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Multiple sclerosis treatments

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224058/systematic-assessment-and-characterization-of-chronic-pain-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#1
Diana Ferraro, Domenico Plantone, Franca Morselli, Giulia Dallari, Anna M Simone, Francesca Vitetta, Patrizia Sola, Guido Primiano, Viviana Nociti, Matteo Pardini, Massimiliano Mirabella, Catello Vollono
Pain is one of the most disabling clinical symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Several studies have already assessed the prevalence of pain in MS patients, reporting variable results, probably due to methodological differences. The aim of this single-centre cross-sectional study was to define the prevalence and characteristics of chronic pain in a population of MS patients using validated tools, and to analyse these data in relation to demographic and clinical features, including disease duration and disability (EDSS and its single functional system scores)...
December 9, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222814/siena-xl-for-improving-the-assessment-of-gray-and-white-matter-volume-changes-on-brain-mri
#2
Marco Battaglini, Mark Jenkinson, Nicola De Stefano
In this article, SIENA-XL, a new segmentation-based longitudinal pipeline is introduced, for: (i) increasing the precision of longitudinal volume change estimation for white (WM) and gray (GM) matter separately, compared with cross-sectional segmentation methods such as SIENAX; and (ii) avoiding potential biases in registration-based methods when Jacobians are used, with a smoothing extent larger than spatial scale between tissue-interfaces, which is where atrophy usually occurs. SIENA-XL implements a new brain extraction procedure and a multi-time-point intensity equalization step before performing the final segmentation that also includes separate segmentation of deep GM structures by using FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool...
December 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222794/active-induction-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-c57bl-6-mice
#3
Gabriella Contarini, Pietro Giusti, Stephen D Skaper
The protocol in this chapter presents a method to actively induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), one of the most widely used animal models to study efficacy of potential drugs for treatment of multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and the most common cause of chronic neurological impairment in young people. In this model EAE is induced in female C57BL/6 mice by immunization with an emulsion of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (fragment 35-55) in complete Freund's adjuvant, followed by administration of pertussis toxin in phosphate-buffered saline...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222700/perspectives-from-the-patient-and-the-healthcare-professional-in-multiple-sclerosis-social-media-and-participatory-medicine
#4
Daniel Kantor, Jeremy R Bright, Jeri Burtchell
When faced with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS), patients often turn to the Internet and social media to find support groups, read about the experiences of other people affected by MS and seek their advice, and research their condition and treatment options to discuss with their healthcare professionals (HCPs). Here, we examine the use of social media and the Internet among patients with MS, considering its impact on patient empowerment and patient participation in treatment decision-making and MS research...
December 8, 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218681/management-strategies-to-facilitate-optimal-outcomes-for-patients-treated-with-delayed-release-dimethyl-fumarate
#5
Lori Mayer, Mary Kay Fink, Carrie Sammarco, Lisa Laing
Delayed-release dimethyl fumarate is an oral disease-modifying therapy that has demonstrated significant efficacy in adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Incidences of flushing and gastrointestinal adverse events are common in the first month after delayed-release dimethyl fumarate initiation. Our objective was to propose mitigation strategies for adverse events related to initiation of delayed-release dimethyl fumarate in the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis. Studies of individually developed mitigation strategies and chart reviews were evaluated...
December 7, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217470/safe-and-effective-interferon-beta-gene-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis-by-regulating-biological-activity-through-the-design-of-interferon-beta-galectin-9-fusion-proteins
#6
Atsushi Hamana, Yuki Takahashi, Akane Tanioka, Makiya Nishikawa, Yoshinobu Takakura
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common demyelinating disease. Despite the historical use of interferon-beta (IFN-β) for the treatment of patients with MS, concerns exist regarding the side effects of IFN-β. In this study, we designed a series of novel IFN-β fusion proteins containing galectin-9 (gal-9), which exerts immunosuppressive effects through the binding to its receptor on activated Th1 cells. We hypothesized that these fusion proteins would improve the therapeutic effects and reduce the side effects of IFN-β...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216561/design-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-an-anthraquinone-derivative-conjugated-to-myelin-basic-protein-immunodominant-mbp85-99-epitope-towards-selective-immunosuppression
#7
Anthi Tapeinou, Efstathia Giannopoulou, Carmen Simal, Bjarke E Hansen, Haralabos Kalofonos, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Alexios Vlamis-Gardikas, Theodore Tselios
Anthraquinone type compounds, especially di-substituted amino alkylamino anthraquinones have been widely studied as immunosuppressants. The anthraquinone ring is part of mitoxandrone that has been used for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) and several types of tumors. A desired approach for the treatment of MS would be the immunosuppression and elimination of specific T cells that are responsible for the induction of the disease. Herein, the development of a peptide compound bearing an anthraquinone derivative with the potential to specifically destroy the encephalitogenic T cells responsible for the onset of MS is described...
