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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132732/the-role-of-artificial-and-natural-sweeteners-in-reducing-the-consumption-of-table-sugar-a-narrative-review
#1
REVIEW
Arshag D Mooradian, Meridith Smith, Masaaki Tokuda
The rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity worldwide has been partially attributed to the overconsumption of added sugars. Recent guidelines call for limiting the consumption of simple sugars to less than 10% of daily caloric consumption. High intensity sweeteners are regulated as food additives and include aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate and alitame. Steviol glycosides and Luo Han Guo fruit extracts are high intensity sweeteners that are designated as generally recognized as safe (GRAS)...
April 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130697/-preferences-for-the-attributes-of-home-enteral-nutrition-hen-in-spain-do-caregivers-know-their-patients-preferences
#2
Gabriel Olveira, Miguel Ángel Martínez-Olmos, Belén Fernández de Bobadilla, Mercedes Ferrer, Nuria Virgili, Belén Vega, Mercedes Blanco, Miquel Layola, Luis Lizán, Susana Aceituno
INTRODUCTION: Establishing a home enteral nutrition (HEN) that is adapted to the patient's needs and preferences can improve their quality of life and adherence, contributing to a higher treatment efficiency, better prognosis and cost reduction. As in most cases, patients need total or partial help from their caregivers, and there is a need for evaluating how well do caregivers know their patients' priorities. OBJECTIVES: Exploring patients' preferences for HEN characteristics in Spain, and the concordance between patients and caregivers...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129786/mechanisms-by-which-a-very-low-calorie-diet-reverses-hyperglycemia-in-a-rat-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#3
Rachel J Perry, Liang Peng, Gary W Cline, Yongliang Wang, Aviva Rabin-Court, Joongyu D Song, Dongyan Zhang, Xian-Man Zhang, Yuichi Nozaki, Sylvie Dufour, Kitt Falk Petersen, Gerald I Shulman
Caloric restriction rapidly reverses type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the mechanism(s) of this reversal are poorly understood. Here we show that 3 days of a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD, one-quarter their typical intake) lowered plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in a rat model of T2D without altering body weight. The lower plasma glucose was associated with a 30% reduction in hepatic glucose production resulting from suppression of both gluconeogenesis from pyruvate carboxylase (VPC), explained by a reduction in hepatic acetyl-CoA content, and net hepatic glycogenolysis...
November 8, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119719/a-mhealth-randomized-controlled-trial-to-reduce-sugar-sweetened-beverage-intake-in-preschool-aged-children
#4
B T Nezami, D S Ward, L A Lytle, S T Ennett, D F Tate
BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened beverages and maternal weight are strong drivers of child obesity, but few studies have targeted these risk factors as an obesity prevention strategy in children. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of a smartphone-delivered intervention to reduce parent-provided sugar-sweetened beverage and juice (SSB/juice) consumption among children ages 3-5 and maternal weight. METHODS: Mothers with overweight or obesity, who had a child ages 3-5 that consumed at least 12 fl...
November 8, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111889/the-combined-effects-of-exercise-diet-and-a-multi-ingredient-dietary-supplement-on-body-composition-and-adipokine-changes-in-overweight-adults
#5
Shawn M Arent, Alan J Walker, Joseph K Pellegrino, David J Sanders, Bridget A McFadden, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Hector L Lopez
BACKGROUND: Very few weight and fat loss supplements undergo finished-product research to examine efficacy. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an 8-week diet and exercise program on body composition, hip and waist girth, and adipokines and evaluate whether a dietary supplement containing raspberry ketone, capsaicin, caffeine, garlic, and Citrus aurantium enhanced outcomes. METHODS: Overweight men and women completed this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study...
