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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882611/chronic-lactate-supplementation-does-not-improve-blood-buffering-capacity-and-repeated-high-intensity-exercise
#1
L F Oliveira, V de Salles Painelli, K Nemezio, L S Gonçalves, G Yamaguchi, B Saunders, B Gualano, G G Artioli
Since there is conflicting data on the buffering and ergogenic properties of calcium lactate (CL), we investigated the effect of chronic CL supplementation on blood pH, bicarbonate, and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance. Sodium bicarbonate (SB) was used as a positive control. Eighteen athletes participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, fully counterbalanced study. All participants underwent three different treatments: placebo (PL), CL, and SB. The dose was identical in all conditions: 500 mg/kg BM divided into four daily individual doses of 125 mg/kg BM, for five consecutive days, followed by a 2-7-day washout period...
November 23, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858306/menthol-a-fresh-ergogenic-aid-for-athletic-performance
#2
Christopher J Stevens, Russ Best
The application of menthol has recently been researched as a performance-enhancing aid for various aspects of athletic performance including endurance, speed, strength and joint range of motion. A range of application methods has been used including a mouth rinse, ingestion of a beverage containing menthol or external application to the skin or clothing via a gel or spray. The majority of research has focussed on the use of menthol to impart a cooling sensation on athletes performing endurance exercise in the heat...
November 17, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851893/caffeine-influences-cadence-at-lower-but-not-higher-intensity-rpe-regulated-cycling
#3
J Matt Green, Alyssa Olenick, Caroline Eastep, Lee Winchester
: Caffeine blunts RPE estimations but effects on selected cycling cadence are unclear. PURPOSE: This study examined influence of caffeine on cycling cadence with intensities prescribed at RPE 4 and 7 (OMNI Scale). METHODS: College-aged (20.5±2.0y) male and female volunteers (n=15) (VO2 peak=40.3±4.0,) completed a maximal cycling test followed by trials where they adjusted cadence (CAD) (clamped resistances) to produce overall feelings equivalent to RPE 4 (RPE4) and RPE 7 (RPE7) (10min each) following caffeine (CAF) (6mg·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and placebo (PLA) (counterbalanced) ingestion...
November 13, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834492/single-and-combined-effects-of-beetroot-crystals-and-sodium-bicarbonate-on-4-km-cycling-time-trial-performance
#4
Marcus J Callahan, Evelyn B Parr, John A Hawley, Louise M Burke
When ingested alone, beetroot juice and sodium bicarbonate are ergogenic for high-intensity exercise performance. This study sought to determine the independent and combined effects of these supplements. Eight endurance trained (V̇O2max 65 mL·kg·min(-1)) male cyclists completed four x 4-km time trials (TT) in a double-blind Latin square design supplementing with beetroot crystals (BC) for 3 days (15 g.day(-1) + 15 g 1 h prior to TT, containing 300 mg nitrate per 15 g), bicarbonate (Bi 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass [BM] in 5 doses every 15 min from 2...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832548/mouth-rinsing-with-a-sweet-solution-increases-energy-expenditure-and-decreases-appetite-during-60-min-of-self-regulated-walking-exercise
#5
Kevin Deighton, Lauren Duckworth, Jamie Matu, Matthew Suter, Charlotte Fletcher, Samuel Stead, Shaho Ali, Neil Gunby, Keelie Korsness
Carbohydrate mouth rinsing can improve endurance exercise performance and is most ergogenic when exercise is completed in the fasted state. This strategy may also be beneficial to increase exercise capacity and the energy deficit achieved during moderate-intensity exercise relevant to weight control when performed after an overnight fast. Eighteen healthy men (mean (SD); age, 23 (4) years; body mass index, 23.1 (2.4) kg·m(-2)) completed a familiarisation trial and 3 experimental trials. After an overnight fast, participants performed 60 min of treadmill walking at a speed that equated to a rating of perceived exertion of 13 ("fairly hard")...
December 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815369/could-small-diameter-muscle-afferents-be-responsible-for-the-ergogenic-effect-of-limb-ischemic-preconditioning
#6
Rogério Santos de Oliveira Cruz, Kayo Leonardo Pereira, Felipe Domingos Lisbôa, Fabrizio Caputo
N/A.
November 4, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797728/%C3%AE-alanine-supplementation-to-improve-exercise-capacity-and-performance-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Bryan Saunders, Kirsty Elliott-Sale, Guilherme G Artioli, Paul A Swinton, Eimear Dolan, Hamilton Roschel, Craig Sale, Bruno Gualano
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence on the effects of β-alanine supplementation on exercise capacity and performance. DESIGN: This study was designed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. A 3-level mixed effects model was employed to model effect sizes and account for dependencies within data. DATA SOURCES: 3 databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science) were searched using a number of terms ('β-alanine' and 'Beta-alanine' combined with 'supplementation', 'exercise', 'training', 'athlete', 'performance' and 'carnosine')...
