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Emergency Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091758/-deaths-from-propofol-abuse-survey-of-institutes-of-forensic-medicine-in-germany-austria-and-switzerland
#1
C Maier, J Iwunna, M Tsokos, F Mußhoff
Previous references suggesting a high mortality of propofol addiction in medical personnel were mostly based on surveys of the heads of medical departments or case reports; therefore, a questionnaire was sent to 48 forensic medicine departments in Germany, Austria and Switzerland concerning the number of autopsies carried out between 2002-2112 on medical personnel with the suspicion of abuse of propofol or other analgesics. The response rate was 67%. In 16 out of the 32 responding departments 39 deaths (27 males) were observed with previous connections to anesthesiology, intensive care or emergency departments of which 22 were physicians, 13 nurses, 2 other personnel and 2 were unknown...
January 13, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074704/the-toxicology-of-zinc-chloride-smoke-producing-bombs-and-screens
#2
Ayman El Idrissi, Lisanne van Berkel, Nadia E Bonekamp, Diana J Z Dalemans, Marcel A G van der Heyden
CONTEXT: Zinc chloride (ZnCl2)-based smoke bombs and screens are in use since the Second World War (1939-1945). Many case descriptions on ZnCl2 smoke inhalation incidents appeared since 1945. OBJECTIVE: We provide a comprehensive overview of the clinical symptoms and underlying pathophysiology due to exposure to fumes from ZnCl2 smoke producing bombs. In addition, we give a historical overview of treatment regimens and their outcomes. METHODOLOGY: We performed a literature search on Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar databases using combinations of the following search terms "smoke bomb", "smoke screen", "ZnCl2", "intoxication", "poisoning", "case report", "HE smoke", "hexachloroethane smoke", "smoke inhalation" and "white smoke"...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073600/e-cigarettes-and-urologic-health-a-collaborative-review-of-toxicology-epidemiology-and-potential-risks
#3
REVIEW
Liam Bourke, Linda Bauld, Christopher Bullen, Marcus Cumberbatch, Edward Giovannucci, Farhad Islami, Hayden McRobbie, Debra T Silverman, James W F Catto
CONTEXT: Use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) is on the rise in most high-income countries. Smoking conventional cigarettes is a known risk factor for urologic malignancy incidence, progression, and mortality, as well as for other urologic health indicators. The potential impact of EC use on urologic health is therefore of clinical interest to the urology community. OBJECTIVE: To review the available data on current EC use, including potential benefits in urologic patients, potential issues linked to toxicology of EC constituents, and how this might translate into urologic health risks...
January 7, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072668/genital-and-extragenital-gonorrhea-and-chlamydia-in-children-and-adolescents-evaluated-for-sexual-abuse
#4
Nancy D Kellogg, John D Melville, James L Lukefahr, Shalon M Nienow, Edward L Russell
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the use of a nucleic acid amplification test in detecting genital and extragenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in children and adolescents assessed for sexual abuse/assault. METHODS: The charts of children aged 0 to 17 years, consecutively evaluated for sexual victimization, in emergency department and outpatient settings were reviewed. Data extracted included age, sex, type of sexual contact, anogenital findings, previous sexual contact, toxicology results, and sites tested for NG and CT...
January 9, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067687/a-case-of-toxic-breast-feeding
#5
Megan L Schultz, Mark Kostic, Sigmund Kharasch
Opiates are frequently prescribed postpartum for pain relief after cesarean delivery, episiotomies, and headaches. It is estimated that greater than 30% of breast-feeding mothers in the United States are prescribed opiates for pain relief associated with childbirth. Many opiates are readily transferred to human milk, although life-threatening events are rare. We report a 6-day-old breast-feeding infant whose mother was taking hydromorphone for pain relief from a cesarean delivery and whose clinical course was suggestive of opiate toxicity...
January 6, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063270/identification-and-analytical-characterization-of-six-synthetic-cannabinoids-nnl-3-5%C3%A2-f-npb-22-7%C3%A2-n-5%C3%A2-f-akb-48-7%C3%A2-n-5%C3%A2-f-edmb-pinaca-emb-fubinaca-and-eg-018
#6
Cuimei Liu, Wei Jia, Zhendong Hua, Zhenhua Qian
Clinical and forensic toxicology laboratories are continuously confronted by analytical challenges when dealing with the new psychoactive substances phenomenon. The number of synthetic cannabinoids, the chemical diversity, and the speed of emergence make this group of compounds particularly challenging in terms of detection, monitoring, and responding. Three indazole 7 N positional isomer synthetic cannabinoids, two ethyl 2-amino-3-methylbutanoate-type synthetic cannabinoids, and one 9H-carbazole substituted synthetic cannabinoid were identified in seized materials...
