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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444355/improvement-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-with-weight-loss-is-dependent-on-body-position-during-sleep
#1
Simon A Joosten, Jun K Khoo, Bradley A Edwards, Shane A Landry, Matthew T Naughton, John B Dixon, Garun S Hamilton
Study Objectives: Weight loss fails to resolve obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in most patients, however it is unknown as to whether weight loss differentially affects OSA in the supine compared to non-supine sleeping positions. We aimed to determine if weight loss in obese OSA patients results in a greater reduction in the non-supine Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) compared to the supine AHI, thus converting subjects into supine predominant OSA. Methods: Post hoc analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial assessing the effect of weight loss (bariatric surgery vs medical weight loss) on OSA in 60 obese subjects (body mass index: >35 and <55) with recently diagnosed (<6 months) OSA and AHI of ≥ 20 events/hour...
April 21, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443480/adverse-placental-perfusion-and-pregnancy-outcomes-in-a-new-nonhuman-primate-model-of-gestational-protein-restriction
#2
Victoria H J Roberts, Jamie O Lo, Katherine S Lewandowski, Peter Blundell, Kevin L Grove, Christopher D Kroenke, Elinor L Sullivan, Charles T Roberts, Antonio E Frias
Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy impacts fetal growth, with developmental consequences that extend to later life outcomes. In underdeveloped countries, this malnutrition typically takes the form of poor dietary protein content and quality, even if adequate calories are consumed. Here, we report the establishment of a nonhuman primate model of gestational protein restriction (PR) in order to understand how placental function and pregnancy outcomes are affected by protein deficiency. Rhesus macaques were assigned to either a control diet containing 26% protein or switched to a 13% PR diet prior to conception and maintained on this PR diet throughout pregnancy...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442947/a-high-fat-diet-induces-a-loss-of-midbrain-dopaminergic-neuronal-function-that-underlies-motor-abnormalities
#3
Yunseon Jang, Min Joung Lee, Jeongsu Han, Soo Jeong Kim, Ilhwan Ryu, Xianshu Ju, Min Jeong Ryu, Woosuk Chung, Eungseok Oh, Gi Ryang Kweon, Jun Young Heo
Movement defects in obesity are associated with peripheral muscle defects, arthritis, and dysfunction of motor control by the brain. Although movement functionality is negatively correlated with obesity, the brain regions and downstream signaling pathways associated with movement defects in obesity are unclear. A dopaminergic neuronal pathway from the substantia nigra (SN) to the striatum is responsible for regulating grip strength and motor initiation through tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity-dependent dopamine release...
April 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420164/the-angiogenesis-inhibitor-als-l1023-from-lemon-balm-leaves-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-through-regulating-the-visceral-adipose-tissue-function
#4
Jeongjun Kim, Haerim Lee, Jonghoon Lim, Jaeho Oh, Soon Shik Shin, Michung Yoon
Similar to neoplastic tissues, growth and development of adipose tissue are thought to be angiogenesis-dependent. Since visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we hypothesized that angiogenesis inhibition would attenuate obesity-induced NAFLD. We fed C57BL/6J mice a low-fat diet (LFD, chow 10% kcal fat), a high-fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal fat) or HFD supplemented with the lemon-balm extract ALS-L1023 (HFD-ALS) for 15 weeks. ALS-L1023 reduced endothelial cell-tube formation in vitro...
April 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416864/synthesis-of-structured-lipids-containing-behenic-acid-from-fully-hydrogenated-crambe-abyssinica-oil-by-enzymatic-interesterification
#5
Marilene D M Morselli Ribeiro, Chiu Chih Ming, Thiago I B Lopes, Renato Grimaldi, Anita J Marsaioli, Lireny A G Gonçalves
Low-calorie structured lipids (SLs) rich in behenic and oleic acids were produced by enzymatic (EI) and chemical interesterification (CI) of high oleic sunflower oil and fully hydrogenated Crambe abyssinica oil in proportions of 60:40, 50:50, 40:60 and 30:70 (w/w), respectively. The immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL IM) was used for 3 h at 70 °C at a dosage of 7% (w/w) free of organic solvents. The original blend (BE) and the reaction products were evaluated for their fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerols (TAG) compositions, solid fat contents, thermal analysis, regiospecific distribution of the FA, microstructure and polymorphism...
April 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416368/nutritional-management-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-review-study
#6
REVIEW
Zeinab Faghfoori, Siavash Fazelian, Mahdi Shadnoush, Reza Goodarzi
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age, which leads to reproductive, hormonal and metabolic abnormalities. Due to the presence of insulin resistance, PCOS increases the risk of chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes, hypertension, lipid disorders, cardiovascular diseases and malignancies such as breast and endometrial cancer. The actual cause of this syndrome is unknown but environmental factors such as dietary habits play an important role in prevention and treatment and lifestyle modifications are the most important therapeutic strategies in these patients...