November 24, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216327/protamine-neutralizes-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycan-mediated-inhibition-of-oligodendrocyte-differentiation
#8
Kazuya Kuboyama, Naomi Tanga, Ryoko Suzuki, Akihiro Fujikawa, Masaharu Noda
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), which are enriched in demyelinating plaques in neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), impair remyelination by inhibiting the migration and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in the central nervous system (CNS). We herein show that protamine (PRM, also known as a heparin antagonist) effectively neutralizes the inhibitory activities of CSPGs, thereby enhancing OPC differentiation and (re)myelination in mice. Cell-based assays using mouse OPC-like OL1 cells revealed that the PRM treatment exerted masking effects on extracellular CSPGs and improved oligodendrocyte differentiation on inhibitory CSPG-coated substrates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215724/pericytes-modulate-myelination-in-the-central-nervous-system
#9
Patrick O Azevedo, Isadora F G Sena, Julia P Andreotti, Juliana Carvalho-Tavares, José C Alves-Filho, Thiago M Cunha, Fernando Q Cunha, Akiva Mintz, Alexander Birbrair
Multiple sclerosis is a highly prevalent chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Remyelination is the major therapeutic goal for this disorder. The lack of detailed knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in myelination restricts the design of effective treatments. De La Fuente et al. (2017) by using state-of-the-art techniques, including pericyte-deficient mice in combination with induced demyelination, reveal that pericytes participate in central nervous system regeneration...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213032/-staging-of-neuroplasticity-alterations-during-epileptogenesis-temporal-lobe-epileply-as-an-example
#10
N V Gulyaeva
Using temporal lobe epilepsy as an example, staging of long term plasticity in the hippocampus is considered. Major stages demonstrating opposite alterations in neuroplasticity are active epileptogenesis and the period of established temporal lobe epilepsy. During the epileptogenesis, multiple events resulting in forming of epileptic neuronal nets occur: changes in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, increase of aberrant neurogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendrite remodeling, particularly, supported by an excessive enhancement of the BDNF system in specific hippocampal regions...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212866/acquired-haemophilia-a-complicating-alemtuzumab-therapy-for-multiple-sclerosis
#11
Georgia McCaughan, Jennifer Massey, Ian Sutton, Jennifer Curnow
Alemtuzumab is a highly efficacious therapy used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), but uncoupling of T and B cell repopulation during immune reconstitution associates with an increasing range of secondary B cell-mediated autoimmune complications. A 34-year-old woman developed Graves' disease 11 months following an initial course of alemtuzumab treatment for MS. Nine months following the second treatment with alemtuzumab, the patient presented with spontaneous intramuscular and subcutaneous haemorrhage due to development of an inhibitory autoantibody to coagulation factor VIII...
December 5, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210147/drug-exposure-and-the-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Heather Y Yong, Kyla A McKay, Cole G J Daley, Helen Tremlett
BACKGROUND: Several environmental and lifestyle factors have been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) risk, including some pharmacological treatments. We systematically reviewed the literature on prescription drug exposure and MS risk. METHODS: Six databases were searched for original observational studies reporting drug exposure and MS risk published before 2017. RESULTS: Thirteen articles fulfilled inclusion criteria. Exposure to neither amiloride nor valproic acid was associated with MS (adjusted hazard ratio (adj...
December 6, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209435/diseases-potentially-related-to-flammer-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Katarzyna Konieczka, Carl Erb
Flammer syndrome (FS) is a prevalent and mostly benign condition. Subjects with FS seem to have a good life expectancy. Nevertheless, FS subjects are at increased risk for certain diseases, mainly when they are challenged by psychological stress or other stimuli such as coldness. FS is related to ocular diseases, such as normal-tension glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa, central serous chorioretinopathy, optic nerve compartment syndrome, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, arterial or venous occlusions in the retina, and choroid and optic nerve head, despite the absence of classical vascular risk factors...
