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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429087/the-abdoman-an-artificial-abdominal-wall-simulator-for-biomechanical-studies-on-laparotomy-closure-techniques
#1
L F Kroese, J J Harlaar, C Ordrenneau, J Verhelst, G Guérin, F Turquier, R H M Goossens, G-J Kleinrensink, J Jeekel, J F Lange
PURPOSE: Incisional hernia remains a frequent complication after abdominal surgery associated with significant morbidity and high costs. Animal and clinical studies have exhibited some limitations. The purpose of this study was to develop an artificial human abdominal wall (AW) simulator in order to enable investigations on closure modalities. We hypothesized that a physical model of the human AW would give new insight into commonly used suture techniques representing a substantial complement or alternative to clinical and animal studies...
April 20, 2017: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420977/development-and-training-of-a-neural-controller-for-hind-leg-walking-in-a-dog-robot
#2
Alexander Hunt, Nicholas Szczecinski, Roger Quinn
Animals dynamically adapt to varying terrain and small perturbations with remarkable ease. These adaptations arise from complex interactions between the environment and biomechanical and neural components of the animal's body and nervous system. Research into mammalian locomotion has resulted in several neural and neuro-mechanical models, some of which have been tested in simulation, but few "synthetic nervous systems" have been implemented in physical hardware models of animal systems. One reason is that the implementation into a physical system is not straightforward...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419532/electromyography-in-the-assessment-and-therapy-of-lower-urinary-tract-dysfunction-in-adults
#3
REVIEW
Jan Krhut, Roman Zachoval, Peter F W M Rosier, Beth Shelly, Peter Zvara
AIM: To present the teaching module "Electromyography in the assessment and therapy of lower urinary tract dysfunction in adults." This teaching module embodies a presentation, in combination with this manuscript. This manuscript serves as a scientific background review; the evidence base made available on ICS website to summarize current knowledge and recommendations. METHODS: This review has been prepared by a Working Group of The ICS Urodynamics Committee. The methodology used included comprehensive literature review, consensus formation by the members of the Working Group, and review by members of the ICS Urodynamics Committee core panel...
April 18, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396957/-transcutaneous-osseointegrated-prosthesis-top-after-limb-amputation-status-quo-and-perspectives
#4
Christian Willy, Christian Krettek
The majority of transfemoral and transtibial amputees can be functionally fitted with conventional suspension sockets; however, due to socket problems using conventional stump care, 60% of the patients have limited function and even in younger patients approximately one sixth are unable to wear the prosthesis daily. After the introduction of transcutaneous osseointegrated prostheses (TOP) the inherent problems of socket-stump care can be avoided for these patients. Against this background this article reviews the recent clinical development of TOP in Sweden, Germany, the Netherlands, Australia and USA currently in nine centers...
April 10, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388499/microfluidic-enhanced-3d-bioprinting-of-aligned-myoblast-laden-hydrogels-leads-to-functionally-organized-myofibers-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#5
Marco Costantini, Stefano Testa, Pamela Mozetic, Andrea Barbetta, Claudia Fuoco, Ersilia Fornetti, Francesco Tamiro, Sergio Bernardini, Jakub Jaroszewicz, Wojciech Święszkowski, Marcella Trombetta, Luisa Castagnoli, Dror Seliktar, Piotr Garstecki, Gianni Cesareni, Stefano Cannata, Alberto Rainer, Cesare Gargioli
We present a new strategy for the fabrication of artificial skeletal muscle tissue with functional morphologies based on an innovative 3D bioprinting approach. The methodology is based on a microfluidic printing head coupled to a co-axial needle extruder for high-resolution 3D bioprinting of hydrogel fibers laden with muscle precursor cells (C2C12). To promote myogenic differentiation, we formulated a tailored bioink with a photocurable semi-synthetic biopolymer (PEG-Fibrinogen) encapsulating cells into 3D constructs composed of aligned hydrogel fibers...
March 23, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385436/influence-of-a-removable-prosthesis-on-oral-health-related-quality-of-life-and-mastication-in-elders-with-parkinson-disease
#6
Giselle R Ribeiro, Camila H Campos, Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues Garcia
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Parkinson disease (PD) symptoms, such as muscle rigidity, tremors in the lips and tongue, and involuntary mandibular movements, may cause oral health-related problems, mastication difficulties, and denture discomfort because of the difficulty in controlling a prosthesis with the oral musculature. PURPOSE: The purpose of this observational clinical study was to evaluate the influence of oral rehabilitation with a removable prosthesis on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and masticatory efficiency (ME) in elders with PD...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381672/supramolecular-polymeric-materials-containing-cyclodextrins
#7
REVIEW
Masaki Nakahata, Yoshinori Takashima, Akira Harada
Smart design of polymeric materials may lead to intelligent materials exhibiting unique functional properties. Looking at nature, living systems use specific and reversible intermolecular interactions in realizing complex functions. Hence reversible bonds based on selective molecular recognition can impart artificial materials with unique functional properties. This review mainly focuses on supramolecular polymeric materials based on cyclodextrin-based host-guest interactions. Polymeric materials using molecular recognition at polymer main chain, side chain, and termini are described...