November 7, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111172/nutritional-counseling-with-or-without-systematic-use-of-oral-nutritional-supplements-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-undergoing-radiotherapy
#6
Emanuele Cereda, Silvia Cappello, Sara Colombo, Catherine Klersy, Ilaria Imarisio, Annalisa Turri, Marilisa Caraccia, Valeria Borioli, Teresa Monaco, Marco Benazzo, Paolo Pedrazzoli, Franco Corbella, Riccardo Caccialanza
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the benefit of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in addition to nutritional counseling in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT). METHODS: In a single-center, randomized, pragmatic, parallel-group controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02055833; February 2014-August 2016), 159 newly diagnosed HNC patients suitable for to RT regardless of previous surgery and induction chemotherapy were randomly assigned to nutritional counseling in combination with ONS (N = 78) or without ONS (N = 81) from the start of RT and continuing for up to 3 months after its end...
October 27, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110715/liraglutide-dictates-macrophage-phenotype-in-apolipoprotein-e-null-mice-during-early-atherosclerosis
#7
Robyn Bruen, Sean Curley, Sarina Kajani, Daniel Crean, Marcella E O'Reilly, Margaret B Lucitt, Catherine G Godson, Fiona C McGillicuddy, Orina Belton
BACKGROUND: Macrophages play a pivotal role in atherosclerotic plaque development. Recent evidence has suggested the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, liraglutide, can attenuate pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages. We hypothesized that liraglutide could limit atherosclerosis progression in vivo via modulation of the inflammatory response. METHODS: Human THP-1 macrophages and bone marrow-derived macrophages, from both wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) and apolipoprotein E null mice (ApoE(-/-)) were used to investigate the effect of liraglutide on the inflammatory response in vitro...
November 6, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098749/to-go-or-not-to-go-a-proof-of-concept-study-testing-food-specific-inhibition-training-for-women-with-eating-and-weight-disorders
#8
Robert Turton, Bruno P Nazar, Emilee E Burgess, Natalia S Lawrence, Valentina Cardi, Janet Treasure, Colette R Hirsch
Inefficient food-specific inhibitory control is a potential mechanism that underlies binge eating in bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Go/no-go training tools have been developed to increase inhibitory control over eating impulses. Using a within-subjects design, this study examined whether one session of food-specific go/no-go training, versus general inhibitory control training, modifies eating behaviour. The primary outcome measure was food consumption on a taste test following each training session...
November 3, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071986/-effect-of-acupuncture-therapy-in-combination-with-nutrition-control-on-body-weight-reduction-in-postpartum-obesity-subjects
#9
Hui-Min Zhang, Chao Jiang, Dan-Xi Cheng, Rong-Xing Shi
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical effect of acupuncture therapy in the treatment of postpartum obesity subjects. METHODS: A total of 71 postpartum obesity subjects were allocated to treatment group (n=35) and control group (n=36). Participants of the control group were asked to receive weekly nutrition consultation (body-weight management) for calorie intake control during 4 weeks' treatment, and those of the acupuncture group were treated by manual acupuncture stimulation of Zhongwan (CV 12), Zhongji(CV 3), Qihai(CV 6), Shuifen (CV 9), and Guanyuan (CV 4), bilateral Tianshu (ST 25), Guilai (ST 29), Shousanli (LI 10), Zusanli (ST 36), Fenglong (ST 40), and Yinlingquan (SP 9) in combination with nutrition consultation...
June 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068433/diet-and-exercise-interventions-for-pediatric-cancer-patients-during-therapy-tipping-the-scales-for-better-outcomes
#10
REVIEW
Keri L Schadler, Eugenie S Kleinerman, Joya Chandra
Obesity at diagnosis is a negative prognostic indicator for several pediatric cancers including acute leukemia and bone tumors. Incidence of obesity in children has increased three-fold over the past 2 decades, and causes for this include poor diet, excessive caloric intake, and lack of physical activity, which are collectively referred to as energy balance-related behaviors. Few energy balance interventions have been implemented in pediatric cancer patients during treatment, and here we will probe the rationale for pursuing such studies...
