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Emergency Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714411/pharmacology-and-literature-review-based-on-related-death-and-non-fatal-case-reports-of-the-benzofurans-and-benzodifurans-designer-drugs
#1
Bernardino Barceló Martín, Isabel Gomila
BACKGROUND: Benzofurans and benzodifurans are two groups of psychoactive substances that had originally been synthesized for research purpose. Benzofurans' structure is quite similar to the known recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine together with its active metabolite 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine. Benzodifurans are closely related to phenethylamines, but have more hallucinogens effects and much longer duration of action. This study aims to review the accessible evidence-based literature on benzofurans and benzodifurans pharmacology and toxicology...
July 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710991/the-impact-assessment-of-anticancer-drug-imatinib-on-the-feeding-behavior-of-rotifers-with-an-integrated-perspective-exposure-post-exposure-and-re-exposure
#2
Zhengyu Yan, Kun Yan, Xingliang He, Yanhua Liu, Jie Zhang, Oscar Lopez Torres, Ruixin Guo, Jianqiu Chen
The anticancer drugs are getting increasing attention as an emerging contaminant in the aquatic environments. In the present study, feeding behavior of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus under the impact of anticancer drug imatinib was evaluated. Traditional toxicological studies usually focus on dose-effect relationship at a given exposure time, while ignore the possible impact after the exposure. Thus, how the impact varied in the post-exposure and re-exposure was also considered in the present study. The feeding depression of the rotifers was attributed to the increased concentration of imatinib...
July 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710651/intoxication-caused-by-new-psychostimulants-analytical-methods-to-disclose-acute-and-chronic-use-of-benzofurans-and-ethylphenidate
#3
Bernardino Barceló, Isabel Gomila, Maria Concetta Rotolo, Emilia Marchei, Chrystalla Kyriakou, Simona Pichini, Carolina Roset, Miguel Ángel Elorza, Francesco Paolo Busardò
The acute and chronic toxicity of several new psychoactive substances (NPS) is unknown, and only little information is available on the pharmacology and toxicology, toxicokinetics, and detectability in body samples of such new compounds. We here propose analytical methods to disclose acute and chronic use of two types of new psychostimulants: benzofurans and ethylphenidate and we applied them to a real case of a subject attending Emergency Department with signs of acute intoxication due to psychotropic drug(s)...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705744/the-relationship-between-ocular-trauma-and-substance-abuse-in-emergency-department-patients
#4
Sylvia L Chang, Vaama Patel, John Giltner, Richard Lee, Catherine A Marco
INTRODUCTION: Eye injury is the second most common cause of visual impairment and a leading cause of monocular blindness in the United States. There are approximately 6 million ED visits related to drug use annually, including misuse or abuse of pharmaceuticals and illicit drug use. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between ocular trauma and substance abuse among emergency department patients and to assess that relationship with demographic factors, including age and gender...
July 8, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705729/nanomedicine-and-epigenome-possible-health-risks
#5
Bozena Smolkova, Maria Dusinska, Alena Gabelova
Nanomedicine is an emerging field that combines knowledge of nanotechnology and material science with pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences, aiming to develop nanodrugs with increased efficacy and safety. Compared to conventional therapeutics, nanodrugs manifest higher stability and circulation time, reduced toxicity and improved targeted delivery. Despite the obvious benefit, the accumulation of imaging agents and nanocarriers in the body following their therapeutic or diagnostic application generates concerns about their safety for human health...
July 10, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703896/differential-uptake-of-gold-nanoparticles-by-two-species-of-tadpole-the-wood-frog-lithobates-sylvaticus-and-the-bullfrog-l-catesbeianus
#6
Lucas B Thompson, Gerardo L F Carfagno, Kurt Andresen, Andrea J Sitton, Taylor Bury, Laura L Lee, Kevin T Lerner, Peter P Fong
Engineered nanoparticles are aquatic contaminants of emerging concern exerting ecotoxicological effects on a wide variety of organisms. We exposed cetyltrimethylammonium bromide capped spherical gold nanoparticles to wood frog and bullfrog tadpoles with conspecifics and in combination with the other species continuously for 21 days, then measured uptake and localization of gold. Wood frog tadpoles alone and in combination with bullfrog tadpoles took up significantly more gold than bullfrogs. Bullfrog tadpoles in combination with wood frogs took up significantly more gold than controls...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696452/platinum-nanoparticles-in-nanobiomedicine
#7
REVIEW
Deborah Pedone, Mauro Moglianetti, Elisa De Luca, Giuseppe Bardi, Pier Paolo Pompa
Oxidative stress-dependent inflammatory diseases represent a major concern for the population's health worldwide. Biocompatible nanomaterials with enzymatic properties could play a crucial role in the treatment of such pathologies. In this respect, platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) are promising candidates, showing remarkable catalytic activity, able to reduce the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and impair the downstream pathways leading to inflammation. This review reports a critical overview of the growing evidence revealing the anti-inflammatory ability of PtNPs and their potential applications in nanomedicine...
