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Emergency Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814122/flibanserin-toxicity-in-a-toddler-following-ingestion
#1
Nicholas Granzella, Betty C Chen, Geoffrey S Baird, Matthew Valento
INTRODUCTION: Flibanserin is a medication recently approved by the FDA for treatment of generalized hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in premenopausal women. Its mechanism of action is not fully understood but is thought to modulate serotonin receptors and increase levels of norepinephrine and dopamine. While much is known about toxicity of other drugs which affect these systems, there is little information about toxicity of flibanserin at this time. CASE: We present a case of a 2-year-old boy who ingested an estimated 600 mg of his mother's flibanserin...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811174/subchronic-exposure-to-sublethal-dose-of-imidacloprid-changes-electrophysiological-properties-and-expression-pattern-of-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-subtypes-in-insect-neurosecretory-cells
#2
Yassine Benzidane, Delphine Goven, Aly Ahmed Abd-Ella, Caroline Deshayes, Bruno Lapied, Valérie Raymond
Neonicotinoids are the most important class of insecticides used in agriculture over the last decade. They act as selective agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The emergence of insect resistance to these insecticides is one of the major problems, which limit the use of neonicotinoids. The aim of our study is to better understand physiological changes appearing after subchronic exposure to sublethal doses of insecticide using complementary approaches that include toxicology, electrophysiology, molecular biology and calcium imaging...
August 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808073/unintentional-cannabis-intoxication-in-toddlers
#3
Isabelle Claudet, Sébastien Mouvier, Magali Labadie, Cécile Manin, Anne-Pascale Michard-Lenoir, Didier Eyer, Damien Dufour
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In France, cannabis consumption is illegal. The health impact of its increasing use and higher tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations is still poorly documented, particularly that of unintentional pediatric intoxications. We sought to evaluate the French national trend of admissions for unintentional cannabis intoxication in children over an 11-year period (2004-2014). METHODS: A retrospective, national, multicenter, observational study of a pediatric cohort...
August 14, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802948/modelling-the-toxicity-of-a-large-set-of-metal-and-metal-oxide-nanoparticles-using-the-ochem-platform
#4
Vasyl Kovalishyn, Natalia Abramenko, Iryna Kopernyk, Larysa Charochkina, Larysa Metelytsia, Igor V Tetko, Willie Peijnenburg, Leonid Kustov
Inorganic nanomaterials have become one of the new areas of modern knowledge and technology and have already found an increasing number of applications. However, some nanoparticles show toxicity to living organisms, and can potentially have a negative influence on environmental ecosystems. While toxicity can be determined experimentally, such studies are time consuming and costly. Computational toxicology can provide an alternative approach and there is a need to develop methods to reliably assess Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships for nanomaterials (nano-QSPRs)...
August 9, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802093/clinical-aspects-of-opium-adulterated-with-lead-in-iran-a-review
#5
Samira Alinejad, Jan Aaseth, Mohammad Abdollahi, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Omid Mehrpour
Adulteration of drugs with poisonous substances during production or consumption has caused numerous health problems. Among contaminants that have the potential of producing poisonous effects are the heavy metals lead, arsenic and thallium that make up an important group of toxic substances. The emergence of these new health problems related to opioid abuse has precipitated this MiniReview on the status of the most hazardous and common opioid adulterants. In fact, adulterated opium is a major public health problem and can threaten the health of users...
August 12, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802021/acute-exposure-to-an-environmentally-relevant-concentration-of-diclofenac-elicits-oxidative-stress-in-the-culturally-important-galaxiid-fish-galaxias-maculatus
#6
Nicole K Mcrae, Chris N Glover, S Rebekah Burket, Bryan W Brooks, Sally Gaw
Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug of growing concern in aquatic environments worldwide, yet knowledge of its effects on aquatic biota are restricted to a few model species and mechanisms of impact. In the current study, diclofenac accumulation, its effects on metabolic rate, ionoregulation, and oxidative stress were examined at environmentally-relevant (0.17 μg L-1) and elevated (763 μg L-1) concentrations in a culturally and economically important galaxiid fish, inanga (Galaxias maculatus), from the Southern Hemisphere...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800806/toxicologic-emergencies-in-patients-with-mental-illness-when-medications-are-no-longer-your-friends
#7
REVIEW
Spencer Greene, Erin AufderHeide, Lindsay French-Rosas
Patients with psychiatric disorders are at risk for toxicologic emergencies. Psychotropic medications have numerous effects on the neurologic, cardiac, and other organ systems and interact with other medications, potentially leading to further side effects. It is important to become familiar with accepted psychiatric practice guidelines, common toxidromes, medical sequelae associated with prescribed medications, and the specific workup and treatment of overdoses of frequently prescribed psychotropics.
