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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101944/biomechanical-implications-of-walking-with-indigenous-footwear
#1
Catherine Willems, Gaetane Stassijns, Wim Cornelis, Kristiaan D'Août
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates biomechanical implications of walking with indigenous "Kolhapuri" footwear compared to barefoot walking among a population of South Indians. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten healthy adults from South India walked barefoot and indigenously shod at voluntary speed on an artificial substrate. The experiment was repeated outside, on a natural substrate. Data were collected from (1) a heel-mounted 3D-accelerometer recording peak impact at heel contact, (2) an ankle-mounted 3D-goniometer (plantar/dorsiflexion and inversion/eversion), and (3) sEMG electrodes at the m...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074649/bio-based-artificial-nacre-with-excellent-mechanical-and-barrier-properties-realized-by-a-facile-in-situ-reduction-and-cross-linking-reaction
#2
Kiran Shahzadi, Imran Mohsin, Lin Wu, Xuesong Ge, Yijun Jiang, Hui Li, Xindong Mu
Demands for high strength integrated materials have substantially increased across various kinds of industries. Inspired by the relationship of excellent integration of mechanical properties and hierarchical nano/microscale structure of the natural nacre, a simple and facile method to fabricate high strength integrated artificial nacre based on sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and borate cross-linked graphene oxide (GO) sheets has been developed. The tensile strength and toughness of cellulose-based hybrid material reached 480...
January 11, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050920/elderly-fall-risk-prediction-based-on-a-physiological-profile-approach-using-artificial-neural-networks
#3
Jafar Razmara, Mohammad Hassan Zaboli
Falls play a critical role in older people's life as it is an important source of morbidity and mortality in elders. In this article, elders fall risk is predicted based on a physiological profile approach using a multilayer neural network with back-propagation learning algorithm. The personal physiological profile of 200 elders was collected through a questionnaire and used as the experimental data for learning and testing the neural network. The profile contains a series of simple factors putting elders at risk for falls such as vision abilities, muscle forces, and some other daily activities and grouped into two sets: psychological factors and public factors...
November 1, 2016: Health Informatics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049497/two-differentially-structured-collagen-scaffolds-for-potential-urinary-bladder-augmentation-proof-of-concept-study-in-a-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig-model
#4
Dorothea Leonhäuser, Katja Stollenwerk, Volker Seifarth, Isabella M Zraik, Michael Vogt, Pramod K Srinivasan, Rene H Tolba, Joachim O Grosse
BACKGROUND: The repair of urinary bladder tissue is a necessity for tissue loss due to cancer, trauma, or congenital abnormalities. Use of intestinal tissue is still the gold standard in the urological clinic, which leads to new problems and dysfunctions like mucus production, stone formation, and finally malignancies. Therefore, the use of artificial, biologically derived materials is a promising step towards the augmentation of this specialised tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate potential bladder wall repair by two collagen scaffold prototypes, OptiMaix 2D and 3D, naïve and seeded with autologous vesical cells, as potential bladder wall substitute material in a large animal model...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042693/stimuli-responsive-polymers-for-actuation
#5
Qiang Matthew Zhang, Michael Serpe
A variety of stimuli-responsive polymers have been developed and used as actuators and/or artificial muscles, with the movement being driven by an external stimulus, e.g., electrical potential. This review highlights actuators constructed from liquid crystal elastomers, dielectric elastomers, ionic polymers, and conducting polymers. This review covers recent examples of a variety of actuators generated from these materials and their utility. The mechanism of actuation will be detailed for most examples in order to stimulate possible future research, and lead to new applications and advanced applications...
January 1, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040606/steinert-syndrome-and-repercussions-in-dental-medicine
#6
REVIEW
Helena Baptista, Inês Lopes Cardoso
Steinert syndrome, also called myotonic dystrophy type 1, is a genetic disorder with autosomal dominant transmission characterized by myotonia and a multisystemic clinical picture that affects several tissues of the human body. The most common systemic phenotypes are: muscular, cardiac, respiratory, CNS, ocular, gynecological, digestive, orthopedical, as well as cognitive and psychological symptoms (cognitive decline). Muscles involved in voluntary movement are highly affected by myotonia especially distal muscles of upper limbs...
December 23, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026935/thermoresponsive-semi-ipn-hydrogel-microfibers-from-continuous-fluidic-processing-with-high-elasticity-and-fast-actuation
#7
Yan Liu, Kaihuan Zhang, Jinghong Ma, G Julius Vancso
Hydrogels with rapid and strong response to external stimuli and possessing high elasticity and strength have been considered as platform materials for numerous applications, e.g., in biomaterials engineering. Thermoresponsive hydrogels based on semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPN) featuring N-isopropylacrylamide with copolymers of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) p(NIPAM-HEMA) chains are prepared and described. The copolymer was characterized by FTIR, NMR, and GPC. The semi-IPN structured hydrogel and its responsive properties were evaluated by dynamic mechanical measurements, SEM, DSC, equilibrium swelling ratio, and dynamic deswelling tests...