July 11, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671818/an-ear-on-environmental-surveillance-and-monitoring-a-case-study-on-the-use-of-exposure-activity-ratios-ears-to-prioritize-sites-chemicals-and-bioactivities-of-concern-in-great-lakes-waters
#8
Brett R Blackwell, Gerald T Ankley, Steven R Corsi, Laura A De Cicco, Keith A Houck, Richard S Judson, Shibin Li, Matthew Thomas Martin, Elizabeth Murphy, Anthony Schroeder, Edwin Smith, Joe Swintek, Daniel L Villeneuve
Current environmental monitoring approaches focus primarily on chemical occurrence. However, based on concentration alone, it can be difficult to identify which compounds may be of toxicological concern and should be prioritized for further monitoring, in-depth testing, or management. This can be problematic because toxicological characterization is lacking for many emerging contaminants. New sources of high-throughput screening (HTS) data like the ToxCast database, which contains information for over 9,000 compounds screened through up to 1,100 bioassays, are now available...
July 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669553/expert-consensus-guidelines-for-stocking-of-antidotes-in-hospitals-that-provide-emergency-care
#9
Richard C Dart, Lewis R Goldfrank, Brian L Erstad, David T Huang, Knox H Todd, Jeffrey Weitz, Vikhyat S Bebarta, E Martin Caravati, Fred M Henretig, Theodore R Delbridge, William Banner, Sandra M Schneider, Victoria E Anderson
We provide recommendations for stocking of antidotes used in emergency departments (EDs). An expert panel representing diverse perspectives (clinical pharmacology, medical toxicology, critical care medicine, hematology/oncology, hospital pharmacy, emergency medicine, emergency medical services, pediatric emergency medicine, pediatric critical care medicine, poison centers, hospital administration, and public health) was formed to create recommendations for antidote stocking. Using a standardized summary of the medical literature, the primary reviewer for each antidote proposed guidelines for antidote stocking to the full panel...
June 29, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668760/effect-of-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-on-liver-mitochondrial-function-in-chinook-salmon
#10
Andrew Yeh, David J Marcinek, James P Meador, Evan P Gallagher
We previously reported the bioaccumulation of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and perfluorinated compounds, in field-collected juvenile Chinook salmon from urban estuaries of Puget Sound, WA (Meador et al., 2016). Although the toxicological impacts of CECs on salmon are poorly understood, several of the detected contaminants disrupt mitochondrial function in other species. Here, we sought to determine whether environmental exposures to CECs are associated with hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction in juvenile Chinook...
June 16, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665287/-a-prospective-study-on-acute-poisonings-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-at-landspitali-university-hospital-in-iceland-2012
#11
Gudborg Audur Gudjonsdottir, Anna Maria Thordardottir, Jakob Kristinsson
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to assess the incidence and type of toxic exposures presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) at Landspitali University Hospital in Iceland over one year and compare the results to another study performed eleven years before. METHODS: The study was prospective and included all visits due to acute poisoning to the ED between January 1, and December 31, 2012. RESULTS: A total of 977 toxic exposures were documented...
June 2017: Læknablađiđ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662399/obesogens-in-the-aquatic-environment-an-evolutionary-and-toxicological-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Ana Capitão, Angeliki Lyssimachou, Luís Filipe Costa Castro, Miguel M Santos
The rise of obesity in humans is a major health concern of our times, affecting an increasing proportion of the population worldwide. It is now evident that this phenomenon is not only associated with the lack of exercise and a balanced diet, but also due to environmental factors, such as exposure to environmental chemicals that interfere with lipid homeostasis. These chemicals, also known as obesogens, are present in a wide range of products of our daily life, such as cosmetics, paints, plastics, food cans and pesticide-treated food, among others...
