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Rui Santos, Catarina Costa, Dalila Mil-Homens, Daniela Romão, Carla C C R de Carvalho, Pedro Pais, Nuno P Mira, Arsénio M Fialho, Miguel C Teixeira
The mechanisms of persistence and virulence associated to Candida glabrata infections are poorly understood, limiting the ability to fight this fungal pathogen. In this study, the multidrug resistance transporters CgTpo1_1 and CgTpo1_2 are shown to play a role in C. glabrata virulence. The survival of the infection model Galleria mellonella, infected with C. glabrata, was found to increase upon the deletion of either CgTPO1_1 or CgTPO1_2. The underlying mechanisms were further explored. In the case of CgTpo1_1, this phenotype was found to be consistent with the observation that it confers resistance to antimicrobial peptides (AMP), such as the human AMP histatin-5...
October 25, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
Kathryn S Carpentier, Nicolle M Esparo, Stephanie J Child, Adam P Geballe
During millions of years of coevolution with their hosts, cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) have succeeded in adapting to overcome host-specific immune defenses, including the protein kinase R (PKR) pathway. Consequently, these adaptations may also contribute to the inability of CMVs to cross species barriers. Here, we provide evidence that the evolutionary arms race between the antiviral factor PKR and its CMV antagonist TRS1 has led to extensive differences in the species-specificity of primate CMV TRS1 proteins. Moreover, we identify a single residue in human PKR that when mutated to the amino acid present in African green monkey (Agm) PKR (F489S) is sufficient to confer resistance to HCMVTRS1...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Kyle S Beyer, David H Fukuda, Michael J Redd, Jeffrey R Stout, Jay R Hoffman
Beyer, KS, Fukuda, DH, Redd, MJ, Stout, JR, and Hoffman, JR. Player selection bias in National Football League draftees. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 2965-2971, 2016-Relative age effects (RAEs) have been studied as a potential factor associated with player selection bias in numerous sports. However, little research has examined the role of RAEs among National Football League (NFL) draftees. The purpose of the current study was to determine the existence of RAEs in NFL draftees from the last 10 NFL drafts. Draftee birth dates were collected and divided into calendar and scholastic quarters (SQ1-SQ4)...
November 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Toby Lawrence
The functional and phenotypic diversity of macrophages has long been appreciated, and it is now clear that it reflects a complex interplay between hard-wired differentiation pathways and instructive signals in specific tissues (Lawrence T, Natoli G. 2011, Nat Rev Immunol11:750-761). Recent studies have begun to unravel the molecular basis for the integration of these intrinsic developmental pathways with extracellular signals from the tissue microenvironment that confer the distinct phenotypes of tissue-resident macrophages (Lavin Y et al...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Elsbeth Heinzelmann
"Keep up with today's single-use technology standard but also remain one step ahead" - that could have been the motto of the BioTech 2016 conference at ZHAW Waedenswil on September 5 and 6, which brought together manufacturers, suppliers, users, regulatory specialists and representatives of organizations in this field to implement single-use devices all over the world. It was an effectiveness analysis of the trend to replace reusable equipment in production facilities with single-use components.
October 2016: Chimia
Ann Fox, Doris Gillis, Barb Anderson, Daphne Lordly
During a Dietitians of Canada conference session (2015), 4 facilitators drew upon "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" (Alice) to engage participants in discussing the future of dietetic education. The aim was to feature Nova Scotia (NS) collaborative experiences as an example of dietetic education planning that could be implemented elsewhere. Three vignettes from the Alice story were chosen as metaphoric representations of dilemmas and assumptions commonly faced by dietetic educators. Story quotations and facilitator questions related to each vignette-guided discussion...
October 25, 2016: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
David M Vock, Michael T Durheim, Wayne M Tsuang, C Ashley Finlen Copeland, Anastasios A Tsiatis, Marie Davidian, Megan L Neely, David J Lederer, Scott M Palmer
RATIONALE: Lung transplantation is an accepted and increasingly employed treatment for advanced lung diseases, but the anticipated survival benefit of lung transplantation is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether and for which patients lung transplantation confers a survival benefit in the modern era of US lung allocation. METHODS: Data on 13040 adults listed for lung transplantation between May 2005 and September 2011 were obtained from the United Network for Organ Sharing...
October 25, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Tyler J Loftus, Kristina L Go, Steven J Hughes, Chasen A Croft, R Stephen Smith, Philip A Efron, Frederick A Moore, Scott C Brakenridge, Alicia M Mohr, Janeen R Jordan
BACKGROUND: Effective multidisciplinary management of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) requires effective communication. We instituted a protocol to standardize communication practices with the hypothesis that outcomes would improve following protocol initiation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of 442 patients who required procedural management of acute GIB at our institution during a 50 month period spanning 25 months before and 25 months after implementation of a multidisciplinary communication protocol...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Elinor J Field, Kevin Parsons, Julie A Etches, Katie Hamilton, Neil J Burton
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of varying the number and configuration of locking bicortical and monocortical screws on a plate-rod construct using a mid-diaphyseal femoral ostectomy model. METHODS: Thirty Greyhound femurs were assigned to six groups (A-F). An intramedullary pin was placed in each bone following which a 3.5 mm locking plate was applied with six differing locking screw configurations. Groups A to C had one bicortical screw in the most proximal and distal plate holes and one to three monocortical locking screws in the proximal and distal fragments...
