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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148705/li-desolvation-dictating-lithium-ion-battery-low-temperature-performances
#1
Qiuyan Li, Dongping Lu, Jianming Zheng, Shuhong Jiao, Langli Luo, Chongmin Wang, Kang Xu, Ji-Guang Zhang, Wu Xu
Lithium (Li) ion battery (LIB) has penetrated almost every aspects of human life, from portable electronics, vehicles to grids, and its operation stability in extreme environments becomes increasingly important. Among these, sub-zero temperature presents a kinetic challenge to the electrochemical reactions required to deliver the stored energy. In this work, we attempted to identify the rate-determining process for Li+ migration under such low temperatures, so that an optimum electrolyte formulation could be designed to maximize the energy output...
November 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147518/machine-learning-molecular-dynamics-for-the-simulation-of-infrared-spectra
#2
Michael Gastegger, Jörg Behler, Philipp Marquetand
Machine learning has emerged as an invaluable tool in many research areas. In the present work, we harness this power to predict highly accurate molecular infrared spectra with unprecedented computational efficiency. To account for vibrational anharmonic and dynamical effects - typically neglected by conventional quantum chemistry approaches - we base our machine learning strategy on ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. While these simulations are usually extremely time consuming even for small molecules, we overcome these limitations by leveraging the power of a variety of machine learning techniques, not only accelerating simulations by several orders of magnitude, but also greatly extending the size of systems that can be treated...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146770/environmental-population-and-life-stage-plasticity-in-the-visual-system-of-atlantic-cod
#3
Ragnhild Valen, Rita Karlsen, Jon Vidar Helvik
The visual system is for many fishes essential in guiding behaviors such as foraging, predator avoidance and mate choice. The marine environment is characterized by large spatiotemporal fluctuations in light intensity and spectral composition. However, visual capabilities are restricted by both space limitations set by eye size, and by the genomic content of light absorbing opsin genes. The rich array of visual opsins in teleosts may be used differentially to tune vision towards specific needs during ontogeny, and to changing light...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145446/large-scale-climatic-effects-on-traditional-hawaiian-fishpond-aquaculture
#4
Daniel McCoy, Margaret A McManus, Keliʻiahonui Kotubetey, Angela Hiʻilei Kawelo, Charles Young, Brandon D'Andrea, Kathleen C Ruttenberg, Rosanna ʻAnolani Alegado
Aquaculture accounts for almost one-half of global fish consumption. Understanding the regional impact of climate fluctuations on aquaculture production thus is critical for the sustainability of this crucial food resource. The objective of this work was to understand the role of climate fluctuations and climate change in subtropical coastal estuarine environments within the context of aquaculture practices in He'eia Fishpond, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study of climate effects on traditional aquaculture systems in the Hawaiian Islands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145028/the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-the-alvinocaridid-shrimp-shinkaicaris-leurokolos-decapoda-caridea-insight-into-the-mitochondrial-genetic-basis-of-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-adaptation-in-the-shrimp
#5
Shao'e Sun, Ming Hui, Minxiao Wang, Zhongli Sha
Deep-sea hydrothermal vent is one of the most extreme environments on Earth with low oxygen and high levels of toxins. Decapod species from the family Alvinocarididae have colonized and successfully adapted to this extremely harsh environment. Mitochondria plays a vital role in oxygen usage and energy metabolism, thus it may be under selection in the adaptive evolution of the hydrothermal vent shrimps. In this study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of alvinocaridid shrimp Shinkaicaris leurokolos (Kikuchi & Hashimoto, 2000) was determined through Illumina sequencing...
November 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140637/hazard-identification-and-risk-assessment-for-improving-farm-safety-on-canadian-farms
#6
Hassan S Chattha, Kenneth W Corscadden, Qamar U Zaman
Agriculture is one of the most hazardous industries worldwide. The number of serious accidents on farms, despite sophisticated technology, development of effective prevention methods, and high-quality training and improved skill levels of farmers, is still very high. The purpose of this study was to develop and apply a generic farm safety protocol to hazards that have been identified in previously published literature and demonstrate the potential benefits of such a protocol with a view to raising awareness of farm safety...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138983/cloning-expression-analysis-and-enzyme-activity-assays-of-the-%C3%AE-carbonic-anhydrase-gene-from-chlamydomonas-sp-ice-l
#7
Changfeng Qu, Yingying He, Zhou Zheng, Meiling An, Lulu Li, Xixi Wang, Xiaodong He, Yibin Wang, Fangming Liu, Jinlai Miao
The α-carbonic anhydrase (α-CA) is a zinc ion-containing enzyme that catalyzes the hydration of carbon dioxide. In this paper, a full-length α-CA gene was cloned from Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-L using RT-PCR and RACE-PCR for bioinformatic analysis. The α-CA open reading frame obtained by PCR was cloned into a vector and transformed into Escherichia coli to generate α-CA-producing bacteria. The α-CA was highly expressed upon induction with isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactoside (IPTG) at a final concentration of 0...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138619/distribution-characterization-and-diversity-of-the-endophytic-fungal-communities-on-korean-seacoasts-showing-contrasting-geographic-conditions
#8
Young-Hyun You, Jong Myong Park, Yeong Gyo Seo, Woong Lee, Myung-Suk Kang, Jong-Guk Kim
This study analyzed the distribution of endophytic fungi in 3 coastal environments with different climatic, geographical, and geological characteristics: the volcanic islands of Dokdo, the East Sea, and the West Sea of Korea. The isolated fungal endophytes were characterized and analyzed with respect to the characteristics of their host environments. For this purpose, we selected common native coastal halophyte communities from three regions. Molecular identification of the fungal endophytes showed clear differences among the sampling sites and halophyte host species...
