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Emergency Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778398/antipsychotic-induced-disorders-reported-cases-and-prospective-study-on-muscle-biomarkers-after-high-exposure-to-haloperidol
#1
Abderrezak Khelfi, Mohammed Azzouz, Rania Abtroun, Mohammed Reggabi, Berkahoum Alamir
Antipsychotic drugs are known to induce neuromuscular effects. In this study, we review 13 years (2002-2014) of antipsychotic intoxications reported by the anti-poisoning center of Algiers (APCA). The most recorded symptoms were neuromuscular/muscular disorders, of which haloperidol was the most inducer among all antipsychotics. A prospective study was conducted between December 2012 and January 2017 to evaluate muscle effects generated after intentional or accidental ingestion of haloperidol. Fifty-one patients admitted in different emergency departments in Algiers were included in this study...
May 17, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774514/summary-of-historical-terrestrial-toxicity-data-for-the-brominated-flame-retardant-tetrabromobisphenol-a-tbbpa-effects-on-soil-microorganisms-earthworms-and-seedling-emergence
#2
Klaus P Rothenbacher, Alison M Pecquet
This article summarizes historical and recent research on the terrestrial toxicology of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Despite its ubiquitous use and presence in the environment, little published data is available to evaluate the terrestrial ecotoxicity of TBBPA. The purposes of this paper are to enable broad access to a series of TBBPA ecotoxicity tests (nitrogen transformation, earthworm survival/reproduction, and seedling emergence/growth) that were conducted in support of regulatory risk assessments, and to summarize available research in the terrestrial toxicity of TBBPA...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772071/to-test-or-not-to-test-the-value-of-toxicology-in-a-delayed-overdose-death
#3
Erin E Walsh, Elisa N Shoff, Mary Elizabeth Zaney, George W Hime, Fintan Garavan, Diane M Boland
A case demonstrating the necessity of thorough death investigation processes where toxicology plays an active role is presented. A 33-year-old white man presented to the emergency room in respiratory distress after an overdose episode where he was revived on the scene by fire rescue. His condition continued to deteriorate and he expired 6 days after the initial incident. No admission specimens were available for testing; however, there were specimens drawn 4 and 5 days after the incident. Drug paraphernalia from the scene was obtained by the laboratory through collaboration with local law enforcement...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770421/quantitative-proteomics-and-systems-analysis-of-cultured-h9c2-cardiomyoblasts-during-differentiation-over-time-supports-a-function-follows-form-model-of-differentiation
#4
Cynthia Kankeu, Kylie Clarke, Delphi Van Haver, Kris Gevaert, Francis Impens, Anna Dittrich, H Llewelyn Roderick, Egle Passante, Heinrich J Huber
The rat cardiomyoblast cell line H9C2 has emerged as a valuable tool for studying cardiac development, mechanisms of disease and toxicology. We present here a rigorous proteomic analysis that monitored the changes in protein expression during differentiation of H9C2 cells into cardiomyocyte-like cells over time. Quantitative mass spectrometry followed by gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that early changes in H9C2 differentiation are related to protein pathways of cardiac muscle morphogenesis and sphingolipid synthesis...
