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Felix Blei, Florian Baldeweg, Janis Fricke, Dirk Hoffmeister
Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is the main alkaloid of the fungal genus Psilocybe, the so-called "magic mushrooms". The pharmaceutical interest in this psychotropic natural product as a future medication to treat depression and anxiety is strongly re-emerging. Here, we present an enhanced enzymatic route of psilocybin production by adding TrpB, the tryptophan synthase of the mushroom Psilocybe cubensis, to the reaction. We capitalized on its substrate flexibility and show psilocybin formation from 4-hydroxyindole and L-serine, which are less cost-intensive substrates, compared to the previous method...
May 11, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Xuhong Song, Yuan Pan, Longyun Li, Xiaoli Wu, Yu Wang
In this study, effects of continuous cropping on soil properties, enzyme activities, and relative abundance, community composition and diversity of fungal taxa were investigated. Rhizosphere soil from field continuously cropped for one-year, three-year and five-year by Coptis chinensis Franch. was collected and analyzed. Illumina high-throughput sequencing analysis showed that continuous cropping of C. chinensis resulted in a significant and continuous decline in the richness and diversity of soil fungal population...
2018: PloS One
Ashley F Cowan, Kelly M Elkins
Psilocybe cubensis, or "magic mushroom," is the most common species of fungus with psychedelic characteristics. Two primer sets were designed to target Psilocybe DNA using web-based software and NBCI gene sequences. DNA was extracted from eighteen samples, including twelve mushroom species, using the Qiagen DNeasy® Plant Mini Kit. The DNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the primers and a master mix containing either a SYBR® Green I, Radiant™ Green, or LCGreen Plus® intercalating dye; amplicon size was determined using agarose gel electrophoresis...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Claudius Lenz, Jonas Wick, Dirk Hoffmeister
We report the identification of ω-N-methyl-4-hydroxytryptamine (norpsilocin, 1) from the carpophores of the hallucinogenic mushroom Psilocybe cubensis. The structure was elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Norpsilocin has not previously been reported as a natural product. It likely represents the actual psychotropic agent liberated from its 4-phosphate ester derivative, the known natural product baeocystin. We further present a simple and artifact-free extraction method that prevents dephosphorylation and therefore helps reflect the naturally occurring metabolic profile of Psilocybe mushrooms in subsequent analyses...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
Janis Fricke, Felix Blei, Dirk Hoffmeister
Psilocybin is the psychotropic tryptamine-derived natural product of Psilocybe carpophores, the so-called "magic mushrooms". Although its structure has been known for 60 years, the enzymatic basis of its biosynthesis has remained obscure. We characterized four psilocybin biosynthesis enzymes, namely i) PsiD, which represents a new class of fungal l-tryptophan decarboxylases, ii) PsiK, which catalyzes the phosphotransfer step, iii) the methyltransferase PsiM, catalyzing iterative N-methyl transfer as the terminal biosynthetic step, and iv) PsiH, a monooxygenase...
September 25, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Hae Jin Cho, Hyun Lee, Jae Young Park, Myung Soo Park, Nam Kyu Kim, John A Eimes, Changmu Kim, Sang-Kuk Han, Young Woon Lim
Most known species in the Strophariaceae are decomposers and grow on various kind of organic matter. Approximately 18 genera and 1,316 species in the Strophariaceae have been reported worldwide. Through an ongoing survey of indigenous fungi in Korea, 29 specimens belonging to the Strophariaceae were collected from 2012 to 2016. These specimens were identified based on morphological characteristics and molecular analysis of internal transcribed spacer sequences. Fifteen taxa were confirmed, with eight species matching those previously recorded...
September 2016: Mycobiology
Ning-Ning Yang, Qing-Yun Ma, Sheng-Zhuo Huang, Fan-Dong Kong, Hao-Fu Dai, Zhi-Fang Yu, You-Xing Zhao
Chemical investigation on the cultures of the fungus Psilocybe merdaria resulted in the first isolation of 10 compounds including two new ones 11,14-dihydroxylneoechinulin E (1) and (S)-4-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl)-butyrolactone (2). Their structures were elucidated from the analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and MS data. Among them, compound 7 showed inhibitory activity against AChE with 20% percentage at a concentration of 50 μg/ml.
