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Maosong Xie, Libin Huang, Guoxing Xu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of prostaglandin antagonists on blood-retinal barrier breakdown induced by anterior segment intraocular simulated surgery. METHODS: Rats were randomly assigned to a negative control group, model group, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs prophylactic treatment group, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs treatment group, corticosteroid prophylactic treatment group, and corticosteroid treatment group. Four hours and 48h after modeling, the concentrations of PGE1, PGE2, and PGF2 α in the aqueous humor and vitreous body of the rat model were visualized using ELISA...
June 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
Xin Lin, Xingting Liu, Changquan Guo, Mengqi Liu, Yuling Mi, Caiqiao Zhang
The postovulatory follicle (POF) in birds is an enigmatic structure, the function of which remains largely unknown. Previous studies on chickens have shown that removal of POFs leads to the postponement of oviposition and the disturbance of broody behavior. One suggestion is that POFs may secrete some crucial hormones or cytokines to act on reproductive organs. However, such secretions and their specific target organs remain to be identified. Here, we investigate the putative functions of POFs in promoting the development of prehierarchical follicles in chickens and explore the possible signaling mechanisms controlling these processes...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Hui-Jing Wang, Han-Xin Gu, Niels Eijkelkamp, Cobi J Heijnen, Annemieke Kavelaars
Background: We recently identified the balance between the level of G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) and Epac1 in nociceptors as a key factor in the transition from acute to chronic pain that occurs in mice 'primed' by an inflammatory stimulus. Here, we examined the contribution of GRK2 and Epac-signaling to growth factor-induced hyperalgesic priming. Methods: Mice were primed by intraplantar injection with glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Mechanical allodynia in response to PGE2 was followed over time in primed and non-primed animals...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Gabriela Uribe, Romain Villéger, Philippe Bressollier, Rachel N Dillard, Daniel L Worthley, Timothy C Wang, Don W Powell, Maria C Urdaci, Irina V Pinchuk
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) plays a critical role in intestinal mucosal tolerance and barrier integrity. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-dependent PGE2 production involves mobilization of arachidonic acid (AA). Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LbGG) is one of the most widely used probiotics reported to colonize the colonic mucosa. LbGG contributes to the protection of the small intestine against radiation injury through the repositioning of mucosal COX-2 expressing cells. However, it is unknown if LbGG modulates PGE2 production in the colonic mucosa under homeostasis and the major cellular elements involved in these processes...
June 19, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Ambreen Malik Uttra, Alamgeer, Muhammad Shahzad, Arham Shabbir, Shah Jahan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The whole plant, roots and stems of Ephedra gerardiana (Family Ephedraceae) have long been used as a folk remedy to treat rheumatism and painful joints in Northern Areas of Pakistan. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of study was to observe the preventive efficacy of Ephedra gerardiana (EG) aerial parts in treating rheumatoid arthritis using Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritis in rat model and to determine its possible mechanism of action...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Nina Solheim, Bente Halvorsen, Leiv Arne Rosseland, Audun Stubhaug
Postsurgical inflammation leads to sensitisation of "sleeping" nociceptors, which enhance pain perception and induce hyperalgesia. Prostaglandin E2 plays a central role in this process. Synovial microdialysis technique allows analyses of biological markers of local inflammation simultaneous with a close follow up of the patient's pain experience. Tissue injury (or surgery) initiates liberation of inflammatory mediators and hyperalgesic substances. This project is translational and aims at exploring the relationship between perceived acute postoperative pain and inflammation...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Abdelmeniem El-Bakoush, Olumayokun A Olajide
Formononetin is a bioactive non-steroidal polyphenol found in a variety of plants. In this study we evaluated the effects of formononetin on neuroinflammation in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. Results showed that formononetin significantly reduced the production of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, nitrite and PGE2 , as well as protein levels of iNOS and COX-2. Reporter gene assays showed that formononetin produced inhibition of NF-κB luciferase activity in HEK293 cells stimulated with TNF-α. Immunoblotting experiments revealed an inhibition of IKKα phosphorylation, with the resultant attenuation of phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα following LPS stimulation...