April 5, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412652/during-yeast-chronological-aging-resveratrol-supplementation-results-in-a-short-lived-phenotype-sir2-dependent
#7
Ivan Orlandi, Giulia Stamerra, Maurizio Strippoli, Marina Vai
Resveratrol (RSV) is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound endowed with interesting biological properties/functions amongst which are its activity as an antioxidant and as Sirtuin activating compound towards SIRT1 in mammals. Sirtuins comprise a family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases that are involved in many physiological and pathological processes including aging and age-related diseases. These enzymes are conserved across species and SIRT1 is the closest mammalian orthologue of Sir2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
April 9, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412520/nutrition-modulation-of-human-aging-the-calorie-restriction-paradigm
#8
Sai Krupa Das, Priya Balasubramanian, Yasoma K Weerasekara
Globally, the aging population is growing rapidly, creating an urgent need to attenuate age-related health conditions, including metabolic disease and disability. A promising strategy for healthy aging based on consistently positive results from studies with a variety of species, including non-human primates (NHP), is calorie restriction (CR), or the restriction of energy intake while maintaining intake of essential nutrients. The burgeoning evidence for this approach in humans is reviewed and the major study to date to address this question, CALERIE (Comprehensive Assessment of the Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy), is described...
April 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407662/effects-of-a-one-week-fasting-therapy-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-metabolic-syndrome-a-randomized-controlled-explorative-study
#9
Chenying Li, Badri Sadraie, Nico Steckhan, Christian Kessler, Rainer Stange, Michael Jeitler, Andreas Michalsen
There is increasing experimental evidence for beneficial effects of calorie restriction and intermittent fasting in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In humans, prolonged fasting is established as a health-promoting complementary treatment in Europe and claimed to improve metabolism by a complex hormetic response. We aimed to investigate effects of a one-week fasting period compared to usual care in T2DM by means of a pilot trial. Patients with manifest T2DM medically treated with oral hypoglycemic agents and/or insulin were randomly assigned to a 7-day fasting program followed by dietary advice or to usual care and dietary advice only...
April 13, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403206/persistent-weight-loss-with-a-non-invasive-novel-medical-device-to-change-eating-behaviour-in-obese-individuals-with-high-risk-cardiovascular-risk-profile
#10
Peter von Seck, F Martin Sander, Leon Lanzendorf, Sabine von Seck, André Schmidt-Lucke, Mirja Zielonka, Caroline Schmidt-Lucke
In evidence-based weight-loss programs weight regain is common after an initial weight reduction. Eating slowly significantly lowers meal energy intake and hunger ratings. Despite this knowledge, obese individuals do not implement this behaviour. We, thus tested the hypothesis of changing eating behaviour with an intra-oral medical device leading to constant weight reduction in overweight and obesity. Six obese patients (6 men, age 56 ± 14, BMI 29 ± 2 kg / m2) with increased CVRF profile were included in this prospective study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401087/low-dose-yeast-hydrolysate-in-treatment-of-obesity-and-weight-loss
#11
Eun Young Jung, Jong Woo Lee, Yang Hee Hong, Un Jae Chang, Hyung Joo Suh
The anti-obesity effects of yeast hydrolysate (YH) supplementation (1.0 g/d) have already been demonstrated. We investigated whether a low dose of YH (0.5 g/d, YH-500) also has the anti-obesity effects. Thirty obese women were randomly assigned to the control or YH-500 groups. After 8 weeks, weight and body mass index were significantly reduced by the YH treatment (0.5 g/d) (P<0.05). The YH-500 group lost a significant amount of body fat after the 8-week treatment: fat mass 25.9 kg (baseline) versus 23.8 kg (8th week), P<0...
March 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398464/caloric-restriction-and-healthy-life-span-frail-phenotype-of-nonhuman-primates-in-the-wisconsin-national-primate-research-center-caloric-restriction-study
#12
Yosuke Yamada, Joseph W Kemnitz, Richard Weindruch, Rozalyn M Anderson, Dale A Schoeller, Ricki J Colman
Calorie restriction without malnutrition increases longevity and delays the onset of age-associated disorders in multiple species. Recently, greater emphasis has been placed on healthy life span and preventing frailty than on longevity. Here, we show the beneficial effect of long-term calorie restriction on frailty in later life in a nonhuman primate. Frail phenotypes were evaluated using metabolic and physical activity data and defined using the Fried index. Shrinking was defined as unintentional weight loss of greater than 5% of body weight...