June 26, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658972/programming-microphysiological-systems-for-children-s-health-protection
#13
T B Knudsen, B Klieforth, W Slikker
Microphysiological systems (MPS) and computer simulation models that recapitulate the underlying biology and toxicology of critical developmental transitions are emerging tools for developmental effects assessment of drugs/chemicals. Opportunities and challenges exist for their application to alternative, more public health relevant and efficient chemical toxicity testing methods. This is especially pertinent to children's health research and the evaluation of complex embryological and reproductive impacts of drug/chemical exposure...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653518/-infants-poisoned-with-cannabis
#14
S Redant, N Genis, A Thiery, E Rebuffat, D Biarent
We reported three cases of infants poisoned with cannabis. These patients presented with acute neurological disorders such as drowsiness accompanied by hypotonia, mydriasis and seizure. Cannabis was found in all children either in the urine or in the blood. These cases illustrated that young age should not exclude toxicologic analysis in acute neurological disorders. Cannabis poisoning in infants is a rare reason for consultation. Clinical signs and symptoms are unspecific and severe manifesta- tions in pediatric age are not well known by emergency physicians and paediatricians...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645885/the-threshold-of-toxicological-concern-for-prenatal-developmental-toxicity-in-rats-and-rabbits
#15
B van Ravenzwaay, X Jiang, T Luechtefeld, T Hartung
The Threshold Toxicological Concern (TTC) is based on the concept that in absence of experimental data reasonable assurance of safety can be given if exposure is sufficiently low. Using the REACH database the low 5th percentile of the NO(A)EL distribution, for prenatal developmental toxicity (OECD guideline 414) was determined. For rats, (434 NO(A)ELs values) for maternal toxicity, this value was 10 mg/kg-bw/day. For developmental toxicity (469 NO(A)ELs): 13 mg/kg-bw/day. For rabbits, (100 NO(A)ELs), the value for maternal toxicity was 4 mg/kg-bw/day, for developmental toxicity, (112 NO(A)EL values): 10 mg/kg-bw/day...
June 20, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644688/intraosseous-administration-of-antidotes-a-systematic-review
#16
Audrée Elliott, Pierre-André Dubé, Amélie Cossette-Côté, Laura Patakfalvi, Eric Villeneuve, Martin Morris, Sophie Gosselin
CONTEXT: Intraosseous (IO) access is an established route of administration in resuscitation situations. Patients with serious poisoning presenting to the emergency department may require urgent antidote therapy. However, intravenous (IV) access is not always readily available. OBJECTIVE: This study reviews the current evidence for IO administration of antidotes that could be used in poisoning. The primary outcome was mortality as a surrogate of efficacy. Secondary outcomes included hemodynamic variables, electrocardiographic variables, neurological status, pharmacokinetics outcomes, and adverse effects as defined by each article...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642381/chemical-transformation-of-xenobiotics-by-the-human-gut-microbiota
#17
REVIEW
Nitzan Koppel, Vayu Maini Rekdal, Emily P Balskus
The human gut microbiota makes key contributions to the metabolism of ingested compounds (xenobiotics), transforming hundreds of dietary components, industrial chemicals, and pharmaceuticals into metabolites with altered activities, toxicities, and lifetimes within the body. The chemistry of gut microbial xenobiotic metabolism is often distinct from that of host enzymes. Despite their important consequences for human biology, the gut microbes, genes, and enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism are poorly understood...
June 23, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633314/qualitative-identification-of-fentanyl-analogs-and-other-opioids-in-postmortem-cases-by-uhplc-ion-trap-msn
#18
Elisa N Shoff, M Elizabeth Zaney, Joseph H Kahl, George W Hime, Diane M Boland
Since 2013, the Miami-Dade County Medical Examiner Department has experienced an increase in the number of opioid-related deaths. The majority of cases coincided with the introduction of fentanyl into the local heroin supply. From 2014 to 2015, Miami-Dade County experienced a near 600% increase in fentanyl-related deaths, followed by an additional 200% increase in 2016. In 2015, two novel fentanyl analogs were identified in medical examiner cases: beta-hydroxythiofentanyl and acetyl fentanyl. In 2016, four additional fentanyl analogs emerged: para-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl, butyryl fentanyl, furanyl fentanyl and carfentanil, as well as the synthetic opioid U-47700...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625566/advances-in-bioremediation-of-1-4-dioxane-contaminated-waters
#19
Shu Zhang, Phillip B Gedalanga, Shaily Mahendra
1,4-Dioxane is a contaminant of emerging concern that has been found widespread in groundwater, surface water, and drinking water environments. Many states are implementing lower regulatory advisory levels based on the toxicological profile of 1,4-dioxane and the potential public health risks. However, the unique chemical properties of 1,4-dioxane, such as high water solubility, low Henry's law constant, and importantly, the co-occurrence with chlorinated solvents and other contaminants, increase the challenges to efficiently cleanup 1,4-dioxane...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624430/comparative-assessment-of-immune-complex-mediated-hypersensitivity-reactions-with-biotherapeutics-in-the-non-human-primate-critical-parameters-safety-and-lessons-for-future-studies
#20
Sven Kronenberg, Elisabeth Husar, Christine Schubert, Christian Freichel, Thomas Emrich, Martin Lechmann, Anna Maria Giusti, Franziska Regenass
With the emergence of novel biotherapeutic formats and immunostimulatory biotherapeutics in cancer immunotherapy, an understanding of immune-complex (IC) mediated hypersensitivity reactions in toxicology studies - and their differentiation from pharmacology - remains key to the preclinical evaluation of these drugs. In this review we provide an in-depth evaluation and comparison of case examples where IC-mediated hypersensitivity reactions were observed in cynomolgus monkeys. We provide details of the parameters evaluated in each study to substantiate and guide the interpretation of these findings...
June 15, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
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