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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906549/anti-inflammatory-and-ros-suppressive-effects-of-the-addition-of-fiber-to-a-high-fat-high-calorie-meal
#1
Husam Ghanim, Manav Batra, Sanaa Abuaysheh, Kelly Green, Antoine Makdissi, Nitesh Kuhadiya, Ajay Chaudhuri, Paresh Dandona
BACKGROUND: Fiber intake is associated with a reduction in the occurrence of cardiovascular events and diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the addition of fiber to a high fat-high Calorie (HFHC) meal prevents pro-inflammatory changes induced by HFHC meal. DESIGN: Ten fasting normal subjects consumed HFHC meal with or without an additional 30g of insoluble dietary fiber on 2 separate visits. Blood samples were collected over 5hr and mononuclear cells (MNC) isolated...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905882/plasticity-in-growth-of-farmed-and-wild-atlantic-salmon-is-the-increased-growth-rate-of-farmed-salmon-caused-by-evolutionary-adaptations-to-the-commercial-diet
#2
Alison Catherine Harvey, Monica Favnebøe Solberg, Eva Troianou, Gary Robert Carvalho, Martin Ian Taylor, Simon Creer, Lise Dyrhovden, Ivar Helge Matre, Kevin Alan Glover
BACKGROUND: Domestication of Atlantic salmon for commercial aquaculture has resulted in farmed salmon displaying substantially higher growth rates than wild salmon under farming conditions. In contrast, growth differences between farmed and wild salmon are much smaller when compared in the wild. The mechanisms underlying this contrast between environments remain largely unknown. It is possible that farmed salmon have adapted to the high-energy pellets developed specifically for aquaculture, contributing to inflated growth differences when fed on this diet...
December 1, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898428/beneficial-effects-of-a-dietary-weight-loss-intervention-on-human-gut-microbiome-diversity-and-metabolism-are-not-sustained-during-weight-maintenance
#3
Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Daniela Fangmann, Nike Müller, Dominik M Schulte, Malte C Rühlemann, Kathrin Türk, Ute Settgast, Wolfgang Lieb, John F Baines, Stefan Schreiber, Andre Franke, Matthias Laudes
OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we examined the effect of a very low-calorie diet(VLCD)-based obesity program on human gut microbiome diversity and metabolism during weight loss and weight maintenance. METHODS: Obese subjects underwent 3 months of VLCD followed by 3 months of weight maintenance. A lean and an obese control group were included. The microbiome was characterized by performing high-throughput dual-indexed 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. RESULTS: At baseline, a significant difference in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio between the lean and obese individuals was observed (p = 0...
November 30, 2016: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891828/reducing-calories-fat-saturated-fat-and-sodium-in-restaurant-menu-items-effects-on-consumer-acceptance
#4
Anjali A Patel, Nanette V Lopez, Harry T Lawless, Valentine Njike, Mariana Beleche, David L Katz
OBJECTIVE: To assess consumer acceptance of reductions of calories, fat, saturated fat, and sodium to current restaurant recipes. METHODS: Twenty-four menu items, from six restaurant chains, were slightly modified and moderately modified by reducing targeted ingredients. Restaurant customers (n = 1,838) were recruited for a taste test and were blinded to the recipe version as well as the purpose of the study. Overall consumer acceptance was measured using a 9-point hedonic (like/dislike) scale, likelihood to purchase scale, Just-About-Right (JAR) 5-point scale, penalty analysis, and alienation analysis...