April 8, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382218/a-lifestyle-intervention-program-for-successfully-addressing-major-cardiometabolic-risks-in-persons-with-sci-a-three-subject-case-series
#13
Gregory E Bigford, Armando J Mendez, Luisa Betancourt, Patricia Burns-Drecq, Deborah Backus, Mark S Nash
INTRODUCTION: This study is a prospective case series analyzing the effects of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program in three patients with chronic paraplegia having major risks for the cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS). CASE PRESENTATION: Individuals underwent an intense 6-month program of circuit resistance exercise, nutrition using a Mediterranean diet and behavioral support, followed by a 6-month extension (maintenance) phase involving minimal support...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329121/very-low-calorie-diets-for-weight-loss-in-obese-older-adults-a-randomized-trial
#14
Cilla J Haywood, Luke A Prendergast, Katrina Purcell, Lauren Le Fevre, Wen Kwang Lim, Mary Galea, Joseph Proietto
Background: Obesity contributes to disability in older adults, and this is offset by weight loss and exercise. Very Low Calorie Diets (VLCDs) achieve rapid weight loss; however, these have not been rigorously evaluated in older people. Methods: A randomized trial was conducted from August 2012 through December 2015. The intervention was 12 weeks of thrice weekly exercise combined with either healthy eating advice (Ex/HE), hypocaloric diet (Ex/Diet), or VLCD (Ex/VLCD)...
February 20, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314502/nutrient-sensing-and-the-oxidative-stress-response
#15
REVIEW
Hanzhi Luo, Hou-Hsien Chiang, Makensie Louw, Albert Susanto, Danica Chen
The simplicity and effectiveness of calorie restriction (CR) in lifespan and healthspan extension have fascinated generations searching for the Fountain of Youth. CR reduces levels of oxidative stress and damage, which have been postulated in the free radical theory of aging as a major cause of aging and diseases of aging. This reduction has long been viewed as a result of passive slowing of metabolism. Recent advances in nutrient sensing have provided molecular insights into the oxidative stress response and suggest that CR triggers an active defense program involving a cascade of molecular regulators to reduce oxidative stress...
March 14, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299034/the-effect-of-a-lifestyle-modification-education-on-adiposity-measures-in-overweight-and-obese-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-patients
#16
Arman Arab, Gholamreza Askari, Parastoo Golshiri, Awat Feizi, Ali Hekmatnia, Bijan Iraj, Mojgan Nourian
BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasingly associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and weight loss through a combination of dietary modifications and increased physical activity is a primary goal of therapy in this disease. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a lifestyle modification education on adiposity measures, physical activity, and total calorie intake in overweight and obese NAFLD patients. METHODS: During 8 weeks, 82 obese patients were randomly assigned into either an intervention group (n = 41) receiving a lifestyle modification education or to a control group (n = 41) receiving usual care...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252552/effects-of-resistance-training-and-protein-supplementation-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#17
Takudzwa A Madzima, Michael J Ormsbee, Erica A Schleicher, Robert J Moffatt, Lynn B Panton
INTRODUCTION: To evaluate 12 wk of resistance training (RT; n=16) and protein supplementation (RT+protein; n=17) on muscular strength, body composition and blood biomarkers of muscle (insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)), fat (adiponectin), and inflammation [human C-reactive protein (CRP)] in breast cancer survivors (BCS). METHODS: Thirty-three BCS (59±8yr) were measured pre and post training for one-repetition maximum (1-RM) muscular strength (chest press: leg extension); body composition (lean mass (LM); fat mass (FM)) via DXA and serum concentrations of IGF-1, adiponectin, and CRP...
March 1, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251935/dietary-quality-changes-in-response-to-a-sugar-sweetened-beverage-reduction-intervention-results-from-the-talking-health-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#18
Valisa E Hedrick, Brenda M Davy, Wen You, Kathleen J Porter, Paul A Estabrooks, Jamie M Zoellner
Background: The reduction of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake may be beneficial for weight management and other related health conditions; however, to our knowledge, no data exist regarding the spontaneous changes in other dietary components or the overall dietary quality after an SSB-reduction intervention.Objectives: We explored longitudinal changes within and between an SSB-reduction intervention (SIPsmartER) and a physical activity intervention (MoveMore) with respect to spontaneous changes in 1) energy intake and macronutrients and micronutrients, 2) dietary quality [Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI)], and 3) beverage categories...
April 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250801/press-pulse-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-for-the-metabolic-management-of-cancer
#19
Thomas N Seyfried, George Yu, Joseph C Maroon, Dominic P D'Agostino
BACKGROUND: A shift from respiration to fermentation is a common metabolic hallmark of cancer cells. As a result, glucose and glutamine become the prime fuels for driving the dysregulated growth of tumors. The simultaneous occurrence of "Press-Pulse" disturbances was considered the mechanism responsible for reduction of organic populations during prior evolutionary epochs. Press disturbances produce chronic stress, while pulse disturbances produce acute stress on populations. It was only when both disturbances coincide that population reduction occurred...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245156/carbohydrates-as-fat-replacers
#20
Xingyun Peng, Yuan Yao
The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
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