September 2017: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136588/a-facile-way-to-fabricate-manganese-phosphate-self-assembled-carbon-networks-as-efficient-electrochemical-catalysts-for-real-time-monitoring-of-superoxide-anions-released-from-hepg2-cells
#9
Xuan Cai, Libo Shi, Wenqian Sun, Hongli Zhao, Hong Li, Haiyan He, Minbo Lan
Quantification of superoxide anions (O2(•-)) is significant in the monitoring of many serious diseases and the design of enzyme-mimic catalysts plays the main role in the development of non-enzymatic O2(•-) sensors. Herein, we proposed a facile self-assembly process to synthesize manganese phosphate modified carbon networks using three kinds of widely-used carbon materials (MWCNTs, NGS and GO) as pillar connectors. Characterizations demonstrate that manganese phosphate is widely dispersed inside and on the surface of carbon networks without visible morphology...
November 6, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134788/thermal-acclimation-in-arabidopsis-lyrata-genotypic-costs-and-transcriptional-changes
#10
Guillaume Wos, Yvonne Willi
Frost and heat events can be challenging for sessile organisms that cannot escape thermal extremes. However, adverse effects of thermal stress on fitness may be reduced by pre-exposure to cold or heat, a process known as acclimation. To understand the ecological and evolutionary implications of acclimation, we investigated (1) the reduction in performance due to stress pre-exposure, (2) the magnitude of increased leaf resistance to subsequent stress, (3) the costs of acclimation, and (4) the genes differing in expression due to stress pre-exposure...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134710/isolation-by-distance-not-incipient-ecological-speciation-explains-genetic-differentiation-in-an-andean-songbird-aves-furnariidae-cranioleuca-antisiensis-line-cheeked-spinetail-despite-near-three-fold-body-size-change-across-an-environmental-gradient
#11
Glenn F Seeholzer, Robb T Brumfield
During the process of ecological speciation, reproductive isolation results from divergent natural selection and leads to a positive correlation between genetic divergence and adaptive phenotypic divergence, i.e. isolation-by-adaptation (IBA). In natural populations, phenotypic differentiation is often autocorrelated with geographic distance, making IBA difficult to distinguish from the neutral expectation of isolation-by-distance (IBD). We examined these two alternatives in a dramatic case of clinal phenotypic variation in an Andean songbird, the Line-cheeked Spinetail (Cranioleuca antisiensis)...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132378/protocol-for-the-study-of-self-perceived-psychological-and-emotional-well-being-of-young-paralympic-athletes
#12
Luca Puce, Lucio Marinelli, Laura Mori, Ilaria Pallecchi, Carlo Trompetto
BACKGROUND: We present the detailed protocol set up to investigate how agonistic sport affects the self-perceived psychological and emotional well-being of disabled young people. METHODS: The study will be carried out on a number of subjects as large as 800-1200, using well-established indices that give a quantitative measure of such well-being, namely SF-12 and PGWBI. The related questionnaires will be administered to the participants to a forthcoming international event, the European Para-Youth Games, 9-15 October 2017, Liguria, Italy, as well as to a reference population of a similar number of subjects, made up of young disabled people that do not practice agonistic sport...
