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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718924/preliminary-study-of-a-novel-puborectalis-like-artificial-anal-sphincter
#1
Wentian Jin, Guozheng Yan, Hao Wu, Shan Lu, Zerun Zhou
Artificial anal sphincter (AAS) is an in situ implanted device that acts as a treatment for fecal incontinence regardless of etiology by augmenting the incompetent sphincteric structures. However, AAS is impeded from becoming a valid therapy by its high rate of ischemic complication and malfunction. This article presents an original puborectalis-like artificial anal sphincter (PAAS) that features a low risk of ischemia necrosis and rectal perception remodeling. The device retains continence by reproducing the action, including the pulling and angulating the rectum, of the puborectalis muscle, which forms the anorectal angle and reduces the required clamping pressure...
July 18, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715333/wheelchair-neuroprosthesis-for-improving-dynamic-trunk-stability
#2
Kramay Patel, Matija Milosevic, Kimitaka Nakazawa, Milos R Popovic, Kei Masani
Trunk instability is a major problem for individuals with thoracic and cervical spinal cord injury. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) neuroprosthesis, a technology that uses small electrical currents to artificially contract muscles, has previously been utilized to improve trunk stability during quasistatic and dynamic sitting. The aim of this study was to develop the first powered wheelchair-based neuroprosthesis and to test its feasibility for improving trunk stability. Eleven male, able-bodied individuals participated in the feasibility study...
July 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705307/a-new-method-for-enhanced-expectoration-of-sputum-by-vibratory-stimulation-of-the-cervical-trachea
#3
Mitsuhiro Kamimura, Nobuhisa Kameyama, Chie Homma, Tatsuya Ibe, Shinjiro Takeoka, Atsuto Mouri, Yoichiro Hamamoto
BACKGROUND: Expectoration of sputum can be difficult for patients with respiratory conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic bronchitis, or bronchiectasis because of the effects of decreased pulmonary function, respiratory muscle fatigue, altered sputum properties, and impaired ciliary function. We developed a new method for the vibratory stimulation of the cervical trachea and this study aimed to compare it with the Acapella (a current oscillation device) method...
July 2017: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691919/modeling-and-analysis-of-a-meso-hydraulic-climbing-robot-with-artificial-muscle-actuation
#4
Edward M Chapman, Tyler E Jenkins, Matthew Bryant
This paper presents a fully coupled electro-hydraulic model of a bio-inspired climbing robot actuated by fluidic artificial muscles (FAMs). This analysis expands upon previous FAM literature by considering not only the force and contraction characteristics of the actuator, but the complete hydraulic and electromechanical circuits as well as the dynamics of the climbing robot. This analysis allows modeling of the time-varying applied pressure, electrical current, and actuator contraction for accurate prediction of the robot motion, energy consumption, and mechanical work output...
July 10, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687604/calpain-inhibition-is-protective-in-machado-joseph-disease-zebrafish-due-to-induction-of-autophagy
#5
Maxinne Watchon, Kristy C Yuan, Nick Mackovski, Adam J Svahn, Nicholas J Cole, Claire Goldsbury, Silke Rinkwitz, Thomas S Becker, Garth A Nicholson, Angela S Laird
The neurodegenerative disease Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), also known as spinocerebellar ataxin-3, affects neurons of the brain and spinal cord, disrupting control of the movement of muscles. We have successfully established the first transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) model of MJD, which express human ataxin-3 protein containing either 23 glutamines (23Q, wild-type) or 84Q (MJD-causing), within neurons. Phenotypic characterization of the zebrafish (male and female) revealed that the ataxin-3-84Q zebrafish have decreased survival compared to ataxin-3-23Q and develop ataxin-3 neuropathology, ataxin-3 cleavage fragments and motor impairment...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667260/user-adaptation-in-myoelectric-man-machine-interfaces
#6
Janne M Hahne, Marko Markovic, Dario Farina
State of the art clinical hand prostheses are controlled in a simple and limited way that allows the activation of one function at a time. More advanced laboratory approaches, based on machine learning, offer a significant increase in functionality, but their clinical impact is limited, mainly due to lack of reliability. In this study, we analyse two conceptually different machine learning approaches, focusing on their robustness and performance in a closed loop application. A classification (finite number of classes) and a regression (continuous mapping) based projection of EMG into external commands were applied while artificially introducing non-stationarities in the EMG signals...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659340/the-long-non-coding-rna-gas5-regulates-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-smooth-muscle-cell-differentiation-via-rna-smad-binding-element
#7
Rui Tang, Gui Zhang, Yung-Chun Wang, Xiaohan Mei, Shi-You Chen
Smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation is essential for vascular development, and TGF-β signaling plays a critical role in this process. Although long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate various cellular events, their functions in SMC differentiation remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the lncRNA growth arrest specific 5 (GAS5) suppresses TGF-β/Smad3 signaling in smooth muscle cell differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells. We found that forced expression of GAS5 blocked, while knockdown of GAS5 increased, the expression of SMC contractile proteins...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656636/soft-but-powerful-artificial-muscles-based-on-3d-graphene-cnt-ni-heteronanostructures
#8
Jaehwan Kim, Seok-Hu Bae, Moumita Kotal, Tyler Stalbaum, Kwang J Kim, Il-Kwon Oh
Bioinspired soft ionic actuators, which exhibit large strain and high durability under low input voltages, are regarded as prospective candidates for future soft electronics. However, due to the intrinsic drawback of weak blocking force, the feasible applications of soft ionic actuators are limited until now. An electroactive artificial muscle electro-chemomechanically reinforced with 3D graphene-carbon nanotube-nickel heteronanostructures (G-CNT-Ni) to improve blocking force and bending deformation of the ionic actuators is demonstrated...