October 25, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062341/changes-in-mediators-of-inflammation-and-pro-thrombosis-after-12-months-of-dietary-modification-in-adults-with-metabolic-syndrome
#11
S K Rahamon, U A Fabian, M A Charles-Davies, J A Olaniyi, A A Fasanmade, K S Akinlade, O E Oyewole, M O Owolabi, J R Adebusuyi, O O Hassan, B M Ajobo, M O Ebesunun, K Adigun, O O Popoola, W Omiyale, O G Arinola, E O Agbedana
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effects of a 12-month dietary modification on indices of inflammation and pro-thrombosis in adults with metabolic syndrome (MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This longitudinal study involved 252 adults with MS recruited from the Bodija market, Ibadan and its environs. Participants were placed on 20%, 30% and 50% calories obtained from protein, total fat and carbohydrate respectively and were followed up monthly for 12 months. Anthropometry and blood pressure were measured using standard methods...
June 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057678/healthfulness-and-nutritional-composition-of-canadian-prepackaged-foods-with-and-without-sugar-claims
#12
Jodi T Bernstein, Beatriz Franco-Arellano, Alyssa Schermel, Marie-Ève Labonté, Mary R L'Abbé
The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in calories, nutrient content, overall healthfulness, and use of sweetener ingredients between products with and without sugar claims. Consumers assume products with sugar claims are healthier and lower in calories. It is therefore important claims be found on comparatively healthier items. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of the University of Toronto's 2013 Food Label Database. Subcategories where at least 5% of products (and n ≥ 5) carried a sugar claim were included (n = 3048)...
October 23, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056370/trends-in-sodium-content-of-menu-items-in-large-chain-restaurants-in-the-u-s
#13
Julia A Wolfson, Alyssa J Moran, Marian P Jarlenski, Sara N Bleich
INTRODUCTION: Consuming too much sodium is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, and restaurant foods are a primary source of sodium. This study assessed recent trends in sodium content of menu items in U.S. chain restaurants. METHODS: Data from 21,557 menu items in 66 top-earning chain restaurants available from 2012 to 2016 were obtained from the MenuStat project and analyzed in 2017. Generalized linear models were used to examine changes in calorie-adjusted, per-item sodium content of menu items offered in all years (2012-2016) and items offered in 2012 only compared with items newly introduced in 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053575/the-impact-of-a-weight-loss-intervention-on-diet-quality-and-eating-behaviours-in-people-with-obesity-and-copd
#14
Rebecca F McLoughlin, Vanessa M McDonald, Peter G Gibson, Hayley A Scott, Michael J Hensley, Lesley MacDonald-Wicks, Lisa G Wood
There is a paucity of evidence to guide clinicians about appropriate management strategies for people with obesity and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We have recently published results from the first weight loss intervention in adults (>18 years) with obesity (body mass index; BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²) and COPD, using a low-calorie diet coupled with a partial meal replacement plan and resistance exercise training, which resulted in a 6.4% reduction in weight while maintaining skeletal muscle mass and improving health status...
October 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046007/-dietary-recommendations-in-metabolic-vascular-syndrome
#15
Katharina Lechner, Nicole Erickson, Benjamin Lechner, Florian Horn
Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death globally. Poor diet constitutes a key factor in the initiation and progression of cardiovascular disease and has become the leading risk factor for disability and death worldwide. Therefore, addressing suboptimal nutrition is of key prognostic relevance in primary and secondary prevention of metabolic vascular syndrome.Metabolic vascular syndrome is a multidimensional network of acquired cardiometabolic risk factors closely related to insulin resistance (IR) and concomitant hyperinsulinemia...
October 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044338/nutritional-profile-of-hemodialysis-patients-concerning-treatment-time
#16
Livia de Almeida Alvarenga, Bárbara Danelon Andrade, Michelle Andrade Moreira, Roberto de Paula Nascimento, Isabela Dariú Macedo, Aline Silva de Aguiar
INTRODUCTION: The mortality of the population with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on hemodialysis (HD) is very high and the protein-energy malnutrition stands out as one of the most common consequences in relation to this condition. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between time of hemodialysis and nutritional parameters of patients. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study with secondary data, developed of the University Hospital of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora (HU/UFJF)...
