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Cindy M T Van der Avoort, Luc J C Van Loon, Maria T E Hopman, Lex B Verdijk
Increased consumption of dietary nitrate increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations, and has been shown to elicit cardio-protective effects and improve exercise performance. Nitrate consumption in the habitual diet is mainly dependent on nitrate-rich vegetables, such as green leafy and root vegetables, with total vegetable consumption accounting for approximately 50-85% of our daily nitrate intake. Whereas 'supplementation' with dietary nitrate in research studies has mainly been accomplished through the use of (concentrated) nitrate-rich beetroot juice, dietary strategies focusing on increased intake of nitrate-rich vegetables may represent a similarly effective alternative for increasing dietary nitrate intake and, as such, obtaining the associated cardiovascular health and ergogenic benefits...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Jay R Hoffman, Alyssa Varanoske, Jeffrey R Stout
β-Alanine is one of the more popular sport supplements used by strength/power athletes today. The popularity of β-alanine stems from its ability to enhance intracellular muscle-buffering capacity thereby delaying fatigue during high-intensity exercise by increasing muscle carnosine content. Recent evidence also suggests that elevated carnosine levels may enhance cognitive performance and increase resiliency to stress. These benefits are thought to result from carnosine's potential role as an antioxidant. This review will discuss these new findings including recent investigations examining β-alanine supplementation and increased resiliency to posttraumatic stress and mild traumatic brain injury...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Helton O Campos, Lucas R Drummond, Quezia T Rodrigues, Frederico S M Machado, Washington Pires, Samuel P Wanner, Cândido C Coimbra
Nitrate (NO3 -) is an ergogenic nutritional supplement that is widely used to improve physical performance. However, the effectiveness of NO3 - supplementation has not been systematically investigated in individuals with different physical fitness levels. The present study analysed whether different fitness levels (non-athletes v. athletes or classification of performance levels), duration of the test used to measure performance (short v. long duration) and the test protocol (time trials v. open-ended tests v...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Mark Waldron, Stephen David Patterson, Jamie Tallent, Owen Jeffries
BACKGROUND: Taurine is central to many physiological processes, some of which are augmented by exogenous supply and have the potential to facilitate endurance performance; however, its independent effects on performance have not been systematically analysed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of isolated oral taurine ingestion on endurance performance and to assess the contribution of (1) the dose and (2) the supplementation period to the ergogenic effect. METHODS: A search was performed using various databases in September 2017...
March 15, 2018: Sports Medicine
Débora Finger, Fábio Juner Lanferdini, Juliano Boufleur Farinha, Clarissa Müller Brusco, Lucas Helal, Francesco Pinto Boeno, Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Ronei Silveira Pinto
INTRODUCTION: Protein (PRO) combined with a carbohydrate (CHO) beverage may have an ergogenic effect on endurance performance. However, evidence regarding its efficacy on similar conditions to athletes' race day is still lacking. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of three different nutritional supplementation strategies on performance and muscle recovery in a duathlon protocol. METHODS: , 13 male athletes (29.7 ± 7.7 years) participated in three simulated Olympic-distance duathlons under three different, randomly assigned, supplementation regimens: carbohydrate drink (CHO, 75 g); isocaloric CHO plus protein drink (CHO+PRO, 60...
