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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931850/effect-of-caloric-restriction-on-gut-permeability-inflammation-markers-and-fecal-microbiota-in-obese-women
#1
Beate Ott, Thomas Skurk, Ljiljana Hastreiter, Ilias Lagkouvardos, Sandra Fischer, Janine Büttner, Teresa Kellerer, Thomas Clavel, Michael Rychlik, Dirk Haller, Hans Hauner
Recent findings suggest an association between obesity, loss of gut barrier function and changes in microbiota profiles. Our primary objective was to examine the effect of caloric restriction and subsequent weight reduction on gut permeability in obese women. The impact on inflammatory markers and fecal microbiota was also investigated. The 4-week very-low calorie diet (VLCD, 800 kcal/day) induced a mean weight loss of 6.9 ± 1.9 kg accompanied by a reduction in HOMA-IR (Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance), fasting plasma glucose and insulin, plasma leptin, and leptin gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914421/acid-base-safety-during-the-course-of-a-very-low-calorie-ketogenic-diet
#2
Diego Gomez-Arbelaez, Ana B Crujeiras, Ana I Castro, Albert Goday, Antonio Mas-Lorenzo, Ana Bellon, Cristina Tejera, Diego Bellido, Cristobal Galban, Ignacio Sajoux, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Felipe F Casanueva
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diets have been consistently shown to be an effective obesity treatment, but the current evidence for its acid-base safety is limited. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the acid-base status of obese patients during the course of a VLCK diet. METHOD: Twenty obese participants undertook a VLCK diet for 4 months. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, and venous blood gases were obtained on four subsequent visits: visit C-1 (baseline); visit C-2, (1-2 months); maximum ketosis; visit C-3 (2-3 months), ketosis declining; and visit C-4 at 4 months, no ketosis...
September 15, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894050/compounds-of-psoriasis-with-obesity-and-overweight
#3
Agnieszka Owczarczyk-Saczonek, Waldemar Placek
Many epidemiological studies have confirmed the relationship of obesity and psoriasis, and it is believed that obesity is an independent risk factor for its development and is associated with a worse prognosis. Furthermore, the reduction of body weight, using low-calorie diet combined with exercise, reduces the severity of psoriasis.Visceral adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, producing proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17) and adipokines (adiponectin, omentin, chemerin). They participate in the development of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, and consequently of the cardiovascular diseases...
August 24, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890701/high-fat-high-sugar-diet-reduces-voluntary-wheel-running-in-mice-independent-of-sex-hormone-involvement
#4
Heather L Vellers, Ayland C Letsinger, Nicholas R Walker, Jorge Z Granados, J Timothy Lightfoot
Introduction: Indirect results in humans suggest that chronic overfeeding decreases physical activity with few suggestions regarding what mechanism(s) may link overfeeding and decreased activity. The primary sex hormones are known regulators of activity and there are reports that chronic overfeeding alters sex hormone levels. Thepurpose of this study was to determine if chronic overfeeding altered wheel running through altered sex hormone levels. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J mice were bred and the pups were weaned at 3-weeks of age and randomly assigned to either a control (CFD) or high fat/high sugar (HFHS) diet for 9-11 weeks depending on activity analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878197/fructose-consumption-lipogenesis-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
REVIEW
Kasper W Ter Horst, Mireille J Serlie
Increased fructose consumption has been suggested to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, but a causal role of fructose in these metabolic diseases remains debated. Mechanistically, hepatic fructose metabolism yields precursors that can be used for gluconeogenesis and de novo lipogenesis (DNL). Fructose-derived precursors also act as nutritional regulators of the transcription factors, including ChREBP and SREBP1c, that regulate the expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis and DNL genes...