July 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029389/a-ketogenic-diet-supplemented-with-medium-chain-triglycerides-enhances-the-anti-tumor-and-anti-angiogenic-efficacy-of-chemotherapy-on-neuroblastoma-xenografts-in-a-cd1-nu-mouse-model
#17
Sepideh Aminzadeh-Gohari, René Günther Feichtinger, Silvia Vidali, Felix Locker, Tricia Rutherford, Maura O'Donnel, Andrea Stöger-Kleiber, Johannes Adalbert Mayr, Wolfgang Sperl, Barbara Kofler
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a pediatric malignancy characterized by a marked reduction in aerobic energy metabolism. Recent preclinical data indicate that targeting this metabolic phenotype by a ketogenic diet (KD), especially in combination with calorie restriction, slows tumor growth and enhances metronomic cyclophosphamide (CP) therapy of NB xenografts. Because calorie restriction would be contraindicated in most cancer patients, the aim of the present study was to optimize the KD such that the tumors are sensitized to CP without the need of calorie restriction...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025607/peek-radiolucent-plate-for-distal-radius-fractures-multicentre-clinical-results-at-12-months-follow-up
#18
Bruno Di Maggio, Pasquale Sessa, Patrizia Mantelli, Pietro Maniscalco, Fabrizio Rivera, Giorgio Maria Calori, Luigi Bisogno, Gabriele Scaravilli, Marco Caforio
INTRODUCTION: Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with plate and screws represents the recommended treatment for unstable intra-articular distal radius fractures. Although significant progresses in surgical technique have been made, anatomical reconstruction of radio-carpal articular surface still represent a difficult task, especially in multifragmentary fractures. Available PEEK reinforced-carbon fiber composite radiolucent devices allow both an easier and more careful assessment of intra-operative reduction of the articular surface of distal radius and prompt correction of any residual step deformity...
October 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019954/weight-loss-in-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease-should-we-consider-individualised-qualitative-ad-libitum-diets-a-narrative-review-and-case-study
#19
REVIEW
Capizzi Irene, Teta Luigi, Vigotti Federica Neve, Tognarelli Giuliana, Consiglio Valentina, Scognamiglio Stefania, Piccoli Giorgina Barbara
In advanced chronic kidney disease, obesity may bring a survival advantage, but many transplant centres demand weight loss before wait-listing for kidney graft. The case here described regards a 71-year-old man, with obesity-related glomerulopathy; referral data were: weight 110 kg, Body Mass Index (BMI) 37 kg/m², serum creatinine (sCr) 5 mg/dL, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 23 mL/min, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 75 mg/dL, proteinuria 2.3 g/day. A moderately restricted, low-protein diet allowed reduction in BUN (45-55 mg/dL) and good metabolic and kidney function stability, with a weight increase of 6 kg...
October 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973989/a-meta-analysis-to-determine-the-impact-of-restaurant-menu-labeling-on-calories-and-nutrients-ordered-or-consumed-in-u-s-adults
#20
REVIEW
Thaisa M Cantu-Jungles, Lacey A McCormack, James E Slaven, Maribeth Slebodnik, Heather A Eicher-Miller
A systematic review and meta-analysis determined the effect of restaurant menu labeling on calories and nutrients chosen in laboratory and away-from-home settings in U.S. adults. Cochrane-based criteria adherent, peer-reviewed study designs conducted and published in the English language from 1950 to 2014 were collected in 2015, analyzed in 2016, and used to evaluate the effect of nutrition labeling on calories and nutrients ordered or consumed. Before and after menu labeling outcomes were used to determine weighted mean differences in calories, saturated fat, total fat, carbohydrate, and sodium ordered/consumed which were pooled across studies using random effects modeling...
September 30, 2017: Nutrients
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