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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527245/-description-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-mutations-conferring-resistance-to-rifampicin-and-isoniazid-detected-by-genotype%C3%A2-mtbdrplus-v-2-in-colombia
#1
Claudia Llerena, Raquel Medina
INTRODUCTION: The GenoType®MTBDRplusV.2 assay is a molecular technique endorsed by the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization that allows for the identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and the detection of mutations in the rpoβ gene for rifampicin resistance, and katG and inhA genes for isoniazid resistance. Due to the genetic variability in the circulating strains around the world, the national tuberculosis control programs should assess the performance of these new diagnostic technologies and their use under program conditions as rapid tests...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527153/the-rise-of-phenology-with-climate-change-an-evaluation-of-ijb-publications
#2
Alison Donnelly, Rong Yu
In recent decades, phenology has become an important tool by which to measure both the impact of climate change on ecosystems and the feedback of ecosystems to the climate system. However, there has been little attempt to date to systematically quantify the increase in the number of scientific publications with a focus on phenology and climate change. In order to partially address this issue, we examined the number of articles (original papers, reviews and short communications) containing the terms 'phenology' and 'climate change' in the title, abstract or keywords, published in the International Journal of Biometeorology in the 60 years since its inception in 1957...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527103/quality-of-life-after-bariatric-surgery
#3
REVIEW
Laura M Mazer, Dan E Azagury, John M Morton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to quality of life (QOL) outcomes after bariatric surgery and a summary of the current evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: QOL has been emphasized in bariatric surgery since the NIH Consensus Conference statement in 1991. Initial studies were limited to 1- and 2-year follow-up. More recent findings have expanded the follow-up period up to 12 years, providing a better description of the impact on long-term QOL...
May 19, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526997/nafld-as-a-sexual-dimorphic-disease-role-of-gender-and-reproductive-status-in-the-development-and-progression-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-inherent-cardiovascular-risk
#4
REVIEW
Stefano Ballestri, Fabio Nascimbeni, Enrica Baldelli, Alessandra Marrazzo, Dante Romagnoli, Amedeo Lonardo
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spans steatosis through nonalcoholic steatohepatis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with striking systemic features and excess cardiovascular and liver-related mortality. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex and multifactorial. Endocrine derangements are closely linked with dysmetabolic traits. For example, in animal and human studies, female sex is protected from dysmetabolism thanks to young individuals' ability to partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triacylglycerol, and to sex-specific browning of white adipose tissue...
May 19, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526886/fk866-attenuates-acute-hepatic-failure-through-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-jnk-dependent-autophagy
#5
Enshuang Guo, Renlong Li, Jiankun Yang, Jun Zhang, Anyi Li, Yan Yang, Shenpei Liu, Anding Liu, Xiaojing Jiang
FK866 exhibits a protective effect on D-galactosamine (GaIN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute liver failure (ALF), but the mechanism by which FK866 affords this benefit has not yet been elucidated. Autophagy has a protective effect on acute liver injury. However, the contribution of autophagy to FK866-conferred hepatoprotection is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether FK866 could attenuate GaIN/LPS and ConA-induced ALF through c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent autophagy...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526744/combining-properties-of-different-classes-of-pi3k%C3%AE-inhibitors-to-understand-molecular-features-that-confer-selectivity
#6
Grace Q Gong, Jackie D Kendall, James Mj Dickson, Gordon W Rewcastle, Christina M Buchanan, William A Denny, Peter R Shepherd, Jack U Flanagan
Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) are major regulators of many cellular functions, and hyperactivation of PI3K cell signalling pathways is a major target for anticancer drug discovery. PI3Kα is the isoform most implicated in cancer, and our aim is to selectively inhibit this isoform, which may be more beneficial than concurrent inhibition of all Class I PI3Ks. We have used structure-guided design to merge high selectivity and high affinity characteristics found in existing compounds. Molecular docking including the prediction of water-mediated interactions, was used to model interactions between the ligands and the PI3Kα affinity pocket...
May 19, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526714/constans-imparts-dna-sequence-specificity-to-the-histone-fold-nf-yb-nf-yc-dimer
#7
Nerina Gnesutta, Roderick W Kumimoto, Swadhin Swain, Matteo Chiara, Chamindika Siriwardana, David Stephen Horner, Ben F Holt, Roberto Mantovani
NF-Y is a heterotrimeric transcription factor that binds CCAAT elements. The NF-Y trimer is composed of a Histone Fold Domain (HFD) dimer (NF-YB/NF-YC) and NF-YA, which confers DNA sequence-specificity. NF-YA shares a conserved domain with the CCT (CONSTANS, CONSTANS-LIKE, TOC1) proteins. We show that CONSTANS (CO/BBX1), a master flowering regulator, forms a trimer with Arabidopsis NF-YB2/NF-YC3 to efficiently bind the CORE element of the FT promoter. We term this complex NF-CO. Using saturation mutagenesis EMSAs and RNA-Seq profiling of co, nf-yb, and nf-yc mutants, we identify CCACA elements as the core NF-CO binding site...