2017: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379294/colony-stimulating-factor-2-acts-from-days-5-to-7-of-development-to-modify-programming-of-the-bovine-conceptus-at-day-86-of-gestation
#8
L G Siqueira, P Tribulo, Z Chen, A C Denicol, M S Ortega, V M Negrón-Pérez, J Kannampuzha-Francis, K G Pohler, R M Rivera, P J Hansen
Colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2) is an embryokine that improves competence of the embryo to establish pregnancy and which may participate in developmental programming. We tested whether culture of bovine embryos with CSF2 alters fetal development and alleviates abnormalities associated with in vitro production (IVP) of embryos. Pregnancies were established by artificial insemination (AI), transfer of an IVP embryo (IVP) or transfer of an IVP embryo treated with 10 ng/ml CSF2 from day 5 to 7 of development (CSF2)...
March 31, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377644/finite-element-analysis-of-sagittal-balance-in-different-morphotype-forces-and-resulting-strain-in-pelvis-and-spine
#9
REVIEW
Vincenzo Filardi, Portaro Simona, Giorgio Cacciola, Salvatore Bertino, Luigi Soliera, Andrea Barbanera, Alessandro Pisani, Demetrio Milardi, Bramanti Alessia
In humans, vertical posture acquisition caused several changes in bones and muscles which can be assumed as verticalization. Pelvis, femur, and vertebral column gain an extension position which decreases muscular work by paravertebral muscles in the latter. It's widely known that six different morphological categories exist; each category differs from the others by pelvic parameters and vertebral column curvatures. Both values depend on the Pelvic Incidence, calculated as the angle between the axes passing through the rotation centre of the two femur heads and the vertical axis passing through the superior plate of the sacrum...
June 2017: Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372843/sarcocystis-neurona-manipulation-using-culture-derived-merozoites-for-bradyzoite-and-sporocyst-production
#10
Sarah B Chaney, Antoinette E Marsh, Stephanie Lewis, Michelle Carman, Daniel K Howe, William J Saville, Stephen M Reed
Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) remains a significant central nervous system disease of horses in the American continents. Sarcocystis neurona is considered the primary causative agent and its intermediate life stages are carried by a wide host-range including raccoons (Procyon lotor) in North America. S. neurona sarcocysts mature in raccoon skeletal muscle and can produce central nervous system disease in raccoons, mirroring the clinical presentation in horses. The study aimed to develop laboratory tools whereby the life cycle and various life stages of S...
March 18, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372266/position-control-of-a-single-pneumatic-artificial-muscle-with-hysteresis-compensation-based-on-modified-prandtl-ishlinskii-model
#11
Xizhe Zang, Yixiang Liu, Shuai Heng, Zhenkun Lin, Jie Zhao
BACKGROUND: High-performance position control of pneumatic artificial muscles is limited by their inherent nonlinearity and hysteresis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to model the length/pressure hysteresis of a single pneumatic artificial muscle and to realize its accurate position tracking control with forward hysteresis compensation. METHODS: The classical Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is widely used in hysteresis modelling and compensation. But it is only effective for symmetric hysteresis...
2017: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367823/-development-of-an-artificial-microenvironment-to-maintain-the-quiescence-and-the-therapeutic-potential-of-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells
#12
Stéphane C Boutet, Marco Quarta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367121/experimental-validation-of-motor-primitive-based-control-for-leg-exoskeletons-during-continuous-multi-locomotion-tasks
#13
Virginia Ruiz Garate, Andrea Parri, Tingfang Yan, Marko Munih, Raffaele Molino Lova, Nicola Vitiello, Renaud Ronsse
An emerging approach to design locomotion assistive devices deals with reproducing desirable biological principles of human locomotion. In this paper, we present a bio-inspired controller for locomotion assistive devices based on the concept of motor primitives. The weighted combination of artificial primitives results in a set of virtual muscle stimulations. These stimulations then activate a virtual musculoskeletal model producing reference assistive torque profiles for different locomotion tasks (i.e., walking, ascending stairs, and descending stairs)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363767/time-scaling-based-sliding-mode-control-for-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-under-uncertain-relative-degrees
#14
Tiago Roux Oliveira, Luiz Rennó Costa, João Marcos Yamasaki Catunda, Alexandre Visintainer Pino, William Barbosa, Márcio Nogueira de Souza
This paper addresses the application of the sliding mode approach to control the arm movements by artificial recruitment of muscles using Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES). Such a technique allows the activation of motor nerves using surface electrodes. The goal of the proposed control system is to move the upper limbs of subjects through electrical stimulation to achieve a desired elbow angular displacement. Since the human neuro-motor system has individual characteristics, being time-varying, nonlinear and subject to uncertainties, the use of advanced robust control schemes may represent a better solution than classical Proportional-Integral (PI) controllers and model-based approaches, being simpler than more sophisticated strategies using fuzzy logic or neural networks usually applied in this control problem...
