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Nashmiah Aid Alrashedy, Jeanmaire Molina
Psychoactive plants contain chemicals that presumably evolved as allelochemicals but target certain neuronal receptors when consumed by humans, altering perception, emotion and cognition. These plants have been used since ancient times as medicines and in the context of religious rituals for their various psychoactive effects (e.g., as hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives). The ubiquity of psychoactive plants in various cultures motivates investigation of the commonalities among these plants, in which a phylogenetic framework may be insightful...
2016: PeerJ
Camille Attané, Marie-Line Peyot, Roxane Lussier, Pegah Poursharifi, Shangang Zhao, Dongwei Zhang, Johane Morin, Marco Pineda, Shupei Wang, Olivier Dumortier, Neil B Ruderman, Grant A Mitchell, Brigitte Simons, S R Murthy Madiraju, Erik Joly, Marc Prentki
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To directly assess the role of beta cell lipolysis in insulin secretion and whole-body energy homeostasis, inducible beta cell-specific adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)-deficient (B-Atgl-KO) mice were studied under normal diet (ND) and high-fat diet (HFD) conditions. METHODS: Atgl (flox/flox) mice were cross-bred with Mip-Cre-ERT mice to generate Mip-Cre-ERT(/+);Atgl (flox/flox) mice. At 8 weeks of age, these mice were injected with tamoxifen to induce deletion of beta cell-specific Atgl (also known as Pnpla2), and the mice were fed an ND or HFD...
September 27, 2016: Diabetologia
Adrienne E Ng, Ernesto Sandoval, Terence M Murphy
Lophophora williamsii (peyote) is a small, spineless, greenish-blue cactus found in Mexico and the southwestern United States. Ingestion of the cactus can result in hallucinations due to its content of mescaline. In the United States, L. williamsii is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance. In this study, we use DNA analysis of the chloroplast trnL/trnF region and chloroplast rbcL gene to identify the individuals of Lophophora. Using the rbcL gene, Lophophora specimens could be distinguished from outgroups, but species within the genus could not be distinguished...
January 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Camille Attané, Marie-Line Peyot, Roxane Lussier, Dongwei Zhang, Erik Joly, S R Murthy Madiraju, Marc Prentki
Many metabolic studies employ tissue-specific gene knockout mice, which requires breeding of floxed gene mice, available mostly on C57BL/6N (NN) genetic background, with cre or Flp recombinase-expressing mice, available on C57BL/6J (JJ) background, resulting in the generation of mixed C57BL/6NJ (NJ) genetic background mice. Recent awareness of many genetic differences between NN and JJ strains including the deletion of nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (nnt), necessitates examination of the consequence of mixed NJ background on glucose tolerance, beta cell function and other metabolic parameters...
2016: PloS One
Émilie Pepin, Anfal Al-Mass, Camille Attané, Kezhuo Zhang, Julien Lamontagne, Roxane Lussier, S R Murthy Madiraju, Erik Joly, Neil B Ruderman, Robert Sladek, Marc Prentki, Marie-Line Peyot
Diet induced obese (DIO) mice can be stratified according to their weight gain in response to high fat diet as low responders (LDR) and high responders (HDR). This allows the study of β-cell failure and the transitions to prediabetes (LDR) and early diabetes (HDR). C57BL/6N mice were fed for 8 weeks with a normal chow diet (ND) or a high fat diet and stratified as LDR and HDR. Freshly isolated islets from ND, LDR and HDR mice were studied ex-vivo for mitochondrial metabolism, AMPK activity and signalling, the expression and activity of key enzymes of energy metabolism, cholesterol synthesis, and mRNA profiling...
2016: PloS One
Shangang Zhao, Yves Mugabo, Gwynne Ballentine, Camille Attane, Jose Iglesias, Pegah Poursharifi, Dongwei Zhang, Thuy Anne Nguyen, Heidi Erb, Raphael Prentki, Marie-Line Peyot, Erik Joly, Stephanie Tobin, Stephanie Fulton, J Mark Brown, S R Murthy Madiraju, Marc Prentki
Suppression of α/β-domain hydrolase-6 (ABHD6), a monoacylglycerol (MAG) hydrolase, promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic β cells. We report here that high-fat-diet-fed ABHD6-KO mice show modestly reduced food intake, decreased body weight gain and glycemia, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and enhanced locomotor activity. ABHD6-KO mice also show increased energy expenditure, cold-induced thermogenesis, brown adipose UCP1 expression, fatty acid oxidation, and white adipose browning...
