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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024544/squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-serous-effusions-avoiding-pitfalls-in-this-rare-encounter
#1
Christopher LePhong, Elizabeth W Hubbard, Stuart Van Meter, Laurentia Nodit
BACKGROUND: With advent of personalized medicine, precise classification of malignant tumors becomes essential. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is rarely found in serous effusions and has morphologic and immunohistochemical (IHC) overlap with other neoplasms. METHODS: 17-year review identified 49 fluids from 26 patients where SCC was recognized. RESULTS: SCC was more frequent in pleural fluid (84%) and rare in other effusions. Lung SCC was common (65%), followed by head and neck (16%), with other origins less represented...
October 11, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978522/cigarette-smoke-activates-cftr-through-ros-stimulated-camp-signaling-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#2
Francis H Wong, Asmahan AbuArish, Elizabeth Matthes, Mark J Turner, Lana E Greene, Alexandre Cloutier, Renaud Robert, David Y Thomas, Gonzalo Cosa, Andre M Cantin, John W Hanrahan
Air pollution stimulates airway epithelial secretion through a cholinergic reflex that is unaffected in cystic fibrosis (CF), yet a strong correlation is observed between passive smoke exposure in the home and impaired lung function in CF children. Our aim was to study the effects of low smoke concentrations on CFTR function in vitro. Cigarette smoke extract stimulated robust anion secretion that was transient, mediated by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and dependent on cAMP-dependent protein kinase activation...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963736/expression-of-gnrh-receptor-in-the-canine-corpus-luteum-and-luteal-function-following-deslorelin-acetate-induced-puberty-delay
#3
D Kaya, A Gram, M P Kowalewski, S Schäfer-Somi, M Kuru, A Boos, S Aslan
The goals of this study were as follows: (Experiment 1) to examine the basic capability of canine corpora lutea (CL) to respond to GnRH by assessing expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R) in luteal samples collected throughout the luteal lifespan from non-pregnant dogs, and (Experiment 2) to investigate the effects of pre-pubertal application of the GnRH agonist deslorelin acetate on luteal function following the first oestrus. Mature CL were collected during the mid-luteal phase (days 30-45) from treated and control bitches...
September 30, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960907/malignant-pleural-effusion-from-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-diagnosed-by-pleural-effusion-cytology-a-case-report
#4
Konstantinos Kosmas, Anna Tsonou, Georgia Mitropoulou, Eufrosyni Salemi, Danai Kazi, Ageliki Theofanopoulou
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is by far the most common thyroid malignancy (over 85%) of all the thyroid cancers. It has excellent prognosis and 10-year survival rate in most of the cases (95%). Most of the tumors are indolent and do not recur or metastasize after removal. However, widespread metastases to lung, skeleton, central nervous system and, occasionally, other organs may be observed. In rare instances, this disease may metastasize to the pleura and manifest as a malignant pleural effusion (MPE) and portend poor prognosis...
September 27, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949458/immunofluorescence-and-confocal-microscopy-for-ex-vivo-diagnosis-of-melanocytic-and-non-melanocytic-skin-tumors-a-pilot-study
#5
Daniela Hartmann, Sebastian Krammer, Secil Vural, Mario Raphael Bachmann, Cristel Ruini, Miklós Sárdy, Thomas Ruzicka, Carola Berking, Tanja von Braunmühl
BACKGROUND: Ex-vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy (ex-vivo CLSM) offers rapid examination of freshly excised tissue. During the conventional examination immunohistochemistry enables to distinguish various cell types. The possibility of immunofluorescent techniques could enhance the accuracy of the diagnosis performed by ex-vivo CLSM. METHODS: The tissue probes from various skin tumors were stained with FITC labelled S-100A10, Melan-A and anti-Ber-EP4 antibodies before examination with ex-vivo CLSM in the fluorescence (FM) and reflectance modes (RM)...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920002/ep4-antagonism-by-e7046-diminishes-myeloid-immunosuppression-and-synergizes-with-treg-reducing-il-2-diphtheria-toxin-fusion-protein-in-restoring-anti-tumor-immunity
