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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741186/effects-of-caffeine-supplementation-on-performance-in-ball-games
#1
REVIEW
Jingyi Shannon Chia, Laura Ann Barrett, Jia Yi Chow, Stephen Francis Burns
Although a large body of evidence exists documenting the ergogenic properties of caffeine, most studies have focused on endurance performance. However, findings from endurance sports cannot be generalized to performance in ball games where, apart from having a high level of endurance, successful athletic performances require a combination of physiological, technical and cognitive capabilities. The purpose of this review was to critically evaluate studies that have examined the effect of a single dose of caffeine in isolation on one or more of the following performance measures: total distance, sprint performance, agility, vertical jump performance and accuracy in ball games...
July 24, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728801/-muscle-dysmorphia-and-use-of-ergogenics-substances-a-systematic-review
#2
Jaime García-Rodríguez, Georgina Alvarez-Rayón, Jaime Camacho-Ruíz, Adriana Amaya-Hernández, Juan Manuel Mancilla-Díaz
The use of ergogenic substances (UES) is not restricted to achieving a better athletic performance, but also it is a behavior for body changing through muscle development; however, little is known about the relationship between muscle dysmorphia (MD) and UES. Therefore, it was conducted a systematic review of those empirical papers that have studied this relationship over the last decade (2004-2014). First it is highlighted that of the 22 articles analyzed, only 13 explicitly aimed this interest. Besides, although the documented data outlined some relevant aspects such as the existence of a high co-occurrence (60-90%) between MD and UES...
July 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720715/ischemic-preconditioning-does-not-alter-muscle-sympathetic-responses-to-static-handgrip-and-metaboreflex-activation-in-young-healthy-men
#3
Anthony V Incognito, Connor J Doherty, Jordan B Lee, Matthew J Burns, Philip J Millar
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been hypothesized to elicit ergogenic effects by reducing feedback from metabolically sensitive group III/IV muscle afferents during exercise. If so, reflex efferent neural outflow should be attenuated. We investigated the effects of IPC on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during static handgrip (SHG) and used post-exercise circulatory occlusion (PECO) to isolate for the muscle metaboreflex. Thirty-seven healthy men (age: 24 ± 5 years [mean ± SD]) were randomized to receive sham (n = 16) or IPC (n = 21) interventions...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713466/intra-subject-variability-of-5-km-time-trial-performance-completed-by-competitive-trained-runners
#4
James Fisher, Thomas Clark, Katherine Newman-Judd, Josh Arnold, James Steele
Time-trials represent an ecologically valid approach to assessment of endurance performance. Such information is useful in the application of testing protocols and estimation of sample sizes required for research/magnitude based inference methods. The present study aimed to investigate the intra-subject variability of 5 km time-trial running performance in trained runners. Six competitive trained male runners (age = 33.8 ± 10.1 years; stature = 1.78 ± 0.01 m; body mass = 69.0 ± 10.4 kg, [Formula: see text]O2max = 62...
June 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711608/do-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-have-performance-enhancing-effects-in-female-athletes
#5
REVIEW
Grace Huang, Shehzad Basaria
Doping with anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) is common among both male and female athletes and is a growing public health problem. Review of historical data of systematic state-sponsored doping programs implemented by the German Democratic Republic in elite female athletes and from clinical trials of testosterone administration in non-athlete women suggests that AAS have ergogenic effects in women. The use of AAS in female athletes has been associated with adverse effects that include acne, hirsutism, deepening of the voice and menstrual disturbances; life-threatening adverse effects such as cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death have also been reported...
July 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696986/fueling-the-triathlete-evidence-based-practical-advice-for-athletes-of-all-levels
#6
Andrew R Getzin, Cynthia Milner, Marie Harkins
Triathletes need to effectively fuel during training and racing to maximize their potential for success. While most research on fueling has focused on elite male triathletes, triathlon participation encompasses a broader demographic of racers ranging from those with aspirations of winning to those whose goals are completion. Carbohydrate is the primary macronutrient for fueling endurance activities. Athletes can usually tolerate 60 to 90 mg·h in the form of multiple different carbohydrate sources. Athletes should drink as thirst dictates and consider sodium replacement of sweat loss especially in individuals with a history of exercise-associated muscle cramps...