September 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871849/resistance-training-combined-with-diet-decreases-body-fat-while-preserving-lean-mass-independent-of-resting-metabolic-rate-a-randomized-trial
#6
Todd Miller, Stephanie Mull, Alan Albert Aragon, James Krieger, Brad Jon Schoenfeld
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of resistance training only (RT n=10), dietary intervention only (DIET n=10), resistance training plus diet (RT+DIET n=10) and control (CON n=10) on body composition and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a cohort of 40 premenopausal female volunteers. Subjects in DIET and RT+DIET were provided with daily macronutrient and calorie goals based on DXA and RMR tests, with protein maintained at 1.4 g/kg/day. Subjects in the RT and RT+DIET groups performed a supervised progressive RT program consisting of exercises for all the major muscle groups of the body...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869573/effects-of-whey-soy-or-leucine-supplementation-with-12-weeks-of-resistance-training-on-strength-body-composition-and-skeletal-muscle-and-adipose-tissue-histological-attributes-in-college-aged-males
#7
C Brooks Mobley, Cody T Haun, Paul A Roberson, Petey W Mumford, Matthew A Romero, Wesley C Kephart, Richard G Anderson, Christopher G Vann, Shelby C Osburn, Coree D Pledge, Jeffrey S Martin, Kaelin C Young, Michael D Goodlett, David D Pascoe, Christopher M Lockwood, Michael D Roberts
We sought to determine the effects of L-leucine (LEU) or different protein supplements standardized to LEU (~3.0 g/serving) on changes in body composition, strength, and histological attributes in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Seventy-five untrained, college-aged males (mean ± standard error of the mean (SE); age = 21 ± 1 years, body mass = 79.2 ± 0.3 kg) were randomly assigned to an isocaloric, lipid-, and organoleptically-matched maltodextrin placebo (PLA, n = 15), LEU (n = 14), whey protein concentrate (WPC, n = 17), whey protein hydrolysate (WPH, n = 14), or soy protein concentrate (SPC, n = 15) group...
September 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865467/beneficial-effects-of-curcumin-nano-emulsion-on-spermatogenesis-and-reproductive-performance-in-male-rats-under-protein-deficient-diet-model-enhancement-of-sperm-motility-conservancy-of-testicular-tissue-integrity-cell-energy-and-seminal-plasma-amino-acids
#8
Omar A H Ahmed-Farid, Maha Nasr, Rania F Ahmed, Rofanda M Bakeer
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition resulting from protein and calorie deficiency continues to be a major concern worldwide especially in developing countries. Specific deficiencies in the protein intake can adversely influence reproductive performance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of curcumin and curcumin nano-emulsion on protein deficient diet (PDD)-induced testicular atrophy, troubled spermatogenesis and decreased reproductive performance in male rats. METHODS: Juvenile rats were fed the protein deficient diet (PDD) for 75 days...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859084/regulation-of-myoblast-differentiation-by-metabolic-perturbations-induced-by-metformin
#9
Theodora Pavlidou, Marco Rosina, Claudia Fuoco, Giulia Gerini, Cesare Gargioli, Luisa Castagnoli, Gianni Cesareni
The metabolic perturbation caused by calorie restriction enhances muscle repair by playing a critical role in regulating satellite cell availability and activity in the muscles of young and old mice. To clarify the underlying mechanisms we asked whether myoblast replication and differentiation are affected by metformin, a calorie restriction-mimicking drug. C2C12, a mouse myoblast cell line, readily differentiate in vitro and fuse to form myotubes. However, when incubated with metformin, C2C12 slow their replication and do not differentiate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855697/whey-protein-components-lactalbumin-and-lactoferrin-improve-energy-balance-and-metabolism
#10
Rizaldy C Zapata, Arashdeep Singh, Adel Pezeshki, Traj Nibber, Prasanth K Chelikani
Whey protein promotes weight loss and improves diabetic control, however, less is known of its bioactive components that produce such benefits. We compared the effects of normal protein (control) diet with high protein diets containing whey, or its fractions lactalbumin and lactoferrin, on energy balance and metabolism. Diet-induced obese rats were randomized to isocaloric diets: Control, Whey, Lactalbumin, Lactoferrin, or pair-fed to lactoferrin. Whey and lactalbumin produced transient hypophagia, whereas lactoferrin caused prolonged hypophagia; the hypophagia was likely due to decreased preference...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854932/a-healthy-approach-to-dietary-fats-understanding-the-science-and-taking-action-to-reduce-consumer-confusion
#11
REVIEW
Ann G Liu, Nikki A Ford, Frank B Hu, Kathleen M Zelman, Dariush Mozaffarian, Penny M Kris-Etherton
Consumers are often confused about nutrition research findings and recommendations. As content experts, it is essential that nutrition scientists communicate effectively. A case-study of the history of dietary fat science and recommendations is presented, summarizing presentations from an Experimental Biology Symposium that addressed techniques for effective scientific communication and used the scientific discourse of public understanding of dietary fats and health as an example of challenges in scientific communication...