May 17, 2018: Molecular omics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768651/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-reports-of-fatal-cases
#5
Mahra Nourbakhsh, Angela Miller, Jeff Gofton, Graham Jones, Bamidele Adeagbo
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is one of the more clinically challenging effects of cannabis consumption. It is characterized by cyclic attacks of nausea and vomiting in chronic cannabinoid users and learned behavior of compulsive hot bathing. The deaths of a 27-year-old female, a 27-year-old male, and a 31-year-old male with a history of CHS are reported. The decedents had a history of cyclical nausea and vomiting, chronic cannabinoid use and negative laboratory, radiological and endoscopic findings...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762685/urine-multi-drug-screening-with-gc-ms-or-lc-ms-ms-using-salle-hybrid-ppt-spe
#6
Junhui Lee, Jiwon Park, Ahra Go, Heesung Moon, Sujin Kim, Sohee Jung, Wonjoon Jeong, Heesun Chung
To intoxicated patients in the emergency room, toxicological analysis can be considerably helpful for identifying the involved toxicants. In order to develop a urine multi-drug screening (UmDS) method, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) were used to determine targeted and unknown toxicants in urine. A GC-MS method in scan mode was validated for selectivity, limit of detection (LOD) and recovery. An LC-MS-MS multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method was validated for lower LOD, recovery and matrix effect...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760857/retrospective-chart-review-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-intoxication-with-toxicologic-analysis
#7
Payal Sud, Miles Gordon, Laura Tortora, Matthew Stripp, Damon Borg, Adam Berman
Introduction: Use of synthetic cannabinoids (SC) has recently emerged as a new drug epidemic. Our emergency departments (EDs) received a surge of SC users presenting with lethargy and bradycardia, contrasting prior reports of SC-induced tachycardia and agitation. Our goal was to describe these novel presentations and characterize the compounds. Methods: We present a case series of patients with SC intoxication who presented to our toxicology service covering two tertiary care EDs between 2/11/2015 and 6/23/2015...
May 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760852/altered-mental-status-current-evidence-based-recommendations-for-prehospital-care
#8
REVIEW
Ashley Sanello, Marianne Gausche-Hill, William Mulkerin, Karl A Sporer, John F Brown, Kristi L Koenig, Eric M Rudnick, Angelo A Salvucci, Gregory H Gilbert
Introduction: In the United States emergency medical services (EMS) protocols vary widely across jurisdictions. We sought to develop evidence-based recommendations for the prehospital evaluation and treatment of a patient with an acute change in mental status and to compare these recommendations against the current protocols used by the 33 EMS agencies in the State of California. Methods: We performed a literature review of the current evidence in the prehospital treatment of a patient with altered mental status (AMS) and augmented this review with guidelines from various national and international societies to create our evidence-based recommendations...
May 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749999/freeze-dried-equine-derived-redback-spider-antivenom-a-local-irritation-study-by-intramuscular-injection-in-rabbits-and-a-repeated-dose-toxicity-study-in-rats
#9
Akihiko Yamamoto, Satomi Harano, Noriko Shinya, Ayataka Nagano, Yoshinobu Miyatsu, Kyouko Sawabe, Takayuki Matsumura, Manabu Ato, Motohide Takahashi, Hisashi Taki, Toru Hifumi
The redback spider ( Latrodectus hasseltii ) is nonindigenous to Japan but has now spread throughout the country. Bites to humans are rare but can be fatal. We prepared freeze-dried redback spider antivenom for therapeutic use against bites in Japan by immunization of horse plasma. This study included two nonclinical tests of the antivenom: a local irritation study involving a single intramuscular administration to rabbits (with injections of physiological saline and an existing freeze-dried diphtheria antitoxin as control and comparison substances, respectively) and a 2-week repeated intermittent intravenous-dose toxicity study in rats...
April 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745329/building-bridges-between-clinical-and-forensic-toxicology-laboratories
#10
Bernardino Barcelo Martin, Isabel Gomila, Valeria Noce
BACKGROUND: Clinical and forensic toxicology can be defined as the two disciplines involved the detection, identification and measurement of xenobiotics in biological and non-biological specimens to help in the diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, prevention of poisonings and to disclose causes and contributory causes of fatal intoxications, respectively. OBJECTIVE: This article explores the close connections between clinical and forensic toxicology in overlapping areas of interest...
May 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745328/a-case-of-acute-intoxication-due-to-the-assumption-of-the-new-psychoactive-substance-nps-u-47700-identification-in-urine-blood-and-pubic-hair-by-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#11
Donata Favretto, Vogliardi Susanna, Stocchero Giulia, Maietti Sergio, Tucci Marianna, Nalesso Alessandro, Snenghi Rossella
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: We report on a case of severe intoxication after insufflation of U-47700, a synthetic opioid that acts as a selective agonist of the µ-opioid receptor, several times more potent than morphine. A man in his 30s was found irresponsive in his apartment and was brought to the emergency department of a local hospital. A comatous state and severe respiratory depression were diagnosed. Anamnesis revealed that the patient could have taken the substance named "U-47700", bought in the Internet...
