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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339478/morphological-and-morphometric-specializations-of-the-lung-of-the-andean-goose-chloephaga-melanoptera-a-lifelong-high-altitude-resident
#1
John N Maina, Kevin G McCracken, Beverly Chua, Julia M York, William K Milsom
High altitude flight in rarefied, extremely cold and hypoxic air is a very challenging activity. Only a few species of birds can achieve it. Hitherto, the structure of the lungs of such birds has not been studied. This is because of the rarity of such species and the challenges of preparing well-fixed lung tissue. Here, it was posited that in addition to the now proven physiological adaptations, high altitude flying birds will also have acquired pulmonary structural adaptations that enable them to obtain the large amounts of oxygen (O2) needed for flight at high elevation, an environment where O2 levels are very low...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334248/photoacclimation-by-arctic-cryoconite-phototrophs
#2
R G Perkins, E Bagshaw, L Mol, C J Williamson, D Fagan, M Gamble, M L Yallop
Cryoconite is a matrix of sediment, biogenic polymer and a microbial community which resides on glacier surfaces. The phototrophic component of this community is well adapted to this extreme environment, including high light stress. Photoacclimation of the cryoconite phototrophic community on Longyearbreen, Svalbard was investigated using in situ variable chlorophyll fluorescence. Rapid light curves (RLCs) and induction recovery curves were used to analyse PSII quantum efficiency, relative electron transport rate and forms of down regulation including non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and state transitions in cyanobacteria...
February 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333395/small-molecules-belowground-the-role-of-specialized-metabolites-in-the-rhizosphere
#3
Hassan Massalha, Elisa Korenblum, Dorothea Tholl, Asaph Aharoni
Soil communities are diverse taxonomically and functionally. This ecosystem experiences highly complex networks of interactions, but may also present functionally independent entities. Plant roots, a metabolically active hotspot in the soil, take an essential part in belowground interactions. While plants are known to release an extremely high portion of the fixated carbon to the soil, less is known about the composition and role of C-containing compounds in the rhizosphere, in particular those involved in chemical communication...
March 23, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333216/buddysuite-command-line-toolkits-for-manipulating-sequences-alignments-and-phylogenetic-trees
#4
Stephen R Bond, Karl E Keat, Sofia N Barreira, Andreas D Baxevanis
The ability to manipulate sequence, alignment, and phylogenetic tree files has become an increasingly important skill in the life sciences, whether to generate summary information or to prepare data for further downstream analysis. The command line can be an extremely powerful environment for interacting with these resources, but only if the user has the appropriate general-purpose tools on hand. BuddySuite is a collection of four independent yet interrelated command-line toolkits that facilitate each step in the workflow of sequence discovery, curation, alignment, and phylogenetic reconstruction...
February 25, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331276/an-easy-technique-for-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-for-extremities-using-collagen-powder-and-sterile-gloves
#5
L S Sreelesh, P Laxminarayan Bhandari
Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has become the standard of care for wound management. Application of NPWT to the hand and foot is technically challenging due to difficulty in obtaining a proper air seal. The cost of the treatment is another negative factor affecting NPWT in developing countries. We describe an easy and economical technique for the application of NPWT to the extremities using collage powder and sterile surgical glove. Collagen creates a physiological interface between the wound surface and the environment and is also non-immunogenic, non-pyrogenic, hypoallergenic, and pain-free...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330954/physiological-and-biochemical-changes-associated-with-acute-experimental-dehydration-in-the-desert-adapted-mouse-peromyscus-eremicus
#6
Lauren Kordonowy, Kaelina D Lombardo, Hannah L Green, Molly D Dawson, Evice A Bolton, Sarah LaCourse, Matthew D MacManes
Characterizing traits critical for adaptation to a given environment is an important first step in understanding how phenotypes evolve. How animals adapt to the extreme heat and aridity commonplace to deserts is an exceptionally interesting example of these processes, and has been the focus of study for decades. In contrast to those studies, where experiments are conducted on either wild animals or captive animals held in non-desert conditions, the study described here leverages a unique environmental chamber that replicates desert conditions for captive Peromyscus eremicus (cactus mouse)...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328095/haca-s-heritage-a-free-radical-pathway-to-phenanthrene-in-circumstellar-envelopes-of-asymptotic-giant-branch-stars
#7
Tao Yang, Ralf I Kaiser, Tyler P Troy, Bo Xu, Oleg Kostko, Musahid Ahmed, Alexander M Mebel, Marsel V Zagidullin, Valeriy N Azyazov
The hydrogen-abstraction/acetylene-addition (HACA) mechanism has been central for the last decades in attempting to rationalize the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as detected in carbonaceous meteorites such as in Murchison. Nevertheless, the basic reaction mechanisms leading to the formation of even the simplest tricyclic PAHs like anthracene and phenanthrene are still elusive. Here, by exploring the previously unknown chemistry of the ortho-biphenylyl radical with acetylene, we deliver compelling evidence on the efficient synthesis of phenanthrene in carbon-rich circumstellar environments...