#6
Diana I Albu, Zichun Wang, Kuan-Chun Huang, Jiayi Wu, Natalie Twine, Sarah Leacu, Christy Ingersoll, Lana Parent, Winnie Lee, Diana Liu, Renee Wright-Michaud, Namita Kumar, Galina Kuznetsov, Qian Chen, Wanjun Zheng, Kenichi Nomoto, Mary Woodall-Jappe, Xingfeng Bao
Reprogramming of immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) by targeting alternatively activated tumor associated macrophages (M2TAM), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and regulatory T cells (Tregs), represents a promising strategy for developing novel cancer immunotherapy. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an arachidonic acid pathway metabolite and mediator of chronic inflammation, has emerged as a powerful immunosuppressor in the TME through engagement with one or more of its 4 receptors (EP1-EP4). We have developed E7046, an orally bioavailable EP4-specific antagonist and show here that E7046 has specific and potent inhibitory activity on PGE2-mediated pro-tumor myeloid cell differentiation and activation...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918839/prostaglandin-e2-induces-prorenin-dependent-activation-of-pro-renin-receptor-and-upregulation-of-cyclooxygenase-2-in-collecting-duct-cells
#7
Nicolás Salinas-Parra, Cristian Reyes-Martínez, Minolfa C Prieto, Alexis A Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) regulates renin expression in renal juxtaglomerular cells. PGE2 acts through E-prostanoid (EP) receptors in the renal collecting duct (CD) to regulate sodium and water balance. CD cells express EP1 and EP4, which are linked to protein kinase C (PKC) and PKA downstream pathways, respectively. Previous studies showed that the presence of renin in the CD, and that of PKC and PKA pathways, activate its expression. The (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is also expressed in CD cells, and its activation enhances cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)...
September 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904003/preclinical-pharmacology-and-pharmacokinetics-of-inhaled-hexadecyl-treprostinil-c16tr-a-pulmonary-vasodilator-prodrug
#8
Michel R Corboz, Zhili Li, Vladimir Malinin, Adam J Plaunt, Donna M Konicek, Franziska G Leifer, Kuan-Ju Chen, Charles E Laurent, Han Yin, Marzena C Biernat, Dany Salvail, Jianguo Zhuang, Fadi Xu, Aidan Curran, Walter R Perkins, Richard W Chapman
This report describes the preclinical pharmacology and pharmacokinetics (PK) of hexadecyl-treprostinil (C16TR), a prodrug of treprostinil (TRE), formulated in a lipid nanoparticle (LNP) for inhalation as a pulmonary vasodilator. C16TR showed no activity (> 10 µM) in receptor binding and enzyme inhibition assays including binding to EP2, DP1, IP and EP4; TRE potently bound to each of these prostanoid receptors. C16TR had no effect (up to 200 nM) on platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) in rat blood...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883900/corrigendum-to-paricalcitol-pretreatment-attenuates-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-prostaglandin-e2-receptor-ep4-pathway
#9
Yu Ah Hong, Keum Jin Yang, So Young Jung, Ki Cheol Park, Hyunsu Choi, Jeong Min Oh, Sang Ju Lee, Yoon Kyung Chang, Cheol WheePark, Chul Woo Yang, Suk Young Kim, Hyeon Seok Hwang
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2017/5031926.].
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877931/prostaglandin-e2-inhibits-histamine-evoked-ca-2-release-in-human-aortic-smooth-muscle-cells-through-hyperactive-camp-signaling-junctions-and-protein-kinase-a
#10
Emily J A Taylor, Evangelia Pantazaka, Kathryn L Shelley, Colin W Taylor
In human aortic smooth muscle cells, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulates adenylyl cyclase (AC) and attenuates the increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration evoked by activation of histamine H1 receptors. The mechanisms are not resolved. We show that cAMP mediates inhibition of histamine-evoked Ca(2+) signals by PGE2 Exchange proteins activated by cAMP were not required, but the effects were attenuated by inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). PGE2 had no effect on the Ca(2+) signals evoked by protease-activated receptors, heterologously expressed muscarinic M3 receptors, or by direct activation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors by photolysis of caged IP3 The rate of Ca(2+) removal from the cytosol was unaffected by PGE2, but PGE2 attenuated histamine-evoked IP3 accumulation...