April 2017: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
Reka A Otvos, Marija Mladic, Gabriela Arias-Alpizar, Wilfried M A Niessen, Govert W Somsen, August B Smit, Jeroen Kool
The α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) is a ligand-gated ion channel expressed in different regions of the central nervous system (CNS). The α7-nAChR has been associated with Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, and schizophrenia, and therefore is extensively studied as a drug target for the treatment of these diseases. Important sources for new compounds in drug discovery are natural extracts. Since natural extracts are complex mixtures, identification of the bioactives demands the use of analytical techniques to separate a bioactive from inactive compounds...
June 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Screening
Jiří Gabriel, Karel Švec, Dana Kolihová, Pavel Tlustoš, Jiřina Száková
The cultivation and fructification of 15 saprotrophic and wood-rotting fungal strains were tested on three various semi-natural medium. The formation of fruit bodies was observed for Panellus stipticus, Psilocybe cubensis, Schizophyllum commune and Stropharia rugosoannulata in the frame of 1-2 months. Mercury translocation from the substrate to the fruit bodies was then followed in oat flakes medium. Translocation was followed for treatments of 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20ppm Hg in the substrate. All four fungi formed fruit bodies in almost all replicates...
March 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Karolina Dydak, Mariola Śliwińska-Mossoń, Halina Milnerowicz
Substances of plant origin have been used to induce hallucinations for a long time, in religious ceremonies and rituals as well as in pain relief. Psilocybin and psilocin naturally occur in the fungal genus Psilocybe. Due to the psychedelic effects and relative harmlessness of these substances and the fact that they do not cause physical addiction, psilocybin and psilocin recently have been increasingly replacing synthetic psychodysleptics, such as diethylamide D-lysergic acid. Both compounds as psychoactive substances are illegal, but psilocybin, in addition to psychotropic action, also shows positive effects, which from a medical point of view indicate its therapeutic potential and capacity for use in therapy...
September 7, 2015: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
J Borovička, M Oborník, J Stříbrný, M E Noordeloos, L A Parra Sánchez, M Gryndler
Five Psilocybe species with unresolved systematic position (P. atrobrunnea, P. laetissima, P. medullosa, P. pelliculosa, and P. silvatica) were investigated using four molecular markers (EF1-α, ITS, LSU, and IGS). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that with the exception of P. laetissima, which is now rightfully classified in the genus Leratiomyces, all investigated species belong to Psilocybe sect. Psilocybe. For the first time, psychotropic compounds psilocin and psilocybin were detected in P. medullosa using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
June 2015: Persoonia
Patricia E J Wiltshire, David L Hawksworth, Kevin J Edwards
Light microscopical examination of plant and fungal remains in the post mortem gut may be capable of demonstrating the ingestion of unexpected natural psychotropic materials. This is demonstrated here in a case in which a 'shaman' was accused of causing the death of a young man. The deceased had participated in a ceremony which involved the drinking of ayahuasca in order to induce a psychotropic experience. Ayahuasca is an infusion of Banisteriopsis caapi (ayahuasca vine), which produces a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, and one or more additional tropical plants, generally Psychotria viridis (chacruna) which produces dimethyltryptamine (DMT)...
August 2015: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Jochen Gartz, Georg Wiedemann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Drug Testing and Analysis
Olga Zhuk, Izabela Jasicka-Misiak, Anna Poliwoda, Anastasia Kazakova, Vladlena V Godovan, Marek Halama, Piotr P Wieczorek
The pharmacological activities and acute toxicity of the psilocin (PC) and dried residues of the crude extracts of psychotropic mushrooms were investigated in mice. The hallucinogenic substances were effectively isolated, by using methanol, from the species of Psilocybe semilanceata and Pholiotina cyanopus, that were collected in the north-east region of Poland. The chemical analysis of these extracts, which was performed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS), indicated the presence of psilocin and other hallucinogenic substances, including indolealkylamines and their phosphorylated analogues...
