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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813820/design-of-an-exoskeleton-ankle-robot-for-robot-assisted-gait-training-of-stroke-patients
#1
Ling-Fung Yeung, Corinna Ockenfeld, Man-Kit Pang, Hon-Wah Wai, Oi-Yan Soo, Sheung-Wai Li, Kai-Yu Tong
Lower Limb Exoskeleton robot that can facilitate stair walking is a big challenge, most systems could only provide level ground walking. In this study, a lightweight (0.5kg at ankle, 0.5kg at waist for control box) and autonomous exoskeleton Ankle Robot was proposed to provide power assistance for gait training of chronic stroke patients and it can facilitate three walking conditions in real-time: (1) level walking, (2) stair ascending, and (3) stair descending. Chronic stroke patients (n=3) with drop foot gait deficit and moderate motor impairment were recruited to evaluate the system under different walking conditions (Functional Ambulatory Category: FAC=4...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813716/no-correlation-of-the-disease-severity-of-influenza-a-virus-infection-with-the-rs12252-polymorphism-of-the-interferon-induced-transmembrane-protein-3-gene
#2
Yong-Chan Kim, Byung-Hoon Jeong
The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, which involved a more pathogenic virus than seasonal influenza viruses, rapidly spread around the world and caused many deaths in humans. The members of the interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) protein family prevent viral replication and are crucial for defending the host cell against influenza A virus (IAV). Several studies suggest that the CC genotype at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs12252 of IFITM3 confers a genetic predisposition to pandemic influenza A in Europeans and Han Chinese, although one study in a British cohort failed to show an association...
August 17, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813459/%C3%AE-2-microglobulin-gene-duplication-in-cetartiodactyla-remains-intact-only-in-pigs-and-possibly-confers-selective-advantage-to-the-species
#3
Thong Minh Le, Quy Van Chanh Le, Dung Minh Truong, Hye-Jeong Lee, Min-Kyeung Choi, Hyesun Cho, Hak-Jae Chung, Jin-Hoi Kim, Jeong-Tae Do, Hyuk Song, Chankyu Park
Several β2-microglobulin (B2M) -bound protein complexes undertake key roles in various immune system pathways, including the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), cluster of differentiation 1 (CD1) protein, non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and well-known MHC class I molecules. Therefore, the duplication of B2M may lead to an increase in the biological competence of organisms to the environment. Based on the pig genome assembly SSC10.2, a segmental duplication of ~45.5 kb, encoding the entire B2M protein, was identified in pig chromosome 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813175/qualitative-analysis-of-registered-nurses-perceptions-of-lactation-assessment-tools-why-and-how-they-are-completed
#4
Joan Esper Kuhnly, Donna J Chapman
BACKGROUND: Although lactation assessment tools are consistently used in clinical practice, there is no evidence describing registered nurses' perspectives regarding the purpose and thought processes involved when conducting a breastfeeding assessment. Research aim: This study aimed to explore registered nurses' perceptions on the purpose of lactation assessment tools and the thought processes involved in completing one. METHODS: Seven focus groups were held from April 2015 through July 2015, in coordination with regional and international lactation and perinatal conferences...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812990/human-leukocyte-antigen-c-12-02-02-and-killer-immunoglobulin-like-receptor-2dl5-are-distinctly-associated-with-ankylosing-spondylitis-in-the-taiwanese
#5
Chin-Man Wang, Sheng-Hung Wang, Yeong-Jian Jan Wu, Jing-Chi Lin, Jianming Wu, Ji-Yih Chen
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands and Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) regulate the cytolytic activity of natural killer (NK) cells and certain T cells. We examined their genetic predisposition to disease susceptibility and clinical phenotypes in Taiwanese ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. KIR genotyping and Human Leucocyte Antigen C (HLA-C) sequencing were performed in 653 Taiwanese AS patients and 952 healthy controls. KIR genotype distributions and HLA-C allele frequencies were compared in patients and controls and among patients with and without HLA-B27 positivity, early age onset and spinal syndesmophytes...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812739/frequency-dependent-female-genital-cutting-behaviour-confers-evolutionary-fitness-benefits
#6
Janet A Howard, Mhairi A Gibson
Female genital cutting (FGC) has immediate and long-term negative health consequences that are well-documented, and its elimination is a priority for policymakers. The persistence of this widespread practice also presents a puzzle for evolutionary anthropologists due to its potentially detrimental impact on survival and reproductive fitness. Using multilevel modelling on demographic health survey datasets from five West African countries, here we show that FGC behaviour is frequency-dependent; the probability that girls are cut varies in proportion to the FGC frequency found in their ethnic group...