October 25, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
V MacBean, C Hughes, G Nicol, C C Reilly, G F Rafferty
Neural respiratory drive, quantified by the parasternal intercostal muscle electromyogram (EMGpara), provides a sensitive measure of respiratory system load-capacity balance. Reference values for EMGpara-based measures are lacking and the influence of individual anthropometric characteristics is not known. EMGpara is conventionally expressed as a percentage of that obtained during a maximal inspiratory effort (EMGpara%max), leading to difficulty in applying the technique in subjects unable to reliably perform such manoeuvres...
October 25, 2016: Physiological Measurement
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: BJU International
Pingping Zhang, Qiuxia Li, Jun Qi, Qing Lv, Xuqi Zheng, Xinyu Wu, Jieruo Gu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms confer susceptibility to aankylosing spondylitis (AS) and study its polymorphisms in Han Chinese. METHODS: We screened single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VDR region through genome-wide genotyping chips in AS cases and healthy controls, then used the exome sequencing result to analyze all the potential AS-associated SNPs in the VDR gene. RESULTS: Thirty-two SNPs were found in the VDR gene in the genome-wide genotyping chips and the logistic regression result showed no significant difference between AS cases and controls...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
Taylor Kuhn, Daniel Schonfeld, Philip Sayegh, Alyssa Arentoft, Jacob D Jones, Charles H Hinkin, Susan Y Bookheimer, April D Thames
Standard volumetric neuroimaging studies have demonstrated preferential atrophy of subcortical structures among individuals with HIV. However, to our knowledge, no study has investigated subcortical shape alterations secondary to HIV and whether advancing age impacts that relationship. This study employed 3D morphometry to examine the independent and interactive effects of HIV and age on shape differences in nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen, and thalamus in 81 participants ranging in age from 24 to 76 including 59 HIV+ individuals and 22 HIV-seronegative controls...
October 25, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Suchismita Das, Sunayana Goswami
The present study investigated the effect of copper on photosynthesis, antioxidant potential, and anatomical response of aquatic fern, Salvinia cucullata, with a view to ascertain its phytoremediation potential. Plants were exposed in hydroponics for 21 days to different Cu concentrations (10, 15, 20, and 30 mg/L). Significant declines in chlorophyll, carotenoids, and soluble proteins, as a function of Cu proportion were observed. Lipid peroxidation was also evident, which implied reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Roham Soheilian, Mohammad Hossein Jabbarpour Bonyadi, Hamidreza Moein, Mojgan Babanejad, Alireza Ramezani, Mehdi Yaseri, Masoud Soheilian
PURPOSE: To determine the association of C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement factor H (CFH) gene with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and any possible interaction among these factors. METHODS: In this case-control study, 139 unrelated patients with exudative AMD and 123 non-AMD controls were recruited. Blood sample was taken for analysis of the CRP levels and DNA testing. DNA fragments of CFH gene variants containing 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms including rs800292, rs1061170, rs2274700, and rs3753395 were assessed...
October 24, 2016: International Ophthalmology
Koji Shimozaki
Adult neurogenesis originates from neural stem cells (NSCs) in specific regions of the adult brain. The molecular mechanisms that control the self-renewal and multipotency of NSCs have not been fully elucidated. In recent years, emerging evidence has revealed that ten-eleven translocation (TET) family DNA dioxygenases TET1 and TET2 play important roles in the central nervous system. Here, I present evidence that Tet1 and Tet2 are expressed in cultured NSCs derived from adult mouse brain and play an important role in the proliferative self-renewal of NSCs in an undifferentiated state...
October 24, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Kohtaro Ooka, Joseph K Lim
With 185 million people chronically infected globally, hepatitis C is a leading bloodborne infection. All-oral regimens of direct acting agents have superior efficacy compared to the historical interferon-based regimens and are significantly more tolerable. However, trials of both types of regimens have often excluded patients on immunosuppressive medications for reasons other than organ transplantation. Yet, these patients-most often suffering from malignancy or autoimmune diseases-could stand to benefit from these treatments...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Timothy E Miller, Andrew D Shaw, Michael G Mythen, Tong J Gan
The 1st POQI Consensus Conference occurred in Durham, NC, on March 4-5, 2016, and was supported by the American Society of Enhanced Recovery (ASER) and Evidence-Based Perioperative Medicine (EBPOM). The conference focused on enhanced recovery for colorectal surgery and discussed four topics-perioperative analgesia, perioperative fluid management, preventing nosocomial infection, and measurement and quality in enhanced recovery pathways.
2016: Perioperative Medicine
Ned Gilbert-Kawai
Whilst attending a conference in the not too distant past, I was fortunate enough to be seated at lunch next to a very eminent octogenarian academic. Conversation ensued, and I was instantly captivated by his stories. These were not narratives filled with scientific facts, but rather anecdotes of his life and the pathways he had taken to get where he was today. Fascinated by such accounts, I set about the task of interviewing persons of scientific acclaim, to learn more about their life stories and unwritten tales...
2016: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
Steffen Heinrich, Franziska Laporte Uribe, Markus Wübbeler, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Martina Roes
BACKGROUND: In general, most people with dementia living in the community are served by family caregivers at home. A similar situation is found in Germany. One primary goal of dementia care networks is to provide information on support services available to these caregiving relatives of people with dementia via knowledge management. The evaluation of knowledge management tools and processes for dementia care networks is relevant to their performance in successfully achieving information goals...
2016: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
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