March 29, 2016: Cell Reports
Shangang Zhao, Pegah Poursharifi, Yves Mugabo, Emily J Levens, Kevin Vivot, Camille Attane, Jose Iglesias, Marie-Line Peyot, Erik Joly, S R Murthy Madiraju, Marc Prentki
OBJECTIVE: α/β-Hydrolase domain-6 (ABHD6) is a newly identified monoacylglycerol (MAG) lipase. We recently reported that it negatively regulates glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in the β cells by hydrolyzing lipolysis-derived MAG that acts as a metabolic coupling factor and signaling molecule via exocytotic regulator Munc13-1. Whether ABHD6 and MAG play a role in response to all classes of insulin secretagogues, in particular various fuel and non-fuel stimuli, is unknown...
December 2015: Molecular Metabolism
Yves Mugabo, Shangang Zhao, Annegrit Seifried, Sari Gezzar, Anfal Al-Mass, Dongwei Zhang, Julien Lamontagne, Camille Attane, Pegah Poursharifi, José Iglesias, Erik Joly, Marie-Line Peyot, Antje Gohla, S R Murthy Madiraju, Marc Prentki
Obesity, and the associated disturbed glycerolipid/fatty acid (GL/FA) cycle, contribute to insulin resistance, islet β-cell failure, and type 2 diabetes. Flux through the GL/FA cycle is regulated by the availability of glycerol-3-phosphate (Gro3P) and fatty acyl-CoA. We describe here a mammalian Gro3P phosphatase (G3PP), which was not known to exist in mammalian cells, that can directly hydrolyze Gro3P to glycerol. We identified that mammalian phosphoglycolate phosphatase, with an uncertain function, acts in fact as a G3PP...
January 26, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Enrique Ibarra-Laclette, Flor Zamudio-Hernández, Claudia Anahí Pérez-Torres, Victor A Albert, Enrique Ramírez-Chávez, Jorge Molina-Torres, Araceli Fernández-Cortes, Carlos Calderón-Vázquez, José Luis Olivares-Romero, Alfredo Herrera-Estrella, Luis Herrera-Estrella
BACKGROUND: Lophophora williamsii (commonly named peyote) is a small, spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline. Peyote utilizes crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), an alternative form of photosynthesis that exists in succulents such as cacti and other desert plants. Therefore, its transcriptome can be considered an important resource for future research focused on understanding how these plants make more efficient use of water in marginal environments and also for research focused on better understanding of the overall mechanisms leading to production of plant natural products and secondary metabolites...
2015: BMC Genomics
Dilek Battal, Allan J Barnes, Marisol S Castaneto, Thomas M Martin, Kevin L Klette, Marilyn A Huestis
Mescaline, the primary psychoactive chemical in peyote cactus, has been consumed for thousands of years in ancient religious ceremonies. The US military wanted to determine if mescaline intake was a problem for personnel readiness. Twenty thousand seventeen urine specimens negative for cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates, and amphetamines were tested for mescaline with the Randox Drugs of Abuse V (DOA-V) biochip array immunoassay at the manufacturer's recommended cutoff of 6 mcg/L. A sensitive and specific method for mescaline quantification in urine was developed and fully validated...
December 2015: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Cécile Jacovetti, Veronica Jimenez, Eduard Ayuso, Ross Laybutt, Marie-Line Peyot, Marc Prentki, Fatima Bosch, Romano Regazzi
The elucidation of the mechanisms directing β-cell mass regeneration and maintenance is of interest, because the deficit of β-cell mass contributes to diabetes onset and progression. We previously found that the level of the microRNA (miRNA) miR-338-3p is decreased in pancreatic islets from rodent models displaying insulin resistance and compensatory β-cell mass expansion, including pregnant rats, diet-induced obese mice, and db/db mice. Transfection of rat islet cells with oligonucleotides that specifically block miR-338-3p activity increased the fraction of proliferating β-cells in vitro and promoted survival under proapoptotic conditions without affecting the capacity of β-cells to release insulin in response to glucose...
May 2015: Molecular Endocrinology
Michael Winkelman
Substances known as psychedelics, hallucinogens and entheogens have been employed in ethnomedical traditions for thousands of years, but after promising uses in the 1950's and 1960's they were largely prohibited in medical treatment and human research starting in the 1970's as part of the fallout from the war on drugs. Nonetheless, there are a number of studies which suggest that these substances have potential applications in the treatment of addictions. While these substances are generally classified as Schedule I, alleging no established medical uses and a high drug abuse potential, there is nonetheless evidence indicating they might be safe and effective tools for short term interventions in addictions treatment...
