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calorie reduction

Danika Martyn, Maryse Darch, Ashley Roberts, Han Youl Lee, Tina Yaqiong Tian, Naoko Kaburagi, Pablo Belmar
The current review examined published data on the intake of all major low-/no-calorie sweeteners-aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, thaumatin and steviol glycosides-globally over the last decade. The most detailed and complex exposure assessments were conducted in Europe, following a standardized approach. Japan and Korea similarly had up-to-date and regular intake data available. The data for other Asian countries, Latin America, Australia/New Zealand and global estimates, evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), while available, were shown to be more limited in terms of design...
March 15, 2018: Nutrients
Jenifer E Clapp, Sarah A Niederman, Elizabeth Leonard, Christine J Curtis
INTRODUCTION: Approximately 60% of the American diet comes from processed foods, which makes improving their nutritional quality important for Americans' health. The objective of this study was to measure changes in serving sizes, calories, and sodium in top-selling processed foods that were on the market in 2009 and 2015. METHODS: We analyzed products in the top 80% of sales in the 54 processed food categories with consistent serving sizes and sales metrics that were on the market in both 2009 and 2015...
March 15, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Dezhen Wang, Jin Yan, Miaomiao Teng, Sen Yan, Zhiqiang Zhou, Wentao Zhu
In this study, we investigated the effects of in utero and lactational exposure to BDE-47 on the progression of obesity and metabolic dysfunction in a diet-induced obesity model. Pregnant ICR mice were treated via oral gavage with low doses of BDE-47 (0, 0.002, and 0.2 mg/kg body weight) from gestational day 6 to postnatal day 21. After weaning, male offspring were fed an AIN93-based normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD: 60% calories from fat) for 14 weeks. We examined body weight, liver weight, histopathology, blood biochemistry, gene expression, and serum metabolic changes...
March 9, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Evelyn Smith, Agatha Treffiletti, Phoebe E Bailey, Ahmed A Moustafa
This study modified food attentional biases via computerized attentional bias modification training and examined the effects on food intake. Overweight women were randomly allocated to (1) direct attention away from food ("attentional-training"), (2) direct attention at random to food or neutral ("placebo"), or (3) no training ("control"). Individuals then completed a taste test. Those in the attentional-training consumed on average 600 kJ less of total food compared to the placebo...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Health Psychology
Connie W Bales, Kathryn N Porter Starr, Melissa C Orenduff, Shelley R McDonald, Karen Molnar, Aubrey K Jarman, Ann Onyenwoke, Hillary Mulder, Martha E Payne, Carl F Pieper
Background: Women have higher rates of obesity than men and develop more pronounced functional deficits as a result. Yet, little is known about how obesity reduction affects their functional status, including whether their responses differ when protein intake is enhanced. Objective: The aim of this study was to confirm the feasibility of delivery of a higher-protein (balanced at each meal) calorie-restricted diet in obese women and determine its efficacy for influencing function and retention of lean mass...
May 1, 2017: Curr Dev Nutr
Magdalena Smyka, Barbara Grzechocinska, Miroslaw Wielgos
Polycystic ovary syndrome is one of the most common endocrinopathy of the reproductive age. Heterogenity of its clinical symptoms is related to the presence of a number of phenotypes of this disfunction, hence the necessity for individualized treatment is needed. A change of a lifestyle, well-balanced diet and physical activity are the most effective medical way contributing to the improvement of carbohydrate metabolism parameters and weight reduction which reactivates regular ovulation and facilitates getting pregnant...
February 6, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Sophie Carter, Stéphanie Miard, Alexandre Caron, Sandrine Sallé-Lefort, Philippe St-Pierre, Fernando Forato Anhê, Emilie Lavoie-Charland, Pascale Blais-Lecours, Marie-Claude Drolet, Julie S Lefebvre, Julie Lacombe, Yves Deshaies, Jacques Couet, Mathieu Laplante, Mathieu Ferron, Yohan Bossé, André Marette, Denis Richard, David Marsolais, Frédéric Picard
The current demographic shift toward an aging population has led to a robust increase in the prevalence of age-associated metabolic disorders. Interestingly, recent studies have demonstrated that the etiology of obesity-related insulin resistance developed upon aging differs from that induced by high-calorie diets. Whereas the role of adaptive immunity on the changes in energy metabolism driven by nutritional challenges has gained attention in the past years, its impact upon aging remains mostly unknown. Here, we found that follicular B2 lymphocytes and expression levels of the B cell-specific transcriptional coactivator OcaB increase with age in spleen and in intra-abdominal epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), concomitantly with higher circulating levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and impaired glucose homeostasis...
