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artificial muscle

V A Porkhanov, V A Zhikharev, I S Polyakov, V V Danilov, V B Kononenko
AIM: To present possibility and technical aspects of anesthetic management during video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy in patients with myasthenia gravis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The article describes the proposed modified anesthetic method that is suitable for video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy in patients with myasthenia gravis. Nine patients with myasthenia underwent VATS-thymectomy. Anesthesia was performed with artificial airway and auxiliary ventilation without muscle relaxants administration...
2018: Khirurgiia
Lin Ye, Yuanyuan Yao, Hui Guo, Yun Peng
AIM OF THE STUDY: Blepharoptosis is a drooping of the upper eyelid, usually due to dysfunction of the levator palpebrae superioris (LPS). Recently, skeletal muscle satellite cells (SSCs) have been reported to promote the repair of damaged skeletal muscle. This study aims to investigate the potential contribution of exogenous SSCs to the regeneration of mechanically damaged LPS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four groups, including control group, SSCs-treated group, SSCs-treated injury group and non-treated injury group...
April 13, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Preston Ohta, Luis Valle, Jonathan King, Kevin Low, Jaehyun Yi, Christopher G Atkeson, Yong-Lae Park
As robots begin to interact with humans and operate in human environments, safety becomes a major concern. Conventional robots, although reliable and consistent, can cause injury to anyone within its range of motion. Soft robotics, wherein systems are made to be soft and mechanically compliant, are thus a promising alternative due to their lightweight nature and ability to cushion impacts, but current designs often sacrifice accuracy and usefulness for safety. We, therefore, have developed a bioinspired robotic arm combining elements of rigid and soft robotics such that it exhibits the positive qualities of both, namely compliance and accuracy, while maintaining a low weight...
April 2018: Soft Robotics
Xue-Wen Qiu, Jia-Han Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of Lando® dermal scaffold for promoting repair of acute full-thickness skin defects in pigs and explore the possible mechanism. METHODS: Three 5 cm×5 cm full-thickness skin defects were created on the left dorsal skin (control group) and another 3 on the right dorsal skin (treatment group) of each of 6 Tibetan pigs. The wounds in the treatment group were covered with a bilayer artificial skin (Lando) and the control wounds with vaseline gauze...
March 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Onnuri Kim, Seung Jae Kim, Moon Jeong Park
Soft actuators based on electroactive polymers (EAPs) are the core constituents of future soft robots owing to their fascinating properties such as lightweight, compactness, easy fabrication into various forms, and low cost. Ionic EAP actuators are particularly attractive owing to the low driving voltages (<3 V) as compared to those of electronic EAP actuators (usually kilovolts). This paper presents a brief overview of the recent progress in a range of EAP actuators by focusing on low voltage operation, in addition to the challenges and future strategies for their wide applicability in artificial muscles and various innovative soft robot technologies...
April 6, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Kristin K Stover, Daniel M Weinreich, Thomas J Roberts, Elizabeth L Brainerd
Domestication is a type of experimental evolution in which humans have artificially selected for specific desired traits. Selected strain animals can be utilized to identify correlated responses by comparing them to the wild strain. In particular, domestic turkeys have been selected for increased body mass and high-growth rate, most significantly over the past 60 years. Yet it remains unclear how artificial selection has affected the morphology and evolution of the musculoskeletal system as a whole. Here, we compare growth rate over 21 weeks, hind limb bone scaling across ontogeny via in vivo CT scanning, and muscle proportions in wild and domestic turkeys to identify differences in structural scaling and the potential contributions of selection and developmental plasticity to whole-organism morphology...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Rajnish Sharma, N Jane Harms, Piia M Kukka, Sarah E Parker, Alvin A Gajadhar, Thomas S Jung, Emily J Jenkins
Trichinella is an important zoonotic parasite found in a range of wildlife species harvested for food and fur in Canada. We compared larval intensity from tongue and diaphragm, the best predilection sites in other animal species, from naturally infected, wild wolverines (Gulo gulo) (n = 95). Muscle larvae of Trichinella spp. were recovered by the pepsin/HCl artificial digestion method (gold standard) using double separatory funnels, and species were identified using multiplex PCR. Prevalence was 83% (79/95)...
April 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Yin Cheng, Ranran Wang, Kwok Hoe Chan, Xin Lu, Jing Sun, Ghim Wei Ho
Adaptive tendril coiling of climbing plants has long inspired the artificial soft microsystem for actuation and morphing. The current bionic research efforts on tendril coiling focus on either the preparation of materials with the coiling geometry, or the design of self-shaping materials. However, the realization of two key functional features of the tendril, the spring-like buffering connection and the axial contraction, remains elusive. Herein, we devise a conductive tendril by fusing conductive yarns into tendril configuration, bypassing the prevailing conductivity constraints and mechanical limitations...
March 27, 2018: ACS Nano
Rongrong Liu, Qian Zhang, Qian Zhou, Ping Zhang, Honglian Dai
In this study, nondegradable poly (carbonate urethane) (PCU) and poly (carbonate urethane) incorporated variable Fe3 O4 content microspheres (PCU/Fe3 O4 ) were synthesized using pre-polymerization and suspension polymerization. Synthesis was confirmed through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effect of Fe3 O4 incorporation was investigated on crystalline, thermal, shape memory and degradation properties by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetery (DSC), compression test and degradation in vitro, respectively...
