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Multiple sclerosis treatments

Ma Ke, Xi Chen, Jia-Cheng Chen, Ying Wang, Xi-Meng Zhang, Fan Huang, Jun-Jiong Zheng, Xiong Chen, Wei Yu, Ke-Ling Cheng, Yan-Qing Feng, Huai-Yu Gu
Rifampicin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, has neuroprotective, immunosuppressive, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of rifampicin on autoimmune disorders of the nervous system is not clear. In this study, we investigated whether rifampicin was beneficial for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG33-35 )-induced female C57BL/6 experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice, the well-established animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Rifampicin treatment (daily from the first day after EAE immunization) remarkably attenuated clinical signs and loss of body weight, which are associated with suppression of inflammatory infiltration and demyelination in spinal cords of EAE mice...
October 23, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Giovanna Squintani, Francesco Donato, Mara Turri, Luciano Deotto, Francesco Teatini, Giuseppe Moretto, Roberto Erro
BACKGROUND: Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (THC:CBD) oromucosal spray (Sativex®) has been recently approved for the management of treatment-resistant multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity. Although the symptomatic relief of Sativex® on MS-spasticity has been consistently demonstrated, the pathogenetic implications remain unclear and the few electrophysiological studies performed to address this topic yielded controversial results. We therefore aimed to investigate the mechanisms underpinning the modulation of spastic hypertonia by Sativex®, at both central and spinal levels, through an extensive neurophysiological battery in patients with MS...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Claudio Gasperini, Raymond Hupperts, Jan Lycke, Christine Short, Manjit McNeill, John Zhong, Lahar R Mehta
Prolonged-release (PR) fampridine is approved to treat walking impairment in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, treatment benefits may extend beyond walking. MOBILE was a phase 2, 24-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory study to assess the impact of 10mg PR-fampridine twice daily versus placebo on several subject-assessed measures. This analysis evaluated the physical and psychological health outcomes of subjects with progressing or relapsing MS from individual items of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Lizanne Eva van den Akker, Heleen Beckerman, Emma Hubertine Collette, Isaline Catharine Josephine Maria Eijssen, Joost Dekker, Vincent de Groot
BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a frequently occurring symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS) that limits social participation. OBJECTIVE: To systematically determine the short and long-term effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of MS-related fatigue. DATA SOURCES: Pubmed, Cochrane, EMBASE, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, ERIC, PsychINFO, Cinahl, PsycARTICLES, and relevant trial registers were searched up to February 2016...
November 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Wei Peng
G-CSF is a hematopoietic growth factor that regulates the proliferation, differentiation and survival of myeloid lineage cells, which has protective effects in autoimmune neuroinflammatory diseases such as EAE. Here we use EAE model treated by G-CSF to address the hypothesis that G-CSF inhibits the proliferative response of splenic T cells via the enhancement of apoptosis, and this priming effect of G-CSF depends on the cell cycle. Our results show that G-CSF administration reduced EAE frequency and severity of attacks...
October 19, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Noriko Itoh, Roy Kim, Mavis Peng, Emma DiFilippo, Hadley Johnsonbaugh, Allan MacKenzie-Graham, Rhonda R Voskuhl
Protective effects of pregnancy during MS have led to clinical trials of estriol, the pregnancy estrogen, in MS. Since estriol binds to estrogen receptor (ER) beta, ER beta ligand could represent a "next generation estriol" treatment. Here, ER beta ligand treatment was protective in EAE in both sexes and across genetic backgrounds. Neuroprotection was shown in spinal cord, sparing myelin and axons, and in brain, sparing neurons and synapses. Longitudinal in vivo MRIs showed decreased brain atrophy in cerebral cortex gray matter and cerebellum during EAE...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
M Cambron, N Hadhoum, E Duhin, A Lacour, A Chouraki, P Vermersch
OBJECTIVES: Although many neurologists are reluctant to use natalizumab in MS (multiple sclerosis) given the increased risk for PML (progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy), trust was regained with the introduction of JCV antibody titres as a potent disease-modifying therapy. Literature shows that in patients with a negative JCV serology, the risk of PML is virtually non-existent. Unfortunately, seroconversion causes concern amongst many neurologists. Furthermore, when patients seroconvert, it is still unclear what the risk is of passing the important threshold of 1...
