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Isopropyl alcohol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638595/use-of-90-ethanol-to-decontaminate-stethoscopes-in-resource-limited-settings
#1
Bijendra Raj Raghubanshi, Supriya Sapkota, Arjab Adhikari, Aman Dutta, Utsuk Bhattarai, Rastriyata Bhandari
BACKGROUND: In developing countries like Nepal, 90% ethanol is cheap and is available in most hospitals. The unavailability of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) in these settings led us to compare the efficacy between 90% ethanol and isopropyl alcohol pads in reducing the bacterial contamination of diaphragm of stethoscope. METHODS: A randomized blinded experimental study was carried out to determine the difference between cleaning stethoscopes with 90% ethanol and IPA. Cultures of diaphragm were taken before and after cleaning with one of the cleaning agent...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632074/isopropyl-alcohol-swabs-as-a-preferred-substance-of-abuse
#2
Aditi Sharma, Jonathan D Morrow
The authors describe the treatment of a 36-year-old woman who presented with excessive consumption of antiseptic alcohol swabs. Her behavior was diagnosed as a severe substance use disorder with isopropyl alcohol as the primary drug of choice. Diagnostic and treatment challenges involved in the case are discussed in detail, with particular focus on the differential diagnosis for this unusual presentation, including obsessive compulsive disorder, pica, and intentional self-injurious behavior. A brief review of the literature on non-ethanol ingestion for the purposes of intoxication is included, as well as clinical information about the potential dangers posed by isopropyl alcohol consumption...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626130/examination-of-a-new-desorption-method-for-solid-adsorption-method-of-working-environment-measurement-%C3%AF-attempt-to-improve-desorption-efficiency-of-organic-solvents-from-a-coconut-shell-activated-carbon-using-surfactant-solutions%C3%AF
#3
Mitsuo Hinoue, Hajime Hori
For a new desorption method development for working environment measurement, desorption efficiency of organic solvent vapors from an activated carbon was examined using desorption solutions that consisted of anionic and nonionic surfactants. Ten μl of an aqueous solution of isopropyl alcohol or methyl ethyl ketone diluted with distilled water was spiked into a 10 ml vial with a coconut-shell-activated carbon (100 mg). The vial was left for 24 h, and 5 ml a desorption solution was added. Afterwards, the vial was put into an incubator at 60°C and left for 24 h, then the desorption efficiency was determined by analyzing the headspace gas in the vial with a gas chromatograph equipped with flame ionization detector...
2017: Journal of UOEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617245/efficient-mixed-solvent-exfoliation-of-few-quintuple-layer-bi2s3-and-its-photoelectric-response
#4
Yaohui Guo, Qiyi Zhao, Zehan Yao, Keyu Si, Yixuan Zhou, Xinlong Xu
A scalable liquid exfoliation of layered Bi2S3 with a mixed-solvent strategy was used for the fabrication of Bi2S3 nanosheets. We found that 10% deionized water in 90% isopropyl alcohol are the best mixed solvent for the efficient and effective exfoliation of layered Bi2S3. The results are consistent with the absorptivity spectra and the enthalpy of mixing theory. The obtained Bi2S3 nanosheets were few-quintuple layers investigated by TEM and Raman spectroscopy. These Bi2S3 nanosheets can be used to fabricate large scale thin film by filtration method, which demonstrated sensitive photoelectric response with the rising and decay response of photocurrent on the scale of sub-second under the visible light excitation...
June 15, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560359/analysis-of-plastic-residues-in-maple-sap-and-syrup-collected-from-tubing-systems-sanitized-with-isopropyl-alcohol
#5
Luc Lagacé, Carmen Charron, Mustapha Sadiki
A plastic tubing system operated under vacuum is usually used to collect sap from maple trees during spring time to produce maple syrup. This system is commonly sanitized with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) to remove microbial contamination colonizing the system during the sugar season. Questions have been raised whether IPA would contribute to the leaching of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup coming from sanitized systems. First, an extraction experiment was performed in the lab on commercial plastic tubing materials that were submitted to IPA under harsh conditions...