March 22, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327954/genome-sequencing-of-the-winged-midge-parochlus-steinenii-from-the-antarctic-peninsula
#8
Sanghee Kim, Mijin Oh, Woongsic Jung, Joonho Park, Han-Gu Choi, Seung Chul Shin
Background: In the Antarctic, only two species of Chironomidae occur naturally-the wingless midge, Belgica antarctica , and the winged midge, Parochlus steinenii . B. antarctica is an extremophile with unusual adaptations. The larvae of B. antarctica are desiccation- and freeze-tolerant and the adults are wingless. Recently, the compact genome of B. antarctica was reported and it is the first Antarctic eukaryote to be sequenced. Although P. steinenii occurs naturally in the Antarctic with B...
February 24, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327543/physical-limitations-walkability-perceived-environmental-facilitators-and-physical-activity-of-older-adults-in-finland
#9
Erja Portegijs, Kirsi E Keskinen, Li-Tang Tsai, Taina Rantanen, Merja Rantakokko
The aim was to study objectively assessed walkability of the environment and participant perceived environmental facilitators for outdoor mobility as predictors of physical activity in older adults with and without physical limitations. 75-90-year-old adults living independently in Central Finland were interviewed (n = 839) and reassessed for self-reported physical activity one or two years later (n = 787). Lower-extremity physical limitations were defined as Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9. Number of perceived environmental facilitators was calculated from a 16-item checklist...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326078/inside-out-archaeal-ectosymbionts-suggest-a-second-model-of-reduced-genome-evolution
#10
REVIEW
Trevor Nicks, Lilah Rahn-Lee
Reduced-genome symbionts and their organelle counterparts, which have even smaller genomes, are essential to the lives of many organisms. But how and why have these genomes become so small? Endosymbiotic genome reduction is a product of isolation within the host, followed by massive pseudogenization and gene loss often including DNA repair mechanisms. This phenomenon can be observed in insect endosymbionts such as the bacteria Carsonella ruddii and Buchnera aphidicola. Yet endosymbionts are not the only organisms with reduced genomes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325062/personal-experiences-of-the-criminal-justice-system-by-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
Sissel Berge Helverschou, Kari Steindal, Jim Aage Nøttestad, Patricia Howlin
The processes of arrest, investigation, trial and imprisonment are often extremely difficult for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. In this study, nine offenders with autism spectrum disorders were interviewed about the circumstance surrounding the criminal acts, their views of the arrest, the police interrogation, the trial and the defence and their experiences of being in prison and/or life following the offence. The nine individuals described a range of different and often negative experiences with the Criminal Justice System...
March 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324724/bio-inspired-one-pot-route-to-prepare-robust-and-repairable-micro-nanoscale-superhydrophobic-coatings
#12
Yifan Si, Fuchao Yang, Zhiguang Guo
Superhydrophobic (SHP) coatings inspired by lotus have great application prospect for our daily life. Regrettably, three formidable challenges, namely, complex fabrication, weak mechanical stability and large-scale fabrication, have already existed for a long time in this research field. Here, a robust micro-nanoscale P25 (Nano TiO2)/MgO/epoxy resin (ER) SHP coating has been fabricated via facile one-pot route, which can be applied to arbitrary substrates through multiples methods. P25/MgO/ER SHP coating not only displays excellent mechanical stability but also shows unique repairable ability to recover its superhydrophobicity under various damages by extreme environment such as low temperature, strong acid or alkali and this repairable process can be repeated for many times...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323867/understanding-and-coping-with-extremism-in-an-online-collaborative-environment-a-data-driven-modeling
#13
Csilla Rudas, Olivér Surányi, Taha Yasseri, János Török
The Internet has provided us with great opportunities for large scale collaborative public good projects. Wikipedia is a predominant example of such projects where conflicts emerge and get resolved through bottom-up mechanisms leading to the emergence of the largest encyclopedia in human history. Disaccord arises whenever editors with different opinions try to produce an article reflecting a consensual view. The debates are mainly heated by editors with extreme views. Using a model of common value production, we show that the consensus can only be reached if groups with extreme views can actively take part in the discussion and if their views are also represented in the common outcome, at least temporarily...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323456/stratosphere-conditions-inactivate-bacterial-endospores-from-a-mars-spacecraft-assembly-facility
#14
Christina L Khodadad, Gregory M Wong, Leandro M James, Prital J Thakrar, Michael A Lane, John A Catechis, David J Smith
Every spacecraft sent to Mars is allowed to land viable microbial bioburden, including hardy endospore-forming bacteria resistant to environmental extremes. Earth's stratosphere is severely cold, dry, irradiated, and oligotrophic; it can be used as a stand-in location for predicting how stowaway microbes might respond to the martian surface. We launched E-MIST, a high-altitude NASA balloon payload on 10 October 2015 carrying known quantities of viable Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 (4.07 × 10(7) spores per sample), a radiation-tolerant strain collected from a spacecraft assembly facility...