May 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703138/transcriptional-profiling-of-human-bronchial-epithelial-cell-beas-2b-exposed-to-diesel-and-biomass-ultrafine-particles
#12
Andrea Grilli, Rossella Bengalli, Eleonora Longhin, Laura Capasso, Maria Carla Proverbio, Mattia Forcato, Silvio Bicciato, Maurizio Gualtieri, Cristina Battaglia, Marina Camatini
BACKGROUND: Emissions from diesel vehicles and biomass burning are the principal sources of primary ultrafine particles (UFP). The exposure to UFP has been associated to cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer. Although many aspects of the toxicology of ambient particulate matter (PM) have been unraveled, the molecular mechanisms activated in human cells by the exposure to UFP are still poorly understood. Here, we present an RNA-seq time-course experiment (five time point after single dose exposure) used to investigate the differential and temporal changes induced in the gene expression of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) by the exposure to UFP generated from diesel and biomass combustion...
April 27, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697868/a-chemical-activity-approach-to-exposure-and-risk-assessment-of-chemicals-focus-articles-are-part-of-a-regular-series-intended-to-sharpen-understanding-of-current-and-emerging-topics-of-interest-to-the-scientific-community
#13
Frank A P C Gobas, Philipp Mayer, Thomas F Parkerton, Robert M Burgess, Dik van de Meent, Todd Gouin
To support the goals articulated in the vision for exposure and risk assessment in the twenty-first century, we highlight the application of a thermodynamic chemical activity approach for the exposure and risk assessment of chemicals in the environment. The present article describes the chemical activity approach, its strengths and limitations, and provides examples of how this concept may be applied to the management of single chemicals and chemical mixtures. The examples demonstrate that the chemical activity approach provides a useful framework for 1) compiling and evaluating exposure and toxicity information obtained from many different sources, 2) expressing the toxicity of single and multiple chemicals, 3) conducting hazard and risk assessments of single and multiple chemicals, 4) identifying environmental exposure pathways, and 5) reducing error and characterizing uncertainty in risk assessment...
May 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686720/screening-of-three-echinoderm-species-as-new-opportunity-for-drug-discovery-their-bioactivities-and-antimicrobial-properties
#14
Loredana Stabili, Maria Immacolata Acquaviva, Rosa Anna Cavallo, Carmela Gerardi, Marcella Narracci, Patrizia Pagliara
Echinoderms are a renewable resource with an economic value due to their increasing demand as food and/or source of bioactive molecules exerting antitumor, antiviral, anticoagulant, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. In this framework, the present study is aimed at investigating the antibacterial, antioxidant, and hemolytic activities in the three Echinoderm species Echinaster sepositus , Arbacia lixula , and Sphaerechinus granularis . The sea star E. sepositus showed lysozyme-like activity (mean diameter of lysis of 13...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679938/exposure-to-nanoplastics-disturbs-the-gut-microbiome-in-the-soil-oligochaete-enchytraeus-crypticus
#15
Bo-Kai Zhu, Yi-Meng Fang, Dong Zhu, Peter Christie, Xin Ke, Yong-Guan Zhu
Microplastics are emerging pollutants that have recently aroused considerable concern but most toxicological studies have focused on marine biota, with little investigation of the influence of microplastics on terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we fed the soil oligochaete Enchytraeus crypticus with oatmeal containing 0, 0.025, 0.5, and 10% (dry weight basis) nano-polystyrene (0.05-0.1 μm particle size) to elucidate the impact of microplastics on the growth and gut microbiome of Enchytraeus crypticus. We observed a significant reduction of weight in the animals fed 10% polystyrene and an increase in the reproduction of those fed 0...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673128/synthesis-analytical-characterization-and-monoamine-transporter-activity-of-the-new-psychoactive-substance-4-methylphenmetrazine-4-mpm-with-differentiation-from-its-ortho-and-meta-positional-isomers
#16
Gavin McLaughlin, Michael H Baumann, Pierce V Kavanagh, Noreen Morris, John D Power, Geraldine Dowling, Brendan Twamley, John O'Brien, Gary Hessman, Folker Westphal, Donna Walther, Simon D Brandt
The availability of new psychoactive substances on the recreational drug market continues to create challenges for scientists in the forensic, clinical and toxicology fields. Phenmetrazine (3-methyl-2-phenylmorpholine) and an array of its analogs form a class of psychostimulants that are well documented in the patent and scientific literature. The present study reports on two phenmetrazine analogs that have been encountered on the NPS drug market following the introduction of 3-fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM), namely 4-methylphenmetrazine (4-MPM) and 3-methylphenmetrazine (3-MPM)...