December 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883935/liquid-fructose-in-western-diet-fed-mice-impairs-liver-insulin-signaling-and-causes-cholesterol-and-triglyceride-loading-without-changing-calorie-intake-and-body-weight
#5
Miguel Baena, Gemma Sangüesa, Natalia Hutter, José María Beltrán, Rosa María Sánchez, Núria Roglans, Marta Alegret, Juan Carlos Laguna
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Liquid fructose associates with prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Intervention studies suggest that metabolically unfit individuals are more responsive than healthy individuals to liquid fructose. We determined whether mice consuming an obesogenic Western diet were more responsive than chow-fed mice to the alterations induced by liquid fructose supplementation (LFS). METHODS: C57BL/6N mice were fed chow or Western diet±ad libitum 15% fructose solution for 12 weeks...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881395/diet-induced-weight-loss-improves-not-only-cardiometabolic-risk-markers-but-also-markers-of-vascular-function-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-abdominally-obese-men
#6
Peter J Joris, Jogchum Plat, Yvo Ham Kusters, Alfons Jhm Houben, Coen DA Stehouwer, Casper G Schalkwijk, Ronald P Mensink
BACKGROUND: Many trials assessing effects of dietary weight loss on vascular function have been performed without no-weight loss control groups and in individuals with obesity-related morbidities. Usually a limited set of vascular function markers has been investigated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine effects of diet-induced weight loss on various vascular function markers and differences between normal-weight and abdominally obese men at baseline and after weight reduction...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881390/dietary-quality-of-the-us-child-and-adolescent-population-trends-from-1999-to-2012-and-associations-with-the-use-of-federal-nutrition-assistance-programs
#7
Xiao Gu, Katherine L Tucker
BACKGROUND: The state of the economy, changes in federal food assistance programs, and policies related to nutrition and the food supply in the United States may influence dietary quality in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: We investigated dietary quality trends from 1999 to 2012 in the US child and adolescent population and their associations with socioeconomic status and participation in federal food assistance programs. DESIGN: In this study, a nationally representative sample of 38,487 children and adolescents, aged 2-18 y, in the NHANES from 1999 to 2012 were included...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874078/glutamate-dehydrogenase-activator-bch-stimulating-reductive-amination-prevents-high-fat-high-fructose-diet-induced-steatohepatitis-and-hyperglycemia-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#8
Seung Jin Han, Sung-E Choi, Sang-A Yi, Jong Gab Jung, Ik-Rak Jung, Maureen Shin, Seok Kang, Hyunhee Oh, Hae Jin Kim, Dae Jung Kim, Ji Eun Kwon, Cheol Soo Choi, Kwan Woo Lee, Yup Kang
Individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) induced by high calorie western diet are characterized by enhanced lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis in the liver. Stimulation of reductive amination may shift tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism for lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis toward glutamate synthesis with increase of NAD+/NADH ratio and thus, ameliorate high calorie diet-induced fatty liver and hyperglycemia. Stimulation of reductive amination through glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activator 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) reduced both de novo lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis but increased the activities of sirtuins and AMP-activated kinase in primary hepatocytes...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860169/environmental-interventions-for-altering-eating-behaviours-of-employees-in-the-workplace-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
J Allan, D Querstret, K Banas, M de Bruin
Environmental, or 'choice-architecture', interventions aim to change behaviour by changing properties/contents of the environment and are commonly used in the workplace to promote healthy behaviours in employees. The present review aimed to evaluate and synthesize the evidence surrounding the effectiveness of environmental interventions targeting eating behaviour in the workplace. A systematic search identified 8157 articles, of which 22 were included in the current review. All included studies were coded according to risk of bias and reporting quality and were classified according to the emergent typology of choice-architecture interventions...
November 17, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855998/outcomes-from-a-12-week-open-label-multicenter-clinical-trial-of-teduglutide-in-pediatric-short-bowel-syndrome
#10
Beth A Carter, Valeria C Cohran, Conrad R Cole, Mark R Corkins, Reed A Dimmitt, Christopher Duggan, Susan Hill, Simon Horslen, Joel D Lim, David F Mercer, Russell J Merritt, Peter F Nichol, Luther Sigurdsson, Daniel H Teitelbaum, John Thompson, Charles Vanderpool, Juliana F Vaughan, Benjamin Li, Nader N Youssef, Robert S Venick, Samuel A Kocoshis
OBJECTIVE: To determine safety and pharmacodynamics/efficacy of teduglutide in children with intestinal failure associated with short bowel syndrome (SBS-IF). STUDY DESIGN: This 12-week, open-label study enrolled patients aged 1-17 years with SBS-IF who required parenteral nutrition (PN) and showed minimal or no advance in enteral nutrition (EN) feeds. Patients enrolled sequentially into 3 teduglutide cohorts (0.0125 mg/kg/d [n = 8], 0.025 mg/kg/d [n = 14], 0...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844176/the-impact-of-minimum-wages-on-population-health-evidence-from-24-oecd-countries
#11
Otto Lenhart
This study examines the relationship between minimum wages and several measures of population health by analyzing data from 24 OECD countries for a time period of 31 years. Specifically, I test for health effects as a result of within-country variations in the generosity of minimum wages, which are measured by the Kaitz index. The paper finds that higher levels of minimum wages are associated with significant reductions of overall mortality rates as well as in the number of deaths due to outcomes that have been shown to be more prevalent among individuals with low socioeconomic status (e...
