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Isopropyl alcohol

Sonia Hines, Elizabeth Steels, Anne Chang, Kristen Gibbons
BACKGROUND: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common, unpleasant phenomenon and current therapies are not always effective for all patients. Aromatherapy has been suggested as an addition to the available treatment strategies. This review was originally published in 2012 and updated in 2017. OBJECTIVES: The main objective was to establish the efficacy and safety of aromatherapy comparable to standard pharmacological treatments for PONV in adults and children...
March 10, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Wenyu Zhang, Libo Sun, Jean Marie Vianney Nsanzimana, Xin Wang
Silicene has recently received increasing interest due to its unique properties. However, the synthesis of silicene remains challenging, which limits its wide applications. In this work, a top-down lithiation and delithiation process is developed to prepare few layer silicene-like nanosheets from ball-milled silicon nanopowders. It is found that delithiation solvent plays a critical role in the structure evolution of the final products. The use of isopropyl alcohol renders 2D silicene-like products 30-100 nm in length and ≈2...
March 5, 2018: Advanced Materials
Matthew N Simmons, Andrew D Neeb, Marta Johnson-Mitchell
OBJECTIVE: To compare 3 prophylactic regimens to assess their impact on post-biopsy sepsis incidence. METHODS: Data was reviewed for 829 consecutive patients who underwent prostate biopsy in a community practice setting between January 2013 and October 2017. Group 1 patients received ciprofloxacin 500mg PO BID for 4 days starting the day prior to biopsy and gentamicin 80mg IM 20 minutes prior to biopsy. From April 2015 to October 2017 two groups of patients were followed in parallel in a randomized manner...
February 27, 2018: Urology
Zaheer Khan, Shaeel Ahmad Al-Thabaiti
Biomimetic method was used for the synthesis of Fe-nanoparticles (FeNPs). FeCl3 and Hibiscus sabdariffa, Roselle flower aqueous extract (HBS) were employed in the present studies. The FeNPs have been characterized by using UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The average particles diameter was found to be 18 nm. The as prepared FeNPs were used as a catalyst to the oxidative degradation of rhodamine B (RB) in presence of NaBH4 . The effects of various quencher on the degradation rates were examined by employing ammonium oxalate (AO), benzoquinone (BQ), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and potassium iodide (KI)...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Michael D April, Joshua J Oliver, William T Davis, David Ong, Erica M Simon, Patrick C Ng, Curtis J Hunter
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We compare aromatherapy with inhaled isopropyl alcohol versus oral ondansetron for treating nausea among emergency department (ED) patients not requiring immediate intravenous access. METHODS: In a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled a convenience sample of adults presenting to an urban tertiary care ED with chief complaints including nausea or vomiting. We randomized subjects to 1 of 3 arms: inhaled isopropyl alcohol and 4 mg oral ondansetron, inhaled isopropyl alcohol and oral placebo, and inhaled saline solution placebo and 4 mg oral ondansetron...
February 17, 2018: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Bing Yin, Chaohong Liu
A facile solvothermal method for the synthesis of BiOI with different morphologies was proposed. The results indicated that the ethylene glycol and isopropyl alcohol system could control the consecutive dimension and size changes of BiOI from zero-dimension to three-dimension kinetically and thermodynamically. On this basis, BiOI/BiOBr composite photocatalysts were prepared, and the correlation between the catalytic performance and structure of the photocatalyst was also investigated. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of BiOI/BiOBr composite photocatalysts can be attributed to the intact three-dimensional hierarchical micro-nanostructures, appropriate phase composition and the efficient separation of photogenerated charge carriers...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Patrick Chow Yuen Ng, Brit J Long, William Tyler Davis, Daniel J Sessions, Alex Koyfman
Toxic alcohols are a group of substances containing a hydroxyl group not meant to be ingested. They are the cause of a significant number of accidental and non-accidental exposures. Toxic alcohol poisoning can be associated with a significant degree of morbidity and mortality if not promptly recognized and treated. This review describes the clinical presentation and an approach to the recognition and management for toxic alcohol poisoning. Toxic alcohols classically refer to a group of alcohols not meant for ingestion...
