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artificial muscle

Da Chen, Xiaoyu Zheng
Nature has evolved with a recurring strategy to achieve unusual mechanical properties through coupling variable elastic moduli from a few GPa to below KPa within a single tissue. The ability to produce multi-material, three-dimensional (3D) micro-architectures with high fidelity incorporating dissimilar components has been a major challenge in man-made materials. Here we show multi-modulus metamaterials whose architectural element is comprised of encoded elasticity ranging from rigid to soft. We found that, in contrast to ordinary architected materials whose negative Poisson's ratio is dictated by their geometry, these type of metamaterials are capable of displaying Poisson's ratios from extreme negative to zero, independent of their 3D micro-architecture...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shi Hyeong Kim, Hyeon Jun Sim, Jae Sang Hyeon, Dongseok Suh, Geoffrey M Spinks, Ray H Baughman, Seon Jeong Kim
The development of practical, cost-effective systems for the conversion of low-grade waste heat to electrical energy is an important area of renewable energy research. We here demonstrate a thermal energy harvester that is driven by the small temperature fluctuations provided by natural convection. This harvester uses coiled yarn artificial muscles, comprising well-aligned shape memory polyurethane (SMPU) microfibers, to convert thermal energy to torsional mechanical energy, which is then electromagnetically converted to electrical energy...
June 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qi Yu, Xiaojie Yang, Yao Chen, Kaiqing Yu, Jia Gao, Zunfeng Liu, Peng Cheng, Zhenjie Zhang, Briana Aguila, Shengqian Ma
Artificial muscles triggered by light are of great importance, especially for the development of non-contact and remotely controlled materials. Common materials for synthesis of photoinduced artificial muscles typically rely on polymer-based photomechanical materials. In this study, we are able to fabricate artificial muscles using a mixed-matrix membrane strategy to incorporate photomechanical molecular crystals with connective polymers (e.g. PVDF). The formed hybrid materials inherit not only the advantage of photomechanical crystals, including faster light response, higher Young's modulus and ordered structure, but also the elastomer properties from polymers...
June 6, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Yue-Ming Gao, Heng-Fei Zhang, Shi Lin, Rui-Xin Jiang, Zhi-Ying Chen, Željka Lučev Vasić, Mang-I Vai, Min Du, Mario Cifrek, Sio-Hang Pun
BACKGROUND: Intra-body communication (IBC) is one of the highlights in studies of body area networks. The existing IBC studies mainly focus on human channel characteristics of the physical layer, transceiver design for the application, and the protocol design for the networks. However, there are few safety analysis studies of the IBC electrical signals, especially for the galvanic-coupled type. Besides, the human channel model used in most of the studies is just a multi-layer homocentric cylinder model, which cannot accurately approximate the real human tissue layer...
June 5, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Clarissa Matheis, Thomas Stöggl
STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. OBJECTIVES: To improve hip function by an additional targeted mobilization and strength training of the hip muscles within the first postoperative week following a total hip arthroplasty (THA) in contrast to standard physiotherapy. BACKGROUND: The aim of early postoperative physiotherapy is to improve the functioning of the artificial hip joint as well as the restoration of mobility and independence of the patient...
April 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Lars Karlsson, María Nazareth González-Alvarado, Mar Larrosa-Flor, Ahmed Osman, Mats Börjesson, Klas Blomgren, Hans Georg Kuhn
Physical exercise can improve morphological outcomes after ischemic stroke and ameliorate irradiation-induced reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis in rodents, but the mechanisms underlying these effects remain largely unknown. The transcription factor PGC-1α is considered to be one of the central factors responsible for exercise-induced benefits in skeletal muscle, including the release of neurotrophic factors into the circulation. In order to test if PGC-1α overexpression in skeletal muscle could simulate the exercise-induced effects on recovery after cranial irradiation and stroke, we used male adult transgenic mice overexpressing murine PGC-1α under the control of muscle creatinine kinase promoter and subjected them to either whole brain irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy or photothrombotic stroke to the sensory motor cortex...