November 14, 2016: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836626/stress-induced-eating-in-women-with-binge-eating-disorder-and-obesity
#12
Rebecca R Klatzkin, Sierra Gaffney, Kathryn Cyrus, Elizabeth Bigus, Kimberly A Brownley
The purpose of the current study was to investigate stress-induced eating in women with binge-eating disorder (BED) and obesity. Three groups of women [obese with BED (n=9); obese non-BED (n=11); and normal weight (NW) non-BED (n=12)], rated their levels of hunger and psychological distress before and after completing the Trier Social Stress Test, followed by food anticipation and then consumption of their preferred snack food. We differentiated between the motivational and hedonic components of eating by measuring the amount of food participants poured into a serving bowl compared to the amount consumed...
November 9, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833254/mixed-messages-ambiguous-penalty-information-in-modified-restaurant-menu-items
#13
Harry T Lawless, Anjali A Patel, Nanette V Lopez
Restaurant menu items from six national or regional brands were modified to reduce fat, saturated fat, sodium and total calories. Twenty-four items were tested with a current recipe, and two modifications (small and moderate reductions) for 72 total products. Approximately 100 consumers tested each product for acceptability as well as for desired levels of tastes/flavor, amounts of key ingredients and texture/consistency using just-about-right (JAR) scales. Penalty analysis was conducted to assess the effects of non-JAR ratings on acceptability scores...
September 2016: Food Quality and Preference
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826939/a-novel-iron-chelator-radical-scavenger-ameliorates-motor-dysfunction-and-improves-life-span-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-sod1-g93a-als-mice
#14
Sagit Golko-Perez, Tamar Amit, Orit Bar-Am, Moussa B H Youdim, Orly Weinreb
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of the novel neuroprotective multitarget brain permeable monoamine oxidase inhibitor/iron chelating-radical scavenging drug, VAR10303 (VAR), co-administered with high-calorie/energy-supplemented diet (ced) in SOD1(G93A) transgenic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mice. Administration of VAR-ced was initiated after the appearance of disease symptoms (at day 88), as this regimen is comparable with the earliest time at which drug therapy could start in ALS patients...
November 8, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822567/lifestyle-modification-intervention-for-overweight-and-obese-hispanic-pregnant-women-development-implementation-lessons-learned-and-future-applications
#15
Roxana Torres, Sandra Soltero, Maria Angelica Trak, Carolyn M Tucker, Keimari Mendez, Maribel Campos, Walter Willett, Marytere Melendez, Mathew W Gillman, Paul W Franks, Kaumudi Joshipura, Jeremy Pomeroy, Cristina Palacios
OBJECTIVES: To describe the development, implementation and lessons learned of lifestyle intervention to promote appropriate gestational weight gain among Hispanic pregnant women. DESIGN: The intervention was informed by an empowerment oriented theoretical framework, and targeted women in the Pregnancy and Early Life Improvement Study. METHODS: The nutrition component consisted of recommendations for total calories, food quantity and improving carbohydrate and fat quality...