May 19, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526614/human-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-3a1-aldh3a1-exhibits-chaperone-like-function
#8
Georgia-Persephoni Voulgaridou, Ilias Tsochantaridis, Theodora Mantso, Rodrigo Franco, Mihalis I Panayiotidis, Aglaia Pappa
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1) is a metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of various aldehydes. Certain types of epithelial tissues in mammals, especially those continually exposed to environmental stress (e.g., corneal epithelium), express ALDH3A1 at high levels and its abundance in such tissues is perceived to help to maintain cellular homeostasis under conditions of oxidative stress. Metabolic as well as non-metabolic roles for ALDH3A1 have been associated with its mediated resistance to cellular oxidative stress...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526512/privacy-trainee-rights-and-accountability-in-radiology-education
#9
REVIEW
Cory M Pfeifer
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Academic radiologists commonly hold multiple simultaneous roles within the landscape of physician training. This paper analyzes theoretical scenarios describing relationships between medical students, residents, and physician educators in radiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The scenarios presented involve medical student supervision, radiology resident recruitment, and resident termination with respect to relevant ethical, regulatory, and legal considerations...
March 28, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526338/redox-signaling-in-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-induced-cardioprotection-evidences-and-mechanisms
#10
REVIEW
Lovedeep Singh, Puneet Kaur Randhawa, Nirmal Singh, Amteshwar Singh Jaggi
Reactive oxygen species are the reactive molecules that are derived from molecular oxygen and play an important role as redox signaling molecules to confer cardioprotection. Various scientists have demonstrated the key role of redox signaling in cardioprotection by showing a transient increase in their levels during remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) phase. The transient increase in reactive oxygen species levels during remote preconditioning phase may take place either through activation of KATP channels or through increased nitric oxide (NO) production...
May 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526233/keratinocyte-growth-factor-for-the-treatment-of-the-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-kare-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-2-trial
#11
Daniel F McAuley, Lj Mark Cross, Umar Hamid, Evie Gardner, J Stuart Elborn, Kathy M Cullen, Ahilanandan Dushianthan, Michael Pw Grocott, Michael A Matthay, Cecilia M O'Kane
BACKGROUND: Data from in-vitro, animal, and human lung injury models suggest that keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) might be beneficial in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The objective of this trial was to investigate the effect of KGF in patients with ARDS. METHODS: We did a double-blind, allocation concealed, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial in two intensive care units in the UK, involving patients fulfilling the American-European Consensus Conference Definition of ARDS...
May 16, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526201/viral-exploitation-of-the-mek-erk-pathway-a-tale-of-vaccinia-virus-and-other-viruses
#12
REVIEW
Cláudio A Bonjardim
The VACV replication cycle is remarkable in the sense that it is performed entirely in the cytoplasmic compartment of vertebrate cells, due to its capability to encode enzymes required either for regulating the macromolecular precursor pool or the biosynthetic processes. Although remarkable, this gene repertoire is not sufficient to confer the status of a free-living microorganism to the virus, and, consequently, the virus relies heavily on the host to successfully generate its progeny. During the complex virus-host interaction, viruses must deal not only with the host pathways to accomplish their temporal demands but also with pathways that counteract viral infection, including the inflammatory, innate and acquired immune responses...
July 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526046/balloon-versus-stenting-in-severe-ischaemia-of-the-leg-3-basil-3-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Benjamin D Hunt, Matthew A Popplewell, Huw Davies, Lewis Meecham, Hugh Jarrett, Gareth Bate, Margaret Grant, Smitaa Patel, Catherine Hewitt, Lazaros Andronis, Jonathan J Deeks, Andrew Bradbury
BACKGROUND: Severe limb ischaemia (SLI) is defined as the presence of rest pain and/or tissue loss secondary to lower extremity atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease. The superficial femoral and popliteal arteries are the most commonly diseased vessels in such patients and are being increasingly treated using endovascular revascularisation techniques. However, it is currently unknown whether drug-eluting stents and drug-coated balloons confer additional clinical benefits over more established techniques using plain balloons and bare metal stents, or whether they represent a cost-effective use of NHS resources...
May 19, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525804/recombinant-adeno-associated-virus-vector-carrying-the-thrombomodulin-lectin-like-domain-for-the-treatment-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#14
Chao-Han Lai, Kuan-Chieh Wang, Cheng-Hsiang Kuo, Fang-Tzu Lee, Tsung-Lin Cheng, Bi-Ing Chang, Yu-Jen Yang, Guey-Yueh Shi, Hua-Lin Wu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Thrombomodulin (TM), through its lectin-like domain (TMD1), sequesters proinflammatory high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) to prevent it from engaging the receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) that sustains inflammation and tissue damage. Our previous study demonstrated that short-term treatment with recombinant TM containing all the extracellular domains (i.e., rTMD123) inhibits HMGB1-RAGE signaling and confers protection against CaCl2-induced AAA formation...