June 28, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653123/pixel-level-deep-segmentation-artificial-intelligence-quantifies-muscle-on-computed-tomography-for-body-morphometric-analysis
#9
Hyunkwang Lee, Fabian M Troschel, Shahein Tajmir, Georg Fuchs, Julia Mario, Florian J Fintelmann, Synho Do
Pretreatment risk stratification is key for personalized medicine. While many physicians rely on an "eyeball test" to assess whether patients will tolerate major surgery or chemotherapy, "eyeballing" is inherently subjective and difficult to quantify. The concept of morphometric age derived from cross-sectional imaging has been found to correlate well with outcomes such as length of stay, morbidity, and mortality. However, the determination of the morphometric age is time intensive and requires highly trained experts...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645664/muscle-activity-and-masticatory-efficiency-with-bilateral-extension-base-removable-partial-dentures-with-different-cusp-angles
#10
Mahmoud K Al-Omiri
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Whether masticatory efficiency and electromyographic activity are influenced by type of artificial teeth and food is unclear. PURPOSE: The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the influence of extension base removable partial dentures (RPDs) with different cusp angles: anatomic (33 degrees), semianatomic (20 degrees), and nonanatomic (0 degrees) teeth on masticatory efficiency and muscle activity during the mastication of test foods with different textures...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644884/ligand-induced-rapid-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-in-hsa-fv2e-perk-transgenic-mice
#11
Masato Miyake, Masashi Kuroda, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Kenji Takehana, Satoshi Hisanaga, Masatoshi Morimoto, Jun Zhang, Miho Oyadomari, Hiroshi Sakaue, Seiichi Oyadomari
BACKGROUND: Formation of 43S and 48S preinitiation complexes plays an important role in muscle protein synthesis. There is no muscle-wasting mouse model caused by a repressed 43S preinitiation complex assembly. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to develop a convenient mouse model of skeletal muscle wasting with repressed 43S preinitiation complex assembly. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A ligand-activatable PERK derivative Fv2E-PERK causes the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), which inhibits 43S preinitiation complex assembly...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640883/an-artificial-emg-generation-model-based-on-signal-dependent-noise-and-related-application-to-motion-classification
#12
Akira Furui, Hideaki Hayashi, Go Nakamura, Takaaki Chin, Toshio Tsuji
This paper proposes an artificial electromyogram (EMG) signal generation model based on signal-dependent noise, which has been ignored in existing methods, by introducing the stochastic construction of the EMG signals. In the proposed model, an EMG signal variance value is first generated from a probability distribution with a shape determined by a commanded muscle force and signal-dependent noise. Artificial EMG signals are then generated from the associated Gaussian distribution with a zero mean and the generated variance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639297/autophagy-activation-not-pgc-1%C3%AE-may-mediate-exercise-induced-improvements-in-glucose-handling-during-diet-induced-obesity
#13
Megan E Rosa-Caldwell, Jacob L Brown, David E Lee, Thomas A Blackwell, Kyle W Turner, Lemuel A Brown, Richard A Perry, Wesley S Haynie, Tyrone A Washington, Nicholas P Greene
Prevalence of glucose intolerance is at alarming levels. Efforts to promote mitochondrial biogenesis through PGC-1α to mitigate glucose intolerance have been controversial. However, physical activity remains a primary means to alleviate the condition. PURPOSE: To determine combined effects of muscle-specific overexpression of PGC-1α and physical activity on glucose handling during diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Wild-type (WT, ∼20) and PGC-1α muscle transgenic (MCK-PGC-1α, ∼20) mice were given Western diet (WD) at 8 wks age and allowed to consume food ab libitum throughout the study...
June 21, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636322/spirally-structured-conductive-composites-for-highly-stretchable-robust-conductors-and-sensors
#14
Xiaodong Wu, Yangyang Han, Xinxing Zhang, Canhui Lu
Flexible and stretchable electronics are highly desirable for next generation devices. However, stretchability and conductivity are fundamentally difficult to combine for conventional conductive composites, which restricts their widespread applications especially as stretchable electronics. Here, we innovatively develop a new class of highly stretchable and robust conductive composites via a simple and scalable structural approach. Briefly, carbon nanotubes are spray-coated onto a self-adhesive rubber film, followed by rolling up the film completely to create a spirally layered structure within the composites...