December 27, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009480/a-transparent-self-healing-highly-stretchable-ionic-conductor
#8
Yue Cao, Timothy G Morrissey, Eric Acome, Sarah I Allec, Bryan M Wong, Christoph Keplinger, Chao Wang
Self-healing materials can repair damage caused by mechanical wear, thereby extending lifetime of devices. Here, a transparent, self-healing, highly stretchable ionic conductor is presented that autonomously heals after experiencing severe mechanical damage. The design of this self-healing polymer uses ion-dipole interactions as the dynamic motif. The unique properties of this material when used to electrically activate transparent artificial muscles are demonstrated.
December 23, 2016: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992345/continuous-estimation-of-human-multi-joint-angles-from-semg-using-a-state-space-model
#9
Qichuan Ding, Jianda Han, Xingang Zhao
Due to the couplings among joint-relative muscles, it is a challenge to accurately estimate continuous multi-joint movements from multi-channel sEMG signals. Traditional approaches always build a nonlinear regression model, such as artificial neural network, to predict the multi-joint movement variables using sEMG as inputs. However, the redundant sEMGdata are always not distinguished; the prediction errors cannot be evaluated and corrected online as well. In this work, a correlation-based redundancy-segmentation method is proposed to segment the sEMG-vector including redundancy into irredundant and redundant subvectors...
December 14, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990235/a-hybrid-functional-electrical-stimulation-for-real-time-estimation-of-joint-torque-and-closed-loop-control-of-muscle-activation
#10
Zhan Li, David Guiraud, David Andreu, Charles Fattal, Anthony Gelis, Mitsuhiro Hayashibe
As a neuroprosthetic technique, functional electrical stimulation (FES) can restore lost motor performance of impaired patients. Through delivering electrical pulses to target muscles, the joint movement can be eventually elicited. This work presents a real-time FES system which is able to deal with two neuroprosthetic missions: one is estimating FES-induced joint torque with evoked electromyograph (eEMG), and the other is artificially controlling muscle activation with such eEMG feedback. The clinical experiment results on spinal cord injured (SCI) patients and healthy subjects show promising performance of the proposed FES system...
June 13, 2016: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984313/electrical-stimulation-of-artificial-heart-muscle-a-look-into-the-electrophysiological-and-genetic-implications
#11
Mohamed A Mohamed, Jose F Islas, Robert J Schwartz, Ravi K Birla
Development of tissue-engineered hearts for treatment of myocardial infarction or biological pacemakers has been hindered by the production of mostly arrhythmic or in-synergistic constructs. Electrical stimulation (ES) of these constructs has been shown to produce tissues with greater twitch force and better adrenergic response. In order to further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effect of ES, we fabricated a bioreactor capable of delivering continuous or intermittent waveforms of various types to multiple constructs simultaneously...
December 13, 2016: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983626/design-and-optimization-of-a-hybrid-driven-waist-rehabilitation-robot
#12
Bin Zi, Guangcai Yin, Dan Zhang
In this paper a waist rehabilitation robot driven by cables and pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) has been conceptualized and designed. In the process of mechanism design, the human body structure, the waist movement characteristics, and the actuators' driving characteristics are the main considerable factors to make the hybrid-driven waist rehabilitation robot (HWRR) cost-effective, safe, flexible, and well-adapted. A variety of sensors are chosen to measure the position and orientation of the recovery patient to ensure patient safety at the same time as the structure design...