March 15, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Kevin O Murray, Hunter L Paris, Alyce D Fly, Robert F Chapman, Timothy D Mickleborough
Rinsing the mouth with a carbohydrate solution has been shown to improve exercise performance in a manner similar to carbohydrate ingestion. However, the underlying mechanisms behind these ergogenic benefits remain unclear. This study evaluated whether rinsing the mouth with a carbohydrate solution alters plasma insulin and glucose concentration during the initial stages of a 40 km cycling time-trial. Eight trained, competitive cyclists [age (mean ± SEM) = 24 ± 2 y; V̇O2 max = 64.5 ± 2.2 ml·kg-1 ·min-1 ] completed three simulated 40 km time-trials comprised of a familiarization trial, a carbohydrate condition (CHO) and a placebo mouth rinse condition (PLA)...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Lydia K Caldwell, William H DuPont, Matthew K Beeler, Emily M Post, Emily C Barnhart, Vincent H Hardesty, John P Anders, Emily C Borden, Jeff S Volek, William J Kraemer
The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation was to examine the effects of a Korean Ginseng (GINST15) on measures of perception and physical performance following an acute bout of resistance exercise. Ten women (age: 38.7 ± 7.8 years; height: 1.64 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 76.0 ± 11.6 kg) and nine men (age: 41.2. ± 9.7 years; height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 88.5 ± 5.0 kg) completed the investigation. Participants were randomized to a three-cycle testing scheme consisting of high dose ginseng (HIGH: 960 mg/day), low dose ginseng (LOW: 160 mg/day) and placebo (PBO: 0 mg/day)...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Roger Fielding, Linda Riede, James P Lugo, Aouatef Bellamine
Given its pivotal role in fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism, l-carnitine has been investigated as ergogenic aid for enhancing exercise capacity in the healthy athletic population. Early research indicates its beneficial effects on acute physical performance, such as increased maximum oxygen consumption and higher power output. Later studies point to the positive impact of dietary supplementation with l-carnitine on the recovery process after exercise. It is demonstrated that l-carnitine alleviates muscle injury and reduces markers of cellular damage and free radical formation accompanied by attenuation of muscle soreness...
March 13, 2018: Nutrients
Rahman Rahimi
AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of CYP1A2 -163C>A polymorphism on the ergogenic effects of caffeine supplementation during a resistance exercise (RE) session. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo (PL)-controlled, crossover study, 30 resistance-trained men took part in two RE sessions (three sets to failure at 85% of one repetition maximum, 2-min rest between sets), including bench press (BP), leg press (LP), seated cable row, and shoulder press (SP) following caffeine (CAF) (6 mg kg-1 ) or PL (6 mg kg-1 of maltodextrin) ingestion 1 h prior to the trial...
March 12, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Sinead T J Mcdonagh, Lee J Wylie, Christopher Thompson, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M Jones
This article provides an overview of the current literature relating to the efficacy of dietary nitrate (NO3 - ) ingestion in altering aspects of cardiovascular and metabolic health and exercise capacity in healthy and diseased individuals. The consumption of NO3 - -rich vegetables, such as spinach and beetroot, have been variously shown to promote nitric oxide bioavailability, reduce systemic blood pressure, enhance tissue blood flow, modulate muscle O2 utilisation and improve exercise tolerance both in normoxia and in hypoxia, as is commonly observed in a number of disease states...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Jozo Grgic, Eric T Trexler, Bruno Lazinica, Zeljko Pedisic
Background: Caffeine is commonly used as an ergogenic aid. Literature about the effects of caffeine ingestion on muscle strength and power is equivocal. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize results from individual studies on the effects of caffeine intake on muscle strength and power. Methods: A search through eight databases was performed to find studies on the effects of caffeine on: (i) maximal muscle strength measured using 1 repetition maximum tests; and (ii) muscle power assessed by tests of vertical jump...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Eman A Alraddadi, Ryan Lillico, Jonathan L Vennerstrom, Ted M Lakowski, Donald W Miller
Creatine is an ergogenic compound used by athletes to enhance performance. Supplementation with creatine monohydrate (CM) has been suggested for musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. Until now, little is known about its pharmacokinetic profile. Our objective was to determine the oral bioavailability of CM and the influence of dose on oral absorption. Rats were dosed orally with low dose (10 mg/kg) or high dose (70 mg/kg)13 C-labeled CM. Blood samples were removed at various time points. Muscle and brain tissue were collected at the conclusion of the study...
March 8, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Nanci Guest, Paul Corey, Jason Vescovi, Ahmed El-Sohemy
PURPOSE: Many studies have examined the effect of caffeine on exercise performance, but findings have not always been consistent. The objective of this study was to determine whether variation in the CYP1A2 gene, which affects caffeine metabolism, modifies the ergogenic effects of caffeine in a 10-km cycling time trial. METHODS: Competitive male athletes (n=101; age: 25 ± 4 years) completed the time trial under three conditions: 0, 2 or 4 mg of caffeine per kg body mass, using a split-plot randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design...