May 31, 2018: Neuroscience
Carolina Doerrier, Luiz F Garcia-Souza, Gerhard Krumschnabel, Yvonne Wohlfarter, András T Mészáros, Erich Gnaiger
Protocols for High-Resolution FluoRespirometry of intact cells, permeabilized cells, permeabilized muscle fibers, isolated mitochondria, and tissue homogenates offer sensitive diagnostic tests of integrated mitochondrial function using standard cell culture techniques, small needle biopsies of muscle, and mitochondrial preparation methods. Multiple substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration (SUIT) protocols for analysis of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) improve our understanding of mitochondrial respiratory control and the pathophysiology of mitochondrial diseases...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Anna Urciuolo, Luca Urbani, Silvia Perin, Panagiotis Maghsoudlou, Federico Scottoni, Asllan Gjinovci, Henry Collins-Hooper, Stavros Loukogeorgakis, Athanasios Tyraskis, Silvia Torelli, Elena Germinario, Mario Enrique Alvarez Fallas, Carla Julia-Vilella, Simon Eaton, Bert Blaauw, Ketan Patel, Paolo De Coppi
Pathological conditions affecting skeletal muscle function may lead to irreversible volumetric muscle loss (VML). Therapeutic approaches involving acellular matrices represent an emerging and promising strategy to promote regeneration of skeletal muscle following injury. Here we investigated the ability of three different decellularised skeletal muscle scaffolds to support muscle regeneration in a xenogeneic immune-competent model of VML, in which the EDL muscle was surgically resected. All implanted acellular matrices, used to replace the resected muscles, were able to generate functional artificial muscles by promoting host myogenic cell migration and differentiation, as well as nervous fibres, vascular networks, and satellite cell (SC) homing...
May 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
E-F Markus Henke, Katherine Wilson, Iain Anderson
Biomimetic, entirely soft robots with animal-like behavior and integrated artificial nervous systems will open up totally new perspectives and applications. However, until now, most presented studies on soft robots were limited to only partly soft designs, since all solutions at least needed conventional, stiff electronics to sense, process signals and activate actuators. We present a novel approach for a set up and the experimental validation of an artificial pace maker that is able to drive basic robotic structures and act as artificial central pattern generator (aCPG)...
May 31, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Ashkan Javadzadegan, Abouzar Moshfegh, David Fulker, Tracie Barber, Yi Qian, Leonard Kritharides, Andy S C Yong
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of myocardial bridging (MB) remains challenging due to its dynamic and phasic nature. This study aims to develop a patient-specific CFD model of MB. There were two parts to this study. The first part consisted of developing an in silico model of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery of a patient with MB. In this regard, a moving-boundary CFD algorithm was developed to simulate the patient-specific muscle compression caused by MB. A second simulation was also performed with the bridge artificially removed to determine the hemodynamics in the same vessel in the absence of MB...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Shannon R Dalton, Alice R Vienneau, Shana R Burstein, Rosalind J Xu, Sara Linse, Casey H Londergan
To investigate the cyanylated cysteine vibrational probe group's ability to report on binding-induced changes along a protein-protein interface, the probe group was incorporated at several sites in a peptide of the calmodulin (CaM) binding domain of skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase. Isothermal titration calorimetry was used to determine the binding thermodynamics between calmodulin and each peptide. For all probe positions, the binding affinity was nearly identical to that of the unlabeled peptide...
May 22, 2018: Biochemistry
Minhui Chen, Jiying Wang, Yanping Wang, Ying Wu, Jinluan Fu, Jian-Feng Liu
BACKGROUND: Currently, genome-wide scans for positive selection signatures in commercial breed have been investigated. However, few studies have focused on selection footprints of indigenous breeds. Laiwu pig is an invaluable Chinese indigenous pig breed with extremely high proportion of intramuscular fat (IMF), and an excellent model to detect footprint as the result of natural and artificial selection for fat deposition in muscle. RESULT: In this study, based on GeneSeek Genomic profiler Porcine HD data, three complementary methods, FST , iHS (integrated haplotype homozygosity score) and CLR (composite likelihood ratio), were implemented to detect selection signatures in the whole genome of Laiwu pigs...