May 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522428/characterization-of-new-crystalline-forms-of-hydroxyprogesterone-caproate
#6
Jeffrey Caplette, Timothy Frigo, Michael Jozwiakowski, Helene Shea, Mahmoud Mirmehrabi, Peter Müller
A systematic polymorph screening process was conducted on the steroid hydroxyprogesterone caproate, which had only one previously described orthorhombic crystalline form (A), in order to fully elucidate its solid state properties. Cooling, anti-solvent and evaporative techniques largely reproduced the same polymorph, but slurries in various solvents over two days produced a new triclinic form (B). Experiments at different temperatures in ethyl acetate or isopropyl alcohol confirmed this was an enantiotropic system with a transition temperature of approximately 30°C...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514947/enhanced-chlorhexidine-skin-penetration-with-1-8-cineole
#7
A L Casey, T J Karpanen, B R Conway, T Worthington, P Nightingale, R Waters, T S J Elliott
BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine (CHG) penetrates poorly into skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the depth of CHG skin permeation from solutions containing either 2% (w/v) CHG and 70% (v/v) isopropyl alcohol (IPA) or 2% (w/v) CHG, 70% (v/v) IPA and 2% (v/v) 1,8-cineole. METHODS: An ex-vivo study using Franz diffusion cells was carried out. Full thickness human skin was mounted onto the cells and a CHG solution, with or without 2% (v/v) 1,8-cineole was applied to the skin surface...
May 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512598/phytochemical-screening-and-study-of-antioxidant-antimicrobial-antidiabetic-anti-inflammatory-and-analgesic-activities-of-extracts-from-stem-wood-of-pterocarpus-marsupium-roxburgh
#8
Dipak Raj Pant, Narayan Dutt Pant, Dil Bahadur Saru, Uday Narayan Yadav, Dharma Prasad Khanal
AIMS: The main aims of the study were to evaluate the phytochemical constituents and to study the antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities of extracts from stem wood of Pterocarpus marsupium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethanol, acetone and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) (1:1) extracts of stem wood of P. marsupium were subjected to phytochemical screening and analysis of biological activities from August 2015 to January 2016. The antioxidant assay was carried out using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging method, antimicrobial activity testing by cup diffusion method, antidiabetic test evaluation by oral glucose tolerance test in mice, anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by hind paw edema method in mice and analgesic test evaluation by a chemical writhing method in mice...
April 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490251/ampicillin-incorporated-alginate-chitosan-fibers-from-microfluidic-spinning-and-for-vitro-release
#9
Xiaolin Zhang, Chen Huang, Yi Zhao, Xiangyu Jin
The fibrous drug-loading capability, degradation profile, drug release behavior and mechanical performance were found to be controlled by regulating the amount of IPA and chitosan, which delayed the degradable time-scale and improved the drug loading capacity. Six types of alginate fibers were spun by combining two distinct core flows with deionized water-based, ethanol-based and isopropyl alcohol-based sheath fluid, respectively. The as prepared fibers were analyzed and compared by the characterization of SEM, mass loss, ICP, FTIR, XRD, UV, mechanics performance testing and antibacterial activity tests...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465060/biosynthesis-of-the-fatty-acid-isopropyl-esters-by-engineered-escherichia-coli
#10
Hong Pan, Lihua Zhang, Xun Li, Daoyi Guo
The fatty acid methyl esters and fatty acid ethyl esters are known as biodiesels which are considered to be renewable, nontoxic and biodegradable biofuels. However, the conventional biodiesels show a high crystallization temperature which is one of the most critical obstacles against the widespread biodiesel usage. The high crystallization temperature of biodiesel can be reduced by replacing the methyl or ethyl ester with an isopropyl moiety. Here we report on a strategy to establish biosynthesis of the fatty acid isopropyl esters(FAIPEs) from the simple substrate glucose in Escherichia coli with heterologous coexpression of atoB encoded acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase and atoAD encode acetoacetyl-CoA transferase from E...
