Read by QxMD icon Read

extreme environments

Carey L Holleran, Patrick W Hennessey, Abigail L Leddy, Gordhan B Mahtani, Gabrielle Brazg, Brian D Schmit, T George Hornby
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous data suggest that large amounts of high-intensity stepping training in variable contexts (tasks and environments) may improve locomotor function, aerobic capacity, and treadmill gait kinematics in individuals poststroke. Whether similar training strategies are tolerated and efficacious for patients with other acute-onset neurological diagnoses, such as motor incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI), is unknown. Individuals with iSCI potentially have greater bilateral impairments...
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Varun Vohra, Francesco Galeotti, Umberto Giovanella, Wojciech Mroz, Mariacecilia Pasini, Chiara Botta
Push-coating is a green and extremely low-cost process in which only few microliters of conjugated polymer solutions are used to produce thin films using capillary forces. Here, we adapt this fabrication technique to replicate self-assembled nanoporous structures on green and red light-emitting conjugated polymer thin films. These films display ring-like photoluminescence and are successfully integrated into polymer light-emitting devices as emitting layers. At low applied voltages, the green-emitting devices exhibit electroluminescence from hexagonally arranged nanopixel arrays resulting from a stronger electric field in the thinner areas inside the pores...
March 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Franka Metzner, Stephanie Pahlke, Alice Diesing, Nina Marin, Fionna Klasen, Silke Pawils, Michael Schulte-Markwort, Hertha Richter-Appelt
Complex Trauma-related Disorders in Research and Practice Frequent traumata in childhood and adolescence are long-term or repeated interpersonal traumata caused by perpetrators in the close environment of the minors. For the description of the extensive symptoms after interpersonal Type II traumata, the complex trauma-related disorders Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD) or Disorder of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS) and the Developmental Trauma Disorder (DTD) are being discussed for inclusion in the classification systems for mental disorders...
March 2018: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
Shumeng Kou, Gilles Vincent, Emmanuel Gonzalez, Frederic E Pitre, Michel Labrecque, Nicholas J B Brereton
Industrial and agricultural activities have caused extensive metal contamination of land throughout China and across the globe. The pervasive nature of metal pollution can be harmful to human health and can potentially cause substantial negative impact to the biosphere. To investigate the impact of anthropogenic metal pollution found in high concentrations in industrial, agricultural, and urban environments, 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to track change in the amplified microbial community after metal contamination in a large-scale field experiment in Shanghai...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nathan H Schumaker, Allen Brookes
Context: Simulation models are increasingly used in both theoretical and applied studies to explore system responses to natural and anthropogenic forcing functions, develop defensible predictions of future conditions, challenge simplifying assumptions that facilitated past research, and to train students in scientific concepts and technology. Researcher's increased use of simulation models has created a demand for new platforms that balance performance, utility, and flexibility. Objectives: We describe HexSim, a powerful new spatially-explicit, individual-based modeling framework that will have applications spanning diverse landscape settings, species, stressors, and disciplines (e...
February 1, 2018: Landscape Ecology
Kohei Tanaka, Darla K Zelenitsky, François Therrien, Yoshitsugu Kobayashi
Dinosaurs thrived and reproduced in various regions worldwide, including the Arctic. In order to understand their nesting in diverse or extreme environments, the relationships between nests, nesting environments, and incubation methods in extant archosaurs were investigated. Statistical analyses reveal that species of extant covered nesters (i.e., crocodylians and megapodes) preferentially select specific sediments/substrates as a function of their nesting style and incubation heat sources. Relationships between dinosaur eggs and the sediments in which they occur reveal that hadrosaurs and some sauropods (i...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Teresa de Los Santos, Fayna Diaz-San Segundo, Luis L Rodriguez
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) continues to be the viral disease posing the greatest economic threat to agriculture. An unusually fast replication rate, extreme transmissibility, broad species tropism and antigenic diversity have made its etiologic agent, FMD virus, a difficult pathogen to defeat. Over the last 70 years, use of an inactivated virus vaccine has played a key role in disease control and eradication was possible in certain regions of the world. However, a rapidly changing environment, increased trade, population growth, international travel and migration, contribute to disease resurgence, challenging the capabilities of any available vaccine...
