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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654986/association-between-initial-use-of-e-cigarettes-and-subsequent-cigarette-smoking-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Samir Soneji, Jessica L Barrington-Trimis, Thomas A Wills, Adam M Leventhal, Jennifer B Unger, Laura A Gibson, JaeWon Yang, Brian A Primack, Judy A Andrews, Richard A Miech, Tory R Spindle, Danielle M Dick, Thomas Eissenberg, Robert C Hornik, Rui Dang, James D Sargent
Importance: The public health implications of e-cigarettes depend, in part, on whether e-cigarette use affects the risk of cigarette smoking. Objective: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies that assessed initial use of e-cigarettes and subsequent cigarette smoking. Data Sources: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, the 2016 Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 22nd Annual Meeting abstracts, the 2016 Society of Behavioral Medicine 37th Annual Meeting & Scientific Sessions abstracts, and the 2016 National Institutes of Health Tobacco Regulatory Science Program Conference were searched between February 7 and February 17, 2017...
June 26, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654780/development-and-validation-of-an-icp-ms-method-for-the-determination-of-elemental-impurities-in-tp-6076-active-pharmaceutical-ingredient-api-according-to-usp-%C3%A2-232%C3%A2-%C2%AA-%C3%A2-233%C3%A2-%C2%AA
#2
Osama Chahrour, John Malone, Mark Collins, Vrushali Salmon, Catherine Greenan, Amy Bombardier, Zhongze Ma, Nick Dunwoody
The new guidelines of the United States pharmacopeia (USP), European pharmacopeia (EP) and international conference on harmonization (ICH) regulating elemental impurities limits in pharmaceuticals signify the end of unspecific analysis of metals as outlined in USP 〈231〉. The new guidelines specify both daily doses and concentration/limits of elemental impurities in pharmaceutical final products, active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and excipients. In chapter USP 〈233〉 method implementation, validation and quality control during the analytical process are described...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654730/promises-pitfalls-and-practicalities-of-prenatal-whole-exome-sequencing
#3
Sunayna Best, Karen Wou, Neeta Vora, Ignatia B Van den Veyver, Ronald Wapner, Lyn S Chitty
Prenatal genetic diagnosis provides information for pregnancy and perinatal decision-making and management. In several small series, prenatal whole exome sequencing (WES) approaches have identified genetic diagnoses when conventional tests (karyotype and microarray) were not diagnostic. Here, we review published prenatal WES studies and recent conference abstracts. Twenty-nine studies were identified, with diagnostic rates varying between 6.2% and 80%. Differences in inclusion criteria and trio versus singleton approaches to sequencing largely account for the wide range of diagnostic rates...
June 27, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654659/environmental-change-drives-accelerated-adaptation-through-stimulated-copy-number-variation
#4
Ryan M Hull, Cristina Cruz, Carmen V Jack, Jonathan Houseley
Copy number variation (CNV) is rife in eukaryotic genomes and has been implicated in many human disorders, particularly cancer, in which CNV promotes both tumorigenesis and chemotherapy resistance. CNVs are considered random mutations but often arise through replication defects; transcription can interfere with replication fork progression and stability, leading to increased mutation rates at highly transcribed loci. Here we investigate whether inducible promoters can stimulate CNV to yield reproducible, environment-specific genetic changes...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654634/emergence-of-met-hyper-amplification-at-progression-to-met-and-braf-inhibition-in-colorectal-cancer
#5
Daniele Oddo, Giulia Siravegna, Annunziata Gloghini, Claudio Vernieri, Benedetta Mussolin, Federica Morano, Giovanni Crisafulli, Rosa Berenato, Giorgio Corti, Chiara Costanza Volpi, Michela Buscarino, Monica Niger, Philip D Dunne, Giuseppe Rospo, Emanuele Valtorta, Alice Bartolini, Giovanni Fucà, Simona Lamba, Antonia Martinetti, Maria Di Bartolomeo, Filippo de Braud, Alberto Bardelli, Filippo Pietrantonio, Federica Di Nicolantonio
BACKGROUND: Combined MET and BRAF inhibition showed clinical benefit in a patient with rectal cancer carrying BRAF(V600E) and MET amplification. However after 4 months, acquired resistance emerged and the patient deceased shortly after disease progression. The mechanism of resistance to this drug combination is unknown. METHODS: We analysed plasma circulating tumour DNA obtained at progression by exome sequencing and digital PCR. MET gene and mRNA in situ hybridisation analyses in two bioptic specimens obtained at progression were used to confirm the plasma data...
June 27, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654571/radiotherapy-alone-or-with-chemotherapy-in-the-management-of-carcinoma-of-the-supraglottic-larynx-a-25-year-community-hospital-experience
#6
Amy R Rao, Daniel A Jones, Charles M Mendenhall, Syed N Rizvi, Jessica Kirwan, Christopher G Morris, Andrew Johns, William J McAfee, William M Mendenhall
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review outcomes for patients treated with definitive radiotherapy for carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx at a community hospital and to compare our results with the literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Treatment records of 46 patients with localized carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx treated from January 1987 through January 2012 were reviewed. Overall, 18 (39%) presented with stage I or II disease, whereas 28 (61%) presented with stage III to IV...