February 9, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Qunying Zeng, Zhongwei Xu, Congxiu Zheng, Yang Liu, Wei Chen, Tailiang Guo, Fushan Li, Chaoyu Xiang, Yixing Yang, Weiran Cao, Xiangwei Xie, Xiaolin Yan, Lei Qian, Paul Holloway
A solution-processed molybdenum oxide (MoOx) as the hole injection layer by doctor-blade coating was developed to improve the efficiency and lifetime of red emitting quantum-dot light emitting diodes (QD-LEDs). It has been demonstrated that by adding isopropyl alcohol into the MoOx precursor during doctor-blade coating process, the morphology, composition, and the surface electronic structure of MoOx hole injection layer could be tailored. High quality MoOx film with optimized charge injection was obtained, based on which all-solution-processed highly efficient red emitting QD-LEDs were realized by using low-cost doctor-blade coating technique at ambient conditions...
February 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhaobo Chen, Haiyan Su, Dongxue Hu, Fuquan Jia, Zhenghai Li, Yubo Cui, Chunqiu Ran, Xiaojing Wang, Jiao Xu, Tingting Xiao, Xue Li, Haixu Wang
This study focuses on the effects of organic loading rate (OLR) on the removal of N,N-Dimethylformamide(DMF), m-Cresol (MC) and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) by a pilot-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for treating chemical synthesis-based antibiotic solvent wastewater at period of improved influent COD concentration with decreased HRT. The whole process was divided into five stages in terms of the variation of OLR ranging from 3.9 to 12.7 kg COD/(m3·d). During 249 days of operating time, the average DMF, MC, IPA removal efficiency were 96...
January 29, 2018: Chemosphere
Dionne Okafor, Alan David Kaye, Rachel J Kaye, Richard D Urman
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) can be very debilitating for surgical patients, and effective management reduces potential morbidity, aiding in patient satisfaction, and minimizing the need for unintended hospital stays. Risk factors include female sex, nonsmoker, and having a previous history of motion sickness or PONV. Anesthetic risk factors include receiving opioids, not receiving a total intravenous anesthetic (TIVA), exposure to nitrous oxide, and extended length of anesthetic. Many treatments, including serotonin antagonists, dopamine antagonists, corticosteroids, inhaled isopropyl alcohol, and anticholinergics, as well as techniques such as TIVA, have been utilized over recent decades in an attempt to reduce PONV incidence...
October 2017: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
T Waldow, T Ghazy, T Madej, K Plötze, C Birkner, A Mahlmann, K Matschke
BACKGROUND: Reducing post-sternotomy mediastinitis (PSM) requires incorporating multiple methods. However, the independent effects of these measures are not well studied. AIM: To evaluate the independent effect of preoperative disinfection using isopropyl alcohol (IPA)-chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) and the topical application of a retrosternal gentamicin collagen sponge at wound closure on reducing PSM. METHODS: From October 2012 to August 2014, 2340 patients were included in this prospective, controlled registry...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Suchet Sachdev, Nandini Sethuraman, Vikas Gautam, Deepak Pahwa, Anuradha Kalra, Ratti Ram Sharma, Neelam Marwaha, Pallab Ray
The study was planned to measure the reduction of the load of bacterial flora on the blood donor's arm quantitatively using a three step protocol of donor arm cleansing incorporating either 70% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) or 5% w/v povidone iodine (PVI, 0.5% w/v available iodine) or 4% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) with or without the addition of 5% dimethyl sufloxide (DMSO). Single blind randomized study after obtaining ethical clearance, using the Miles and Misra technique for quantification and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry for identification of colony morphotypes on blood donor's skin...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
Venkata Balarama Krishna Mullapudi, Karunasagar Dheram
A UV photolysis decomposition (UVPD) method for the determination of fluoride in fluorine containing pharmaceuticals by spectrophotometry is reported. It is based on the use of high intensity UV-irradiation in the presence of a digesting solution comprising a mixture of acetone and isopropanol. For the optimization of the UVPD procedure, three bulk drugs (levofloxacin, nebivolol and efavirenz) were chosen as representatives of three diverse compounds containing a single fluorine atom, two fluorine atoms, and trifluoromethyl groups respectively...