March 28, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363496/therapeutic-progenitor-cell-application-for-tissue-regeneration-analyzing-the-impact-of-toll-like-receptor-signaling-on-c-kit-cell-migration-following-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-vivo
#15
Peter Donndorf, Saifullah Abubaker, Brigitte Vollmar, Christian Rimmbach, Gustav Steinhoff, Alexander Kaminski
OBJECTIVES: Toll-like-receptor (TLR) mediated immune response has been shown to regulate myocardial damage following cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR). It has not been described conclusively so far whether migration of therapeutically applied progenitor cells following an IR event depends on TLR-signaling. METHODS: In vivo migratory capacity murine c-kit(+) cells following IR injury was quantified by intravital fluorescence microscopy, utilizing the mouse cremaster muscle model and analyzing early (rolling) and late (adhesion) c-kit(+) cell interaction with the local endothelium...
March 29, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362971/stabilization-rolling-and-addition-of-other-extracellular-matrix-proteins-to-collagen-hydrogels-improve-regeneration-in-chitosan-guides-for-long-peripheral-nerve-gaps-in-rats
#16
Francisco Gonzalez-Perez, Stefano Cobianchi, Claudia Heimann, James B Phillips, Esther Udina, Xavier Navarro
BACKGROUND: Autograft is still the gold standard technique for the repair of long peripheral nerve injuries. The addition of biologically active scaffolds into the lumen of conduits to mimic the endoneurium of peripheral nerves may increase the final outcome of artificial nerve devices. Furthermore, the control of the orientation of the collagen fibers may provide some longitudinal guidance architecture providing a higher level of mesoscale tissue structure. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the regenerative capabilities of chitosan conduits enriched with extracellular matrix-based scaffolds to bridge a critical gap of 15 mm in the rat sciatic nerve...
March 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362400/minimally-invasive-transverse-aortic-constriction-in-mice
#17
Aung Moe Zaw, Connor M Williams, Helen K W Law, Billy Kwok Chong Chow
Minimally invasive transverse aortic constriction (MTAC) is a more desirable method for the constriction of the transverse aorta in mice than standard open-chest transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Although transverse aortic constriction is a highly functional method for the induction of high pressure in the left ventricle, it is a more difficult and lengthy procedure due to its use of artificial ventilation with tracheal intubation. TAC is oftentimes also less survivable, as the newer method, MTAC, neither requires the cutting of the ribs and intercostal muscles nor tracheal intubation with a ventilation setup...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355146/ib2d-a-python-and-matlab-implementation-of-the-immersed-boundary-method
#18
Nicholas A Battista, W Christopher Strickland, Laura A Miller
The development of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) software involves trade-offs between ease of use, generality, performance, and cost. Typically there are large learning curves when using low-level software to model the interaction of an elastic structure immersed in a uniform density fluid. Many existing codes are not publicly available, and the commercial software that exists usually requires expensive licenses and may not be as robust or allow the necessary flexibility that in house codes can provide...
March 29, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349656/equine-performance-genes-and-the-future-of-doping-in-horseracing
#19
Tessa Wilkin, Anna Baoutina, Natasha Hamilton
A horse's success on the racetrack is determined by genetics, training and nutrition, and their translation into physical traits such as speed, endurance and muscle strength. Advances in genetic technologies are slowly explaining the roles of specific genes in equine performance, and offering new insights into the development of novel therapies for diseases and musculoskeletal injuries that cause early retirement of many racehorses. Gene therapy approaches may also soon provide new means to artificially enhance the physical performance of racehorses...
March 27, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314871/-evidence-based-lichtenstein-technique
#20
W Reinpold, D Chen
Lichtenstein hernioplasty is the number one technique worldwide for open, mesh-based inguinal hernia repair. The principle of Lichtenstein hernioplasty is the tension-free reinforcement of the abdominal wall by covering the transversalis fascia and the oblique muscles with an artificial patch of mesh. The Lichtenstein technique has been modified since its inception. The technique has the benefits of low costs and a rapid learning curve and can be performed with the patient under local anesthesia. The recurrence rates after the Lichtenstein operation are significantly lower compared to open suture repair and equal to laparoendoscopic techniques...
March 17, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
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