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artificial muscle

S Tarantino, F Clemente, D Barone, M Controzzi, C Cipriani
Upper limb amputation deprives individuals of their innate ability to manipulate objects. Such disability can be restored with a robotic prosthesis linked to the brain by a human-machine interface (HMI) capable of decoding voluntary intentions, and sending motor commands to the prosthesis. Clinical or research HMIs rely on the interpretation of electrophysiological signals recorded from the muscles. However, the quest for an HMI that allows for arbitrary and physiologically appropriate control of dexterous prostheses, is far from being completed...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ivana Dinulovic, Regula Furrer, Christoph Handschin
Satellite cells (SCs) are adult muscle stem cells capable of repairing damaged and creating new muscle tissue throughout life. Their functionality is tightly controlled by a microenvironment composed of a wide variety of factors, such as numerous secreted molecules and different cell types, including blood vessels, oxygen, hormones, motor neurons, immune cells, cytokines, fibroblasts, growth factors, myofibers, myofiber metabolism, the extracellular matrix and tissue stiffness. This complex niche controls SC biology-quiescence, activation, proliferation, differentiation or renewal and return to quiescence...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Hanako Nishimoto, Atsuyuki Inui, Takeshi Ueha, Miho Inoue, Shiho Akahane, Risa Harada, Yutaka Mifune, Takeshi Kokubu, Kotaro Nishida, Ryosuke Kuroda, Yoshitada Sakai
The acceleration of nerve regeneration remains a clinical challenge. We previously demonstrated that transcutaneous CO2 application using a novel hydrogel increases the oxygen concentration in local tissue via an "artificial Bohr effect" with the potential to prevent muscle atrophy. In this study, we investigated the effect of transcutaneous CO2 administration on limb function after peripheral nerve injury in a rat sciatic nerve injury model. In total, 73 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a sham group, a control group (crush injury to sciatic nerve and no treatment) or a CO2 group (crush injury with transcutaneous CO2 application)...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Tuan Anh Luong, Kyeong Ho Cho, Min Geun Song, Ja Choon Koo, Hyouk Ryeol Choi, Hyungpil Moon
Artificial muscle actuators made from commercial nylon fishing lines have been recently introduced and shown as a new type of actuator with high performance. However, the actuators also exhibit significant nonlinearities, which make them difficult to control, especially in precise trajectory-tracking applications. In this article, we present a nonlinear mathematical model of a conductive supercoiled polymer (SCP) actuator driven by Joule heating for model-based feedback controls. Our efforts include modeling of the hysteresis behavior of the actuator...
November 30, 2017: Soft Robotics
Boris I Kurganov
The study of the kinetics of aggregation of UV-irradiated proteins has attracted considerable interest, since test systems based on aggregation of proteins denatured by UV radiation can be used for screening of the natural and artificial agents possessing chaperone-like activity (anti-aggregation activity). To provide the proper interpretation of the effects caused by the agents under study, the kinetic mechanism of the aggregation process should be established. In the present work the kinetic data on aggregation of UV-irradiated glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from rabbit skeletal muscle at 37 °C (O...
November 25, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ghazaleh Azizpour, Matteo Lancini, Giovanni Incerti, Paolo Gaffurini, Giovanni Legnani
This study proposes an experimental method to estimate personalized inertia parameters of upper limbs during handcycling by using a planar dynamic model. The handle forces are expressed as a product of a matrix describing the kinematics terms and a vector of inertial parameters of arm and forearm. The parameters are estimated by measuring the handle forces during a suitable "passive test" and inverting the mentioned matrix. The data was acquired while an operator actuated the handle, and the subject's muscles were relaxed...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Takefumi Moriuchi, Daiki Matsuda, Jirou Nakamura, Takashi Matsuo, Akira Nakashima, Wataru Mitsunaga, Takashi Hasegawa, Yuta Ikio, Masahiko Koyanagi, Toshio Higashi
Action observation studies have investigated whether changing the speed of the observed movement affects the action observation network. There are two types of speed-changing conditions; one involves "changes in actual movement velocity," and the other is "manipulation of video speed." Previous studies have investigated the effects of these conditions separately, but to date, no study has directly investigated the differences between the effects of these conditions. In the "movement velocity condition," increased velocity is associated with increased muscle activity; however, this change of muscle activities is not shown in the "video speed condition...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Shuguang Li, Daniel M Vogt, Daniela Rus, Robert J Wood
Artificial muscles hold promise for safe and powerful actuation for myriad common machines and robots. However, the design, fabrication, and implementation of artificial muscles are often limited by their material costs, operating principle, scalability, and single-degree-of-freedom contractile actuation motions. Here we propose an architecture for fluid-driven origami-inspired artificial muscles. This concept requires only a compressible skeleton, a flexible skin, and a fluid medium. A mechanical model is developed to explain the interaction of the three components...