March 18, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525648/the-role-of-omics-in-the-application-of-adverse-outcome-pathways-for-chemical-risk-assessment
#15
Erica K Brockmeier, Geoff Hodges, Thomas H Hutchinson, Emma Butler, Markus Hecker, Knut Erik Tollefsen, Natalia Garcia-Reyero, Peter Kille, Dörthe Becker, Kevin Chipman, John Colbourne, Timothy W Collette, Andrew Cossins, Mark Cronin, Peter Graystock, Steve Gutsell, Dries Knapen, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Anke Lange, Stuart Marshall, Stewart F Owen, Edward J Perkins, Stewart Plaistow, Anthony Schroeder, Daisy Taylor, Mark Viant, Gerald Ankley, Francesco Falciani
In conjunction with the second International Environmental Omics Symposium (iEOS) conference, held at the University of Liverpool (UK) in September 2014, a workshop was held to bring together experts in toxicology and regulatory science from academia, government and industry. The purpose of the workshop was to review the specific roles that high-content omics datasets (e.g., transcriptomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, and proteomics) can hold within the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework for supporting ecological and human health risk assessments...
May 19, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524929/xeno-free-cultivation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-the-corneal-stroma
#16
Steffi Matthyssen, Sorcha Ní Dhubhghaill, Veerle Van Gerwen, Nadia Zakaria
Purpose: The human cornea has recently been described as a source of corneal stroma-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). In vitro expansion of these cells involves basal medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS). As animal-derived serum can confer a risk of disease transmission and can be subject to considerable lot-to-lot variability, it does not comply with newer Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-required animal component-free culture protocols for clinical translation. Methods: This study investigated animal-free alternatives to FBS for cultivation of human corneal stromal MSCs...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524641/nursing-philosophy-2016-response-to-peter-allmark-s-article-aristotle-for-nursing
#17
Beverly J B Whelton
Preparing to lecture on Aristotle's contribution to Nursing at the International Philosophy of Nursing Conference August 22, 2016, in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, I came upon the recently published article by my IPONS colleague, Allmark (2016), "Aristotle for Nursing." Allmark (2016) provides a comprehensive and understandable overview of Aristotle's philosophical system including the substantial nature of being and the four causes of change. Nurses using Aristotle to support practice and theoretical research will benefit from a careful reading of Allmark to enrich their use of the realist understanding of knowledge of nature (epistemology) and the matter-form causal relationships within natural being (ontology and teleology)...
May 19, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523700/balancing-medical-accuracy-and-diagnostic-consequences-diagnosing-medically-unexplained-symptoms-in-primary-care
#18
Erik B Rasmussen
Focusing on the case of medically unexplained symptoms (MUS), this article explores diagnostic classification in the absence of biomedical evidence or other strong medical warrants for diagnosis. The data are from three focus group interviews with Norwegian general practitioners (GPs) conducted in 2015, that centred on the issue of what diagnoses to use (or not) for MUS. The qualitative analysis reconstructs the logic underlying GPs' diagnostic accounts, which centred on the meaning of diagnostic categories and on anticipating how 'generalised others' would respond to those meanings (called 'diagnosing by anticipation')...
May 18, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523639/association-mapping-of-yield-and-yield-related-traits-under-reproductive-stage-drought-stress-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#19
B P Mallikarjuna Swamy, Noraziyah Abd Aziz Shamsudin, Site Noorzuraini Abd Rahman, Ramil Mauleon, Wickneswari Ratnam, Ma Teressa Sta Cruz, Arvind Kumar
BACKGROUND: The identification and introgression of major-effect QTLs for grain yield under drought are some of the best and well-proven approaches for improving the drought tolerance of rice varieties. In the present study, we characterized Malaysian rice germplasm for yield and yield-related traits and identified significant trait marker associations by structured association mapping. RESULTS: The drought screening was successful in screening germplasm with a yield reduction of up to 60% and heritability for grain yield under drought was up to 78%...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523625/identification-of-a-novel-putative-inhibitor-of-the-plasmodium-falciparum-purine-nucleoside-phosphorylase-exploring-the-purine-salvage-pathway-to-design-new-antimalarial-drugs
#20
Luciano Porto Kagami, Gustavo Machado das Neves, Ricardo Pereira Rodrigues, Vinicius Barreto da Silva, Vera Lucia Eifler-Lima, Daniel Fábio Kawano
Malaria, a tropical parasitic disease caused by Plasmodium spp., continues to place a heavy social burden, with almost 200 million cases and more than 580,000 deaths per year. Plasmodium falciparum purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PfPNP) can be targeted for antimalarial drug design since its inhibition kills malaria parasites both in vitro and in vivo. Although the currently known inhibitors of PfPNP, immucillins, are orally available and of low toxicity to animals and humans, to the best of our knowledge, none of these compounds has entered clinical trials for the treatment of malaria...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Diversity
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