November 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872079/-mechanisms-for-the-regulatory-effect-of-prostaglandin-e2-prostaglandin-e-receptor-4-on-high-mobility-group-box-1-protein-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-sepsis-in-mouse-peritoneal-macrophage
#11
Xiaoliang Wang, Yong Zhang, Yanna Si, Yajie Xu, Hongguang Bao, Xiaoming Bai, Jing Leng
To explore the effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on the expression of high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) in peritoneal macrophages of septic mice and its possible mechanisms.
 Methods: The mouse peritoneal macrophages were isolated and cultured by conventional methods.The model of inflammation was established by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to incubate with mouse peritoneal macrophages. The PGE2, prostaglandin E receptor (EP) 4 agonist, EP4 RNAi, and DN.CREB inhibitory plasmid were used to interfere with the LPS-treated mouse peritoneal macrophage...
August 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857461/ly3127760-a-selective-prostaglandin-e4-ep4-receptor-antagonist-and-celecoxib-a-comparison-of-pharmacological-profiles
#12
Yan Jin, Claire Smith, Leijun Hu, David E Coutant, Kelly Whitehurst, Krista Phipps, Terry Ann McNearney, Xiao Yang, Bradley Ackermann, Thomas Pottanat, William Landschulz
Safety, tolerability, and pharmacology profiles of LY3127760, an EP4 antagonist, were explored in healthy subjects in a subject/investigator-blind, parallel-group, multiple-ascending dose study. Cohorts consisted of 13 patients randomized to LY3127760, celecoxib (400 mg), or placebo (9:2:2 ratio) for 28 days. LY3127760 was well tolerated; the most commonly observed adverse events were gastrointestinal, similar to celecoxib. LY3127760 increased release of ex vivo tumor necrosis factor alpha after lipopolysaccharide/prostaglandin E2 stimulation when compared with placebo, suggesting a dose-dependent blockade of the EP4 receptor...
August 30, 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844837/prostaglandin-e1-and-its-analog-misoprostol-inhibit-human-cml-stem-cell-self-renewal-via-ep4-receptor-activation-and-repression-of-ap-1
#13
Fengyin Li, Bing He, Xiaoke Ma, Shuyang Yu, Rupali R Bhave, Steven R Lentz, Kai Tan, Monica L Guzman, Chen Zhao, Hai-Hui Xue
Effective treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) largely depends on the eradication of CML leukemic stem cells (LSCs). We recently showed that CML LSCs depend on Tcf1 and Lef1 factors for self-renewal. Using a connectivity map, we identified prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) as a small molecule that partly elicited the gene expression changes in LSCs caused by Tcf1/Lef1 deficiency. Although it has little impact on normal hematopoiesis, we found that PGE1 treatment impaired the persistence and activity of LSCs in a pre-clinical murine CML model and a xenograft model of transplanted CML patient CD34(+) stem/progenitor cells...
September 7, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842681/cyclooxygenase-2-contributes-to-oxidopamine-mediated-neuronal-inflammation-and-injury-via-the-prostaglandin-e2-receptor-ep2-subtype
#14
Xu Kang, Jiange Qiu, Qianqian Li, Katherine A Bell, Yifeng Du, Da Woon Jung, Jae Yeol Lee, Jiukuan Hao, Jianxiong Jiang
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) triggers pro-inflammatory processes that can aggravate neuronal degeneration and functional impairments in many neurological conditions, mainly via producing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) that activates four membrane receptors, EP1-EP4. However, which EP receptor is the culprit of COX-2/PGE2-mediated neuronal inflammation and degeneration remains largely unclear and presumably depends on the insult types and responding components. Herein, we demonstrated that COX-2 was induced and showed nuclear translocation in two neuronal cell lines - mouse Neuro-2a and human SH-SY5Y - after treatment with neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), leading to the biosynthesis of PGE2 and upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838229/expression-of-prostaglandin-e2-receptors-in-acquired-middle-ear-cholesteatoma
#15
Sujie Wang, Li Xie, Yanfei Zhang, Pengfei Xu, Aiguo Liu
Objectives.: To investigate the expression of prostaglandin E2 receptor subtypes, E-prostanoid (EP) 1-4 receptors, in acquired cholesteatoma and its possible role in the pathologic process of this disorder. Methods.: Specimens of human acquired cholesteatoma were obtained from 29 patients and 19 skin biopsies of normal external auditory canal were as controls. The mRNA and protein expression of EP receptors was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and Western blot...