March 27, 2015: Toxins
Yuichi Sakashita, Kenji Abe, Nobuyuki Katagiri, Toshie Kambe, Toshiaki Saitoh, Iku Utsunomiya, Yoshie Horiguchi, Kyoji Taguchi
Psilocin (3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-1H-indol-4-ol) is a hallucinogenic component of the Mexican mushroom Psilocybe mexicana and a skeletal serotonin (5-HT) analogue. Psilocin is the active metabolite of psilocybin (3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-1H-indol-4-yl dihydrogen phosphate). In the present study, we examined the effects of systemically administered psilocin on extracellular dopamine and 5-HT concentrations in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex of the dopaminergic pathway in awake rats using in vivo microdialysis...
2015: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Simona Pichini, Emilia Marchei, Oscar García-Algar, Arelis Gomez, Rita Di Giovannandrea, Roberta Pacifici
A procedure based on ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of mescaline, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, psilocin, psilocybin, salvinorin A in hair of consumers of psychedelic vegetal material such peyote or trichocereus cacti, psilocybe mushrooms, Salvia divinorum or psychedelic beverage ayahuasca. After hair washing with methyl alcohol and diethyl ether and subsequent addition of mescaline-d9 and 3,4-methylenedioxypropylamphetamine as internal standards, hair samples were treated with 250μl VMA-T M3 reagent for 1h at 100°C...
November 2014: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Mikolaj Jastrzebski, Aleksandra Bala
Psilocybin is a substance of natural origin, occurring in hallucinogenic mushrooms (most common in the Psilocybe family). After its synthesis in 1958 research began on its psychoactive properties, particularly strong effects on visual perception and spatial orientation. Due to the very broad spectrum of psilocybin effects research began on the different ranges of its actions--including the effect on physiological processes (such as eye saccada movements). Neuro-imaging and neurophysiological research (positron emission tomography-PET and electroencephalography-EEG), indicate a change in the rate of metabolism of the brain and desync cerebral hemispheres...
November 2013: Psychiatria Polska
Beatrice Kallifatidis, Jan Borovička, Jana Stránská, Jiří Drábek, Deetta K Mills
The capability of Fluorescent Random Amplified Microsatellites (F-RAMS) to profile hallucinogenic mushrooms to species and sub-species level was assessed. Fifteen samples of Amanita rubescens and 22 samples of other hallucinogenic and non-hallucinogenic mushrooms of the genera Amanita and Psilocybe were profiled using two fluorescently-labeled, 5'degenerate primers, 5'-6FAM-SpC3-DD (CCA)5 and 5'-6FAM-SpC3-DHB (CGA)5, which target different microsatellite repeat regions. Among the two primers, 5'-6FAM-SpC3-DHB (CGA)5 provided more reliable data for identification purposes, by grouping samples of the same species and clustering closely related species together in a dendrogram based on amplicon similarities...
March 2014: Forensic Science International. Genetics
G Burillo-Putze, E López Briz, B Climent Díaz, P Munné Mas, S Nogue Xarau, M A Pinillos, R S Hoffman
An increase in the consumption of vegetable substances with a hallucinogenic effect has been observed. Some of these substances are associated with ancestral religious ceremonies, while many of them are legal or are partially regulated. Salvia divinorum is a powerful kappa receptor agonist, with dissociative and hallucinogenic properties, which start quickly and have a short duration. Kratom (Mytragyna speciosa) has mitragynine as its principal alkaloid, with stimulating effects at low doses (coke-like effect), and sedative effects (opiate-like effect) at high doses...
September 2013: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
Gaston Guzman, Alonso Cortes-Perez, Florencia Ramirez-Guillen
The subtropical Japanese bluing mushroom Psilocybe subcaerulipes, described by Hongo, has several synonyms: P. argentipes by Yokoyama (also from Japan), P. taiwanensis by Guzman and Yang (from Taiwan), and P. thaizapoteca by Guzman, Ramirez-Guillen, and Karunaratna (from Thailand). The study of the holotypes and others specimens of these mushrooms shows that they have basidiospores, pleurocystidia, cheilocystidia, and several other important taxonomic features in common, as well as habitat. Recent discussions of all Japanese hallucinogenic species of Psilocybe and their neurotropic effects are also considered...
2013: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
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