April 19, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663097/the-behaviour-of-the-nematode-steinernema-feltiae-nematoda-steinernematidae-in-sand-contaminated-with-the-industrial-pollutant-chromium-vi
#17
Stephen Boyle, Thomais Kakouli-Duarte
This study set out to determine the suitability of the nematode Steinernema feltiae as a bioindicator for heavy metal pollution, specifically chromium VI. Nematodes were introduced into sand contaminated with concentrations of Cr VI+ , in a range between 10 and 100 ppm, in increments of 10. Reproductive potential, development times and infectivity vs exposure times to Cr VI were employed as endpoints. It was observed that infective juveniles (IJ) from this nematode can survive and successfully infect host insects in the presence of Cr VI for as much as 13 days, and that the nematode increases its reproductive potential at concentrations up to 100 ppm Cr VI+ ...
April 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660870/differential-behavioural-responses-to-venlafaxine-exposure-route-warming-and-acidification-in-juvenile-fish-argyrosomus-regius
#18
Ana Luísa Maulvault, Lúcia H M L M Santos, José Ricardo Paula, Carolina Camacho, Vasco Pissarra, Fabiola Fogaça, Vera Barbosa, Ricardo Alves, Pedro Pousão Ferreira, Damià Barceló, Sara Rodriguez-Mozaz, António Marques, Mário Diniz, Rui Rosa
Antidepressants, such as venlafaxine (VFX), which are considered emerging environmental pollutants, are increasingly more present in the marine environment, and recent evidence suggest that they might have adverse effects on fish behaviour. Furthermore, altered environmental conditions associated to climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) can also have a determinant role on fish behaviour, fitness and survival. Yet, the underlying interactions between these environmental stressors (pharmaceuticals exposure and climate change) are still far from being fully understood...
April 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652682/kratom-an-emerging-drug-of-abuse-a-case-report-of-overdose-and-management-of-withdrawal
#19
Jack Diep, David Tian Chin, Somdatta Gupta, Faraz Syed, Ming Xiong, Jianguo Cheng
Kratom is an herb indigenous to Southeast Asia with psychoactive opioid compounds, often used as a treatment for chronic pain or opiate withdrawal symptoms. It is legally and readily available via Internet sales and has been identified as an emerging drug of abuse in the United States. Kratom use has been associated with psychosis, seizures, and even death. At lower doses, kratom acts as a stimulant, while at higher doses, it produces analgesia and euphoria. Here, we describe the successful management of kratom overdose and withdrawal in a young man with negative toxicology screens...
April 15, 2018: A&A practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649771/systematic-forensic-toxicological-analysis-by-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-in-serum-and-comparison-to-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#20
Marcel Grapp, Christoph Kaufmann, Frank Streit, Lutz Binder
Comprehensive screening procedures for psychoactive agents in body fluids are an essential task in clinical and forensic toxicology. With the continuous emergence and adaption of new psychoactive substances (NPS) keeping a screening method up to date is challenging. To meet these demands, hyphenated high-resolution mass spectrometry has gained interest as extensive and expandable screening approach. Here we present a comprehensive method for systematic toxicological analysis of serum by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) with data independent acquisition...
April 3, 2018: Forensic Science International
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