December 14, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967281/cho-mouth-rinsing-improves-neuromuscular-performance-during-isokinetic-fatiguing-exercise
#13
Ilenia Bazzucchi, Federica Patrizio, Francesco Felici, Andrea Nicolò, Massimo Sacchetti
PURPOSE: To determine whether repeated CHO mouth rinsing would improve neuromuscular performance during high intensity fatiguing contractions. METHODS: 18 young men (26.1±5.0 yr; 22.9±1,9 BMI) performed 3 maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICPRE). Immediately after, they completed 10 s mouth rinse with either 6.4% maltodextrine solution [MAL] or 7.1% glucose solution [GLU] or water [W] or artificially sweetened solution [PLA] or a control trial with no rinse [CON] in a cross over protocol...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956115/future-perspectives-in-adult-stem-cell-turnover-implications-for-endocrine-physiology-and-disease
#14
Clara V Alvarez, Fernando Oroz-Gonjar, Montserrat Garcia-Lavandeira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951465/development-of-a-heterologous-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-for-the-detection-of-clindamycin-and-lincomycin-residues-in-edible-animal-tissues
#15
Jie He, Nan Wu, Pengjie Luo, Ping Guo, Jianwen Qu, Shuying Zhang, Xin Zou, Feiyao Wu, Huijuan Xie, Can Wang, Wenxiao Jiang
In this study, new clindamycin (CLIN) artificial antigens were prepared and used to produce broad-specificity monoclonal antibodies. Based on the as-produced mAbs, a heterologous ELISA was developed to detect CLIN and lincomycin (LIN) residues in edible animal tissues. The IC50 values of the developed assay were 0.3ng/mL (CLIN) and 1.2ng/mL (LIN) in buffer, respectively. The detection limits were estimated to be 1.8μg/kg (CLIN) and 6.8μg/kg (LIN) in bovine, chicken, porcine and fish muscles. In the spike and recovery tests, the mean recovery rate ranged from 76% to 112% at different spiked levels, and the intra-/inter-assay coefficients of variation were in the range of 7...
March 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943476/effects-of-decomposition-on-carbon-and-nitrogen-stable-isotope-values-of-muscle-tissue-of-varying-lipid-content-from-three-aquatic-vertebrate-species
#16
David J Yurkowski, Anna J Hussey, Nigel E Hussey, Aaron T Fisk
RATIONALE: Stable isotopes are a prominent tool in animal ecology where data is obtained from analyzing animal tissues, which are typically stored prior to analysis. However, the effect of decomposition on the reliability of stable isotope ratios from animal tissue prior to storage has been seldom studied. Here, we examine the long-term effects of freezing and decomposition of animal tissue on δ(13) C and δ(15) N values across three different aquatic species of varying lipid content...
December 10, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937075/evaluation-of-different-mediterranean-essential-oils-as-prophylactic-agents-in-anisakidosis
#17
Magdalena Gómez-Mateos Pérez, Concepción Navarro Moll, Gema Merino Espinosa, Adela Valero López
CONTEXT: Anisakis Dujardin 1845 (Anisakidae) nematodes can cause gastrointestinal and allergic diseases when humans eat raw or undercooked seafood containing larvae. There is currently no drug available in the market against this parasitic disease, and the study of plant-derived molecules could be useful in the discovery of effective compounds. OBJECTIVE: This research assesses the biocidal activity of a range of essential oils (EOs) from some Mediterranean plants against larvae found in the musculature of fresh fish...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930604/an-automated-expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene-suturing-and-coaxial-fastener-system-for-mitral-chordae-replacement-strength-feasibility-and-healing
#18
Candice Y Lee, Joshua K Wong, Jude S Sauer, Heather R Gorea, Angelo J Martellaro, Andrew R Sifain, Peter A Knight
OBJECTIVE: Mitral valve (MV) chordae replacements can be technically challenging. Technology that remotely delivers and accurately secures artificial chordae may reduce the learning curve and improve the reliability of MV repairs. METHODS: The technology involved two devices: a remote suturing device for delivery of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) suture to the papillary muscle and a Coaxial titanium suture fastener (TF) device with integrated saline infusion for real-time determination of chordae length during fixation...
November 2016: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927094/genital-autocleaning-in-the-male-cricket-gryllus-bimaculatus-2-rhythmic-movements-of-the-genitalia-and-their-motor-control
#19
Mikihiko Kumashiro, Masaki Sakai
Three types of genital movement, their neural controls, and functional roles were investigated to gain a better understanding of the mechanism underlying autocleaning in the male cricket. The membrane complex consisting of the median pouch and genital chamber floor shows peculiar undulation that is composed of two types of movements: a right-left large shift and small crease-like movements. The large shift was caused by contraction of a pair of muscles (MPA) located anterior to the median pouch, while the crease-like movements were caused by numerous muscle fibers extending over the membrane complex...
December 2016: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918289/a-bioreactor-with-an-electro-responsive-elastomeric-membrane-for-mimicking-intestinal-peristalsis
#20
Daniele Cei, Joana Costa, Giulia Gori, Gabriele Frediani, Claudio Domenici, Federico Carpi, Arti Ahluwalia
This study describes an actuated bioreactor which mimics the pulsatile contractile motion of the intestinal barrier using electro-responsive elastomers as smart materials that undergo deformation upon electrical stimulation. The device consists of an annular dielectric elastomer actuator working as a radial artificial muscle able to rhythmically contract and relax a central cell culture well. The bioreactor maintained up to 4 h of actuation at a frequency of 0.15 Hz and a strain of 8%-10%, to those of the cyclic contraction and relaxation of the small intestine...
December 5, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
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