March 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
Jacobus H Visser, Nigel C Bennett, Bettine Jansen van Vuuren
The subterranean niche harbours animals with extreme adaptations. These adaptations decrease the vagility of taxa and, along with other behavioural adaptations, often result in isolated populations characterized by small effective population sizes, high inbreeding, population bottlenecks, genetic drift and consequently, high spatial genetic structure. Although information is available for some species, estimates of genetic diversity and whether this variation is spatially structured, is lacking for the Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis)...
2018: PloS One
Barbara Demmig-Adams, Jared J Stewart, Christopher R Baker, William W Adams
We review the role of a family of transcription factors and their regulons in maintaining high photosynthetic performance across a range of challenging environments with a focus on extreme temperatures and water availability. Specifically, these transcription factors include CBFs (C-repeat binding factors) and DREBs (dehydration-responsive element-binding), with CBF/DREB1 primarily orchestrating cold adaptation and other DREBs serving in heat, drought, and salinity adaptation. The central role of these modulators in plant performance under challenging environments is based on (i) interweaving of these regulators with other key signaling networks (plant hormones and redox signals) as well as (ii) their function in integrating responses across the whole plant, from light-harvesting and sugar-production in the leaf to foliar sugar export and water import and on to the plant's sugar-consuming sinks (growth, storage, and reproduction)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Philippe Guay, Jérôme Genest, Adam J Fleisher
We demonstrate the precision molecular spectroscopy of H13 CN using a free-running, all-fiber dual electro-optic frequency comb system. Successive interferograms, acquired at a rate of Δfrep =1  MHz, were phase-corrected in post-processing, averaged, and normalized to yield the complex transmission spectrum of several transitions within the 2ν1 H13 CN band centered near λ=1545  nm. With spectral signal-to-noise ratios as high as 326:1 achieved in 2 ms of integration time, we report accurate measurements of H13 CN transition intensities which will aid in the study of extreme astrophysical environments...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Vanessa Kellermann, Ary A Hoffmann, Johannes Overgaard, Volker Loeschcke, Carla M Sgrò
Comparative analyses of ectotherm susceptibility to climate change often focus on thermal extremes, yet responses to aridity may be equally important. Here we focus on plasticity in desiccation resistance, a key trait shaping distributions of Drosophila species and other small ectotherms. We examined the extent to which 32 Drosophila species, varying in their distribution, could increase their desiccation resistance via phenotypic plasticity involving hardening, linking these responses to environment, phylogeny and basal resistance...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Antonella Succurro, Oliver Ebenhöh
Understanding microbial ecosystems means unlocking the path toward a deeper knowledge of the fundamental mechanisms of life. Engineered microbial communities are also extremely relevant to tackling some of today's grand societal challenges. Advanced meta-omics experimental techniques provide crucial insights into microbial communities, but have been so far mostly used for descriptive, exploratory approaches to answer the initial 'who is there?' QUESTION: An ecosystem is a complex network of dynamic spatio-temporal interactions among organisms as well as between organisms and the environment...
March 14, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Ganhua Xie, Pei Li, Zhiju Zhao, Zhongpeng Zhu, Xiang-Yu Kong, Zhen Zhang, Kai Xiao, Liping Wen, Lei Jiang
Water wetting behavior in nano-confined environments plays an important role in mass transport and signal trans-mission of organisms. It is valuable and challengeable to investigate how water behaves in such a nanometer-scale with external stimuli, in particular with electric field and light. Unfortunately, the mechanism of hydrophobic reaction inside the nano-spaces is still obscure and lacks of experimental supporting for the current electric-field- or photo-responsive nanochannels which suffer from fragility or monofunctionality...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Mimi Gao, Melanie Berghaus, Simone Möbitz, Vitor Schuabb, Nelli Erwin, Marius Herzog, Karin Julius, Christian Sternemann, Roland Winter
For over 50 years, it has been known that the mitosis of eukaryotic cells is inhibited already at high hydrostatic pressure conditions of 30 MPa. This effect has been attributed to the disorganization of microtubules, the main component of the spindle apparatus. However, the structural details of the depolymerization and the origin of the pressure sensitivity have remained elusive. It has also been a puzzle how complex organisms could still successfully inhabit extreme high-pressure environments such as those encountered in the depth of oceans...