February 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812657/diminishing-returns-epistasis-decreases-adaptability-along-an-evolutionary-trajectory
#7
Andrea Wünsche, Duy M Dinh, Rebecca S Satterwhite, Carolina Diaz Arenas, Daniel M Stoebel, Tim F Cooper
Populations evolving in constant environments exhibit declining adaptability. Understanding the basis of this pattern could reveal underlying processes determining the repeatability of evolutionary outcomes. In principle, declining adaptability can be due to a decrease in the effect size of beneficial mutations, a decrease in the rate at which they occur, or some combination of both. By evolving Escherichia coli populations started from different steps along a single evolutionary trajectory, we show that declining adaptability is best explained by a decrease in the size of available beneficial mutations...
March 1, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812563/multicopy-plasmids-potentiate-the-evolution-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-bacteria
#8
Alvaro San Millan, Jose Antonio Escudero, Danna R Gifford, Didier Mazel, R Craig MacLean
Plasmids are thought to play a key role in bacterial evolution by acting as vehicles for horizontal gene transfer, but the role of plasmids as catalysts of gene evolution remains unexplored. We challenged populations of Escherichia coli carrying the blaTEM-1 β-lactamase gene on either the chromosome or a multicopy plasmid (19 copies per cell) with increasing concentrations of ceftazidime. The plasmid accelerated resistance evolution by increasing the rate of appearance of novel TEM-1 mutations, thereby conferring resistance to ceftazidime, and then by amplifying the effect of TEM-1 mutations due to the increased gene dosage...
November 7, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811837/an-interview-with-samuel-shem-author-of-the-house-of-god
#9
Claire Brash
Dr Stephen Bergman, Professor of medical humanities at New York University, writes under the name Samuel Shem. He is an acclaimed author of several novels, plays and textbooks, and his work has been translated into several languages -'The House of God' his first novel has sold over 3 million copies. His work exposes the potential moral challenges of the medical workplace and the connection between values, good relationships and healing. In 2015 he visited the UK for medical humanities academic tour which included keynote talks at the RCGP 2015 Annual Conference and at the Royal Society of Medicine...
