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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473135/immunomodulatory-effects-of-cp-25-on-splenic-t-cells-of-rats-with-adjuvant-arthritis
#1
Yang Wang, Chen-Chen Han, Dongqian Cui, Ting-Ting Luo, Yifan Li, Yuwen Zhang, Yang Ma, Wei Wei
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease in which T cells play an important role. Paeoniflorin-6-oxy-benzenesulfonate (CP-25) shows a strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect in the joint of adjuvant arthritis (AA) rats, but the role of the spleen function is still unclear. The aim of this study was to research how CP-25 regulated spleen function of AA rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with CP-25 (50 mg/kg) orally from day 17 to 29 after immunization. The spleen histopathological changes were analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining...
February 23, 2018: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458169/inhibition-of-microsomal-prostaglandin-e-synthase-1-facilitates-liver-repair-after-hepatic-injury-in-mice
#2
Nobuyuki Nishizawa, Yoshiya Ito, Koji Eshima, Hirotoki Ohkubo, Ken Kojo, Tomoyoshi Inoue, Joan Raouf, Per-Johan Jakobsson, Satoshi Uematsu, Shizuo Akira, Shuh Narumiya, Masahiko Watanabe, Masataka Majima
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver repair following hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is crucial to survival. This study aims to examine the role of endogenous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) produced by inducible microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1), a terminal enzyme of PGE2 generation, in liver injury and repair following hepatic I/R. METHODS: mPGES-1 deficient (mPGES-1-/- ) mice or their wild counterparts (WT) were subjected to partial hepatic ischemia followed by reperfusion...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455241/cox-2-derived-pge-2-triggers-hyperplastic-renin-expression-and-hyperreninemia-in-aldosterone-synthase-deficient-mice
#3
Christian Karger, Katharina Machura, André Schneider, Christian Hugo, Vladimir T Todorov, Armin Kurtz
Pharmacological inhibition or genetic loss of function defects of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) causes compensatory renin cell hyperplasia and hyperreninemia. The triggers for the compensatory stimulation of renin synthesis and secretion in this situation may be multimodal. Since cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the macula densa is frequently increased in states of a defective RAAS, we have investigated a potential role of COX-2 and its derived prostaglandins for renin expression and secretion in aldosterone synthase-deficient mice (AS-/- ) as a model for a genetic defect of the RAAS...
February 17, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408603/prostaglandin-e2-pge2-is-a-testicular-peritubular-cell-derived-factor-involved-in-human-testicular-homeostasis
#4
Verónica Rey-Ares, Soledad Paola Rossi, Kim-Gwendolyn Dietrich, Frank-Michael Köhn, J Ulrich Schwarzer, Harald Welter, Mónica Beatriz Frungieri, Artur Mayerhofer
In man, blockage of prostaglandin (PG)-production e.g. by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) may have negative testicular side effects, implying beneficial actions of PGs in the testis. We examined human testicular samples and isolated human testicular peritubular cells (HTPCs) to explore sites of PG-synthesis and targets. HTPCs express cyclooxygenase 1 (COX1) and secrete PGE2. Receptors (EP1, 2, 4) were specifically identified in peritubular cells. In HTPCs PGE2 significantly increased mRNA levels of the contractility protein calponin, but did not induce contractions...
February 1, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408043/selectively-targeting-prostanoid-e-ep-receptor-mediated-cell-signalling-pathways-implications-for-lung-health-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Leonard F Lebender, Laura Prünte, Nowshin N Rumzhum, Alaina J Ammit
Arachidonic acid is metabolized by cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) into various prostanoids which exert different functions in mammalian physiology. One of these prostanoids, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interacts with four different G protein-coupled receptors, named EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4, to initiate different downstream signalling pathways. Prostanoid receptors are diversely expressed throughout different tissues all over the body and PGE2 is responsible for a large variety of beneficial and disadvantageous effects...