March 1, 2018: Diabetes
Hye Jin Kang, Dae Won Jun, Seung Min Lee, Eun Chul Jang, Yong Kyun Cho
Background: Recent several observational studies have reported that high salt intake is associated with obesity. But it is unclear whether salt intake itself induce obesity or low salt diet can reduce body fat mass. We investigated whether a low salt diet can reduce body weight and fat amount. Matrials and Methods: The randomized, open-label pilot trial was conducted at a single institution. A total of 85 obese people were enrolled. All participants were served meals three times a day, and provided either a low salt diet or control diet with same calorie...
February 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Francesco Sofi, Monica Dinu, Giuditta Pagliai, Francesca Cesari, Anna Maria Gori, Alice Sereni, Matteo Becatti, Claudia Fiorillo, Rossella Marcucci, Alessandro Casini
Background -Only a few randomized dietary intervention studies that investigated the effects of lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (VD) in clinically healthy omnivorous subjects are available. Methods -We randomly assigned to overweight omnivores with a low-to-moderate cardiovascular risk profile a low-calorie VD compared with a low-calorie Mediterranean diet (MD), each lasting 3 months, with a crossover design. The primary outcome was the difference in body weight, body mass index, and fat mass changes between the 2 groups...
February 26, 2018: Circulation
Claudio Vernieri, Federico Nichetti, Alessandra Raimondi, Sara Pusceddu, Marco Platania, Franco Berrino, Filippo de Braud
In recent years, calorie-restricted dietary regimens and compounds such as vitamins, curcumin, green tea extracts and omega-3 fatty acids have attracted attention for their potential anticancer effects. While definitive conclusions cannot be drawn in this field, many patients adopt complementary antitumor therapies aiming to improve efficacy or reduce toxicity of chemotherapy, with uncertain benefits and the risk of additional toxicities or antagonistic interactions with standard therapies. In this manuscript, we review the different levels of available evidence to suggest or discourage specific dietary changes or supplement use in the context of cancer prevention, reduction of tumor recurrences and survival prolongation in advanced cancers...
March 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Rachel A Crockett, Sarah E King, Theresa M Marteau, A T Prevost, Giacomo Bignardi, Nia W Roberts, Brendon Stubbs, Gareth J Hollands, Susan A Jebb
BACKGROUND: Nutritional labelling is advocated as a means to promote healthier food purchasing and consumption, including lower energy intake. Internationally, many different nutritional labelling schemes have been introduced. There is no consensus on whether such labelling is effective in promoting healthier behaviour. OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of nutritional labelling for food and non-alcoholic drinks on purchasing and consumption of healthier items. Our secondary objective was to explore possible effect moderators of nutritional labelling on purchasing and consumption...
February 27, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
C L Alick, C Samuel-Hodge, D Ward, A Ammerman, C Rini, D F Tate
Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, participation, preliminary efficacy and retention in a couples-based weight loss intervention among Black men. Design setting participants: Two-arm pilot randomized clinical trial in an academic clinical setting. Forty self-identified Black men and their female cohabitating partners (n = 80) aged 18 to 65 years with body mass index from 25 to 45 kg/m2 were randomized using computer generated tables to allocate treatments...
February 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
John C Peters, Ryan Marker, Zhaoxing Pan, Jeanne Anne Breen, James O Hill
Reducing sugar intake is a major public health goal but many consumers are reluctant to use low calorie sweeteners. Two studies were conducted in healthy adults aged 18 to 65 to investigate whether addition of culinary spices to foods reduced in sugar could preserve hedonic liking. Test foods, black tea, oatmeal, and apple crisp, were prepared in full sugar (FS), reduced sugar (RS), and reduced sugar with spice (RSS) versions. Sugar reductions were 100%, 35%, and 37% for tea, oatmeal, and apple crisp, respectively...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Jessie Pullar, Luke Allen, Nick Townsend, Julianne Williams, Charlie Foster, Nia Roberts, Mike Rayner, Bente Mikkelsen, Francesco Branca, Kremlin Wickramasinghe
INTRODUCTION: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) disproportionately affect low- and lower-middle income countries (LLMICs) where 80% of global NCD related deaths occur. LLMICs are the primary focus of interventions to address development and poverty indicators. We aimed to synthesise the evidence of these interventions' impact on the four primary NCDs (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease and cancer) and their common behavioural risk factors (unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol use)...
