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Multiple sclerosis treatments

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822119/five-questions-answered-a-review-of-autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#1
REVIEW
Harold L Atkins, Mark S Freedman
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to be an autoimmune disease targeting the central nervous system leading to demyelination, and axonal and neuronal damage, resulting in progressive disability. More intensive therapies such as immunodepletion with hematopoietic stem-cell rescue are being used at a time prior to patients becoming irreversibly disabled. Over the last 15 years, there has been a shift away from using autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplants (aHSCT) to treat patients with progressive MS, towards treating those with active inflammation and relapses...
August 18, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821874/global-methylation-correlates-with-clinical-status-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-in-the-first-year-of-ifnbeta-treatment
#2
María Jesús Pinto-Medel, Begoña Oliver-Martos, Patricia Urbaneja-Romero, Isaac Hurtado-Guerrero, Jesús Ortega-Pinazo, Pedro Serrano-Castro, Óscar Fernández, Laura Leyva
The alteration of DNA methylation patterns are a key component of disease onset and/or progression. Our objective was to evaluate the differences in Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 (LINE-1) methylation levels, as a surrogate marker of global DNA methylation, between multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy controls. In addition, we assessed the association of LINE-1 methylation with clinical disease activity in patients treated with IFNbeta (IFNβ). We found that individuals with high levels of LINE-1 methylation showed 6-fold increased risk of suffering MS...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819801/botulinum-toxin-treatment-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Yasaman Safarpour, Tahereh Mousavi, Bahman Jabbari
Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to provide updated information on the role of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) therapy in multiple sclerosis (MS). This review aims to answer which symptoms of multiple sclerosis may be amenable to BoNT therapy. Recent findings We searched the literature on the efficacy of BoNTs for treatment of MS symptoms up to April 1st 2017 via the Yale University Library's search engine including but not limited to Pub Med and Ovis SP. The level of efficacy was defined according to the assessment's criteria set forth by the Subcommittee on Guideline Development of the American Academy of Neurology...
August 17, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817997/positive-impact-of-cladribine-on-quality-of-life-in-people-with-relapsing-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Dayo Afolabi, Christo Albor, Lukasz Zalewski, Dan R Altmann, David Baker, Klaus Schmierer
BACKGROUND: A number of elements of the pivotal 'cladribine tablets treating multiple sclerosis orally' (CLARITY) trial have remained unpublished. OBJECTIVE: To report the impact of cladribine on health-related quality of life (QoL) in people with relapsing multiple sclerosis (pwRMS). METHODS: QoL data from the phase III trial of two different doses (3.5 and 5.15 mg/kg) of oral cladribine in pwRMS were acquired from the European Medicines Agency through Freedom of Information...
August 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817212/fingolimod-against-endotoxin-induced-fetal-brain-injury-in-a-rat-model
#5
And Yavuz, Mekin Sezik, Ozlem Ozmen, Halil Asci
AIM: Fingolimod is a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator used for multiple sclerosis treatment and acts on cellular processes such as apoptosis, endothelial permeability, and inflammation. We hypothesized that fingolimod has a positive effect on alleviating preterm fetal brain injury. METHODS: Sixteen pregnant rats were divided into four groups of four rats each. On gestational day 17, i.p. endotoxin was injected to induce fetal brain injury, followed by i...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814828/comparison-of-efficacy-and-safety-of-oral-agents-for-the-treatment-of-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#6
REVIEW
Cristina Guarnera, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
In the therapeutic scenario of disease-modifying therapies for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, the introduction of oral agents, starting in 2010 with fingolimod, has been a huge step forward in therapeutic options due to the easier administration route. Three oral drugs fingolimod, teriflunomide, and dimethyl fumarate, which are clinically approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, are reviewed in this work. Results of Phase III clinical trials and their extension studies showed that the three oral agents significantly reduced the annualized relapse rate - a superior efficacy compared to placebo...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812220/sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-modulators-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#7
REVIEW
Burhan Z Chaudhry, Jeffrey A Cohen, Devon S Conway
Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) modulators possess a unique mechanism of action in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Subtype 1 of the S1PR is expressed on the surface of lymphocytes and is important in regulating egression from lymph nodes. The S1PR modulators indirectly antagonize the receptor's function leading to sequestration of lymphocytes in the lymph nodes. Fingolimod was the first S1PR modulator to receive regulatory approval for relapsing-remitting MS after 2 phase III trials demonstrated potent efficacy, safety, and tolerability...