March 5, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Guilherme Giannini Artioli, Craig Sale, Rebecca Louise Jones
Carnosine was originally discovered in skeletal muscle, where it exists in larger amounts than in other tissues. The majority of research into the physiological roles of carnosine have been conducted on skeletal muscle. Given this and the potential for muscle carnosine content to be increased with supplementation, there is now a large body of research examining the ergogenic effects (or otherwise) of carnosine. More recent research, however, points towards a potential for carnosine to exert a wider range of physiological effects in other tissues, including the brain, heart, pancreas, kidney and cancer cells...
March 4, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Meredith G Mock, Katie R Hirsch, Malia N M Blue, Eric T Trexler, Erica J Roelofs, Abbie E Smith-Ryan
The current study sought to evaluate the effects of post-exercise ingestion of a high molecular weight glucose polymer solution (HMW) compared to an isocaloric low molecular weight solution (LMW) or placebo (PLA) on subsequent cycling performance in female athletes. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, 10 competitive female cyclists (Mean ± SD; Age = 25.7 ± 5.0 yrs; VO2peak = 49.7 ± 4.3 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min) completed three testing sessions separated by 7-10 days...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Michael S Green, Tyler D Martin, Benjamin T Corona
Caffeine use is common among athletes seeking to capitalize on its potential ergogenic effects. Limited research has examined caffeine's effects when utilized following activities that resulted in exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). This study examined the effect of caffeine supplementation on uninjured and injured muscle. Eight male and female (N = 16) physically active individuals participated (age: 24.3 ± 4.3 y; height: 173.0 ± 7.0 cm, mass: 75.2 ± 11.5 kg; body fat: 18.2 ± 15.9 %). One leg was assessed under uninjured and injured (100 eccentric quadriceps contractions) conditions following caffeine supplementation (6 mg/kg), with the other leg assessed under both conditions following placebo supplementation...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Jose Antonio Pérez-Turpin, Mario Trottini, Juan Jose Chinchilla-Mira, Weronika Cyganik
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of microfiltered and sterilized seawater ingestion on running performance in a hot environment. This cross-over, double-blind randomized trial included 12 experienced male runners. The subjects randomly consumed seawater (SW) or pure water (placebo) in an equivalent amount of 50 ml five minutes prior to running at 40% of their VO2 max for 95.0 ± 18.5 min, at 30°C, until they lost 3% of body weight. Every 20 minutes, a measurement of their body weight was taken and a blood lactate analysis was performed...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Hnin Ei Thu, Zahid Hussain, Isa Naina Mohamed, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid
BACKGROUND: Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia) has gained widespread recognition due to its versatile pharmacological activities including aphrodisiac, anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, anti-diabetic, ergogenic, insecticidal, anti-rheumatism, bone protection, and anti-ulcer effects. OBJECTIVE: This review was aimed to critically overview the literature and summarizes the antibacterial, antiprotozoal, and antifungal trends of E...
February 19, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Emma M Crum, Matthew J Barnes, Stephen R Stannard
Pomegranate extract (POMx) has been suggested as an ergogenic aid, due to its rich concentration of polyphenols, which are proposed to enhance nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, thereby improving the efficiency of oxygen usage and consequently, endurance exercise performance. Although acute POMx supplementation improves aerobic exercise performance in untrained individuals, trained athletes appear to require chronic supplementation for a similar effect. Further, the combination of POMx with a thiol antioxidant may prove more effective than POMx alone, due to the protective effects of thiols on NO...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Stavros Papadopoulos, Konstantina Dipla, Areti Triantafyllou, Michalis G Nikolaidis, Antonios Kyparos, Panagiota Touplikioti, Ioannis S Vrabas, Andreas Zafeiridis
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of beetroot juice (BRJ) on (i) in vivo skeletal muscle O2 consumption (mVO2) and microvascular reactivity at rest and (ii) muscle performance, muscle oxygenation, and mVO2 during sustained isometric handgrip exercise (IHG). METHODS: Sixteen young males consumed, randomly, a nitrate-rich (8.1 mmol BRJnitrate) or nitrate-depleted (BRJplacebo) BRJ. After 2.5 hours, they performed an occlusion-reperfusion maneuver at rest, a 3-minute sustained IHG, and a sustained IHG to exhaustion with arterial occlusion...
February 9, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
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