January 7, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057371/3-meo-pcp-intoxication-in-two-young-men-first-in-vivo-detection-in-italy
#7
Elisabetta Bertol, Jennifer Pascali, Diego Palumbo, Valeria Catalani, Maria Grazia Di Milia, Alessia Fioravanti, Francesco Mari, Fabio Vaiano
3-MeO-PCP or 3-methoxyphencyclidine is a derivative of phencyclidine. It acts as a dissociative anesthetic and it has allegedly hallucinogenic and sedative effects. There are almost no documented intoxication cases and references about its pharmacology and toxicity in literature. This study presents two concomitant intoxication cases due to consumption of 3-MeO-PCP and alcohol. A 19 (A) and a 21 years old (B) men were brought to Santa Maria Nuova Hospital in a comatose state (Glasgow score 3). They showed respiratory acidosis, right anisocoria with mydriatic pupils and hypothermia...
December 26, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040195/human-health-screening-and-public-health-significance-of-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-detected-in-public-water-supplies
#8
Robert Benson, Octavia D Conerly, William Sander, Angela L Batt, J Scott Boone, Edward T Furlong, Susan T Glassmeyer, Dana W Kolpin, Heath E Mash, Kathleen M Schenck, Jane Ellen Simmons
The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010-2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are not regulated currently either in drinking water or in discharges to ambient water by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or other U.S. regulatory agencies. This analysis shows that there is little public health concern for most of the contaminants detected in treated water from the 25 DWTPs participating in this study...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030786/flow-cytometric-assay-to-assess-short-term-effects-of-personal-care-products-on-the-marine-microalga-tetraselmis-suecica
#9
Marta Seoane, Marta Esperanza, Carmen Rioboo, Concepción Herrero, Ángeles Cid
Large quantities of personal care products (PCPs) are used daily and many of their chemical ingredients are subsequently released into marine environments. Cultures of the marine microalga Tetraselmis suecica were exposed for 24 h to three emerging compounds included in the main classes of PCPs: the UV filter benzophenone-3 (BP-3), the disinfectant triclosan (TCS) and the fragrance tonalide (AHTN). Concentrations tested, expressed as cellular quota (pg cell(-1)), ranged from 5 to 40 for BP-3, from 2 to 16 for TCS and from 1...
December 21, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025810/application-of-a-combined-approach-to-identify-new-psychoactive-street-drugs-and-decipher-their-mechanisms-at-monoamine-transporters
#10
Felix P Mayer, Anton Luf, Constanze Nagy, Marion Holy, Rainer Schmid, Michael Freissmuth, Harald H Sitte
Psychoactive compounds can cause acute and long-term health problems and lead to addiction. In addition to well-studied and legally controlled compounds like cocaine, new psychoactive substances (NPS) are appearing in street drug markets as replacement strategies and legal alternatives. NPS are effectively marketed as "designer drugs" or "research chemicals" without any knowledge of their underlying pharmacological mode of action and their potential toxicological effects and obviously devoid of any registration process...
December 27, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013183/anti-inflammatory-analgesic-and-cox-2-inhibitory-activity-of-novel-thiadiazoles-in-irradiated-rats
#11
Fatma A Ragab, Helmi I Heiba, Marwa G El-Gazzar, Sahar M Abou-Seri, Walaa A El-Sabbagh, Reham M El-Hazek
In this work, novel series of pyran, thiophene and thienopyrimidine derivatives based on 2-acetamide-thiadiazole scaffold were designed and synthesized for evaluation as selective COX-2 inhibitors in-vitro and investigated in-vivo as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents against carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model in irradiated rats, since its well-known that ionizing radiation plays an important role in exaggerating the inflammatory responses and in enhancing the release of inflammatory mediators in experimental animals...
January 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012093/pharmacological-and-toxicological-effects-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-and-their-metabolites
#12
Sherrica Tai, William E Fantegrossi
Commercial preparations containing synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) are rapidly emerging as drugs of abuse. Although often assumed to be "safe" and "legal" alternatives to cannabis, reports indicate that SCBs induce toxicity not often associated with the primary psychoactive component of marijuana, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC). This chapter will summarize the evidence that use of SCBs poses greater health risks relative to marijuana and suggest that distinct pharmacological properties and metabolism of SCBs relative to Δ(9)-THC may contribute to this increased toxicity...
December 24, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999267/zebrafish-as-a-vertebrate-model-system-to-evaluate-effects-of-environmental-toxicants-on-cardiac-development-and-function
#13
REVIEW
Swapnalee Sarmah, James A Marrs
Environmental pollution is a serious problem of the modern world that possesses a major threat to public health. Exposure to environmental pollutants during embryonic development is particularly risky. Although many pollutants have been verified as potential toxicants, there are new chemicals in the environment that need assessment. Heart development is an extremely sensitive process, which can be affected by environmentally toxic molecule exposure during embryonic development. Congenital heart defects are the most common life-threatening global health problems, and the etiology is mostly unknown...
