacks-mediate-carbonate-chemistry-in-coastal-ecosystems-across-spatiotemporal-gradients
#10
Nyssa J Silbiger, Cascade J B Sorte
Ocean acidification (OA) projections are primarily based on open ocean environments, despite the ecological importance of coastal systems in which carbonate dynamics are fundamentally different. Using temperate tide pools as a natural laboratory, we quantified the relative contribution of community composition, ecosystem metabolism, and physical attributes to spatiotemporal variability in carbonate chemistry. We found that biological processes were the primary drivers of local pH conditions. Specifically, non-encrusting producer-dominated systems had the highest and most variable pH environments and the highest production rates, patterns that were consistent across sites spanning 11° of latitude and encompassing multiple gradients of natural variability...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331720/temporal-spatial-gait-parameter-models-of-very-slow-walking
#11
Andrew J J Smith, Edward D Lemaire
This study assessed the relationship between walking speed and common temporal-spatial stride-parameters to determine if a change in gait strategy occurs at extremely slow walking speeds. Stride-parameter models that represent slow walking can act as a reference for lower extremity exoskeleton and powered orthosis controls since these devices typically operate at walking speeds less than 0.4 m/s. Full-body motion capture data were collected from 30 health adults while walking on a self-paced treadmill, within a CAREN-Extended virtual reality environment...
January 6, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331715/toxicokinetics-of-zn-and-cd-in-the-earthworm-eisenia-andrei-exposed-to-metal-contaminated-soils-under-different-combinations-of-air-temperature-and-soil-moisture-content
#12
M Nazaret González-Alcaraz, Susana Loureiro, Cornelis A M van Gestel
This study evaluated how different combinations of air temperature (20 °C and 25 °C) and soil moisture content (50% and 30% of the soil water holding capacity, WHC), reflecting realistic climate change scenarios, affect the bioaccumulation kinetics of Zn and Cd in the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Earthworms were exposed for 21 d to two metal-contaminated soils (uptake phase), followed by 21 d incubation in non-contaminated soil (elimination phase). Body Zn and Cd concentrations were checked in time and metal uptake (k1) and elimination (k2) rate constants determined; metal bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was calculated as k1/k2...
January 8, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331642/protein-adaptations-in-extremophiles-an-insight-into-extremophilic-connection-of-mycobacterial-proteome
#13
REVIEW
Ashutosh Kumar, Anwar Alam, Deeksha Tripathi, Mamta Rani, Hafeeza Khatoon, Saurabh Pandey, Nasreen Z Ehtesham, Seyed E Hasnain
The biological paradox about how extremophiles persist at extreme ecological conditions throws a fascinating picture of the enormous potential of a single cell to adapt to homeostatic conditions in order to propagate. Unicellular organisms face challenges from both environmental factors and the ecological niche provided by the host tissue. Although the existence of extremophiles and their physiological properties were known for a long time, availability of whole genome sequence has catapulted the study on mechanisms of adaptation and the underlying principles that have enabled these unique organisms to withstand evolutionary and environmental pressures...
January 10, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331062/benefits-of-increasing-transpiration-efficiency-in-wheat-under-elevated-co2-for-rainfed-regions
#14
Brendan Christy, Sabine Tausz-Posch, Michael Tausz, Richard Richards, Greg Rebetzke, Anthony Condon, Terry Mclean, Glenn Fitzgerald, Maryse Bourgault, Garry O'Leary
Higher transpiration efficiency (TE) has been proposed as a mechanism to increase crop yields in dry environments where water availability usually limits yield. The application of a coupled radiation and transpiration efficiency simulation model shows wheat yield advantage of a high TE cultivar (cv. Drysdale) over its almost identical low TE parent line (Hartog), from about -7 to 558 kg ha-1 (mean 187 kg ha-1 ) over the rainfed cropping region in Australia (221 to 1351 mm annual rainfall), under the present-day climate...