December 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209434/vitamin-d-in-the-prevention-prediction-and-treatment-of-neurodegenerative-and-neuroinflammatory-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Priscilla Koduah, Friedemann Paul, Jan-Markus Dörr
Vitamin D research has gained increased attention in recent times due to its roles beyond bone health and calcium homeostasis, such as immunomodulation. In some parts of the brain and on immune cells, vitamin D hydroxylating enzymes and its receptors are located. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that deficiency of Vitamin D is relevant for disease risk and course in multiple sclerosis (MS) and presumably also in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
December 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208041/metabolomics-reveals-distinct-antibody-independent-molecular-signatures-of-ms-aqp4-antibody-and-mog-antibody-disease
#15
Maciej Jurynczyk, Fay Probert, Tianrong Yeo, George Tackley, Tim D W Claridge, Ana Cavey, Mark R Woodhall, Siddharth Arora, Torsten Winkler, Eric Schiffer, Angela Vincent, Gabriele DeLuca, Nicola R Sibson, M Isabel Leite, Patrick Waters, Daniel C Anthony, Jacqueline Palace
The overlapping clinical features of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-antibody (Ab) neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-Ab disease mean that detection of disease specific serum antibodies is the gold standard in diagnostics. However, antibody levels are not prognostic and may become undetectable after treatment or during remission. Therefore, there is still a need to discover antibody-independent biomarkers. We sought to discover whether plasma metabolic profiling could provide biomarkers of these three diseases and explore if the metabolic differences are independent of antibody titre...
December 6, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205982/spasticity-or-periodic-limb-movements
#16
Jonathan Levy, Sarah Hartley, Elsa Mauruc-Soubirac, Antoine Leotard, Frederic Lofaso, Maria-Antonia Quera-Salva, Djamel Bensmail
BACKGROUND: Spasticity and spasms are distressing features of the upper motor neuron syndrome (UMNS) following spinal cord injuries (SCI) or multiple sclerosis (MS), and have common therapeutic implications. Despite an increase of antispastic drugs and strategies, sometimes up to the surgical implant of intrathecal baclofen pump, some patients still complain of disabling spasms, which poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Although clinically similar, flexor spasms due to pyramidal tract disruption must be clearly differentiated from periodic limb movements (PLM), often accompanying restless leg syndrome (RLS) and occurring during sleep...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205701/antibody-response-to-seasonal-influenza-vaccination-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-receiving-immunomodulatory-therapy
#17
Henning K Olberg, Geir Egil Eide, Rebecca J Cox, Åsne Jul-Larsen, Sarah Larteley Lartey, Christian A Vedeler, Kjell-Morten Myhr
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that multiple sclerosis patients receiving immunomodulatory treatment have reduced seroprotection rates after influenza immunization. OBJECTIVES: To further investigate the influence of immunomodulatory therapies on the antibody response and seroprotection rates in patients immunized with seasonal influenza vaccine in 2012/2013 compared to healthy controls. METHODS: Ninety patients receiving fingolimod, glatiramer acetate, interferon beta-1a/1b, natalizumab or no therapy were compared to 62 healthy controls...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205338/s1p-receptor-antagonists-fingolimod-and-siponimod-do-not-improve-the-outcome-of-experimental-autoimmune-myasthenia-gravis-mice-after-disease-onset
#18
Andreas Pelz, Hanne Schaffert, Radharani Diallo, Falk Hiepe, Andreas Meisel, Siegfried Kohler
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue in the presence of circulating antibodies against components of the neuromuscular junction. Most patients have a good prognosis, but some are refractory to standard-of-care immunosuppressive treatment and suffer from recurrent myasthenic crises. Functional sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) antagonists like fingolimod and siponimod (BAF312) are successfully used for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, and fingolimod was shown to prevent the development of myasthenic symptoms in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG), the standard model of MG...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205270/severe-multiple-sclerosis-reactivation-during-prolonged-lymphopenia-after-dimethyl-fumarate-discontinuation
#19
C Zecca, C G Antozzi, V Torri Clerici, M Ferrazzini, R E Mantegazza, S Rossi, C Gobbi
BACKGROUND: Delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF) treatment can be associated with reduced lymphocyte and leucocyte counts, which might persist after DMF discontinuation. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a patient with severe disease reactivation despite prolonged lymphopenia after DMF discontinuation. We describe the frequency and impact of prolonged lymphopenia after DMF discontinuation at two tertiary MS centres. A 36-year-old female patient with multiple sclerosis was switched to DMF after 14 years of treatment with interferon beta-1a...
December 3, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204190/oral-teriflunomide-in-the-treatment-of-relapsing-forms-of-multiple-sclerosis-clinical-evidence-and-long-term-experience
#20
REVIEW
Aaron E Miller
Key objectives in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) include prevention of relapses, a reduction in the accumulation of disability and slowing of the brain volume loss that occurs from the earliest stages of the disease. Teriflunomide, a once-daily, oral immunomodulatory therapy, has demonstrated efficacy across multiple measures of disease activity and worsening in patients with relapsing forms of MS and in those with a first clinical episode suggestive of MS. In this review, the latest evidence relating to the proposed mechanism of action of teriflunomide in MS is explored, including novel insights provided from the recently completed Teri-DYNAMIC study...
December 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
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