July 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420285/dry-powders-for-the-inhalation-of-ciprofloxacin-or-levofloxacin-combined-with-a-mucolytic-agent-for-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#11
Yagmur Akdag Cayli, Selma Sahin, Francesca Buttini, Anna Giulia Balducci, Serena Montanari, Imran Vural, Levent Oner
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to design and characterize an inhalable dry powder of ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin combined with the mucolytics acetylcysteine and dornase alfa for the management of pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. METHODS: Ball milling, homogenization in isopropyl alcohol and spray drying processes were used to prepare dry powders for inhalation. Physico-chemical characteristics of the dry powders were assessed via thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy...
April 27, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402896/biodegradation-of-isopropanol-and-acetone-under-denitrifying-conditions-by-thauera-sp-tk001-for-nitrate-mediated-microbially-enhanced-oil-recovery
#12
Tekle Tafese Fida, Fatma Gassara, Gerrit Voordouw
Amendment of reservoir fluid with injected substrates can enhance the growth and activity of microbes. The present study used isopropyl alcohol (IPA) or acetone to enhance the indigenous anaerobic nitrate-reducing bacterium Thauera sp. TK001. The strain was able to grow on IPA or acetone and nitrate. To monitor effects of strain TK001 on oil recovery, sand-packed columns containing heavy oil were flooded with minimal medium at atmospheric or high (400psi) pressure. Bioreactors were then inoculated with 0.5 pore volume (PV) of minimal medium containing Thauera sp...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399680/polyol-monoterpenes-isolated-from-chenopodium-ambrosioides
#13
Shu-Qun Hou, Yan-Hong Li, Xiang-Zhong Huang, Rong Li, Huai Lu, Kai Tian, Rong-Sheng Ruan, Yu-Kui Li
Phytochemical study on the 95% ethyl alcohol extract of stems of Chenopodium ambrosioides resulted in the isolation of two new polyol monoterpenes, 4-hydroxy-4(α or β)-isopropyl-2-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one (1) and 1-methyl-4β- isopropyl-1-cyclohexene-4α,5α,6α-triol (2), together with five known compounds, (1S,2S,3R,4S)-1-methyl-4-(propan-2-yl)cyclohexane-1,2,3,4-tetrol (3), (1R,2S,3S,4S)- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxy-p-menthane (4), (1R,2S)-3-p-menthen-1,2-diol (5), (1R,4S)-p- menth-2-en-1-ol (6) and 1,4-dihydroxy-p-menth-2-ene (7)...
April 12, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396339/poppers-legal-highs-with-questionable-contents-a-case-series-of-poppers-maculopathy
#14
Rebecca Rewbury, Edward Hughes, Robert Purbrick, Stephen Prior, Mark Baron
BACKGROUND: Poppers are volatile alkyl nitrite compounds that are inhaled to enhance sexual experience and for their psychoactive effects. A less well-known side effect is foveal maculopathy, which has emerged following changes in their chemical composition. It is unclear if certain individuals are more susceptible to retinal damage or if there is a relationship between pattern of inhalation and brands used. METHODS: A case series of 12 patients presenting to Sussex Eye Hospital, Brighton, with poppers-related visual impairment...
April 10, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379643/integrating-in-vitro-modeling-and-in-vivo-approaches-to-investigate-warfarin-bioequivalence
#15
Xinyuan Zhang, Hong Wen, Jianghong Fan, Bradley Vince, Tonglei Li, Wei Gao, Minori Kinjo, Jill Brown, Wanjie Sun, Wenlei Jiang, Robert Lionberger
We demonstrate the use of modeling and simulation to investigate bioequivalence concerns raised about generic warfarin products. To test the hypothesis that the loss of isopropyl alcohol and slow dissolution in acidic pH have significant impact on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin sodium tablets, we conducted physiologically based pharmacokinetic absorption modeling and simulation using formulation factors, or in vitro dissolution profiles as input parameters. Sensitivity analyses indicated that warfarin pharmacokinetics was not sensitive to solubility, particle size and density, or dissolution rate in pH 4...