January 30, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401596/prostaglandin-e2-suppresses-hcap18-ll-37-expression-in-human-macrophages-via-ep2-ep4-implications-for-treatment-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#6
Min Wan, Xiao Tang, Rokeya Sultana Rekha, S S V Jagadeeswara Rao Muvva, Susanna Brighenti, Birgitta Agerberth, Jesper Z Haeggström
Prostaglandin (PG)E2 is an arachidonic acid-derived lipid mediator that plays an important role in inflammation and immunity. In this study, we demonstrate that PGE2 suppresses basal and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (VD3)-induced expression of hCAP18/LL-37 via E prostanoid (EP)2 and EP4 receptors. In humans, VD3 up-regulates vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression and promotes transcription of the cathelicidin hCAP18/LL-37 gene, whereas PGE2 counteracts this effect. We find that PGE2 induces the cAMP/PKA-signaling pathway and enhances the expression of the inhibitory transcription factor cAMP-responsive modulator/inducible cAMP early repressor, which prevents VDR expression and induction of hCAP18/LL-37 in human macrophages...
January 17, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374192/novel-mechanisms-of-collagenase-santyl-ointment-cso-in-wound-macrophage-polarization-and-resolution-of-wound-inflammation
#7
Amitava Das, Soma Datta, Eric Roche, Scott Chaffee, Elizabeth Jose, Lei Shi, Komel Grover, Savita Khanna, Chandan K Sen, Sashwati Roy
Collagenases are useful in enzymatic wound debridement. Clostridial collagenase, marketed as Collagenase Santyl Ointment (CSO), is FDA approved for such use. Building on the scientific premise that collagenases as well as collagen degradation products may regulate immune cell function, we sought to investigate the potential role of CSO in wound inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that in addition to enacting debridement, CSO contributes to the resolution of persistent wound inflammation. Wound macrophages were isolated from PVA sponges loaded with CSO or petrolatum and implanted in mice...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336505/signalling-transduction-events-involved-in-agonist-induced-pge2-ep4-receptor-externalization-in-cultured-rat-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons
#8
W Ma, B St-Jacques
BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) enriched in inflamed tissues contributes to chronic pain by sensitizing nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons (nociceptors). Of four PGE2 receptors (EP1-4), EP4 plays a major role in PGE2-induced nociceptor sensitization. We have previously reported that PGE2 or EP4 agonists stimulated EP4 externalization in cultured DRG neurons and this event contributes to nociceptor sensitization. However, the signalling transduction events governing this event remain unknown...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328471/prostaglandin-e2-receptor-ep4-is-involved-in-the-cell-growth-and-invasion-of-prostate-cancer-via-the-camp%C3%A2-pka-pi3k%C3%A2-akt-signaling-pathway
#9
Song Xu, Wenquan Zhou, Jingping Ge, Zhengyu Zhang
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most prevalent diagnosed malignancies globally. Previous studies have demonstrated that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is closely associated with the tumorigenesis and progression of PCa. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear and require further investigation. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), receptor activator of nuclear factor‑κB ligand (RANKL) and runt‑related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), which are involved in cell growth and bone metastasis, are frequently activated or overexpressed in various types of cancer, including PCa...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321644/cox-2-induces-oncogenic-micro-rna-mir655-in-human-breast-cancer
#10
Mousumi Majumder, Leanna Dunn, Ling Liu, Asma Hasan, Krista Vincent, Muriel Brackstone, David Hess, Peeyush K Lala