2014: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Robert Prue, Richard W Voss
This essay frames an invitation to pastoral counselors and pastoral theologians to examine connections and perhaps interactions between themselves and traditional shamanic healers who use ayahuasca in their healing ceremonies. Indigenous people in South America have used ayahuasca for centuries, and the ritual has become common among the mestizo populations in urban areas of the Amazon, particularly as a curing ritual for drug addiction (Dobkin de Rios, 1970; Moir, 1998). Like peyote in the United States (Calabrese, 1997) ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of cultural psychiatry...
March 2014: Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling: JPCC
Bob Prue
BACKGROUND: Peyote was classified as a hallucinogen in the Drug Abuse Control Act of 1965, leaving American Indian (AI) religious use in legal ambiguity. In 1994, the American Indian Religious Freedom Act was amended to unambiguously protect the right of religious use of peyote for AIs. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to report the prevalence rates of peyote use by AIs compared to the rest of the US population and to determine what effect the act's passage had on peyote use rates...
March 2014: American Journal on Addictions
Simona Pichini, Emilia Marchei, Oscar García-Algar, Arelis Gomez, Rita Di Giovannandrea, Roberta Pacifici
A procedure based on ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of mescaline, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, psilocin, psilocybin, salvinorin A in hair of consumers of psychedelic vegetal material such peyote or trichocereus cacti, psilocybe mushrooms, Salvia divinorum or psychedelic beverage ayahuasca. After hair washing with methyl alcohol and diethyl ether and subsequent addition of mescaline-d9 and 3,4-methylenedioxypropylamphetamine as internal standards, hair samples were treated with 250μl VMA-T M3 reagent for 1h at 100°C...
November 2014: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Shangang Zhao, Yves Mugabo, Jose Iglesias, Li Xie, Viviane Delghingaro-Augusto, Roxane Lussier, Marie-Line Peyot, Erik Joly, Bouchra Taïb, Matthew A Davis, J Mark Brown, Abdelkarim Abousalham, Herbert Gaisano, S R Murthy Madiraju, Marc Prentki
Glucose metabolism in pancreatic β cells stimulates insulin granule exocytosis, and this process requires generation of a lipid signal. However, the signals involved in lipid amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) are unknown. Here we show that in β cells, glucose stimulates production of lipolysis-derived long-chain saturated monoacylglycerols, which further increase upon inhibition of the membrane-bound monoacylglycerol lipase α/β-Hydrolase Domain-6 (ABHD6). ABHD6 expression in β cells is inversely proportional to GSIS...
June 3, 2014: Cell Metabolism
Teri S Krebs, Pål-Ørjan Johansen
We estimated lifetime prevalence of psychedelic use (lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin (magic mushrooms), mescaline, and peyote) by age category using data from a 2010 US population survey of 57,873 individuals aged 12 years and older. There were approximately 32 million lifetime psychedelic users in the US in 2010; including 17% of people aged 21 to 64 years (22% of males and 12% of females). Rate of lifetime psychedelic use was greatest among people aged 30 to 34 (total 20%, including 26% of males and 15% of females)...
2013: F1000Research
G Burillo-Putze, E López Briz, B Climent Díaz, P Munné Mas, S Nogue Xarau, M A Pinillos, R S Hoffman
An increase in the consumption of vegetable substances with a hallucinogenic effect has been observed. Some of these substances are associated with ancestral religious ceremonies, while many of them are legal or are partially regulated. Salvia divinorum is a powerful kappa receptor agonist, with dissociative and hallucinogenic properties, which start quickly and have a short duration. Kratom (Mytragyna speciosa) has mitragynine as its principal alkaloid, with stimulating effects at low doses (coke-like effect), and sedative effects (opiate-like effect) at high doses...
September 2013: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
Bader Zarrouki, Isma Benterki, Ghislaine Fontés, Marie-Line Peyot, Ondrej Seda, Marc Prentki, Vincent Poitout
The cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning the compensatory increase in β-cell mass in response to insulin resistance are essentially unknown. We previously reported that a 72-h coinfusion of glucose and Intralipid (GLU+IL) induces insulin resistance and a marked increase in β-cell proliferation in 6-month-old, but not in 2-month-old, Wistar rats. The aim of the current study was to identify the mechanisms underlying nutrient-induced β-cell proliferation in this model. A transcriptomic analysis identified a central role for the forkhead transcription factor FOXM1 and its targets, and for heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor (HB-EGF), a ligand of the EGF receptor (EGFR), in nutrient-induced β-cell proliferation...
March 2014: Diabetes
Teri S Krebs, Pål-Ørjan Johansen
BACKGROUND: The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population...
2013: PloS One
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