April 5, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345701/the-effect-of-natural-iron-oxide-and-oxalic-acid-on-the-photocatalytic-degradation-of-isoproturon-a-kinetics-and-analytical-study
#16
H Boucheloukh, W Remache, F Parrino, T Sehili, H Mechakra
The photocatalytic degradation of isoproturon, a persistent toxic herbicide, was investigated in the presence of natural iron oxide and oxalic acid and under UV irradiation. The influence of the relevant parameters such as the pH and the iron oxide and oxalic acid concentrations has been studied. The presence of natural iron oxide and oxalic acid in the system effectively allow the degradation of isoproturon, whereas the presence of t-butyl alcohol adversely affects the phototransformation of the target pollutant, thus indicating that an OH radical initiated the degradation mechanism...
May 17, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341597/effect-of-isopropyl-myristate-on-transdermal-permeation-of-testosterone-from-carbopol-gel
#17
Ahmed S Zidan, Nahid Kamal, Alaadin Alayoubi, Mark Seggel, Sarah Ibrahim, Ziyaur Rahman, Celia N Cruz, Muhammad Ashraf
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of isopropyl myristate (IPM) on the in vitro permeation of testosterone through human cadaver skin from carbopol gels. Six testosterone gel formulations were prepared using different IPM contents of 0%, 0.4%, 0.7%, 1%, 2%, and 3%. The gels were characterized for drug permeation, matrix morphology, pH, kinetics of ethanol evaporation, and viscosity. Mass balance studies were performed to estimate testosterone distribution among the compartments of diffusion cells...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336842/sers-based-flavonoid-detection-using-ethylenediamine-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-as-a-capturing-ligand
#18
Jae Min Choi, Eunil Hahm, Kyeonghui Park, Daham Jeong, Won-Yeop Rho, Jaehi Kim, Dae Hong Jeong, Yoon-Sik Lee, Sung Ho Jhang, Hyun Jong Chung, Eunae Cho, Jae-Hyuk Yu, Bong-Hyun Jun, Seunho Jung
Ethylenediamine-modified β-cyclodextrin (Et-β-CD) was immobilized on aggregated silver nanoparticle (NP)-embedded silica NPs (SiO₂@Ag@Et-β-CD NPs) for the effective detection of flavonoids. Silica NPs were used as the template for embedding silver NPs to create hot spots and enhance surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals. Et-β-CD was immobilized on Ag NPs to capture flavonoids via host-guest inclusion complex formation, as indicated by enhanced ultraviolet absorption spectra. The resulting SiO₂@Ag@Et-β-CD NPs were used as the SERS substrate for detecting flavonoids, such as hesperetin, naringenin, quercetin, and luteolin...
January 6, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321695/solubility-and-thermodynamic-analysis-of-antihypertensive-agent-nitrendipine-in-different-pure-solvents-at-the-temperature-range-of-298-15-to-318-15%C3%A2-k
#19
Abdul Ahad, Faiyaz Shakeel, Mohammad Raish, Fahad I Al-Jenoobi, Abdullah M Al-Mohizea
The aim of the present study was to ascertain the solubility of nitrendipine (NP), an antihypertensive drug in six different pure solvents such as water, ethyl acetate (EA), ethanol, isopropyl alcohol (IPA), polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400), and Transcutol at temperature from 298.15 to 318.15 K under atmospheric pressure (p) of 0.1 MPa. Experimental solubility data of NP was fitted with Apelblat and ideal models. The mole fraction solubility of NP was found maximum in PEG-400 (6.85 × 10(-2) at 318.15 K) followed by Transcutol (4...
March 20, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301624/photodynamic-therapy-effectively-treats-actinic-keratoses-without-pre-illumination-incubation-time
#20
Jessica Gandy, Brian Labadie, Dina Bierman, Christopher Zachary
<p>BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are dysplastic lesions of the epidermis that have the potential to progress to non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC). Traditional photodynamic therapy (PDT) requires a pre-illumination incubation time, which adds to overall in-office time and has been linked to pain. Our group has found a novel protocol to effectively treat AKs with PDT that eliminates the pre-illumination incubation period and uses 2 back-to-back cycles of 16 minute 40 seconds.</p> <p>METHODS: The patient was prepped with soapy water and isopropyl alcohol, and thick AKs were descaled with a curette...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
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