September 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795659/role-of-mycotoxins-in-the-pathobiology-of-autism-a-first-evidence
#8
Barbara De Santis, Carlo Brera, Alessandra Mezzelani, Sabina Soricelli, Francesca Ciceri, Giorgio Moretti, Francesca Debegnach, Maria Clara Bonaglia, Laura Villa, Massimo Molteni, Maria Elisabetta Raggi
OBJECTIVES: Gene-environment interaction is an emerging hypothesis to expound not only the autism pathogenesis but also the increased incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders (such as autistic spectrum disorder, attention-deficit, hyperactivity disorder). Among xenobiotics, mycotoxins are worldwide contaminants of food that provoke toxicological effects, crucially resembling several symptoms associated with autism such as oxidative stress, intestinal permeability, and inflammation. Here, we focused on a group of mycotoxins to test their role in the manifestation of autism, try to explain their mechanism of action, and discuss possible preventive and therapeutic interventions...
August 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777878/a-multi-analyte-approach-to-help-in-assessing-the-severity-of-acute-poisonings-development-and-validation-of-a-fast-lc-ms-ms-quantification-approach-for-45-drugs-and-relevant-metabolites-with-one-point-calibration
#9
Julian A Michely, Hans H Maurer
In emergency toxicology, diagnosis, monitoring of the efficiency of detoxification, and estimating the prognosis of acute poisonings are important tasks. Comprehensive screening and quantification of relevant substances by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) help in assessing the severity of most acute poisonings. Turnaround time for such analyses must be short enough for having impact on clinical decisions. Therefore, a multi-analyte LC-MS/MS approach with a 5-min gradient was developed and validated for 45 drugs and active metabolites as complement to an existing GC-MS approach using the same liquid-liquid extraction...
August 4, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775358/integrate-life-cycle-assessment-and-risk-analysis-results-not-methods
#10
Igor Linkov, Benjamin D Trump, Ben A Wender, Thomas P Seager, Alan J Kennedy, Jeffrey M Keisler
Two analytic perspectives on environmental assessment dominate environmental policy and decision-making: risk analysis (RA) and life-cycle assessment (LCA). RA focuses on management of a toxicological hazard in a specific exposure scenario, while LCA seeks a holistic estimation of impacts of thousands of substances across multiple media, including non-toxicological and non-chemically deleterious effects. While recommendations to integrate the two approaches have remained a consistent feature of environmental scholarship for at least 15 years, the current perception is that progress is slow largely because of practical obstacles, such as a lack of data, rather than insurmountable theoretical difficulties...
August 4, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774627/cho-cell-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-analyses-of-disinfection-by-products-an-updated-review
#11
REVIEW
Elizabeth D Wagner, Michael J Plewa
The disinfection of drinking water is an important public health service that generates high quality, safe and palatable tap water. The disinfection of drinking water to reduce waterborne disease was an outstanding public health achievement of the 20th century. An unintended consequence is the reaction of disinfectants with natural organic matter, anthropogenic contaminants and bromide/iodide to form disinfection by-products (DBPs). A large number of DBPs are cytotoxic, neurotoxic, mutagenic, genotoxic, carcinogenic and teratogenic...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774615/effects-of-halobenzoquinone-and-haloacetic-acid-water-disinfection-byproducts-on-human-neural-stem-cells
#12
Katherine Z Fu, Jinhua Li, Sai Vemula, Birget Moe, Xing-Fang Li
Human neural stem cells (hNSCs) are a useful tool to assess the developmental effects of various environmental contaminants; however, the application of hNSCs to evaluate water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) is scarce. Comprehensive toxicological results are essential to the prioritization of DBPs for further testing and regulation. Therefore, this study examines the effects of DBPs on the proliferation and differentiation of hNSCs. Prior to DBP treatment, characteristic protein markers of hNSCs from passages 3 to 6 were carefully examined and it was determined that hNSCs passaged 3 or 4 times maintained stem cell characteristics and can be used for DBP analysis...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771645/opportunity-for-collaboration-between-radiation-injury-treatment-network-centers-and-medical-toxicology-specialists
#13
Elizabeth Davlantes, Samuel Shartar, Jennifer Venero, Alaina Steck, Amelia Langston, Ziad N Kazzi
OBJECTIVES: The Radiation Injury Treatment Network (RITN) comprises >50 centers across the United States that are poised to care for victims of a radiation emergency. The network is organized around bone marrow transplant centers because these facilities excel in both radiation medicine and the care of patients with severe bone marrow depression. A radiation emergency may cause not only irradiation from an external source but also internal contamination with radioactive material. Because medical toxicologists are trained in radiation injury management and have expertise in the management of internal contamination, RITN centers may benefit from partnerships with medical toxicology resources, which may be located at academic medical centers, hospital inpatient clinical services, outpatient clinics, or poison control centers...