June 15, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Hongyan Ma, Qi Huang, Wenshan Qu, Linyuan Li, Min Wang, Shao Li, Fujiang Chu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The dried roots of Sophora flavescens Ait. (Leguminosae) is traditionally used as antipyretic medicine to reduce inflammation. It is well known that alkaloids and flavonoids are the main constituents of S. flavescens. However, the clinical researches and applications of S. flavescens is mainly based on its water-extracted alkaloids, its flavonoids may still remain in residues and have been underused. With development and manufacturing of S. flavescens in recent years, more herb residues are being produced...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Candler Paige, Gayathri Batchalli Maruthy, Galo Mejia, Gregory Dussor, Theodore Price
Recent studies have demonstrated sexual dimorphisms in the mechanisms contributing to the development of chronic pain. Here we tested the hypothesis that microglia might preferentially regulate hyperalgesic priming in male mice. We based this hypothesis on evidence that microglia preferentially contribute to neuropathic pain in male mice via ionotropic purinergic receptor (P2XR) or p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38) signaling. Mice given a single priming injection of the soluble human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6r) and then a second injection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), which unmasks hyperalgesic priming, show a significant increase in levels of activated microglia at 3h following the PGE2 injection in both male and female mice...
June 15, 2018: Neuroscience
Sara Scutera, Valentina Salvi, Luisa Lorenzi, Giorgia Piersigilli, Silvia Lonardi, Daniela Alotto, Stefania Casarin, Carlotta Castagnoli, Erica Dander, Giovanna D'Amico, Silvano Sozzani, Tiziana Musso
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) exert immunosuppressive effects on immune cells including dendritic cells (DCs). However, many details of the bidirectional interaction of MSCs with DCs are still unsolved and information on key molecules by which DCs can modulate MSC functions is limited. Here, we report that osteopontin (OPN), a cytokine involved in homeostatic and pathophysiologic responses, is constitutively expressed by DCs and regulated in the DC/MSC cocultures depending on the activation state of MSCs...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Vivek K Bajpai, Md Badrul Alam, Khong Trong Quan, Mi-Kyoung Ju, Rajib Majumder, Shruti Shukla, Yun Suk Huh, MinKyun Na, Sang Han Lee, Young-Kyu Han
We examined the anti-inflammatory effects of (+)-syringaresinol (SGRS), a lignan isolated from Rubia philippinensis, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells using enzyme-based immuno assay, Western blotting, and RT-PCR analyses. Additionally, in vivo effects of SGRS in the acute inflammatory state were examined by using the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema assay in experimental mice. As a result, treatment with SGRS (25, 50, and 100 μM) inhibited protein expression of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) as well as production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) induced by LPS...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
András D Tóth, Richard Schell, Magdolna Lévay, Christiane Vettel, Philipp Theis, Clemens Haslinger, Felix Alban, Stefanie Werhahn, Lina Frischbier, Jutta Krebs-Haupenthal, Dominique Thomas, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Metin Avkiran, Hugo A Katus, Thomas Wieland, Johannes Backs
The myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) regulates transcription in cardiac myocytes and adverse remodeling of adult hearts. Activators of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been reported to activate MEF2, but a comprehensive analysis of GPCR activators that regulate MEF2 has to our knowledge not been performed. Here, we tested several GPCR agonists regarding their ability to activate a MEF2 reporter in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. The inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) strongly activated MEF2...
June 15, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Tytti M Niemelä, Riitta-Mari Tulamo, Kaisa Aaltonen, Satu M Sankari, Anna K Hielm-Björkman
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory and degenerative activity inside the joint can be studied in vivo via analysis of synovial fluid (SF) biomarkers, which are molecular markers of inflammatory processes and tissue turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of selected biomarkers in the SF after an intra-articular (IA) high-molecular-weight non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA) treatment. Our hypothesis was that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), substance P, aggrecan chondroitin sulfate 846 epitope (CS846), and carboxypeptide of type II collagen (CPII) concentrations in SF would decrease more in the NASHA than in the placebo group...
June 15, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Md Areeful Haque, Ibrahim Jantan, Hemavathy Harikrishnan, Siti Mariam Abdul Wahab
Magnoflorine, a major bioactive metabolite isolated from Tinospora crispa, has been reported for its diverse biochemical and pharmacological properties. However, there is little report on its underlying mechanisms of action on immune responses, particularly on macrophage activation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of magnoflorine, isolated from T. crispa on the pro-inflammatory mediators generation induced by LPS and the concomitant NF- κ B, MAPKs, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways in U937 macrophages...