August 26, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819185/deletion-of-ep4-in-s100a4-lineage-cells-reduces-scar-tissue-formation-during-early-but-not-later-stages-of-tendon-healing
#16
Jessica E Ackerman, Katherine T Best, Regis J O'Keefe, Alayna E Loiselle
Tendon injuries heal via scar tissue rather than regeneration. This healing response forms adhesions between the flexor tendons in the hand and surrounding tissues, resulting in impaired range of motion and hand function. Mechanistically, inflammation has been strongly linked to adhesion formation, and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is associated with both adhesion formation and tendinopathy. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that deletion of the PGE2 receptor EP4 in S100a4-lineage cells would decrease adhesion formation...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801643/the-role-of-pge2-in-alveolar-epithelial-and-lung-microvascular-endothelial-crosstalk
#17
Thomas Bärnthaler, Jovana Maric, Wolfgang Platzer, Viktoria Konya, Anna Theiler, Carina Hasenöhrl, Benjamin Gottschalk, Sandra Trautmann, Yannick Schreiber, Wolfgang F Graier, Rudolf Schicho, Gunther Marsche, Andrea Olschewski, Dominique Thomas, Rufina Schuligoi, Akos Heinemann
Disruption of the blood-air barrier, which is formed by lung microvascular endothelial and alveolar epithelial cells, is a hallmark of acute lung injury. It was shown that alveolar epithelial cells release an unidentified soluble factor that enhances the barrier function of lung microvascular endothelial cells. In this study we reveal that primarily prostaglandin (PG) E2 accounts for this endothelial barrier-promoting activity. Conditioned media from alveolar epithelial cells (primary ATI-like cells) collected from BALB/c mice and A549 cells increased the electrical resistance of pulmonary human microvascular endothelial cells, respectively...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770200/prostaglandins-and-their-receptors-in-eosinophil-function-and-as-therapeutic-targets
#18
REVIEW
Miriam Peinhaupt, Eva M Sturm, Akos Heinemann
Of the known prostanoid receptors, human eosinophils express the prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) receptors DP1 [also D-type prostanoid (DP)] and DP2 (also chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule, expressed on Th2 cells), the prostaglandin E2 receptors EP2 and EP4, and the prostacyclin (PGI2) receptor IP. Prostanoids can bind to either one or multiple receptors, characteristically have a short half-life in vivo, and are quickly degraded into metabolites with altered affinity and specificity for a given receptor subtype...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761141/effects-of-pulpotomy-using-mineral-trioxide-aggregate-on-prostaglandin-transporter-and-receptors-in-rat-molars
#19
Naoto Ohkura, Naoki Edanami, Ryosuke Takeuchi, Aiko Tohma, Mariko Ohkura, Nagako Yoshiba, Kunihiko Yoshiba, Hiroko Ida-Yonemochi, Hayato Ohshima, Takashi Okiji, Yuichiro Noiri
Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a commonly used dental pulp-capping material with known effects in promoting reparative dentinogenesis. However, the mechanism by which MTA induces dentine repair remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in dentine repair by examining the localisation and mRNA expression levels of its transporter (Pgt) and two of its receptors (Ep2 and Ep4) in a rat model of pulpotomy with MTA capping. Ep2 expression was detected in odontoblasts, endothelial cells, and nerve fibres in normal and pulpotomised tissues, whereas Pgt and Ep4 were immunolocalised only in the odontoblasts...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759126/ep2-receptor-plays-pivotal-roles-in-generating-mechanical-hyperalgesia-after-lengthening-contractions
#20
H Ota, K Katanosaka, S Murase, T Furuyashiki, S Narumiya, K Mizumura
We previously demonstrated that nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) were upregulated after lengthening contractions (LC) in exercised muscle through B2 bradykinin receptor activation and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 upregulation, respectively, and that these trophic factors sensitized nociceptors resulting in mechanical hyperalgesia (delayed-onset muscle soreness, DOMS). Here, we examined the prostaglandin receptor subtype involved in DOMS. The mechanical withdrawal threshold of the exercised muscle was measured before and after LC in rats administered prostaglandin E2 receptor (EP) antagonists before LC, or in wild-type (WT), EP2 knockout (EP2(-/-) ), and IP knockout (IP(-/-) ) mice...
July 31, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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