November 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Blake W Dallon, Brian A Parker, Aimee E Hodson, Trevor S Tippetts, Mitchell E Harrison, M Marissa A Appiah, Jeffrey E Witt, Jonathan L Gibbs, Harrison M Gray, Thomas M Sant, Benjamin T Bikman
Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of prolonged hyperinsulinemia on mitochondrial respiration and uncoupling in distinct adipose tissue depots. Methods. Sixteen-wk-old male mice were injected daily with placebo or insulin to induce an artificial hyperinsulinemia for 28 d. Following treatment period, mitochondrial respiration and degree of uncoupling was determined in permeabilized perirenal, inguinal, and interscapular adipose tissue. Results. White adipose tissue (WAT) mitochondria (inguinal and perirenal) respire at substantially lower rates compared with brown adipose tissue (BAT)...
November 23, 2017: Biochemical Journal
S Mukaratirwa, L J La Grange, M P Malatji, B Reininghaus, J Lamb
Trichinella species are widely distributed on all continents with the exception of Antarctica, although the full spectrum of Trichinella species found in sub-Saharan African countries, and their hosts, has not been fully documented. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Trichinella in wildlife from the Greater Kruger National Park (GKNP) and adjacent areas located in the Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa, and to identify the species and/or genotypes of Trichinella larvae isolated from muscle tissues, using molecular techniques...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
Shuya Liu, Shun Lu, Rui Xu, Ann Atzberger, Stefan Günther, Nina Wettschureck, Stefan Offermanns
The mouse bitter taste receptors Tas2r143, Tas2r135, and Tas2r126 are encoded by genes that cluster on chromosome 6 and have been suggested to be expressed under common regulatory elements. Previous studies indicated that the Tas2r143/Tas2r135/Tas2r126 cluster is expressed in the heart, but other organs had not been systematically analyzed. In order to investigate the expression of this bitter taste receptor gene cluster in non-gustatory tissues, we generated a BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) based transgenic mouse line, expressing CreERT2 under the control of the Tas2r143 promoter...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Mina Sattari, Marziyeh Fathi, Mansour Daei, Hamid Erfan-Niya, Jaleh Barar, Ali Akbar Entezami
Introduction: Stimuli-responsive hydrogels, which indicate a significant response to the environmental change (e.g., pH, temperature, light, …), have potential applications for tissue engineering, drug delivery systems, cell therapy, artificial muscles, biosensors, etc. Among the temperature-responsive materials, poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) based hydrogels have been widely developed and their properties can be easily tailored by manipulating the properties of the hydrogel and the composite material...
2017: BioImpacts: BI
Jessica Rose, Katelyn Cahill-Rowley, Erin E Butler
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common childhood motor disability and often results in debilitating walking abnormalities, such as flexed-knee and stiff-knee gait. Current medical and surgical treatments are only partially effective in improving gait abnormalities and may cause significant muscle weakness. However, emerging artificial walking technologies, such as step-initiated, multichannel neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), can substantially improve gait patterns and promote muscle strength in children with spastic CP...
November 2017: Artificial Organs
Motoko Morimoto, Ayaka Kato, Jin Kobayashi, Kei Okuda, Yoshikazu Kuwahara, Yasushi Kino, Yasuyuki Abe, Tsutomu Sekine, Tomokazu Fukuda, Emiko Isogai, Manabu Fukumoto
BACKGROUND: After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, radioactive contaminants were released over a widespread area. Monitoring the biological effects of radiation exposure in animals in the ex-evacuation zone should be continued to understand the health effects of radiation exposure in humans. The present study aimed to clarify the effects of radiation by investigating whether there is any alteration in the morphology and gene expressions of immune molecules in the intestine of pigs and inobuta (wild boar and domestic pig hybrid) in the ex-evacuation zone in 2012...