July 2017: London Journal of Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811736/mentored-training-to-increase-diversity-among-faculty-in-the-biomedical-sciences-the-nhlbi-summer-institute-programs-to-increase-diversity-sipid-and-the-programs-to-increase-diversity-among-individuals-engaged-in-health-related-research-pride
#10
Treva K Rice, Donna B Jeffe, Josephine E A Boyington, Jared B Jobe, Victor G Dávila-Román, Juan E Gonzalez, Lisa de Las Fuentes, Levi H C Makala, Rita Sarkar, Gbenga G Ogedegbe, Anne L Taylor, Susan Czajkowski, Dabeeru C Rao, Betty S Pace, Girardin Jean-Louis, Mohamed Boutjdir
OBJECTIVE: To report baseline characteristics of junior-level faculty participants in the Summer Institute Programs to Increase Diversity (SIPID) and the Programs to Increase Diversity among individuals engaged in Health-Related Research (PRIDE), which aim to facilitate participants' career development as independent investigators in heart, lung, blood, and sleep research. DESIGN AND SETTING: Junior faculty from groups underrepresented in the biomedical-research workforce attended two, 2-3 week, annual summer research-education programs at one of six sites...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811623/immune-dysregulation-in-patients-with-carpal-tunnel-syndrome
#11
Gila Moalem-Taylor, Benny Baharuddin, Barbara Bennett, Arun V Krishnan, William Huynh, Matthew C Kiernan, Cindy Shin-Yi Lin, Boaz Shulruf, Elizabeth Keoshkerian, Barbara Cameron, Andrew Lloyd
Peripheral immunity plays a key role in maintaining homeostasis and conferring crucial neuroprotective effects on the injured nervous system, while at the same time may contribute to increased vulnerability to neuropathic pain. Little is known about the reciprocal relationship between entrapment neuropathy and peripheral immunity. This study investigated immune profile in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), the most prevalent entrapment neuropathy. All patients exhibited neurophysiological abnormalities in the median nerve, with the majority reporting neuropathic pain symptoms...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811554/a-new-method-to-investigate-the-catalytic-mechanism-of-yhde-pyrophosphatase-by-using-a-pyrophosphate-fluorescence-probe
#12
Qingya Shen, Hongwei Tan, Guo-Wen Xing, Jimin Zheng, Zongchao Jia
YhdE is a Maf (multicopy associated filamentation) proteins from Escherichia coli which exhibits pyrophosphatase activity towards selected nucleotides, although its catalytic mechanism remains unclear. Herein we used a novel fluorescence probe (4-isoACBA-Zn(II) complex) to characterize the enzymatic properties of YhdE and its mutant, establishing a new method for assaying pyrophosphatase catalytic function. Our results reveal for the first time that the new fluorescence sensor confers high sensitivity and specificity and pyrophosphate (PPi) is the direct catalytic product of YhdE...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811343/comparative-genomics-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-skin-and-soft-tissue-and-other-extraintestinal-infections
#13
Amit Ranjan, Sabiha Shaik, Nishant Nandanwar, Arif Hussain, Sumeet K Tiwari, Torsten Semmler, Savita Jadhav, Lothar H Wieler, Munirul Alam, Rita R Colwell, Niyaz Ahmed
Escherichia coli, an intestinal Gram-negative bacterium, has been shown to be associated with a variety of diseases in addition to intestinal infections, such as urinary tract infections (UTIs), meningitis in neonates, septicemia, skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), and colisepticemia. Thus, for nonintestinal infections, it is categorized as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). It is also an opportunistic pathogen, causing cross infections, notably as an agent of zoonotic diseases. However, comparative genomic data providing functional and genetic coordinates for ExPEC strains associated with these different types of infections have not proven conclusive...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811293/the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-in-the-ventromedial-hypothalamus-reduces-short-term-food-intake-in-male-mice-by-regulating-nutrient-sensor-activity
#14
Melissa A Burmeister, Jacob D Brown, Jennifer E Ayala, Doris A Stoffers, Darleen A Sandoval, Randy J Seeley, Julio E Ayala
Pharmacological activation of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) reduces food intake. Here, we assessed whether suppression of food intake by GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RA) in this region is dependent upon AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR). We found that pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis and, thus, activation of AMPK, in the VMH attenuates the anorectic effect of the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 (Ex4), indicating that glucose metabolism and inhibition of AMPK are both required for this effect...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811148/metagenomes-from-deep-baltic-sea-sediments-reveal-how-past-and-present-environmental-conditions-determine-microbial-community-composition
#15
Ian P G Marshall, Søren M Karst, Per H Nielsen, Bo Barker Jørgensen
Microbial communities that lived near the sediment surface in the past become slowly buried and are the source of deep subsurface communities thousands of years later. We used metagenomes to analyse how the composition of buried microbial communities may change to conform to altered environmental conditions at depth. Sediment samples were collected from down to 85m below sea floor during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 347, "Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment". The sediments vary in age, organic carbon content, porewater salinity, and other parameters that reflect the changing Baltic environment from the last ice age and throughout the Holocene...