December 16, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997136/size-dependent-protein-nanoparticle-interactions-in-citrate-stabilized-gold-nanoparticles-the-emergence-of-the-protein-corona
#14
Jordi Piella, Neus G Bastús, Víctor Puntes
Surface modifications of highly monodisperse citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with sizes ranging from 3.5 to 150 nm after their exposure to cell culture media supplemented with fetal bovine serum were studied and characterized by the combined use of UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential measurements. In all the tested AuNPs, a dynamic process of protein adsorption was observed, evolving toward the formation of an irreversible hard protein coating known as Protein Corona...
January 18, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990564/planarian-cholinesterase-in-vitro-characterization-of-an-evolutionarily-ancient-enzyme-to-study-organophosphorus-pesticide-toxicity-and-reactivation
#15
Danielle Hagstrom, Hideto Hirokawa, Limin Zhang, Zoran Radic, Palmer Taylor, Eva-Maria S Collins
The freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has recently emerged as an animal model for developmental neurotoxicology and found to be sensitive to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. While previous activity staining of D. japonica, which possess a discrete cholinergic nervous system, has shown acylthiocholine catalysis, it is unknown whether this is accomplished through an acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), or a hybrid esterase and how OP exposure affects esterase activity. Here, we show that the majority of D...
December 18, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974078/operation-canine-lifeline-recommendations-for-enhancing-prehospital-care-for-government-working-dogs
#16
Teija Corse, Chelsea Firth, John Burke, Kenneth Schor, James F Koterski, Sabrina McGraw, Nancy Vincent-Johnson, Lori Gordon
Operation Canine Lifeline was a tabletop exercise developed by students and faculty of Boston University School of Medicine's Healthcare Emergency Management master's program. The tabletop exercise led to discussion on current protocols for canines working in the field, what occurs if a canine encounters a toxin in the field, and what to do in situations of national security that require working with civilian agencies. This discussion led to the creation of a set of recommendations around providing prehospital veterinary care to government working dogs...
December 15, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959623/nanobodies-to-study-g-protein-coupled-receptor-structure-and-function
#17
Aashish Manglik, Brian K Kobilka, Jan Steyaert
Ligand-induced activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is a key mechanism permitting communication between cells and organs. Enormous progress has recently elucidated the structural and dynamic features of GPCR transmembrane signaling. Nanobodies, the recombinant antigen-binding fragments of camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies, have emerged as important research tools to lock GPCRs in particular conformational states. Active-state stabilizing nanobodies have elucidated several agonist-bound structures of hormone-activated GPCRs and have provided insight into the dynamic character of receptors...
January 6, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942214/nanotoxicity-emerging-concerns-regarding-nanomaterial-safety-and-occupational-hard-metal-wc-co-nanoparticle-exposure
#18
REVIEW
Andrea L Armstead, Bingyun Li
As the number of commercial and consumer products containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) continually rises, the increased use and production of these ENMs presents an important toxicological concern. Although ENMs offer a number of advantages over traditional materials, their extremely small size and associated characteristics may also greatly enhance their toxic potentials. ENM exposure can occur in various consumer and industrial settings through inhalation, ingestion, or dermal routes. Although the importance of accurate ENM characterization, effective dosage metrics, and selection of appropriate cell or animal-based models are universally agreed upon as important factors in ENM research, at present, there is no "standardized" approach used to assess ENM toxicity in the research community...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939613/pharmacotoxicology-of-clinically-relevant-concentrations-of-obeticholic-acid-in-an-organotypic-human-hepatocyte-system
#19
A Dash, R A Figler, B R Blackman, S Marukian, M S Collado, M J Lawson, S A Hoang, A J Mackey, D Manka, B K Cole, R E Feaver, A J Sanyal, B R Wamhoff
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an emerging health crisis with no approved therapies. Obeticholic acid (OCA), a farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist, shows promise in NASH trials. However, the precise mechanisms mediating OCA effects and impact on cholesterol metabolism are not fully understood. We explored the pharmaco-toxicological effects of OCA on patho-physiological pathways in hepatocytes using a previously described perfused organotypic liver system that allows culture in near-physiological insulin/glucose milieus, and exhibits drug responses at clinically-relevant concentrations...
March 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936962/using-high-content-screening-technology-for-studying-drug-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-preclinical-studies
#20
Maria Teresa Donato, Maria José Gómez-Lechón, Laia Tolosa
The need for alternatives to animal experimentation and traditional testing methods has been widely discussed in recent years. This has led scientists and regulatory authorities to investigate alternative methods for toxicity testing. High-content screening (HCS) has emerged as a powerful tool in predictive toxicology since it permits molecular, cellular and tissue-based toxicity assessments. HCS allows automated image acquisition and analysis, and provides information on multiple properties of individual cells loaded simultaneously with fluorescent dyes, which is used for drug safety evaluations...
December 21, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
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