October 20, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Geeta Shroff
BACKGROUND: The expanded disability status scale (EDSS) is a validated and reliable tool to assess the extent of disabilities in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the use of this tool has been found to be limited in assessing various symptoms of MS that are important. Our study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of a new scoring system, reverse nutech functional score (RNFS) as compared to EDSS in assessing patients with MS treated with human embryonic stem cell (hESC) therapy...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Guiyou Liu, Fang Zhang, Yang Hu, Yongshuai Jiang, Zhongying Gong, Shoufeng Liu, Xiuju Chen, Qinghua Jiang, Junwei Hao
A recent genome-wide association study reported a significant association between rs9828519 (G) and nonresponsiveness to interferon-beta (IFN-β) treatment and dysregulation of SLC9A9 expression in multiple sclerosis (MS) cases. We hypothesize that disease-relevant tissues are necessary to detect the effects of rs9828519-tagged SNPs on SLC9A9 expression. Here, we investigated whether SLC9A9 expression is regulated by rs9828519-tagged SNPs in human brain tissue. We used HaploReg to identify the proxy SNPs of the rs9828519 variant based on linkage disequilibrium information from the 1000 Genomes Project...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Javier Ochoa-Repáraz, Sara L Colpitts, Christopher Kircher, Eli J Kasper, Kiel M Telesford, Sakhina Begum-Haque, Anudeep Pant, Lloyd H Kasper
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether as an orally delivered treatment, teriflunomide, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase approved to treat relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, could affect gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) immune responses functionally. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were treated orally with teriflunomide and flow cytometric analysis of immune GALT cells performed ex vivo, and adoptive transfer experiments were used to test the protective effects of GALT regulatory T (Treg) cells...
December 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Catharina C Gross, Diana Ahmetspahic, Tobias Ruck, Andreas Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Kathrin Schwarte, Silke Jörgens, Stefanie Scheu, Susanne Windhagen, Bettina Graefe, Nico Melzer, Luisa Klotz, Volker Arolt, Heinz Wiendl, Sven G Meuth, Judith Alferink
OBJECTIVE: To characterize changes in myeloid and lymphoid innate immune cells in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) during a 6-month follow-up after alemtuzumab treatment. METHODS: Circulating innate immune cells including myeloid cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were analyzed before and 6 and 12 months after onset of alemtuzumab treatment. Furthermore, a potential effect on granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-23 production by myeloid cells and natural killer (NK) cell cytolytic activity was determined...
December 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Gabriel Bsteh, Julia Feige, Rainer Ehling, Michael Auer, Harald Hegen, Franziska Di Pauli, Florian Deisenhammer, Markus Reindl, Thomas Berger
BACKGROUND: Stable disease course may prompt consideration of disease-modifying treatment (DMT) discontinuation in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical outcome after DMT discontinuation and to identify predictive factors supporting decision-making. METHODS: We included 221 RRMS patients, who discontinued DMT after ⩾12 months and had documented follow-up ⩾2 years after discontinuation...
October 20, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
K Kasarełło, A Szczepankowska, B Kwiatkowska-Patzer, A W Lipkowski, R Gadamski, D Sulejczak, M Łachwa, M Biały, J Bardowski
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a human autoimmune neurodegenerative disease with an unknown etiology. Despite various therapies, there is no effective cure for MS. Since the mechanism of the disease is based on autoreactive T-cell responses directed against myelin antigens, oral tolerance is a promising approach for the MS treatment. Here, the experiments were performed to assess the impact of oral administration of recombinant Lactococcus lactis producing encephalogenic fragments of three myelin proteins: myelin basic protein, proteolipid protein, and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, on neuroimmunological changes in rats with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) - an animal model of MS...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
M B D'hooghe, P Haentjens, A Van Remoortel, J De Keyser, G Nagels
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study is to investigate whether socioeconomic indicators such as education, financial concerns, employment, and living status are associated with disease progression in relapsing-onset and progressive-onset Multiple Sclerosis (MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey among individuals with MS, registered by the Flemish MS society and included socioeconomic indicators. A Cox proportional hazard regression was performed with the time from MS onset and from birth to reach an ambulatory disability milestone corresponding to Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 6 (requiring a cane) as outcome measure, adjusted for gender, age at MS onset, and immunomodulatory treatment...