June 26, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654481/stepping-up-to-rethink-the-future-of-rehabilitation-iv-step-considerations-and-inspirations
#7
Teresa Jacobson Kimberley, Iona Novak, Lara Boyd, Eileen Fowler, Deborah Larsen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The IV STEP conference challenged presenters and participants to consider the state of science in rehabilitation, highlighting key area of progress since the previous STEP conference related to prediction, prevention, plasticity, and participation in rehabilitation. KEY POINTS: Emerging from the thought-provoking discussions was recognition of the progress we have made as a profession and a call for future growth. In this summary article, we present a recap of the key points and call for action...
July 2017: Pediatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654479/knowledge-translation-in-rehabilitation-a-shared-vision
#8
Jennifer L Moore, Keiko Shikako-Thomas, Deborah Backus
PURPOSE: Advances in rehabilitation provide the infrastructure for research and clinical data to improve care and patient outcomes. However, gaps between research and practice are prevalent. Knowledge translation (KT) aims to decrease the gap between research and its clinical use. This special communication summarizes KT-related proceedings from the 2016 IV STEP conference, describes current KT in rehabilitation science, and provides suggestions for its application in clinical care. SUMMARY OF KEY POINTS: We propose a vision for rehabilitation clinical practice and research that includes the development, adaptation, and implementation of evidence-based practice recommendations, which will contribute to a learning health care system...
July 2017: Pediatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654475/virtual-reality-and-serious-games-in-neurorehabilitation-of-children-and-adults-prevention-plasticity-and-participation
#9
Judith E Deutsch, Sarah Westcott McCoy
Use of virtual reality (VR) and serious games (SGs) interventions within rehabilitation as motivating tools for task specific training for individuals with neurological conditions are fast-developing. Within this perspective paper we use the framework of the IV STEP conference to summarize the literature on VR and SG for children and adults by three topics: Prevention; Outcomes: Body-Function-Structure, Activity and Participation; and Plasticity. Overall the literature in this area offers support for use of VR and SGs to improve body functions and to some extent activity domain outcomes...
July 2017: Pediatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654472/the-past-present-and-future-of-neurorehabilitation-from-nustep-through-iv-step-and-beyond
#10
Susan R Harris, Carolee J Winstein
PURPOSES: To present the history and aims of the STEP conferences; describe the interdependence of prevention, prediction, plasticity, and participation; reflect on where we stand today regarding those 4 Ps; and discuss how future neurorehabilitation should look for individuals with movement disorders. KEY POINTS: Physical therapists have focused primarily on tertiary prevention, emphasizing primary/secondary prevention far less. Predicting optimal response to intervention is essential for primary prevention...
July 2017: Pediatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654199/imidacloprid-is-hydroxylated-by-laodelphax-striatellus-cyp6ay3v2
#11
R Wang, Y Zhu, L Deng, H Zhang, Q Wang, M Yin, P Song, M E A Elzaki, Z Han, M Wu
Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) is one of the most destructive pests of rice, and has developed high resistance to imidacloprid. Our previous work indicated a strong association between imidacloprid resistance and the overexpression of a cytochrome P450 gene CYP6AY3v2 in a L. striatellus imidacloprid resistant strain (Imid-R). In this study, a transgenic Drosophila melanogaster line that overexpressed the L. striatellus CYP6AY3v2 gene was established and was found to confer increased levels of imidacloprid resistance...
June 27, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654140/epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-egfr-inhibitors-for-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#12
REVIEW
David Lok Hang Chan, Eva Segelov, Rachel Sh Wong, Annabel Smith, Rebecca A Herbertson, Bob T Li, Niall Tebbutt, Timothy Price, Nick Pavlakis
BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors prevent cell growth and have shown benefit in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer, whether used as single agents or in combination with chemotherapy. Clear benefit has been shown in trials of EGFR monoclonal antibodies (EGFR MAb) but not EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKI). However, there is ongoing debate as to which patient populations gain maximum benefit from EGFR inhibition and where they should be used in the metastatic colorectal cancer treatment paradigm to maximise efficacy and minimise toxicity...