August 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771410/international-variability-in-gastrointestinal-decontamination-with-acute-poisonings
#14
Santiago Mintegi, Stuart R Dalziel, Beatriz Azkunaga, Javier Prego, Eunate Arana-Arri, Yordana Acedo, Lorea Martinez-Indart, Javier Benito, Nathan Kuppermann
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Identifying international differences in the management of acute pediatric poisonings may help improve the quality of care. The objective of this study was to assess the international variation and appropriateness of gastrointestinal decontamination (GID) procedures performed in children and adolescents who present with acute poisonings to emergency departments. METHODS: This was an international, multicenter, cross-sectional prospective study including children <18 years with poisoning exposures presenting to 105 emergency departments in 20 countries from 8 global regions belonging to the Pediatric Emergency Research Networks...
August 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763202/paleo-ecotoxicology-what-can-lake-sediments-tell-us-about-ecosystem-responses-to-environmental-pollutants
#15
Jennifer Korosi, Joshua R Thienpont, John P Smol, Jules M Blais
The development of effective risk reduction strategies for aquatic pollutants requires a comprehensive understanding of toxic impacts on ecosystems. Classical toxicological studies are effective for characterizing pollutant impacts on biota in a controlled, simplified environment. Nonetheless, it is well-acknowledged that predictions based on the results of these studies must be tested over the long-term in a natural ecosystem setting, to account for increased complexity and multiple stressors. Paleolimnology (the study of lake sediment cores to reconstruct environmental change) can address many key knowledge gaps...
August 1, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758589/carbon-nanotubes-in-the-treatment-of-skin-cancers-safety-and-toxicological-aspects
#16
Nida Akhtar, Kamla Pathak
BACKGROUND: Skin cancer is depicted to be the most common malignant disease across the globe that is frequently diagnosed in people bearing light skin. Three common forms of skin cancers are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma. Treatment of skin cancers comprises of various forms of management strategies that can help in curing the disease including the use of several therapeutic agents. Though numerous therapies have been explored till date to deliver the active therapeutics, nanoparticulate based targeted therapy has garnered considerable interest and is a promising approach in treating skin cancers...
2017: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757310/recommendations-for-harmonization-of-data-collection-and-analysis-of-developmental-neurotoxicity-endpoints-in-regulatory-guideline-studies-proceedings-of-workshops-presented-at-society-of-toxicology-and-joint-teratology-society-and-neurobehavioral-teratology
#17
REVIEW
Abby A Li, Larry P Sheets, Kathleen Raffaele, Virginia Moser, Angela Hofstra, Alan Hoberman, Susan L Makris, Robert Garman, Brad Bolon, Wolfgang Kaufmann, Roland Auer, Edmund Lau, Thomas Vidmar, Wayne J Bowers
The potential for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of environmental chemicals may be evaluated using specific test guidelines from the US Environmental Protection Agency or the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). These guidelines generate neurobehavioral, neuropathological, and morphometric data that are evaluated by regulatory agencies globally. Data from these DNT guideline studies, or the more recent OECD extended one-generation reproductive toxicity guideline, play a pivotal role in children's health risk assessment in different world areas...
July 27, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745848/optimizing-survival-outcomes-for-adult-patients-with-nontraumatic-cardiac-arrest-digest
#18
Julianna Jung, Milana Zaurova
Patient survival after cardiac arrest can be improved significantly with prompt and effective resuscitative care. This systematic review analyzes the basic life support factors that improve survival outcome, including chest compression technique and rapid defibrillation of shockable rhythms. For patients who are successfully resuscitated, comprehensive postresuscitation care is essential. Targeted temperature management is recommended for all patients who remain comatose, in addition to careful monitoring of oxygenation, hemodynamics, and cardiac rhythm...
October 22, 2016: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739777/establishment-of-a-comprehensive-drug-overdose-fatality-surveillance-system-in-kentucky-to-inform-drug-overdose-prevention-policies-interventions-and-best-practices
#19
Sarah L Hargrove, Terry L Bunn, Svetla Slavova, Dana Quesinberry, Tracey Corey, William Ralston, Michael D Singleton, Van Ingram
BACKGROUND: According to the National Center for Health Statistics, Kentucky had the third highest drug overdose fatality rate in the nation in 2015 at 29.9 drug overdose fatalities per 100 000 population. OBJECTIVE: The elevated drug overdose fatality rate necessitated the development and implementation of a comprehensive multisource drug overdose fatality surveillance system (DOFSS). METHODS: DOFSS stakeholder work group members and data sources were identified, and memorandums of understanding were established...
July 24, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735777/heroin-and-fentanyl-overdoses-in-kentucky-epidemiology-and-surveillance
#20
Svetla Slavova, Julia F Costich, Terry L Bunn, Huong Luu, Michael Singleton, Sarah L Hargrove, Jeremy S Triplett, Dana Quesinberry, William Ralston, Van Ingram
BACKGROUND: The study aims to describe recent changes in Kentucky's drug overdose trends related to increased heroin and fentanyl involvement, and to discuss future directions for improved drug overdose surveillance. METHODS: The study used multiple data sources (death certificates, postmortem toxicology results, emergency department [ED] records, law enforcement drug submissions, and prescription drug monitoring records) to describe temporal, geographic, and demographic changes in drug overdoses in Kentucky...
June 27, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
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