August 12, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811003/the-impact-of-thoracic-endovascular-aortic-repair-on-long-term-survival-in-type-b-aortic%C3%A2-dissection
#16
Xiaoying Lou, Edward P Chen, Yazan M Duwayri, Ravi K Veeraswamy, William D Jordan, Carl A Zehner, Bradley G Leshnower
BACKGROUND: Currently, optimal medical therapy is first-line therapy for uncomplicated acute type B aortic dissection (aTBAD) despite poor long-term outcomes. This study examines the impact of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in the acute and chronic phases on short-term and long-term survival of patients presenting with aTBAD. METHODS: A review of the Emory aortic database from 2000 to 2016 identified 398 patients diagnosed with aTBAD. At index hospitalization, complicated patients underwent TEVAR (aTEVAR [thoracic endovascular aortic repair in the acute phase], n = 80) and uncomplicated patients received optimal medical therapy (n = 318)...
August 12, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810948/development-and-validation-of-a-robust-and-efficient-hplc-method-for-the-simultaneous-quantification-of-levodopa-carbidopa-benserazide-and-entacapone-in-complex-matrices
#17
Erik Wollmer, Sandra Klein
PURPOSE: A variety of fixed-dose combination products is used in the therapy of Parkinson Disease. However, to date a proper analytical method applicable for comparative screening of different antiparkinson products was not available. The objective of the present work was thus to develop and validate an analytical method for the simultaneous quantification of levodopa, carbidopa, benserazide and entacapone. The method should be applicable for quantifying samples from drug release experiments with marketed products and prototype formulations performed under compendial and biorelevant test conditions...
2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810896/silencing-the-girdin-gene-enhances-radio-sensitivity-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-via-suppression-of-glycolytic-metabolism
#18
Li Yu, Yifan Sun, Jingjing Li, Yan Wang, Yuxing Zhu, Yong Shi, Xiaojun Fan, Jianda Zhou, Ying Bao, Jie Xiao, Ke Cao, Peiguo Cao
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy has been used increasingly to treat primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Clinically, the main cause of radiotherapy failure is cellular radioresistance, conferred via glycolytic metabolism. Our previous study demonstrated that Girdin is upregulated in primary hepatocellular carcinoma and promotes the invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. However, whether Girdin underlies the radio-sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma remains unclear. METHODS: A short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was used to silence CCDC88A (encoding Girdin), and real-time PCR was performed to determine CCDC88A mRNA expression...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810883/treatment-of-localized-gastric-and-gastroesophageal-adenocarcinoma-the-role-of-accurate-staging-and-preoperative-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Brian Badgwell, Prajnan Das, Jaffer Ajani
Gastric cancer is the third most common cause of cancer death worldwide, although it is not in the top 10 causes of cancer death in Northern America. Due to clear differences in incidence, screening, risk factors, tumor biology, and treatment between gastric cancers from Eastern and Western countries, our treatment is primarily guided by trials from Western countries. Patients undergo an extensive staging evaluation including high-quality CT imaging, endoscopic ultrasound, and diagnostic laparoscopy with peritoneal washings for cytology...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810729/thermal-stability-of-organic-monolayers-grafted-to-si-111-insights-from-reaxff-reactive-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#20
Federico A Soria, Weiwei Zhang, Adri C T van Duin, Eduardo Martin Patrito
We used the ReaxFF reactive molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the chemical mechanisms and kinetics of thermal decomposition processes of silicon surfaces grafted with different organic molecules via Si-C bonds at atomistic level. In this work, we considered the Si(111) surface grafted with n-alkyl (ethyl, propyl, pentyl and decyl) layers in 50 % coverage and Si-CH3, Si-CCCH3 and Si-CHCHCH3 layers in full coverage. Si radicals primarily formed by the homolytic cleavage of Si-C bonds play a key role in the dehydrogenation processes that lead to the decomposition of the monolayers...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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