November 13, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131839/diversity-and-feeding-strategies-of-soil-microfauna-along-elevation-gradients-in-himalayan-cold-deserts
#13
Miloslav Devetter, Ladislav Háněl, Klára Řeháková, Jiří Doležal
High-elevation cold deserts in Tibet and Himalaya are one of the most extreme environments. One consequence is that the diversity of macrofauna in this environment is often limited, and soil microorganisms have a more influential role in governing key surface and subsurface bioprocesses. High-elevation soil microfauna represent important components of cold ecosystems and dominant consumers of microbial communities. Still little is known about their diversity and distribution on the edge of their reproductive and metabolic abilities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129928/self-probing-spectroscopy-of-xuv-photo-ionization-dynamics-in-atoms-subjected-to-a-strong-field-environment
#14
Doron Azoury, Michael Krüger, Gal Orenstein, Henrik R Larsson, Sebastian Bauch, Barry D Bruner, Nirit Dudovich
Single-photon ionization is one of the most fundamental light matter interactions in nature, serving as a universal probe of the quantum state of matter. By probing the emitted electron, one can decode the full dynamics of the interaction. When photo-ionization is evolving in the presence of a strong laser field, the fundamental properties of the mechanism can be signicantly altered. Here we demonstrate how the liberated electron can perform a self-probing measurement of such interaction with attosecond precision...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128981/what-to-eat-in-a-warming-world-do-increased-temperatures-necessitate-hazardous-duty-pay
#15
L Embere Hall, Anna D Chalfoun
Contemporary climate change affects nearly all biomes, causing shifts in animal distributions and resource availability. Changes in resource selection may allow individuals to offset climatic stress, thereby providing a mechanism for persistence amidst warming conditions. Whereas the role of predation risk in food choice has been studied broadly, the extent to which individuals respond to thermoregulatory risk by changing resource preferences is unclear. We addressed whether individuals compensated for temperature-related reductions in foraging time by altering forage preferences, using the American pika (Ochotona princeps) as a model species...
November 11, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126967/effects-of-temperature-and-salinity-on-prevalence-and-intensity-of-infection-of-blue-crabs-callinectes-sapidus-by-vibrio-cholerae-v-parahaemolyticus-and-v-vulnificus-in-louisiana
#16
Timothy J Sullivan, Joseph E Neigel
Coastal marine and estuarine environments are experiencing higher average temperatures, greater frequency of extreme temperature events, and altered salinities. These changes are expected to stress organisms and increase their susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, beyond these generalities, little is known about how environmental factors influence host-pathogen relationships in the marine realm. We investigated the prevalence and intensity of infections by Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126602/the-potential-of-blended-learning-in-education-and-training-for-advanced-civilian-and-military-trauma-care
#17
Linda Sonesson, Kenneth Boffard, Lars Lundberg, Martin Rydmark, Klas Karlgren
INTRODUCTION: In the field of advanced care of the complex trauma patient, there is an emerging need for focused education and training. However, several hospitals do not support further education and training in this field, and the challenge of releasing time for physicians and nurses is well-known. Educational strategies using blended learning, which combines traditional classroom methods with modern computer-assisted methods and media, have not yet been widely used. This study analysed the educational challenges and areas for improvement, according to senior physicians and nurses, and investigated the potential use of blended learning...
November 6, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126571/potential-applications-of-the-escherichia-coli-heat-shock-response-in-synthetic-biology
#18
REVIEW
Joana L Rodrigues, Lígia R Rodrigues
The Escherichia coli heat shock response (HSR) is a complex mechanism triggered by heat shock and by a variety of other growth-impairing stresses. We explore here the potential use of the E. coli HSR mechanism in synthetic biology approaches. Several components of the regulatory mechanism (such as heat shock promoters, proteins, and RNA thermosensors) can be extremely valuable in the creation of a toolbox of well-characterized biological parts to construct biosensors or microbial cell factories with applications in the environment, industry, or healthcare...
November 7, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122365/chemical-characterization-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-2013-rayong-oil-spill-affected-coastal-areas-of-thailand
#19
S Pongpiachan, M Hattayanone, D Tipmanee, O Suttinun, C Khumsup, I Kittikoon, P Hirunyatrakul
Among Southeast Asian countries, Thailand has gradually accustomed to extremely prompt urbanization, motorization, and industrialization. Chonburi and Rayong provinces are two provinces involved in "eastern seaboard" industrial zones, which is an emerging economic region that plays a key role in Thailand's economy. The 2013 Rayong oil spill did not only cause damages to the coastal and maritime environment, but also undermine trust in the overall safety system and negatively affect the investor confidence. In this study, 69 coastal soils collected around Koh Samed Island were chemically extracted and analyzed for 15 PAHs by using a Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 Ultra system comprising a high-speed performance system with ASSP function...
November 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122347/stable-and-radioactive-cesium-a-review-about-distribution-in-the-environment-uptake-and-translocation-in-plants-plant-reactions-and-plants-potential-for-bioremediation
#20
REVIEW
Anna Burger, Irene Lichtscheidl
Radiocesium in water, soil, and air represents a severe threat to human health and the environment. It either acts directly on living organisms from external sources, or it becomes incorporated through the food chain, or both. Plants are at the base of the food chain; it is therefore essential to understand the mechanisms of plants for cesium retention and uptake. In this review we summarize investigations about sources of stable and radioactive cesium in the environment and harmful effects caused by internal and external exposure of plants to radiocesium...
November 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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