June 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654078/selection-dependent-and-independent-generation-of-crispr-cas9-mediated-gene-knockouts-in-mammalian-cells
#13
Erin L Sternburg, Kristen C Dias, Fedor V Karginov
The CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering system has revolutionized biology by allowing for precise genome editing with little effort. Guided by a single guide RNA (sgRNA) that confers specificity, the Cas9 protein cleaves both DNA strands at the targeted locus. The DNA break can trigger either non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology directed repair (HDR). NHEJ can introduce small deletions or insertions which lead to frame-shift mutations, while HDR allows for larger and more precise perturbations. Here, we present protocols for generating knockout cell lines by coupling established CRISPR/Cas9 methods with two options for downstream selection/screening...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654044/methods-for-the-extraction-of-endosymbionts-from-the-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci
#14
Dan-Tong Zhu, Xin-Ru Wang, Fei-Xue Ban, Chi Zou, Shu-Sheng Liu, Xiao-Wei Wang
Bacterial symbionts form an intimate relationship with their hosts and confer advantages to the hosts in most cases. Genomic information is critical to study the functions and evolution of bacterial symbionts in their host. As most symbionts cannot be cultured in vitro, methods to isolate an adequate quantity of bacteria for genome sequencing are very important. In the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, a number of endosymbionts have been identified and are predicted to be of importance in the development and reproduction of the pests through multiple approaches...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653989/allergens-with-protease-activity-from-house-dust-mites
#15
REVIEW
Manuel Reithofer, Beatrice Jahn-Schmid
Globally, house dust mites (HDM) are one of the main sources of allergens causing Type I allergy, which has a high risk of progressing into a severe disabling disease manifestation such as allergic asthma. The strong protease activities of a number of these allergens are thought to be involved in several steps of the pathophysiology of this allergic disease. It has been a common notion that protease activity may be one of the properties that confers allergenicity to proteins. In this review we summarize and discuss the roles of the different HDM proteases in the development of Type I allergy...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653985/human-map-tau-based-targeted-cytolytic-fusion-proteins
#16
REVIEW
Olusiji A Akinrinmade, Sandra Jordaan, Dmitrij Hristodorov, Radoslav Mladenov, Neelakshi Mungra, Shivan Chetty, Stefan Barth
Some of the most promising small molecule toxins used to generate antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) include anti-mitotic agents (e.g., auristatin and its derivatives) which are designed to attack cancerous cells at their most vulnerable state during mitosis. We were interested in identifying a human cystostatic protein eventually showing comparable activities and allowing the generation of corresponding targeted fully human cytolytic fusion proteins. Recently, we identified the human microtubule associated protein tau (MAP tau), which binds specifically to tubulin and modulates the stability of microtubules, thereby blocking mitosis and presumably vesicular transport...
June 27, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653975/development-of-rp-hplc-stability-indicating-method-for-degradation-products-of-linagliptin-in-presence-of-metformin-hcl-by-applying-2-level-factorial-design-and-identification-of-impurity-vii-viii-and-ix-and-synthesis-of-impurity-vii
#17
Sushant B Jadhav, P Sunil Reddy, Kalyanaraman L Narayanan, Popatrao N Bhosale
The novel reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), stability indicating method was developed for determination of linagliptin (LGP) and its related substances in linagliptin and metformin HCl (MET HCl) tablets by implementing design of experiment to understand the critical method parameters and their relation with critical method attributes; to ensure robustness of the method. The separation of nine specified impurities was achieved with a Zorbax SB-Aq 250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm column, using gradient elution and a detector wavelength of 225 nm, and validated in accordance with International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and found to be accurate, precise, reproducible, robust, and specific...
June 27, 2017: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653893/hif-2%C3%AE-not-hif-1%C3%AE-overexpression-confers-poor-prognosis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
Zhao-Jia Gao, Yong Wang, Wei-Dong Yuan, Jun-Qiang Yuan, Kai Yuan
HIF-α may play an important role in the process of tumorigenesis as well as tumor progression. Although a number of investigations have established the significance of HIF-1α in several human tumors, there is still little information available on the clinical significance of HIF-2α expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In present study, immunohistologic expression of HIF-1α/ HIF-2α was studied in a tissue microarray of 140 Stage I-III NSCLCs and correlated with clinicopathologic parameters and clinical outcome...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653887/the-effect-of-distant-metastases-sites-on-survival-in-de-novo-stage-iv-breast-cancer-a-seer-database-analysis
#19
San-Gang Wu, Hui Li, Li-Ying Tang, Jia-Yuan Sun, Wen-Wen Zhang, Feng-Yan Li, Yong-Xiong Chen, Zhen-Yu He
To investigate the effect of distant metastases sites on survival in patients with de novo stage-IV breast cancer. From 2010 to 2013, patients with a diagnosis of de novo stage-IV breast cancer were identified using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to analyze the effect of distant metastases sites on breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival. A total of 7575 patients were identified. The most common metastatic sites were bone, followed by lung, liver, and brain...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653426/achieving-success-in-clinically-based-research-the-importance-of-mentoring
#20
Elizabeth C Ward, Catriona Hargrave, Elizabeth Brown, Georgia Halkett, Peter Hogg
Within the professions of radiation therapy and medical imaging, clinician led research activity is becoming more prevalent. However, more is needed. A key component of continuing to develop professional groups who are both research active and producing high quality clinical research, is research mentoring. The authors of this paper share a common interest in enhancing research capacity through research mentoring within the health workforce, and came together to run a workshop on this issue at the 11th Annual Scientific Meeting of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy (ASMMIRT 2016) conference in Brisbane...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
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