August 30, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854592/weight-reduction-intervention-for-obese-infertile-women-prior-to-ivf-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Snorri Einarsson, Christina Bergh, Britt Friberg, Anja Pinborg, Anna Klajnbard, Per-Olof Karlström, Linda Kluge, Ingrid Larsson, Anne Loft, Anne-Lis Mikkelsen-Englund, Kaj Stenlöf, Anna Wistrand, Ann Thurin-Kjellberg
STUDY QUESTION: Does an intensive weight reduction programme prior to IVF increase live birth rates for infertile obese women? SUMMARY ANSWER: An intensive weight reduction programme resulted in a large weight loss but did not substantially affect live birth rates in obese women scheduled for IVF. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: Among obese women, fertility and obstetric outcomes are influenced negatively with increased risk of miscarriage and a higher risk of maternal and neonatal complications...
August 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830459/reducing-calorie-sales-from-supermarkets-silent-reformulation-of-retailer-brand-food-products
#13
Jørgen Dejgård Jensen, Iben Sommer
BACKGROUND: Food product reformulation is seen as one among several tools to promote healthier eating. Reformulating the recipe for a processed food, e.g. reducing the fat, sugar or salt content of the foods, or increasing the content of whole-grains, can help the consumers to pursue a healthier life style. In this study, we evaluate the effects on calorie sales of a 'silent' reformulation strategy, where a retail chain's private-label brands are reformulated to a lower energy density without making specific claims on the product...
August 23, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827363/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-receptor-regulates-hypothermia-during-calorie-restriction
#14
Rigo Cintron-Colon, Manuel Sanchez-Alavez, William Nguyen, Simone Mori, Ruben Gonzalez-Rivera, Tiffany Lien, Tamas Bartfai, Saba Aïd, Jean-Christophe François, Martin Holzenberger, Bruno Conti
When food resources are scarce, endothermic animals can lower core body temperature (Tb). This phenomenon is believed to be part of an adaptive mechanism that may have evolved to conserve energy until more food becomes available. Here, we found in the mouse that the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) controls this response in the central nervous system. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of IGF-1R enhanced the reduction of temperature and of energy expenditure during calorie restriction. Full blockade of IGF-1R affected female and male mice similarly...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825674/adapting-the-healthy-eating-index-2010-for-the-canadian-population-evidence-from-the-canadian-national-nutrition-survey
#15
Mahsa Jessri, Alena Praneet Ng, Mary R L'Abbé
The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) is a diet quality index shown to be associated with reduced chronic disease risk. Older versions of the HEI have been adapted for Canadian populations; however, no Canadian modification of the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) has been made. The aims of this study were: (a) to develop a Canadian adaptation of the HEI-2010 (i.e., Healthy Eating Index-Canada 2010 (HEI-C 2010)) by adapting the recommendations of the HEI-2010 to Canada's Food Guide (CFG) 2007; (b) to evaluate the validity and reliability of the HEI-C 2010; and (c) to examine relationships between HEI-C 2010 scores with diet quality and the likelihood of being obese...