August 15, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811143/nadph-oxidases-as-drug-targets-and-biomarkers-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-what-is-the-evidence
#8
REVIEW
Silvia Sorce, Roland Stocker, Tamara Seredenina, Rikard Holmdahl, Adriano Aguzzi, Adriano Chio, Antoine Depaulis, Freddy Heitz, Peter Olofsson, Tomas Olsson, Venceslas Duveau, Despina Sanoudou, Sara Skosgater, Antonia Vlahou, Dominique Wasquel, Karl-Heinz Krause, Vincent Jaquet
Neurodegenerative disease are frequently characterized by microglia activation and/or leukocyte infiltration in the parenchyma of the central nervous system and at the molecular level by increased oxidative modifications of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. NADPH oxidases (NOX) emerged as a novel promising class of pharmacological targets for the treatment of neurodegeneration due to their role in oxidant generation and presumably in regulating microglia activation. The unique function of NOX is the generation of superoxide anion (O2(•-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)...
August 12, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808113/lncrna-gas5-inhibits-microglial-m2-polarization-and-exacerbates-demyelination
#9
Dingya Sun, Zhongwang Yu, Xue Fang, Mingdong Liu, Yingyan Pu, Qi Shao, Dan Wang, Xiaolin Zhao, Aijun Huang, Zhenghua Xiang, Chao Zhao, Robin Jm Franklin, Li Cao, Cheng He
The regulation of inflammation is pivotal for preventing the development or reoccurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS). A biased ratio of high-M1 versus low-M2 polarized microglia is a major pathological feature of MS Here, using microarray screening, we identify the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) GAS5 as an epigenetic regulator of microglial polarization. Gain- and loss-of-function studies reveal that GAS5 suppresses microglial M2 polarization. Interference with GAS5 in transplanted microglia attenuates the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and promotes remyelination in a lysolecithin-induced demyelination model...
August 14, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806345/pediatric-optic-neuritis-what-is-new
#10
Mark Borchert, Grant T Liu, Stacy Pineles, Amy T Waldman
Few diseases blur the margins between their childhood and adult-onset varieties as much as optic neuritis. This report will review our state of knowledge of pediatric optic neuritis, as well as its relationship to the latest consensus definitions of neuroinflammatory disease. Current diagnostic and treatment options will be explored, as well as our potential to uncover an understanding of pediatric optic neuritis through systematic prospective studies. The risk of evolving multiple sclerosis is probably less than in adults, but pediatric optic neuritis is more likely to be an initial manifestation of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis...
September 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806143/whose-preferences-matter-a-patient-centered-approach-for-eliciting-treatment-goals
#11
Nananda F Col, Andrew J Solomon, Vicky Springmann, Calvin P Garbin, Carolina Ionete, Lori Pbert, Enrique Alvarez, Brenda Tierman, Ashli Hopson, Christen Kutz, Idanis Berrios Morales, Carolyn Griffin, Glenn Phillips, Long H Ngo
BACKGROUND: Patients facing a high-stakes clinical decision are often confronted with an overwhelming array of options. High-quality decisions about treatment should reflect patients' preferences as well as their clinical characteristics. Preference-assessment instruments typically focus on pre-selected clinical outcomes and attributes chosen by the investigator. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop a patient-centered approach to elicit and compare the treatment goals of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthcare providers (HCPs)...
August 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805697/multiple-sclerosis-and-schizophrenia
#12
REVIEW
Borros M Arneth
The psychiatric and neurological aspects of health may present methodological challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. This is especially true for patients whose symptoms indicate the coexistence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and schizophrenia (SCZ). These cases raise critical questions regarding the relationship between the mind and the brain. Studies have noted that patients with MS have an increased risk of developing SCZ or bipolar disorder (BD). It is suggested here that MS and a subgroup of SCZ have similar etiologies...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805578/nonmotor-symptoms-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#13
Ton Fang, Felix Jozsa, Ammar Al-Chalabi
BACKGROUND: ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with no curative treatment. Nonmotor symptoms presenting in ALS may cause significant distress, worsen prognosis, and affect survival. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review evidence for the prevalence of nonmotor ALS symptoms, and treatment options. METHODS: Multiple medical literature databases were searched and studies screened using predefined inclusion criteria. Of 4580 studies, 44 were eligible for inclusion with 25 relating to treatment and 19 to the prevalence of nonmotor symptoms in ALS...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805566/botulinum-toxin-therapy-for-nonmotor-aspects-of-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Jarosław Sławek, Mariusz Madaliński
The medical treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) is symptomatic both in terms of motor and nonmotor aspects. The nonmotor symptoms therapy should be taken into account as many of them negatively influence the quality of life and are treatable. Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) offers effective treatment for drooling and bladder dysfunctions and alternative treatment for constipation and pain related to parkinsonism. BoNT for drooling is probably the best-documented therapy for nonmotor symptoms by clinical trials...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804651/pharmacogenetic-biomarkers-to-predict-treatment-response-in-multiple-sclerosis-current-and-future-perspectives