October 18, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775591/capsaicin-supplementation-reduces-physical-fatigue-and-improves-exercise-performance-in-mice
#8
Yi-Ju Hsu, Wen-Ching Huang, Chien-Chao Chiu, Yan-Lin Liu, Wan-Chun Chiu, Chun-Hui Chiu, Yen-Shuo Chiu, Chi-Chang Huang
Chili pepper is used as a food, seasoning and has been revered for its medicinal and health claims. It is very popular and is the most common spice worldwide. Capsaicin (CAP) is a major pungent and bioactive phytochemical in chili peppers. CAP has been shown to improve mitochondrial biogenesis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. However, there is limited evidence around the effects of CAP on physical fatigue and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CAP on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge...
October 20, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768510/habitual-dietary-nitrate-intake-in-highly-trained-athletes
#9
Kristin L Jonvik, Jean Nyakayiru, Jan-Willem Van Dijk, Floris C Wardenaar, Luc J C Van Loon, Lex B Verdijk
Although beetroot juice, as a nitrate carrier, is a popular ergogenic supplement amongst athletes, nitrate is consumed through the regular diet as well. We aimed to assess the habitual dietary nitrate intake and identify the main contributing food sources in a large group of highly trained athletes. Dutch highly trained athletes (226 women and 327 men) completed 2-4 web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires within a 2-4 week period. The nitrate content of food products and food groups was determined systematically based on values found in regulatory reports and scientific literature...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757591/acute-effects-of-caffeine-containing-energy-drinks-on-physical-performance-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Diego B Souza, Juan Del Coso, Juliano Casonatto, Marcos D Polito
PURPOSE: Caffeine-containing energy drinks (EDs) are currently used as ergogenic aids to improve physical performance in a wide variety of sport disciplines. However, the outcomes of previous investigations on this topic are inconclusive due to methodological differences, especially, in the dosage of the active ingredients and the test used to assess performance. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies to evaluate the effects of acute ED intake on physical performance...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757381/echinacea-supplementation-does-it-really-improve-aerobic-fitness
#11
Cory W Baumann, Dongmin Kwak
PURPOSE: Echinacea is an herbal supplement used by endurance athletes for its performance boosting properties. It is thought that Echinacea improves the blood's oxygen carrying capacity by increasing production of erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein that regulates red blood cell formation. Subsequently, these changes would lead to an overall improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and running economy (RE), two markers of aerobic fitness. The purpose of this review is to briefly discuss the physiological variables associated with distance running performance and how these variables are influenced by Echinacea supplementation...
September 2016: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754419/time-of-day-and-training-status-both-impact-the-efficacy-of-caffeine-for-short-duration-cycling-performance
#12
James C Boyett, Gabrielle E W Giersch, Christopher J Womack, Michael J Saunders, Christine A Hughey, Hannah M Daley, Nicholas D Luden
This project was designed to assess the effects of time of day and training status on the benefits of caffeine supplementation for cycling performance. Twenty male subjects (Age, 25 years; Peak oxygen consumption, 57 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were divided into tertiles based on training levels, with top and bottom tertiles designated as 'trained' (n = 7) and 'untrained' (n = 7). Subjects completed two familiarization trials and four experimental trials consisting of a computer-simulated 3-km cycling time trial (TT)...