January 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
P A Christensen, Z T A W Mashhadani, Abd Halim Bin Md Ali
This paper reports the application of in situ reflectance Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy to the study of the thermal and plasma driven reaction of IsoPropyl Alcohol (IPA) at SnO2-coated Macor, the latter a ceramic material comprised of the oxides of Al, Mg and Si. The data so obtained were compared to those obtained using uncoated Macor. When uncoated Macor was employed, no reaction of the IPA was observed up to 600 °C in the thermal experiments, whereas a number of products were observed in the plasma-driven experiments...
January 31, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
John M Boyce
Isopropyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol have been used as low-level disinfectants in healthcare settings for many years. Recent studies have found that ethyl alcohol inhibits protein synthesis in Escherichia coli by direct effects on ribosomes and RNA polymerase and that 60%-70% solutions have in vitro efficacy against murine norovirus, Ebola virus, and several coronaviruses. Alcohol prep pads or towelettes containing isopropyl or ethyl alcohol and water have been used primarily for disinfection of small noncritical items due to a concern regarding their rapid evaporation rates and associated short contact times...
January 28, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Kotaro Yamakado
PURPOSE: To examine the contamination rate of the anchor-suture and to determine the efficacy of 2 different surgical skin preparation solutions with or without a plastic adhesive drape from suture contamination in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. METHODS: A prospective randomized study was undertaken to evaluate 126 consecutive patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Each shoulder was prepared with one of 2 randomly selected solutions according to an assigned envelope that indicated the procedure to be used: chlorhexidine-alcohol (1% chlorhexidine gluconate and 70% isopropyl alcohol) or povidone-iodine...
January 17, 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Anna L Casey, Tarja J Karpanen, Peter Nightingale, Tom Sj Elliott
BACKGROUND: needle-free connectors are widely used in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to identify any differences between microbial ingress into six different connectors (three neutral-displacement, one negative-displacement and two anti-reflux connectors). METHODS: each connector underwent a 7-day clinical simulation involving repeated microbial contamination of the connector's injection ports with Staphylococcus aureus followed by decontamination and then saline flushes through each connector...
January 25, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Jeong Hun Kim, Ji-Young Hwang, Ha Ryeon Hwang, Han Seop Kim, Joong Hoon Lee, Jae-Won Seo, Ueon Sang Shin, Sang-Hoon Lee
The development of various flexible and stretchable materials has attracted interest for promising applications in biomedical engineering and electronics industries. This interest in wearable electronics, stretchable circuits, and flexible displays has created a demand for stable, easily manufactured, and cheap materials. However, the construction of flexible and elastic electronics, on which commercial electronic components can be mounted through simple and cost-effective processing, remains challenging. We have developed a nanocomposite of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer...
January 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Orawan Pichitchaipitak, Sineenuch Ckumdee, Siriluk Apivanich, Darunee Chotiprasitsakul, Prapimporn Chattranukulchai Shantavasinkul
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and predictive factors of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) acquired through a central venous catheter for delivery of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) therapy among a patient population in Thailand. METHODS: This retrospective review was conducted with adult patients with intestinal failure who received HPN from October 2002 to April 2014, at Ramathibodi Home Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Referral Center in Bangkok...
February 2018: Nutrition
Taekhee Lee, Jhy-Charm Soo, Ryan F LeBouf, Dru Burns, Diane Schwegler-Berry, Michael Kashon, Jay Bowers, Martin Harper
This experimental study aimed to evaluate airborne particulates and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from surgical smoke when a local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system is in place. Surgical smoke was generated from human tissue in an unoccupied operating room using an electrocautery surgical device for 15 minutes with three different test settings; 1) without LEV control, 2) control with a wall irrigation suction unit with an in-line ultra-low penetration air filter and 3) control with a smoke evacuation system...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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