July 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684588/dietary-nitrate-supplementation-increases-acute-mountain-sickness-severity-and-sense-of-effort-during-hypoxic-exercise
#7
Gabriella M K Rossetti, Jamie Hugo Macdonald, Lee J Wylie, Samuel J Little, Victoria Newton, Benjamin Wood, Kieran A Hawkins, Rhys Beddoe, Hannah E Davies, Samuel James Oliver
Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances sea level performance and may ameliorate hypoxemia at high altitude. However, nitrate may exacerbate acute mountain sickness (AMS), specifically headache. This study investigated the effect of nitrate supplementation on AMS symptoms and exercise responses with 6h hypoxia. Twenty recreationally-active men (mean(SD): age 22(4) years, V̇O2max 51(6) mL·min-1·kg-1) completed this randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled crossover study. Twelve participants were classified as AMS- based on Environmental Symptom Questionnaire (AMS-C) score <0...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663382/sodium-nitrate-ingestion-increases-skeletal-muscle-nitrate-content-in-humans
#8
Jean Nyakayiru, Imre W K Kouw, Naomi M Cermak, Joan M Senden, Luc J C van Loon, Lex B Verdijk
Nitrate (NO3(-)) ingestion has been shown to have vasoactive and ergogenic effects that have been attributed to increased nitric oxide (NO) production. Recent observations in rodents suggest skeletal muscle tissue to serve as an endogenous NO3(-) "reservoir". The current study determined NO3(-) contents in human skeletal muscle tissue in a post-absorptive state, and following ingestion of a sodium nitrate bolus (NaNO3). Seventeen male, type 2 diabetes patients (age 72±1 y; BMI 26.5±0.5 m·kg(-2)) were randomized to ingest a dose of NaNO3 (NIT; 9...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615996/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-safety-and-efficacy-of-creatine-supplementation-in-exercise-sport-and-medicine
#9
REVIEW
Richard B Kreider, Douglas S Kalman, Jose Antonio, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Robert Wildman, Rick Collins, Darren G Candow, Susan M Kleiner, Anthony L Almada, Hector L Lopez
Creatine is one of the most popular nutritional ergogenic aids for athletes. Studies have consistently shown that creatine supplementation increases intramuscular creatine concentrations which may help explain the observed improvements in high intensity exercise performance leading to greater training adaptations. In addition to athletic and exercise improvement, research has shown that creatine supplementation may enhance post-exercise recovery, injury prevention, thermoregulation, rehabilitation, and concussion and/or spinal cord neuroprotection...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610958/sulfate-nitrate-and-blood-pressure-an-epic-interaction-between-sulfur-and-nitrogen
#10
REVIEW
Gunter G Kuhnle, Robert Luben, Kay-Tee Khaw, Martin Feelisch
Nitrate (NO3(-))-rich foods such as green leafy vegetables are not only part of a healthy diet, but increasingly marketed for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and used as ergogenic aids by competitive athletes. While there is abundant evidence for mild hypotensive effects of nitrate on acute application there is limited data on chronic intake in humans, and results from animal studies suggest no long-term benefit. This is important as nitrate can also promote the formation of nitrosamines...
August 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592459/the-effects-of-10-days-of-separate-heat-and-hypoxic-exposure-on-heat-acclimation-and-temperate-exercise-performance
#11
Rebecca A Neal, Jamie Prout, Joseph Costello, Heather C Massey, Michael J Tipton, John S Young, Jo Corbett
Adaptations to heat and hypoxia are typically studied in isolation, but are often encountered in combination. Whether the adaptive response to multiple stressors affords the same response as when examined in isolation is unclear. We examined: i) the influence of overnight moderate normobaric hypoxia on the time course and magnitude of adaption to daily heat exposure; ii) whether heat acclimation (HA) was ergogenic and if this was influenced by an additional hypoxic-stimulus. Eight males (V̇O2max=58.5[8.3] mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) undertook two 11-day HA programmes (balanced-crossover design), once with overnight normobaric hypoxia (8[1] h per night; 10 nights; FIO2=0...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579190/effect-of-low-level-laser-therapy-lllt-and-light-emitting-diodes-ledt-applied-during-combined-training-on-performance-and-post-exercise-recovery-protocol-for-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#12
Aryane Flauzino Machado, Jéssica Kirsch Micheletti, Franciele Marques Vanderlei, Fabio Yuzo Nakamura, Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal-Junior, Jayme Netto Junior, Carlos Marcelo Pastre
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown positive results of phototherapy for improving performance and accelerating recovery; however, the effects of phototherapy during training and after a primary adaptation remain unclear. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to analyze the effects of phototherapy and combined training on clinical, functional, and psychological outcomes and on vascular endothelial growth factor. METHODS: This randomized placebo-controlled trial by stratified sample will involve 45 healthy male participants...
July 2017: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574230/nicotine-effects-on-exercise-performance-and-physiological-responses-in-nicotine-na%C3%A3-ve-individuals-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Robert Johnston, Kenji Doma, Melissa Crowe
The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of smokeless forms of nicotine on physiological responses and exercise performance. Methodology and reporting were based on the PRISMA statement. The intervention was defined as any product containing nicotine that did not require smoking. Searches were conducted across two electronic databases with supplementary approaches utilized. Studies were selected following set inclusion and exclusion criteria and checked by two independent authors. A modified PEDro scale was utilized to rate study quality with studies averaging 9·3/13...