October 14, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747796/mechanistic-insights-into-the-efficacy-of-sodium-bicarbonate-supplementation-to-improve-athletic-performance
#13
Jason C Siegler, Paul W M Marshall, David Bishop, Greg Shaw, Simon Green
A large proportion of empirical research and reviews investigating the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation have focused predominately on performance outcomes and only speculate about underlying mechanisms responsible for any benefit. The aim of this review was to critically evaluate the influence of NaHCO3 supplementation on mechanisms associated with skeletal muscle fatigue as it translates directly to exercise performance. Mechanistic links between skeletal muscle fatigue, proton accumulation (or metabolic acidosis) and NaHCO3 supplementation have been identified to provide a more targeted, evidence-based approach to direct future research, as well as provide practitioners with a contemporary perspective on the potential applications and limitations of this supplement...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717653/the-time-dependence-of-the-effect-of-ischemic-preconditioning-on-successive-sprint-swimming-performance
#14
Felipe D Lisbôa, Tiago Turnes, Rogério S O Cruz, João A G Raimundo, Gustavo S Pereira, Fabrizio Caputo
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to determine the effects of ischemic preconditioning on performance in three successive 50-m swimming trials and to measure stroke rate, stroke length and blood lactate accumulation. DESIGN: Counterbalanced, repeated-measures cross-over study. METHODS: On two separate days, eleven competitive male swimmers (20±3 years, 182±5cm, 77±5kg) performed three successive 50-m trials in a 50-m swimming pool, preceded by intermittent bilateral cuff inflation (4× 5-min of blood flow restriction+5-min of cuff deflation) at either 220 for thighs and 180mmHg for arms (ischemic preconditioning) or 20mmHg for both limbs (control-treatment)...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691998/characterisation-of-equine-satellite-cell-transcriptomic-profile-response-to-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-hmb
#15
Katarzyna A Szcześniak, Anna Ciecierska, Piotr Ostaszewski, Tomasz Sadkowski
β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a popular ergogenic aid used by human athletes and as a supplement to sport horses, because of its ability to aid muscle recovery, improve performance and body composition. Recent findings suggest that HMB may stimulate satellite cells and affect expressions of genes regulating skeletal muscle cell growth. Despite the scientific data showing benefits of HMB supplementation in horses, no previous study has explained the mechanism of action of HMB in this species. The aim of this study was to reveal the molecular background of HMB action on equine skeletal muscle by investigating the transcriptomic profile changes induced by HMB in equine satellite cells in vitro...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678471/thirty-years-of-investigation-on-the-ergogenic-effects-of-sodium-citrate-is-it-time-for-a-fresh-start
#16
Vitor de Salles Painelli, Antonio Herbert Lancha Junior
Sodium citrate (SCit) supplementation has been studied for several years as a strategy to reduce the muscle fatigue induced by H(+) ion accumulation within the skeletal muscle during high-intensity, short-duration exercise. Several investigations have been published on this matter, and appear to indicate that SCit is not effective as an ergogenic aid, despite its ability to increase extracellular buffering capacity. In this short report, we briefly discuss the SCit results previously published in the literature and consider them in light of new and promising findings, which appear to address issues associated with previous study designs...
September 27, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670904/cooling-during-exercise-an-overlooked-strategy-for-enhancing-endurance-performance-in-the-heat
#17
Christopher J Stevens, Lee Taylor, Ben J Dascombe
It is well established that endurance performance is negatively affected by environmental heat stress due to a complex interaction of physical, physiological and psychological alterations. Numerous scientific investigations have attempted to improve performance in the heat with pre-cooling (cooling prior to an exercise test), and as such this has become a well-established ergogenic practice for endurance athletes. However, the use of mid-cooling (cooling during an exercise test) has received considerably less research attention in comparison, despite recent evidence to suggest that the advantage gained from mid-cooling may outweigh that of pre-cooling...
September 27, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669443/spinal-cord-injury-level-influences-acute-plasma-caffeine-responses
#18
Terri Susan Graham-Paulson, Thomas Andrew William Paulson, Claudio Perret, Keith Tolfrey, Philip Cordery, Victoria Louise Goosey-Tolfrey
PURPOSE: To investigate the absorption curve and acute effects of caffeine at rest in individuals with no spinal cord injury (SCI), paraplegia (PARA) and tetraplegia (TETRA). METHODS: Twenty-four healthy males (8 able-bodied (AB), 8 PARA and 8 TETRA) consumed 3 mg[BULLET OPERATOR]kg caffeine anhydrous (CAF) in a fasted state. Plasma caffeine [CAF], glucose, lactate, free-fatty acid [FFA] and catecholamine concentrations were measured during a 150 min rest period...
September 23, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644475/effects-of-pomegranate-extract-on-blood-flow-and-vessel-diameter-after-high-intensity-exercise-in-young-healthy-adults
#19
Erica J Roelofs, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Eric T Trexler, Katie R Hirsch, Meredith G Mock
The effects of pomegranate extract (PE) supplementation were evaluated on high-intensity exercise performance, blood flow, vessel diameter, oxygen saturation (SPO2), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP). In a randomized, crossover design, nineteen recreationally resistance-trained participants were randomly assigned to PE (1000 mg) or placebo (PL), which were consumed 30 min prior to a repeated sprint ability (RSA) test and repetitions to fatigue (RTF) on bench and leg press. The RSA consisted of ten six-second sprints on a friction-loaded cycle ergometer with 30 s recovery...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643452/glucocorticoid-administration-in-athletes-performance-metabolism-and-detection
#20
Katia Collomp, Alexandre Arlettaz, Corinne Buisson, Anne-Marie Lecoq, Cynthia Mongongu
It is generally acknowledged in the sporting world that glucocorticoid (GC) use enhances physical performance. This pharmacological class is therefore banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in in-competition samples after systemic but not local (defined as any route other than oral, intravenous, intramuscular or rectal) administration, which thus allows athletes to use GCs for therapeutic purposes. According to the 2016 WADA list, the urine reporting level for all GCs is set at 30ng/ml to distinguish between the authorized and banned routes of administration...
November 2016: Steroids
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