December 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Elina Järvinen, Markus Holmberg, Marja-Liisa Sumelahti
The objective of this study was to assess long-term use, adherence and efficacy of injectable disease modifying agents (DMAs). Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients diagnosed during 2002-2010 with early treatment start and at least one year in first choice medication were included in a large university district in Finland. Annualized relapse rates (ARR) during each treatment period were studied, and number of switches by medication evaluated. Use of health care facilities during 2002-2010 was assessed. In the study were included 113 MS patients; 15 (13%) switched medication...
September 30, 2016: Neurology International
Adam Stepien, Natalia L Dabrowska, Marzena Maciagowska, Renata Piusinska Macoch, Aleksandra Zolocinska, Slawomir Mazur, Katarzyna Siennicka, Emilia Frankowska, Rafał Kidzinski, Małgorzata Chalimoniuk, Zygmunt Pojda
The clinical outcome of autologous adipose stem cell (ASC) treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) was investigated following one year of observation. Methods. The clinical and MRI outcomes of 16 ASC-treated patients with RRMS and SPMS are reported after a one-year follow-up period. Results. At 18 months of follow-up, some patients showed "enticing" improvements on some exploratory efficacy measures, although a significant benefit was not observed for any measure across the entire group. Neither the progression of disability nor relapses were observed in any cases...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Jonatan Salzer, Rasmus Svenningsson, Peter Alping, Lenka Novakova, Anna Björck, Katharina Fink, Protik Islam-Jakobsson, Clas Malmeström, Markus Axelsson, Mattias Vågberg, Peter Sundström, Jan Lycke, Fredrik Piehl, Anders Svenningsson
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the safety and efficacy of rituximab in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: In this retrospective uncontrolled observational multicenter study, off-label rituximab-treated patients with MS were identified through the Swedish MS register. Outcome data were collected from the MS register and medical charts. Adverse events (AEs) grades 2-5 according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 822 rituximab-treated patients with MS were identified: 557 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 198 secondary progressive MS (SPMS), and 67 primary progressive MS (PPMS)...
October 19, 2016: Neurology
Laura Airas, Eero Rissanen, Juha Rinne
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease, where several processes can be selected as a target for positron emission topography (PET) imaging. Unlike magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), PET provides specific and quantitative information, and unlike neuropathology, it can be non-invasively applied to living patients, which enables longitudinal follow-up of the MS pathology. In the study of MS, PET can be useful for in vivo evaluation of specific pathological characteristics at various stages of the disease...
October 19, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
S Kemp, R S Allan, N Patanjali, M H Barnett, B P Jonker
We report a unique case of neurological deficit from late onset multiple sclerosis (MS), in a 65-year-old woman, after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). At 3.5months post-SRS for TN, the patient developed ataxia and left leg paraesthesiae and brain MRI showed altered signal and enhancement in the vicinity of the right trigeminal root entry zone (REZ). The symptoms remitted following treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone, however, 10months post-SRS, the patient developed gait ataxia and left lower limb weakness...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Anastasiya G Trenova, Georgi S Slavov, Maria G Manova, Jana B Aksentieva, Lyuba D Miteva, Spaska A Stanilova
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a socially significant immune-mediated disease, characterized by demyelination, axonal transection and oligodendropathy in the central nervous system. Inflammatory demyelination and neurodegeneration lead to brain atrophy and cognitive deficit in up to 75% of the patients. Cognitive dysfunctions impact significantly patients' quality of life, independently from the course and phase of the disease. The relationship between pathological brain findings and cognitive impairment is a subject of intensive research...
September 1, 2016: Folia Medica
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