We show that Cyclooxygenase-2 over-expression induces an oncogenic microRNA miR655 in human breast cancer cells by activation of EP4. MiR655 expression positively correlated with COX-2 in genetically disparate breast cancer cell lines and increased in all cell lines when grown as spheroids, implicating its link with stem-like cells (SLCs). Ectopic miR655 over-expression in MCF7 and SKBR3 cells resulted in increased proliferation, migration, invasion, spheroid formation and Epithelial to Masenchymal transition (EMT)...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290997/targeting-g-protein-coupled-receptor-related-signaling-pathway-in-a-murine-xenograft-model-of-appendiceal-pseudomyxoma-peritonei
#11
Ashok K Dilly, Brendon D Honick, Yong J Lee, Zong S Guo, Herbert J Zeh, David L Bartlett, Haroon A Choudry
Cancer cells aberrantly express mucins to enhance their survival. Relative chemoresistance of appendiceal pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is attributed to abundant extracellular mucin 2 (MUC2) protein production. We hypothesized that simultaneous MUC2 inhibition and apoptosis induction would be effective against mucinous tumors. In vitro studies were conducted using LS174T cells (MUC2-secreting human colorectal cancer cells), PMP explant tissue, and epithelial organoid cultures (colonoids) derived from mucinous appendix cancers...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285200/activation-of-pge2-ep2-and-pge2-ep4-signaling-pathways-positively-regulate-the-level-of-pd-1-in-infiltrating-cd8-t-cells-in-patients-with-lung-cancer
#12
Jinhong Wang, Li Zhang, Dong Kang, Deguang Yang, Ying Tang
The present study aimed to identify the level of programmed death-1 (PD-1) expression in infiltrating cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ and CD8+ T cells isolated from lung cancer tissues, and investigated whether the level of PD-1 expression may be directly regulated by lung cancer cells via prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-associated signaling pathways in patients with lung cancer. A total of 75 patients with lung cancer were enrolled in the present study. The percentage of infiltrating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was determined by flow cytometry...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280203/improving-the-cytological-diagnosis-of-high-grade-serous-carcinoma-in-ascites-with-a-panel-of-complementary-biomarkers-in-cell-blocks
#13
X Zhang, L Chen, Y Liu, Y Xu, X Zhang, Y Shi, C Wang, P L Zhang, Y Liu
INTRODUCTION: Precise cytological diagnosis of pelvic high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) in ascites is important for tumour staging, therapeutic decision-making and prognostic evaluation. However, it can often be difficult to distinguish metastatic HGSC cells from reactive mesothelial cells based on morphology alone. Immunocytochemical analysis of ascites cell blocks has been used to obtain accurate diagnosis and provide a reliable basis for treatment decisions in the clinic. This study was performed to determine whether a panel of antibodies is necessary to achieve high specificity and sensitivity for the identification of HGSC cells...
December 27, 2017: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251736/pge2-ep1-receptor-inhibits-vasopressin-dependent-water-reabsorption-and-sodium-transport-in-mouse-collecting-duct
#14
Rania Nasrallah, Joseph Zimpelmann, David Eckert, Jamie Ghossein, Sean Geddes, Jean-Claude Beique, Jean-Francois Thibodeau, Chris R J Kennedy, Kevin D Burns, Richard L Hébert
PGE2 regulates glomerular hemodynamics, renin secretion, and tubular transport. This study examined the contribution of PGE2 EP1 receptors to sodium and water homeostasis. Male EP1-/- mice were bred with hypertensive TTRhRen mice (Htn) to evaluate blood pressure and kidney function at 8 weeks of age in four groups: wildtype (WT), EP1-/-, Htn, HtnEP1-/-. Blood pressure and water balance were unaffected by EP1 deletion. COX1 and mPGE2 synthase were increased and COX2 was decreased in mice lacking EP1, with increases in EP3 and reductions in EP2 and EP4 mRNA throughout the nephron...