February 9, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Marie Mortreux, Janice A Nagy, Frank C Ko, Mary L Bouxsein, Seward B Rutkove
Musculoskeletal deconditioning is a well-known consequence of microgravity; however, the effects of partial gravity such as that experienced on the Moon (0.16g) or Mars (0.38g) on musculoskeletal health remain relatively unexplored. Since Mars is being increasingly viewed as the likely next extraterrestrial site for human exploration, there is an increasing need for earth-based analogue models that can study the long-term physiological effects of such environments. Moreover, this model would also offer the opportunity to explore the potential impact of partial artificial gravity (as would be achieved centrifugation)...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Yad Ram Yadav, Shailendra Ratre, Vijay Parihar, Amitesh Dubey, Mashoo N Dubey
Symptomatic ventral cervical cord compressions have been treated by anterior discectomy with fusion, anterior corpectomy and fusion, discectomy with an artificial disc, and minimally invasive techniques. There are complications associated with the fusion procedure, especially when a long segment fusion is undertaken. Partial removal of the vertebral body without fusion could help in avoiding fusion and its associated complications. We are describing the detailed surgical technique, indications, limitations, and early results of endoscopic partially corpectomy...
March 2018: Neurology India
Vu Huy Luong, Takenao Chino, Noritaka Oyama, Takashi Matsushita, Yoko Sasaki, Dai Ogura, Shin-Ichiro Niwa, Tanima Biswas, Akiyuki Hamasaki, Mikako Fujita, Yoshinari Okamoto, Masami Otsuka, Hironobu Ihn, Minoru Hasegawa
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling is well known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc). We previously developed an artificial molecule, the histidine-pyridine-histidine ligand derivative HPH-15, which may have an antifibrotic effect. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the effects of this drug in human skin fibroblasts and in a preclinical model of SSc. METHODS: The effects of HPH-15 on expression of extracellular matrix components and TGF-β signaling in human dermal fibroblasts were analyzed...
March 15, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Qunfeng Cheng, Jingsong Peng
Nacre-inspired nanocomposites with excellent mechanical properties have achieved remarkable success in the past decades. The high performance of nacre-inspired nanocomposites lays down the basis for the further application of smart devices. Recently, some smart nanocomposites inspired by nacre have demonstrated well mechanical properties as well as effective and stable stimuli-responsive functions. In this concept, we summarize the recent development of smart nacre-inspired nanocomposites including 1D fibers, 2D films and 3D bulk nanocomposites in response to temperature, moisture, light, strain, etc...
March 15, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Min Jiang, Qiang Lyu, Yun-Gang Bai, Huan Liu, Jing Yang, Jiu-Hua Cheng, Ming Zheng, Jin Ma
Recent studies have suggested that microgravity-induced arterial remodelling contributes to post-flight orthostatic intolerance and that multiple mechanisms are involved in arterial remodelling. However, the initial mechanism by which haemodynamic changes induce arterial remodelling is unknown. Focal adhesions (FAs) are dynamic protein complexes that have mechanotransduction properties. This study aimed to investigate the role of FAs in simulated microgravity-induced basilar and femoral arterial remodelling...
March 11, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Leng-Duei Koh, Jingjie Yeo, Yeong Yuh Lee, Qunya Ong, Mingyong Han, Benjamin C-K Tee
The present review will introduce the basic concepts of silk-based electronics/optoelectronics including the latest technological advances on the use of silk fibroin in combination with other functional components, with an emphasis on improving the performance of next-generation silk-based materials. It also highlights the patterning of silk fibroin to produce micro/nano-scale features, as well as the functionalization of silk fibroin to impart antimicrobial (i.e. antibacterial) properties. Silk-based bioelectronics have great potential for advanced or futuristic bio-applications including e-skins, e-bandages, biosensors, wearable displays, implantable devices, artificial muscles, etc...
May 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
N-N Song, H-L Lu, C Lu, L Tong, S-Q Huang, X Huang, J Chen, Y-C Kim, W-X Xu
BACKGROUND: A major complication related to gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in diabetic patients is chronic constipation. Constipation has serious negative impacts on quality of life; however, without a comprehensive understanding of the disease, currently available treatments cannot provide a cure. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive cells (PDGFRα+ cells), which form the SIP syncytium with interstitial cells of Cajal and smooth muscle cells, play important roles in GI motility...
March 9, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Marianne E Prévôt, Senay Ustunel, Elda Hegmann
The development of appropriate materials that can make breakthroughs in tissue engineering has long been pursued by the scientific community. Several types of material have been long tested and re-designed for this purpose. At the same time, liquid crystals (LCs) have captivated the scientific community since their discovery in 1888 and soon after were thought to be, in combination with polymers, artificial muscles. Within the past decade liquid crystal elastomers (LCE) have been attracting increasing interest for their use as smart advanced materials for biological applications...
March 3, 2018: Materials
Alan She, Shuyan Zhang, Samuel Shian, David R Clarke, Federico Capasso
Focal adjustment and zooming are universal features of cameras and advanced optical systems. Such tuning is usually performed longitudinally along the optical axis by mechanical or electrical control of focal length. However, the recent advent of ultrathin planar lenses based on metasurfaces (metalenses), which opens the door to future drastic miniaturization of mobile devices such as cell phones and wearable displays, mandates fundamentally different forms of tuning based on lateral motion rather than longitudinal motion...
February 2018: Science Advances
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ö I Ulusoy, I G Savur, T Alaçam, B Çelik
AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of NaOCl, NaOCl-EDTA, and NaOCl+HEBP activated by ultrasonics and XP-endo Finisher on organic tissue removal from simulated internal root resorption cavities. METHODOLOGY: The root canals of 144 single-rooted teeth were instrumented. The teeth were split longitudinally and semicircular cavities were prepared in the canals on each half of the roots. Samples obtained from ground bovine muscle tissue were weighed and adapted into the semicircular cavities...
March 5, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
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