July 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633640/biological-mechanisms-discriminating-growth-rate-and-adult-body-weight-phenotypes-in-two-chinese-indigenous-chicken-breeds
#15
Tengfei Dou, Sumei Zhao, Hua Rong, Dahai Gu, Qihua Li, Ying Huang, Zhiqiang Xu, Xiaohui Chu, Linli Tao, Lixian Liu, Changrong Ge, Marinus F W Te Pas, Junjing Jia
BACKGROUND: Intensive selection has resulted in increased growth rates and muscularity in broiler chickens, in addition to adverse effects, including delayed organ development, sudden death syndrome, and altered metabolic rates. The biological mechanisms underlying selection responses remain largely unknown. Non-artificially-selected indigenous Chinese chicken breeds display a wide variety of phenotypes, including differential growth rate, body weight, and muscularity. The Wuding chicken breed is a fast growing large chicken breed, and the Daweishan mini chicken breed is a slow growing small chicken breed...
June 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633597/effect-of-t-2-toxin-injected-shrimp-muscle-extracts-on-mouse-macrophage-cells-raw264-7
#16
Zhanrui Huang, Yaling Wang, Mei Qiu, Lijun Sun, Jianmeng Liao, Rundong Wang, Xiaodong Sun, Siyuan Bi, Ravi Gooneratne
Following intramuscular injections of 0.1 mL, 3 mg kg(-1 )BW(-1)(1/10 LD50) T-2 toxin (T-2), the tissue concentration of T-2 in shrimp was quantitatively detected using LC-MS/MS. The biological half-time (t1/2) of T-2 in blood was 40.47 ± 0.24 min. The highest number of intramuscular T-2 shrimp could tolerate when given at blood t1/2 intervals was 4. The shrimps which were injected 5 T-2 died. The T-2 toxin highest accumulation was 0.471 ± 0.012 ng g(-1 )BW(-1). The effect of toxic shrimp muscle subjected to different processing conditions (high pressure, trifluoroacetic acid, acid and alkali digestions, artificial digestive juice [to simulate exposure to gastric and intestinal juices]) on mouse macrophage cells (RAW267...
February 10, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627770/electrochemically-powered-energy-conserving-carbon-nanotube-artificial-muscles
#17
Jae Ah Lee, Na Li, Carter S Haines, Keon Jung Kim, Xavier Lepró, Raquel Ovalle-Robles, Seon Jeong Kim, Ray H Baughman
While artificial muscle yarns and fibers are potentially important for many applications, the combination of large strokes, high gravimetric work capacities, short cycle times, and high efficiencies are not realized for these fibers. This paper demonstrates here electrochemically powered carbon nanotube yarn muscles that provide tensile contraction as high as 16.5%, which is 12.7 times higher than previously obtained. These electrochemical muscles can deliver a contractile energy conversion efficiency of 5...
June 19, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623008/yucca-schidigera-can-promote-rabbit-growth-fecundity-affect-the-release-of-hormones-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-induce-pathological-changes-in-liver-and-reduce-ovarian-resistance-to-benzene
#18
Martina Földešiová, Andrej Baláži, Ľubica Chrastinová, Juraj Pivko, Jan Kotwica, Abdel Halim Harrath, Peter Chrenek, Alexander V Sirotkin
This study evaluated the effect of Yucca schidigera (YS) extract on the physiological, reproductive, and endocrine indexes of New Zealand White rabbit does. Six-week-old rabbit does were fed a standard diet (control group) or a diet enriched with 5 or 20g of Y powder extract per 100-kg feed mixture for 350days. The does were artificially inseminated after induction of superovulation. Weight gain; conception and kindling rate; viability of pups and mothers; histopathological state of liver and muscle; plasma levels of progesterone (P4), oxytocin (OT), and prostaglandin F (PGF); and the release of P4, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), OT, and PGF by isolated ovarian fragments and their response to the addition of benzene were analyzed...
June 10, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618337/biomechanical-study-of-different-fixation-techniques-for-the-treatment-of-sacroiliac-joint-injuries-using-finite-element-analyses-and-biomechanical-tests
#19
Chian-Her Lee, Ching-Chi Hsu, Po-Yuang Huang
The pelvis is one of the most stressed areas of the human musculoskeletal system due to the transfer of truncal loads to the lower extremities. Sacroiliac joint injury may lead to abnormal joint mechanics and an unstable pelvis. Various fixation techniques have been evaluated and discussed. However, it may be difficult to investigate each technique due to variations in bone quality, bone anatomy, fracture pattern, and fixation location. Additionally, the finite element method is one useful technology that avoids these variations...
June 7, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616376/genome-editing-and-muscle-stem-cells-as-a-therapeutic-tool-for-muscular-dystrophies
#20
REVIEW
Veronica Pini, Jennifer E Morgan, Francesco Muntoni, Helen C O'Neill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Muscular dystrophies are a group of severe degenerative disorders characterized by muscle fiber degeneration and death. Therapies designed to restore muscle homeostasis and to replace dying fibers are being experimented, but none of those in clinical trials are suitable to permanently address individual gene mutation. The purpose of this review is to discuss genome editing tools such as CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated), which enable direct sequence alteration and could potentially be adopted to correct the genetic defect leading to muscle impairment...
2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
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