November 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
D Y Xu, N J Zhao, Y X Zhao, D Luo, Y J Sun, K Y Li
Objective: To explore the optimal positions of the implanted stimulating eletrodes for artificial facial nerve (AFN) for inducing contraction of the orbicularis oris muscle (OOM) in rabbit with peripheral facial paralysis. Methods: According to the four microelectrodes of the AFN stimulating side, four modes of the implanted positions were divided. In line with different modes, the electrodes were implanted into the affected OOM of the rabbits with unilateral peripheral facial paralysis. AFN output electric stimulation to induce contraction of the affected OOM with uniform stimulating frequency and pulse length in vitro...
November 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Sarah Rajabi, Sara Pahlavan, Mohammad Kazemi Ashtiani, Hassan Ansari, Saeed Abbasalizadeh, Forough Azam Sayahpour, Fahimeh Varzideh, Sawa Kostin, Nasser Aghdami, Thomas Braun, Hossein Baharvand
Bioengineering of whole hearts using human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)-derived cardiovascular progenitor cells (CPCs) and natural matrices is a promising approach to overcome organ donor shortage threatening millions of patients awaiting for heart transplantation. Here, we developed a novel strategy for generation of heart constructs by repopulating engineered decellularized rat hearts using hESCs-derived CPCs. Careful expansion of CPCs in a scalable stirred-suspension bioreactor combined with step-wise seeding (60 million cells in 3 steps of 20 million per 1...
November 1, 2017: Biomaterials
Hiroki Kamada, Hideaki Suzuki, Saori Yamamoto, Ryosuke Nomura, Shigeki Kushimoto
Case: A 72-year-old man presented to our hospital after ingesting insecticide containing approximately 2 mL/kg diethylene glycol, which exceeded the lethal dose of 1 mL/kg. The patient recovered from critical symptoms on acute phase until day 3, but received artificial ventilation for muscle weakness secondary to sensorimotor neuropathy on days 11-54. Outcome: Even after marked improvement from sensorimotor neuropathy, the patient continued to complain of orthostatic hypotension...
July 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
Narcisa Maria Bandarra, Ana Marçalo, Ana Rita Cordeiro, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira
Atlantic sardines (Sardina pilchardus) captured in the Portuguese mainland coast and maintained in captivity for one year feeding on artificial diet showed significant differences in muscle total lipids (TL) content in relation to wild fish (25% after one year compared to 14% in wild). Captive sardines had higher percentage of non-polar lipids (NPL) in their muscle, presented higher levels of 18:1n-9 and lower of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in NPL than those observed in wild fish. TL in the liver were not significantly different between captive and wild fish, but the NPL fraction of captive sardines presented higher levels of 22:6n-3 and 20:5n-3 than those registered in the wild...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Jessica R Suedbeck, Susan L Tolle, Gayle McCombs, Martha L Walker, Daniel M Russell
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 4 different commercially available instrument handle designs (A. 16 grams and 12.7 mm diameter, B. 23 grams and 11.1 mm diameter, C. 21 grams and 7.9 mm diameter and D. 18 grams and 6.35 mm diameter) on the muscle activity of four forearm muscles during a simulated scaling experience.Methods: A convenience sample of 27 (n=27) dental hygienists used a Columbia 13/14 curet with four different instrument handles to scale artificial calculus from typodont teeth...
June 2017: Journal of Dental Hygiene: JDH
Nick Spindler, Christian Etz, Martin Misfeld, Christoph Josten, Michael Borger, Friedrich Wilhelm Mohr, Stefan Langer
Aim Coverage of a deep sternal wound infection with a greater omentum flap. Due to a persistent infection caused by an infected aortic prosthesis, the primarily performed reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi flap had to be revised, and an alternative solution had to be found. Indication A deep sternal wound infection is a rare but devastating complication following median sternotomy. If the commonly used muscle flap is not sufficient and artificial material is still present in the wound, for instant drivelines or a vascular prosthesis, the greater omentum flap is a useful option due to its immunologic capacity...
November 6, 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
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