2018: PloS One
Young Ju Lee, Ayoung Lee, Hye Jin Yoo, Minjoo Kim, Minkyung Kim, Sun Ha Jee, Dong Yeob Shin, Jong Ho Lee
BACKGROUND: Significant associations between visceral fat and alterations in plasma fatty acids have been identified in overweight individuals. However, there are scant data regarding the relationships of the visceral fat area (VFA) with the plasma fatty acid profiles and desaturase activities following weight loss. We investigated the effect of weight loss with mild calorie restriction on the circulating fatty acid profiles and desaturase activities in nondiabetic overweight subjects with high VFA...
February 22, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Diego Gomez-Arbelaez, Ana B Crujeiras, Ana I Castro, Miguel A Martinez-Olmos, Ana Canton, Lucia Ordoñez-Mayan, Ignacio Sajoux, Cristobal Galban, Diego Bellido, Felipe F Casanueva
Background: The resting metabolic rate (RMR) decrease, observed after an obesity reduction therapy is a determinant of a short-time weight regain. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate changes in RMR, and the associated hormonal alterations in obese patients with a very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK)-diet induced severe body weight (BW) loss. Method: From 20 obese patients who lost 20.2 kg of BW after a 4-months VLCK-diet, blood samples and body composition analysis, determined by DXA and MF-Bioimpedance, and RMR by indirect calorimetry, were obtained on four subsequent visits: visit C-1, basal, initial fat mass (FM) and free fat mass (FFM); visit C-2, - 7...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Daisuke Ibi, Fumika Suzuki, Masayuki Hiramatsu
People preferably take zero or low-calorie beverages and foods with artificial sweeteners even though it has been recently suggested that long-term artificial sweetener use affects physiological functions. In addition, a lower body weight was considered to be more healthful, but an abnormally low body weight caused by an excessive diet has been reported to cause health problems. Acesulfame potassium (AceK) is one of the most commonly used for foods and beverages because of its resistance to thermal degradation and marked sweetness...
February 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Shu Wen Ng, Bridget A Hollingsworth, Emily A Busey, Julie L Wandell, Donna R Miles, Jennifer M Poti
INTRODUCTION: The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) required major revisions to food packages in 2009; effects on nationwide low-income household purchases remain unexamined. METHODS: This study examines associations between WIC revisions and nutritional profiles of packaged food purchases from 2008 to 2014 among 4,537 low-income households with preschoolers in the U.S. (WIC participating versus nonparticipating) utilizing Nielsen Homescan Consumer Panel data...
March 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Xuewen Wang, Joshua R Sparks, Kimberly P Bowyer, Shawn D Youngstedt
Study Objectives: To examine the effects of moderate sleep restriction on body weight, body composition, and metabolic variables in individuals undergoing caloric restriction. Methods: Overweight or obese adults were randomized to an 8-week caloric restriction (CR) regimen alone (n=15) or combined with sleep restriction (CR+SR) (n=21). All participants were instructed to restrict daily calorie intake to 95% of their measured resting metabolic rate. Participants in the CR+SR group were also instructed to reduce time in bed on 5 nights and to sleep ad libitum on the other 2 nights each week...
February 9, 2018: Sleep
Dora Il'yasova, Luigi Fontana, Manjushri Bhapkar, Carl F Pieper, Ivan Spasojevic, Leanne M Redman, Sai Krupa Das, Kim M Huffman, William E Kraus
Calorie restriction (CR) without malnutrition slows aging in animal models. Oxidative stress reduction was proposed to mediate CR effects. CR effect on urinary F2-isoprostanes, validated oxidative stress markers, was assessed in CALERIE, a two-year randomized controlled trial. Healthy volunteers (n = 218) were randomized to prescribed 25% CR (n = 143) or ad libitum control (AL, n = 75) stratifying the randomization schedule by site, sex, and BMI. F2-isoprostanes were quantified using LC-MS/MS in morning, fasted urine specimens at baseline, at 12 and 24 months...
February 9, 2018: Aging Cell
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