June 2, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572749/the-effect-of-acute-pomegranate-extract-supplementation-on-oxygen-uptake-in-highly-trained-cyclists-during-high-intensity-exercise-in-a-high-altitude-environment
#14
Emma May Crum, Ahmad Munir Che Muhamed, Matthew Barnes, Stephen Robert Stannard
BACKGROUND: Recent research has indicated that pomegranate extract (POMx) may improve performance during aerobic exercise by enhancing the matching of vascular oxygen (O2) provision to muscular requirements. POMx is rich in ellagitannin polyphenols and nitrates (NO3(-)), which are both associated with improvements in blood flow and O2 delivery. Primarily, this study aimed to determine whether POMx improves performance in a cycling time trial to exhaustion at 100%VO2max (TTE100%) in highly-trained cyclists...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554316/beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl-butyrate-hmb-from-experimental-data-to-clinical-evidence-in-sarcopenia
#15
Alfonso J Cruz-Jentoft
β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite derived from leucine and its ketoacid alpha-ketoisocaproate. Leucine has a role in regulating protein synthesis in muscle cells, and HMB seems to be a key active metabolite in such regulation. HMB has been shown to modulate muscle protein degradation by inhibiting the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway, to up-regulate protein synthesis via the mTOR pathway, and to stabilize cell membranes via the rate limiting enzyme to cholesterol synthesis HMG- coenzyme A reductase...
May 28, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538327/quantifying-the-effect-of-carbohydrate-mouth-rinsing-on-exercise-performance
#16
Daniel J Peart
The purpose of this study was to review the existing literature investigating carbohydrate mouth rinsing as an ergogenic aid using the effect sizes (ES) and percentage change in performance of the respective studies as outcome measures. A trivial-small average overall ES was present for the 25 studies included in the review (0.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.10-0.27). Effect sizes for the subgroups were ≥25 minutes (0.25, 95% CI = 0.14-0.36), ≤180 seconds (0.06, 95% CI = -0.03 to 0.15), resistance exercise (-0...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536531/caffeine-and-bicarbonate-for-speed-a-meta-analysis-of-legal-supplements-potential-for-improving-intense-endurance-exercise-performance
#17
REVIEW
Peter M Christensen, Yusuke Shirai, Christian Ritz, Nikolai B Nordsborg
A 1% change in average speed is enough to affect medal rankings in intense Olympic endurance events lasting ~45 s to 8 min which for example includes 100 m swimming and 400 m running (~1 min), 1,500 m running and 4000 m track cycling (~4 min) and 2,000 m rowing (~6-8 min). To maximize the likelihood of winning, athletes utilizes legal supplements with or without scientifically documented beneficial effects on performance. Therefore, a continued systematic evidence based evaluation of the possible ergogenic effects is of high importance...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523996/micro-rnas-exercise-and-cellular-plasticity-in-humans-the-impact-of-dietary-factors-and-hypoxia
#18
Timothée Watier, Anthony Mj Sanchez
Physical exercise is a stress that modulates a plethora of cellular mechanisms to promote morphological and metabolic adaptations. Substantial efforts have been made to better understand the modulation of pathways involved in cell plasticity during exercise, but human explorations may be limited because invasive procedures are often required. In recent years, minimally invasive methods for the analysis of microRNAs (miRNAs) modulation in response to exercise have been developed. miRNAs are small molecules that belong to a family of non-coding RNAs...
May 19, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515832/a-low-dose-caffeine-and-carbohydrate-supplement-does-not-improve-athletic-performance-during-volleyball-competition
#19
David R Pfeifer, Kelsey M Arvin, Courtney N Herschberger, Nicholas J Haynes, Matthew S Renfrow
Dietary supplements are widely used to enhance sport performance and the combination of carbohydrate and caffeine (CHO+CAF) has yielded particularly high performance gains. Though the effects of a CHO+CAF supplement have been studied in a laboratory environment, little research exists on the effects of supplementation during competition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a CHO+CAF supplement on athletic performance in competition. Eight female collegiate volleyball players completed three testing sessions under three different conditions separated by approximately one week each: CHO+CAF supplement, placebo (PBO), and control (CTL) using a randomized, cross-over design...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513179/consumption-of-watermelon-juice-enriched-in-l-citrulline-and-pomegranate-ellagitannins-enhanced-metabolism-during-physical-exercise
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ascensión Martínez-Sánchez, Fernando Alacid, Jacobo A Rubio-Arias, Bárbara Fernández-Lobato, Domingo J Ramos-Campo, Encarna Aguayo
l-Citrulline is a nonessential amino acid precursor of arginine and indirectly a precursor of nitric oxide (NO), which is a vasodilator and increases mitochondrial respiration. On the other hand, the antioxidant pomegranate ellagitannins are precursors of urolithin A, which has been associated with mitophagy and increased muscle function. To elucidate if a single dose of watermelon enrichment with these compounds could have a positive effect after high-intensity exercise (eight sets of eight repetitions of half-squat exercise), a double-blind randomized crossover in vivo study was performed in healthy male subjects (n = 19)...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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