August 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795605/reducing-sugar-use-in-coffee-while-maintaining-enjoyment-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Richie L Lenne, Traci Mann
Consuming coffee without (or with less) sugar may help people lower their daily calorie intake without restrictive dieting. We tested two theory-based interventions to help people do so. One involved gradually reducing sugar over time, and the other was based on mindfulness theory. These interventions were compared to a repeated exposure (to sugar-free coffee) group. Participants in all conditions had significant increases in consumption of sugar-free coffee that lasted 6 months. The mindfulness group had a larger increase than the others...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791787/is-two-days-of-intermittent-energy-restriction-per-week-a-feasible-weight-loss-approach-in-obese-males-a-randomised-pilot-study
#17
Marguerite Conley, Lauren Le Fevre, Cilla Haywood, Joseph Proietto
AIM: The 5:2 diet (two non-consecutive days of 2460 KJ (600 calories) and 5 days of ad libitum eating per week) is becoming increasingly popular. This pilot study aimed to determine whether the 5:2 diet can achieve ≥5% weight loss and greater improvements in weight and biochemical markers than a standard energy-restricted diet (SERD) in obese male war veterans. METHODS: A total of 24 participants were randomised to consume either the 5:2 diet or a SERD (2050 KJ (500 calorie) reduction per day) for 6 months...
August 9, 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790922/exercise-preserves-lean-mass-and-performance-during-severe-energy-deficit-the-role-of-exercise-volume-and-dietary-protein-content
#18
Jose A L Calbet, Jesús G Ponce-González, Jaime de La Calle-Herrero, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Marcos Martin-Rincon, Alfredo Santana, David Morales-Alamo, Hans-Christer Holmberg
The loss of fat-free mass (FFM) caused by very-low-calorie diets (VLCD) can be attenuated by exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the role played by exercise and dietary protein content in preserving the lean mass and performance of exercised and non-exercised muscles, during a short period of extreme energy deficit (~23 MJ deficit/day). Fifteen overweight men underwent three consecutive experimental phases: baseline assessment (PRE), followed by 4 days of caloric restriction and exercise (CRE) and then 3 days on a control diet combined with reduced exercise (CD)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748072/the-evaluation-of-saccharose-replacing-by-adding-stevioside-maltodextrin-mixture-on-the-physicochemical-and-sensory-properties-of-naanberenji-an-iranian-confectionary
#19
Amirpouya Ghandehari Yazdi, Mohammad Hojjatoleslamy, Javad Keramat, Mahshid Jahadi, Elahe Amani
Stevia is a natural, non-nutritive sweetener can replace sugar in your diet to control diabetes and aid in weight loss. Naanberenji, an Iranian traditional cookie, is a well-reputed confectionary containing high sucrose and calorie value, for this reason its consumption in healthy diet has been restricted. In this study, the effect of sucrose replacement by stevioside-maltodextrin mixture on physicochemical properties of Naanberenji was evaluated in four replacing levels including 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Results of texture evaluation revealed that hardness increases due to adding stevioside-maltodextrin (p < ...
July 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743168/calorie-restriction-reverses-age-related-alteration-of-cavernous-neurovascular-structure-in-the-rat
#20
A Limanjaya, K-M Song, M-J Choi, K Ghatak, N N Minh, D H Kang, J Ock, G N Yin, H Y Chung, J-K Ryu, J-K Suh
Calorie restriction (CR) refers to a reduction of calorie intake without compromising essential nutrients to avoid malnutrition. CR has been established as a non-genetic method of altering longevity and attenuating biological changes associated with aging. Aging is also an important risk factor for erectile dysfunction. The aim of this study was to examine whether CR diet can reverse the age-related alterations of erectile tissue in the aged rat. Four groups of rats were used: young rats (7 months) + ad libitum, aged rats (22 months) + ad libitum, young rats + CR diet, and aged rats + CR diet...
September 2017: Andrology
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