August 15, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811230/in-vivo-activation-of-leukocyte-gpr120-ffar4-by-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-has-minimal-impact-on-atherosclerosis-in-ldl-receptor-knockout-mice
#16
Swapnil V Shewale, Amanda L Brown, Xin Bi, Elena Boudyguina, Janet K Sawyer, Martha A Alexander-Miller, John S Parks
G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120/FFAR4) activation by n-3 PUFAs attenuates inflammation, but its impact on atherosclerosis is unknown. We determined whether in vivo activation of leukocyte GPR120/FFAR4 by n-3 vs. n-6 PUFA is atheroprotective. Leukocyte GPR120/FFAR4 WT or KO mice in the LDL receptor KO background were generated by bone marrow transplantation. Mice were fed one of the four atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and 10% calories as palm oil (PO) + 10% calories as: 1) PO, 2) fish oil (FO; 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 enriched), 3) echium oil (EO; 18:4 n-3 enriched), or 4) borage oil (BO; 18:3 n-6 enriched) for 16 weeks...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807037/two-days-of-calorie-deprivation-induced-by-underfeeding-and-aerobic-exercise-degrades-mood-and-lowers-interstitial-glucose-but-does-not-impair-cognitive-function-in-young-adults
#17
Harris R Lieberman, Asma S Bukhari, John A Caldwell, Marques A Wilson, Caroline R Mahoney, Stefan M Pasiakos, James P McClung, Tracey J Smith
BACKGROUND: In studies assessing the effects of acute undernutrition on cognitive function, volunteers are sedentary and findings are equivocal, even though glucose concentrations fall substantially. However, military personnel and endurance athletes often are underfed when physical demands, and consequently energy expenditure, are substantial. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether 2 d of near-total calorie deprivation combined with aerobic exercise degraded cognitive performance and mood...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803047/dietary-weight-loss-exercise-and-oxidative-stress-in-postmenopausal-women-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Catherine Duggan, Jean de Dieu Tapsoba, Ching-Yun Wang, Kristin L Campbell, Karen Foster-Schubert, Myron D Gross, Anne McTiernan
Oxidative stress, a potential mechanism linking obesity and cancer, results from an imbalance between activation/inactivation of reactive oxygen species, byproducts of cellular metabolism. In a randomized controlled trial, we investigated effects of diet and/or exercise on biomarkers of oxidative stress. A total of 439 overweight/obese [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m(2)] postmenopausal women, ages 50 of 75 years, were randomized to 12 months of (i) reduced-calorie weight loss diet ("diet"; n = 118); (ii) moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise ("exercise"; n = 117); (iii) combined diet and exercise intervention ("diet + exercise"; n = 117); or (iv) control (n = 87)...
November 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802965/the-role-of-dietary-fat-in-obesity-induced-insulin-resistance
#19
Denise E Lackey, Raul G Lazaro, Pingping Li, Andrew Johnson, Angelina Hernandez-Carretero, Natalie Weber, Ivetta Vorobyova, Hidekazu Tsukomoto, Olivia Osborn
Consumption of excess calories results in obesity and insulin resistance and has been intensively studied in mice and humans. The objective of this study was to determine the specific contribution of dietary fat rather than total caloric intake to the development of obesity associated insulin resistance. We used an intragastric feeding method to overfeed excess calories from low fat diet (and isocalorically matched high fat diet) through a surgically implanted gastric feeding tube to generate obesity in wild-type mice followed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies to assess the development of insulin resistance...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802278/projected-impact-of-mexico-s-sugar-sweetened-beverage-tax-policy-on-diabetes-and-cardiovascular-disease-a-modeling-study
#20
Luz Maria Sánchez-Romero, Joanne Penko, Pamela G Coxson, Alicia Fernández, Antoinette Mason, Andrew E Moran, Leticia Ávila-Burgos, Michelle Odden, Simón Barquera, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo
BACKGROUND: Rates of diabetes in Mexico are among the highest worldwide. In 2014, Mexico instituted a nationwide tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in order to reduce the high level of SSB consumption, a preventable cause of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We used an established computer simulation model of CVD and country-specific data on demographics, epidemiology, SSB consumption, and short-term changes in consumption following the SSB tax in order to project potential long-range health and economic impacts of SSB taxation in Mexico...
November 2016: PLoS Medicine
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