May 18, 2018: BMC Genetics
Darin Pativetpinyo, Weera Supronsinchai, Chidsanu Changsiripun
To assess the immediate effects of temporary bite-raising using light-cured orthodontic band cement on the superficial masseter and anterior temporalis electromyography (EMG) activity in healthy adults. Surface EMG signals were recorded bilaterally from the superficial masseter and anterior temporalis muscles of 30 volunteers with a normal occlusion, before and after having temporary bite-raising. The bite-raising was done by adding light-cured orthodontic band cement (3x5x2 mm WxLxH) on the lingual cusps of both upper first molars...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
Jamshid H Karimov, Kimberly A Such, Raymond Dessoffy, Kiyotaka Fukamachi
The postoperative care of animals implanted with mechanical circulatory support devices is complex. The standard of care requires continuous monitoring of hemodynamic parameters post implant, wound care, and maintenance of the animal's well-being, but also includes controlling the animal's biomechanics under conditions of continuous restraint and harnessing. In such studies, a harness provides secure fixation of the exteriorized device driveline and pressure lines and aids animal handling (lifting, position adjustment, and assistance with standing up)...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
David L Chandler
Maintaining sterility in emergency and operating rooms can be challenging, especially in cases of highly infectious disease outbreaks or toxic spills. A simple nick in a surgical glove under such circumstances could have deadly consequences. But, now, a variety of promising new materials in development may lead to everything from self-healing gloves and bandages to bone, blood vessel, and muscle scaffolding implants that could repair themselves the way tissues do. In some cases, repair might be triggered by an external stimulus, such as heat; in other cases, these materials would naturally heal by themselves over time...
May 2018: IEEE Pulse
Min Yang, Zhiqin Fan, Fei Wang, Zhi-Hua Tian, Bo Ma, Bing Dong, Zhongwu Li, Ming Zhang, Wei Zhao
The persistent proliferation of hypoxia-induced vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the arterial wall underlie the development of atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism that regulates the behavior of VSMCs, which involve in actin aggregation, and impedes their migration is still elusive. Here, we report that bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) leads to enrichment of CD44 and F-actin stress fiber and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) during hypoxia in vitro and following artificial hypoxia-induced atherosclerosis exacerbation in vivo...
May 8, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Aliakbar Shamsian, Edoardo Pozio, Abdolmajid Fata, Zahra Navi, Elham Moghaddas
Nematodes of the genus Trichinella are zoonotic parasites causing trichinellosis. In Iran, these parasites occur in several animal species and rare cases have been recorded in humans. To monitor the epidemiological pattern of these parasites in the Khorasan-e-Razavi province, Northeastern Iran, muscle tissues were collected from the tongues of roadkill animals between 2016 and 2017: 295 stray dogs, one red fox (Vulpes vulpes), 12 golden jackals (Canis aureus), and one wild boar (Sus scrofa). Trichinella spp...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Daehoon Han, Cindy Farino, Chen Yang, Tracy Scott, Daniel Browe, Wonjoon Choi, Joseph W Freeman, Howon Lee
Electroactive hydrogels (EAH) which exhibit large deformation in response to an electric field have received great attention as a potential actuating material for soft robots and artificial muscle. However, their application has been limited due to the use of traditional two-dimensional (2D) fabrication methods. Here we present soft robotic manipulation and locomotion with 3D printed EAH micro-structures. Through 3D design and precise dimensional control enabled by a digital light processing (DLP) based micro 3D printing technique, complex 3D actuations of EAH are achieved...
May 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Galit Hofree, Paul Ruvolo, Audrey Reinert, Marian S Bartlett, Piotr Winkielman
Facial actions are key elements of non-verbal behavior. Perceivers' reactions to others' facial expressions often represent a match or mirroring (e.g., they smile to a smile). However, the information conveyed by an expression depends on context. Thus, when shown by an opponent, a smile conveys bad news and evokes frowning. The availability of anthropomorphic agents capable of facial actions raises the question of how people respond to such agents in social context. We explored this issue in a study where participants played a strategic game with or against a facially expressive android...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Hang Su, Hong-Mei Zhu, Ling-Ping Li, Ze Du, Yang Zeng, Ting Hu, Zhu Zhang, Shan-Ling Liu, He Wang
OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy and discuss the feasibility of KaryoLite bacterial artificial chromosome on beads (KL-BoBs) and quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) in genetic testing of products of conception (POC) by comparing with the chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) test results. METHODS: Eighty-one cases of abortion samples were collected in the prenatal diagnosis center of West China Second University Hospital in Sichuan University from May to August 2016,including 61 cases of placenta tissues,19 cases of fetal muscle tissues and 1 case of fetal liver tissue...
March 2018: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
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