#15
REVIEW
Patricia K Coyle
Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) have significantly advanced the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS), decreasing the frequency of relapses, disability, and magnetic resonance imaging lesion formation. However, patients' responses to and tolerability of DMTs vary considerably, creating an unmet need for biomarkers to identify likely responders and/or those who may have treatment-limiting adverse reactions. Most studies in MS have focused on the identification of pharmacogenetic markers, using either the candidate-gene approach, which requires prior knowledge of the genetic marker and its role in the target disease, or genome-wide association, which examines multiple genetic variants, typically single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
2017: Multiple Sclerosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803660/multiple-sclerosis-skin-induced-antigen-specific-immune-tolerance
#16
REVIEW
Paula Wildner, Krzysztof W Selmaj
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a highly prevalent demyelinating disorder, presumed to be driven by an autoimmune response toward the central nervous system (CNS) components. All currently available treatments modulate the immune system globally and besides the reduction of disease activity, they may also impose considerable disturbances on the immune protective mechanisms. Thus, induction of antigen-specific immune tolerance remains the ultimate goal of MS therapy. Such approach carries promising therapeutic perspectives and, above all, a desirable safety profile...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803486/daclizumab-for-the-treatment-of-adults-with-relapsing-forms-of-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Michael Osherov, Ron Milo
The goal of the article is to review the mechanism of action and the use of daclizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the alpha subunit of the high affinity interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor, in the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Areas covered: PubMed was searched for the terms "daclizumab" and "multiple sclerosis". The mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, major studies, side effects and drug interactions of daclizumab in MS are discussed. Expert commentary: Monthly daclizumab-beta [DAC-beta, formerly daclizumab high yield process (DAC HYP), approved as ZINBRYTA®, which has a different form and structure than an earlier form of daclizumab], is an effective and convenient treatment option for patients with relapsing forms of MS who have failed other treatment, or as a first-line option in highly active MS patients...
August 14, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801931/immunomodulatory-effects-of-adipose-stromal-vascular-fraction-cells-promote-alternative-activation-macrophages-to-repair-tissue-damage
#18
Annie C Bowles, Rachel M Wise, Brittany Y Gerstein, Robert C Thomas, Roberto Ogelman, Isabella Febbo, Bruce A Bunnell
The pathogenesis of many diseases is driven by the interactions between helper T (TH ) cells and macrophages. The phenotypes of these cells are a functional dichotomy that are persuaded according to the surrounding milieu. In both multiple sclerosis (MS) and the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model, TH 1 and TH 17 cells propagate autoimmune signaling and inflammation in the peripheral lymphoid tissues. In turn, this pro-inflammatory repertoire promotes the classical activation, formerly the M1-type, macrophages...
August 12, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800066/treatment-of-the-first-acute-relapse-following-therapeutic-plasma-exchange-in-formerly-glucocorticosteroid-unresponsive-multiple-sclerosis-patients-a-multicenter-study-to-evaluate-glucocorticosteroid-responsiveness
#19
Johannes Ehler, Stephan Blechinger, Paulus S Rommer, Sebastian Koball, Steffen Mitzner, Hans-Peter Hartung, Fritz Leutmezer, Martin Sauer, Uwe K Zettl
Therapeutic options to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) relapses comprise glucocorticosteroids (GCS) as first-line and therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) as second-line treatments in GCS-unresponsive patients. No guidelines exist for the treatment of another relapse following TPE. We retrospectively analyzed the responsiveness to GCS in a subsequent relapse following TPE in previously GCS-unresponsive MS patients. Thirty-seven patients with GCS-unresponsive MS relapses received TPE (relapse A). All patients developed another relapse after the completion of TPE and received GCS again (relapse B)...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799485/monoclonal-antibodies-a-review
#20
Surjit Singh, Nitish Kumar, Pradeep Dwiwedi, Jaykaran Charan, Rimplejeet Kaur, Preeti Sidhu, Vinay Kumar Chugh
Over the last three decades, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have made a striking transformation from scientific tools to powerful human therapeutics. Muromonab CD3 a murine MAb, was first FDA approved therapeutic MAb for prevention of kidney transplant rejection. Since its approval in 1986, there has been decline in the further application and approvals until the late 1990s when the first chimeric Mab, Rituximab was approved for the treatment of low grade B cell lymphoma in 1997. With the approval by licensing authorities of chimeric, followed by humanized and then fully human monoclonal antibodies, rate of approval and monoclonal antibodies available in the market for the treatment of various diseases has increased dramatically...
August 9, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
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