June 15, 2018: Planta Medica
Zhenhai Ye, Maoxian Zhang, Ning Ding, Peng Gao, Yunpeng Hei, Yun Wang, Wei Gao, Qingshan Ye
Inflammatory pain is known to severely impact the life quality of patients. Notably, dezocine is widely used for the treatment of pain. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine the effects of dezocine on a complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain model in rats and to investigate the possible underlying molecular mechanisms. Rats were randomly divided into three groups, including the control, CFA and dezocine+CFA groups, and then subcutaneously injected with 100 µl saline, subcutaneously injected with 100 µl CFA or pretreated with 1 ml dezocine (0...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Maria I Guillén, Julia Platas, María D Pérez Del Caz, Vicente Mirabet, Maria J Alcaraz
The inflammatory process is an essential phenomenon in the induction of immune responses. Monocytes are key effector cells during the inflammatory process. A wide range of evidence indicates that mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (ASC) are endowed with immunomodulatory capacity. However, the interaction between ASC and monocytes in the innate immune response is not well understood. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible paracrine anti-inflammatory effects of ASC in human monocytes. Monocytes were isolated from buffy coats and ASC from fat of non-obese patients...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Luca Sanguigno, Antonella Casamassa, Niccola Funel, Massimiliano Minale, Rodolfo Riccio, Salvatore Riccio, Francesca Boscia, Paola Brancaccio, Luca Emanuele Pollina, Serenella Anzilotti, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Ornella Cuomo
Triticum vulgare has been extensively used in traditional medicine thanks to its properties of accelerating tissue repair. The specific extract of Triticum vulgare manufactured by Farmaceutici Damor (TVE-DAMOR) is already present in some pharmaceutical formulations used in the treatment of decubitus ulcers, skin lesions and burns. It has been recently suggested that this Triticum vulgare extract may possess potential anti-inflammatory properties. In the light of these premises the aim of the present paper was to verify the anti-inflammatory role of TVE, using the LPS-stimulated microglia model of inflammation...
2018: PloS One
Zhen Cui, Duojie Li, Jingjing Liu, Yajun Zhang, Hongbo Xu, Hongmei Yin, Hongwei Li, Gengming Wang, Hanfei Cai, Lei Zhang, Shimiao Duan, Hao Jiang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of G‑protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) in esophageal cancer and explore the related mechanisms. The expression of GPR120 in esophageal cancer tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry. Correlation analysis was performed to investigate the association between the level of GPR120 and clinical parameters. The expression of GPR120 was evaluated in esophageal cancer cell lines and the effects of GPR120 on cell proliferation, clone formation, migration and invasion were evaluated in an in vitro cell model and an in vivo ectopic tumor nude mice model...
May 31, 2018: Oncology Reports
Hwi Gon Kim, Ga Young Jung, Seung Bin Park, Yeon Jean Cho, Myoungseok Han
It is well known that prostaglandin (PG) E2 and PGF2α are secreted in copious amounts from the menstruating uterus. The aim of the present study was to determine whether PGs affect the growth of uterine leiomyomas (ULs) to the same extent as estrogen or progesterone (P4). The present study evaluated the expression of eight microRNAs (miRNAs) by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) through treatment with estradiol (E2), P4, PGE2, PGF2α and each antagonist or cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2) inhibitor of cultured leiomyoma and myometrial cells (LC and MC, respectively)...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yuanyuan Li, Weiwei Xia, Fei Zhao, Zhaoying Wen, Aihua Zhang, Songming Huang, Zhanjun Jia, Yue Zhang
Prostaglandins (PGs) are important lipid mediators produced from arachidonic acid via the sequential catalyzation of cyclooxygenases (COXs) and specific prostaglandin synthases. There are five subtypes of PGs, namely PGE2, PGI2, PGD2, PGF2α, and thromboxane A2 (TXA2). PGs exert distinct roles by combining to a diverse family of membrane-spanning G protein-coupled prostanoid receptors. The distribution of these PGs, their specific synthases and receptors vary a lot in the kidney. This review summarized the recent findings of PGs together with the COXs and their specific synthases and receptors in regulating renal function and highlighted the insights into their roles in the pathogenesis of various kidney diseases...
May 29, 2018: Oncotarget
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