January 13, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330649/growth-of-leptospirillum-ferriphilum-in-sulfur-medium-in-co-culture-with-acidithiobacillus-caldus
#15
Sarah L Smith, D Barrie Johnson
Leptospirillum ferriphilum and Acidithiobacillus caldus are both thermotolerant acidophilic bacteria that frequently co-exist in natural and man-made environments, such as biomining sites. Both are aerobic chemolithotrophs; L. ferriphilum is known only to use ferrous iron as electron donor, while A. caldus can use zero-valent and reduced sulfur, and also hydrogen, as electron donors. It has recently been demonstrated that A. caldus reduces ferric iron to ferrous when grown aerobically on sulfur. Experiments were carried out which demonstrated that this allowed L...
January 12, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330425/formation-and-dynamics-of-a-solar-eruptive-flux-tube
#16
Satoshi Inoue, Kanya Kusano, Jörg Büchner, Jan Skála
Solar eruptions are well-known drivers of extreme space weather, which can greatly disturb the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere. The triggering process and initial dynamics of these eruptions are still an area of intense study. Here we perform a magnetohydrodynamic simulation taking into account the observed photospheric magnetic field to reveal the dynamics of a solar eruption in a real magnetic environment. In our simulation, we confirmed that tether-cutting reconnection occurring locally above the polarity inversion line creates a twisted flux tube, which is lifted into a toroidal unstable area where it loses equilibrium, destroying the force-free state, and driving the eruption...
January 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330184/microbiomes-in-dishwashers-analysis-of-the-microbial-diversity-and-putative-opportunistic-pathogens-in-dishwasher-biofilm-communities
#17
Prem Krishnan Raghupathi, Jerneja Zupančič, Asker Daniel Brejnrod, Samuel Jacquiod, Kurt Houf, Mette Burmølle, Nina Gunde-Cimerman, Søren J Sørensen
Extreme habitats are not only limited to natural environments, but also apply to man-made systems, for instance household appliances such as dishwashers. Limiting factors, such as high temperatures, high and low pH, high NaCl concentrations, presence of detergents and shear force from water during washing cycles define the microbial survival in this extreme system. Fungal and bacterial diversity in biofilms isolated from rubber seals of 24 different household dishwashers were investigated using next generation sequencing...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330047/an-intrinsically-disordered-domain-in-polaribacter-irgensii-kopri-22228-cspb-confers-extraordinary-freeze-tolerance
#18
Youn Hong Jung, Ji-Hyun Uh, Kyunghee Lee, Hana Im
Organisms living in extremely cold environments possess mechanisms to survive low temperatures. Among the known cold-induced genes, cold-shock proteins (Csps) are the most prominent. A csp-homologous gene, cspBPi, has been cloned from the Arctic bacterium Polaribacter irgensii KOPRI 22228, and overexpression of this gene greatly increased the freezing tolerance of its host. This protein consists of a unique N-terminal domain and a well conserved C-terminal cold shock domain. To elucidate the detailed mechanisms involved in the extraordinary freeze-tolerance conferred by CspBPi, we identified the responsible domain by mutational analysis...
January 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328547/blow-flies-as-urban-wildlife-sensors
#19
Constanze Hoffmann, Kevin Merkel, Andreas Sachse, Pablo Rodríguez, Fabian H Leendertz, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer
Wildlife detection in urban areas is very challenging. Conventional monitoring techniques such as direct observation are faced with the limitation that urban wildlife is extremely elusive. It was recently shown that invertebrate-derived DNA (iDNA) can be used to assess wildlife diversity in tropical rainforests. Flies, which are ubiquitous and very abundant in most cities, may also be used to detect wildlife in urban areas. In urban ecosystems, however, overwhelming quantities of domestic mammal DNA could completely mask the presence of wild mammal DNA...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328143/resolution-optimization-of-an-off-axis-lensless-digital-holographic-microscope
#20
E Serabyn, K Liewer, J K Wallace
Microscopes aimed at detecting cellular life in extreme environments such as ocean-bearing solar system moons must provide high resolution in a compact, robust instrument. Here, we consider the resolution optimization of a compact off-axis lensless digital holographic microscope (DHM) that consists of a sample placed between an input point-source pair and a detector array. Two optimal high-resolution regimes are identified at opposite extremes-a low-magnification regime with the sample located near a small-pixel detector array, and a high-magnification regime with the sample near the input plane...
January 1, 2018: Applied Optics
keyword
keyword
114921
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"