March 21, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322431/exploring-societal-solidarity-in-the-context-of-extreme-prematurity
#15
Manya J Hendriks, Hans Ulrich Bucher, Sabine D Klein, Jürg C Streuli, Ruth Baumann-Hölzle, Jean-Claude Fauchère
QUESTION: Extreme prematurity can result in long-term disabilities. Its impact on society is often not taken into account and deemed controversial. Our study examined attitudes of the Swiss population regarding extreme prematurity and people's perspectives regarding the question of solidarity with disabled people. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide representative anonymous telephone survey with 1210 Swiss residents aged 18 years or older. We asked how people estimate their own personal solidarity, the solidarity of their social environment and the solidarity across the country with disabled persons...
March 21, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322329/an-expanded-multi-scale-monte-carlo-simulation-method-for-personalized-radiobiological-effect-estimation-in-radiotherapy-a-feasibility-study
#16
Ying Zhang, Yuanming Feng, Wei Wang, Chengwen Yang, Ping Wang
A novel and versatile "bottom-up" approach is developed to estimate the radiobiological effect of clinic radiotherapy. The model consists of multi-scale Monte Carlo simulations from organ to cell levels. At cellular level, accumulated damages are computed using a spectrum-based accumulation algorithm and predefined cellular damage database. The damage repair mechanism is modeled by an expanded reaction-rate two-lesion kinetic model, which were calibrated through replicating a radiobiological experiment. Multi-scale modeling is then performed on a lung cancer patient under conventional fractionated irradiation...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322324/high-temperature-near-field-nanothermomechanical-rectification
#17
Mahmoud Elzouka, Sidy Ndao
Limited performance and reliability of electronic devices at extreme temperatures, intensive electromagnetic fields, and radiation found in space exploration missions (i.e., Venus &Jupiter planetary exploration, and heliophysics missions) and earth-based applications requires the development of alternative computing technologies. In the pursuit of alternative technologies, research efforts have looked into developing thermal memory and logic devices that use heat instead of electricity to perform computations...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321007/diversity-of-ktedonobacteria-with-actinomycetes-like-morphology-in-terrestrial-environments
#18
Shuhei Yabe, Yasuteru Sakai, Keietsu Abe, Akira Yokota
Bacteria with an actinomycetes-like morphology have recently been discovered, and the class Ktedonobacteria was created for these bacteria in the phylum Chloroflexi. They may prove to be a valuable resource with the potential to produce unprecedented secondary metabolites. However, our understanding of their diversity, richness, habitat, and ecological significance is very limited. We herein developed a 16S rRNA gene-targeted, Ktedonobacteria-specific primer and analyzed ktedonobacterial amplicons. We investigated abundance, diversity, and community structure in forest and garden soils, sand, bark, geothermal sediment, and compost...
March 17, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320593/spore-photoproduct-within-dna-is-a-surprisingly-poor-substrate-for-its-designated-repair-enzyme-the-spore-photoproduct-lyase
#19
Linlin Yang, Yajun Jian, Peter Setlow, Lei Li
DNA repair enzymes typically recognize their substrate lesions with high affinity to ensure efficient lesion repair. In UV irradiated endospores, a special thymine dimer, 5-thyminyl-5,6-dihydrothymine, termed the spore photoproduct (SP), is the dominant DNA photolesion, which is rapidly repaired during spore outgrowth mainly by spore photoproduct lyase (SPL) using an unprecedented protein-harbored radical transfer process. Surprisingly, our in vitro studies using SP-containing short oligonucleotides, pUC 18 plasmid DNA, and E...
March 6, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319713/observational-evidence-on-the-effects-of-mega-fires-on-the-frequency-of-hydrogeomorphic-hazards-the-case-of-the-peloponnese-fires-of-2007-in-greece
#20
M Diakakis, E I Nikolopoulos, S Mavroulis, E Vassilakis, E Korakaki
Even though rare, mega-fires raging during very dry and windy conditions, record catastrophic impacts on infrastructure, the environment and human life, as well as extremely high suppression and rehabilitation costs. Apart from the direct consequences, mega-fires induce long-term effects in the geomorphological and hydrological processes, influencing environmental factors that in turn can affect the occurrence of other natural hazards, such as floods and mass movement phenomena. This work focuses on the forest fire of 2007 in Peloponnese, Greece that to date corresponds to the largest fire in the country's record that burnt 1773km(2), causing 78 fatalities and very significant damages in property and infrastructure...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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