December 18, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247621/peripheral-ameloblastoma-a-study-of-18-cases-and-usage-of-ber-ep4-immunohistochemistry-to-rule-out-a-diagnosis-of-intraoral-basal-cell-carcinoma
#15
Jasbir D Upadhyaya, Indraneel Bhattacharyya, Sarah G Fitzpatrick, Donald M Cohen, Mohammed N Islam
PURPOSE: Peripheral ameloblastoma (PA) is a rare odontogenic tumor arising in the mucosa of tooth-bearing areas of the jaws that typically shows no radiographic evidence of bone involvement. It bears close histologic resemblance to intraoral basal cell carcinoma (IOBCC), an extremely rare entity. In our experience from previous published data, 3 cases of IOBCC were initially misdiagnosed as PA and were later differentiated from PA on the basis of Ber-EP4 protein expression. This unusual but significant experience set the premise for us to rule out a diagnosis of IOBCC by evaluating Ber-EP4 expression in all previously diagnosed cases of PA from the University of Florida Oral Pathology (UFOP) biopsy service archives...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217623/prostaglandins-d2-and-e2-have-opposite-effects-on-alveolar-macrophage-infected-with-histoplasma-capsulatum
#16
Priscilla A T Pereira, Patrícia A Assis, Morgana K B Prado, Simone Gusamão Ramos, David M Aronoff, Francisco W G Paula-Silva, Carlos A Sorgi, Lúcia H Faccioli
PGE2 suppresses macrophage effector mechanisms; however, little is known about the function of PGD2 in infected alveolar macrophages (AMs). Using serum opsonized Histoplasma capsulatum (ops-H. capsulatum) in vitro, we demonstrated that AMs produced PGE2 and PGD2 in a time-dependent manner, with PGE2 levels exceeding those of PGD2 by 48 h post-infection. Comparison of the effects of both exogenous PGs on AMs revealed that PGD2 increased phagocytosis and killing through the DP2 receptor, whereas PGE2 had opposite effects, through EP2/EP4-dependent mechanisms...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217133/pge2-suppresses-human-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cell-function
#17
Jovana Maric, Avinash Ravindran, Luca Mazzurana, Åsa K Björklund, Aline Van Acker, Anna Rao, Danielle Friberg, Sven-Erik Dahlén, Akos Heinemann, Viktoria Konya, Jenny Mjösberg
BACKGROUND: Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are involved in the initial phase of type 2 inflammation and can amplify allergic immune responses by orchestrating other type 2 immune cells. PGE2 is a bioactive lipid that plays protective roles in the lung, particularly during allergic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: We set out to investigate how PGE2 regulates human ILC2 function. METHODS: The effects of PGE2 on human ILC2 proliferation, intracellular cytokine and transcription factor expression were assessed by flow cytometry...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203142/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-a-potent-well-balanced-ep2-ep3-dual-agonist
#18
Akihiro Kinoshita, Masato Higashino, Koji Yoshida, Yoshiyuki Aratani, Akito Kakuuchi, Keisuke Hanada, Hiroyuki Takeda, Atsushi Naganawa, Hidekazu Matsuya, Kazuyuki Ohmoto
A highly potent and well-balanced dual agonist for the EP2 and EP3 receptors is described. Optimization of the lead compound was accomplished in consideration of the relative agonist activity against each EP subtype receptor and the pharmacokinetic profile. As the result, 2-[(2-{(1R,2R)-2-[(1E,4S)-5-cyclopentyl-4-hydroxy-4-methyl-1-penten-1-yl]-5-oxocyclopentyl}eth-yl)thio]-1,3-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid (10) showed excellent potency (human EC50 EP2 = 1.1 nM, EP3 = 1.0 nM) with acceptable selectivity over the EP1 and EP4 subtypes (>2000-fold)...
November 24, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194752/the-regulatory-role-of-the-oral-commensal-streptococcus-mitis-on-human-monocytes
#19
Stian André Engen, Olav Schreurs, Fernanda Petersen, Inger Johanne Schytte Blix, Espen S Baekkevold, Karl Schenck
Streptococcus mitis colonizes all niches of the human oral cavity from early infancy and throughout life. Monocytes patrol blood vessels, lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues, and migrate into infected tissue where they participate in the inflammatory cascade and immune regulation. Here, we studied the effect of S. mitis on monocytes. Transcriptome analysis of monocytes exposed to S. mitis (SmMo) revealed increased transcription of chemotactic factors (CCL2, CCL3, CCL20, CXCL1, CXCL2) and cytokines (IL1A, IL1B, IL6, IL23, IL36G, TNF), indicating that S...
December 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193208/granular-cell-basal-cell-carcinoma-a-case-report
#20
Xinyi Ma, Guihua Wang, Aditya Kuwadekar, Min Zhao, Weili Hu, Yeqin Wu, Zhongliang Yi, Xianen Xu, Li Xu
Granular cell basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a rare histopathological variant of BCC. Our review of the literature revealed only 17 previously identified cases. We report the case of a 47-year-old man who presented with an ulceration on his right upper lip which was subsequently removed. Histopathologic examination revealed that the tumor was composed solely of granular cells with numerous cytoplasmic eosinophilic round inclusion bodies. Mitotic figures ranged from 8 to 15 per 10 high-power fields, with a Ki-67 proliferative index of ~5%...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
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