March 13, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Leandro Ferreira Moreno, Vania Aparecida Vicente, Sybren de Hoog
Black yeasts (BY) comprise a group of polyextremotolerant fungi, mainly belonging to the order Chaetothyriales, which are capable of colonizing a wide range of extreme environments. The tolerance to hostile habitats can be explained by their intrinsic ability to survive under acidic, alkaline, and toxic conditions, high temperature, low nutrient availability, and osmotic and mechanical stress. Occasionally, some species can cause human chromoblastomycosis, a chronic subcutaneous infection, as well as disseminated or cerebral phaeohyphomycosis...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Christoph Ratzke, Jeff Gore
Microbes usually exist in communities consisting of myriad different but interacting species. These interactions are typically mediated through environmental modifications; microbes change the environment by taking up resources and excreting metabolites, which affects the growth of both themselves and also other microbes. We show here that the way microbes modify their environment and react to it sets the interactions within single-species populations and also between different species. A very common environmental modification is a change of the environmental pH...
March 14, 2018: PLoS Biology
Mariana Kozlowska, Pawel Rodziewicz, Tillmann Utesch, Maria Andrea Mroginski, Anna Kaczmarek-Kedziera
The solubility-permeability relationship of active pharmaceutical ingredients determines the efficacy of their usage. Diclofenac (DCL), which is a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is characterized by extremely good membrane permeability, but low water solubility limiting drug effectiveness. The present research focuses on the fundamental explanation of this limitation using the combination of ab initio and classical molecular dynamics simulations of different ionic forms of DCL in water, namely, ionized, un-ionized and the mixture of them both...
March 14, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ruichuan Yin, Jiezhen Mo, Jiayin Dai, Hailin Wang
Nickel is found widely in the environment. It is an essential microelement but also toxic. However, nickel displays only weak genotoxicity and mutagenicity. Exploration of the epigenetic toxicity of nickel is extremely interesting. Iron(ii)- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent Tet dioxygenases are a class of epigenetic enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of DNA 5-methylcytosine (5mC). Thus, they are critical for DNA demethylation and, importantly, are involved with nuclear reprogramming, embryonic development, and regulation of gene expression...
March 14, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Luís A Rocha, Rui A Sousa, David A Learmonth, António J Salgado
Spinal cord injury (SCI) represents an extremely debilitating condition for which no efficacious treatment is available. One of the main contributors to the inhospitable environment found in SCI is the vascular disruption that happens at the moment of injury that compromises the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) and triggers a cascade of events that includes infiltration of inflammatory cells, ischemia and intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Due to the unsatisfactory nature of revascularization following SCI, restoring vascular perfusion and the BSCB seems an interesting way of modulating the lesion environment into a regenerative phenotype, with a potential increase in functional recovery...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Diana Wrigley de Basanta, Arturo Estrada-Torres, Iván García-Cunchillos, Asunción Cano Echevarría, Carlos Lado
A new species of Didymium (Myxomycetes), D. azorellae, isolated from plant debris in a moist chamber, collected during studies of cold arid areas of Argentina and Peru, is described. It can be distinguished by its small size, the tightly packed layer of lime crystals on the peridium, the very scant, or absent, capillitium, and the unique spore ornamentation, especially by scanning electron microscopy. The species developed on dead leaves of cushion plants growing in the extremely harsh environments of the central Andean puna at almost 5000 m elevation and the Andino-Patagonian steppe...
January 25, 2018: Mycologia
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"