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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095077/running-performance-with-nutritive-and-non-nutritive-sweetened-mouth-rinses
#1
Keely H Hawkins, Sridevi Krishnan, Lara Ringos, Vanessa Garcia, Jamie A Cooper
: Mouth rinsing (MR) with carbohydrate during exercise has been shown to act as an ergogenic aid. PURPOSE: To investigate if nutritive or nonnutritive sweetened MR affect exercise performance, and to assess the influence of sweetness intensity on endurance performance during a time-trial (TT). METHODS: This randomized, single blinded study had 4 treatment conditions. 16 subjects (9 men, 7 women) completed a 12.8km TT four different times. During each TT, subjects MR and expectorated a different solution at time 0 and every 12...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073123/effects-of-precooling-on-30-km-cycling-performance-and-pacing-in-hot-and-temperate-environments
#2
André Maia-Lima, Guilherme Passos Ramos, Michele Macedo Moraes, Diogo Antônio Soares Pacheco, Gustavo Guimarães Aguiar de Oliveira, Cristiano Lino Monteiro de Barros, Luciano Sales Prado, Emerson Silami Garcia
This study examined the effects of precooling on performance and pacing during 30-km cycling exercise in hot and temperate environments. 8 trained male cyclists performed 4 trials involving either cooling (PRECTEMP and PRECHOT) or no-cooling interventions (TEMP and HOT) prior to a 30-km self-paced cycling exercise in either a hot (35°C, 68% relative humidity) or temperate environment (24°C, 68% relative humidity). Exercise time was longer in HOT (60.62±3.47 min) than in TEMP (58.28±3.30 min; P<0...
January 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067808/effects-of-beetroot-juice-supplementation-on-cardiorespiratory-endurance-in-athletes-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Raúl Domínguez, Eduardo Cuenca, José Luis Maté-Muñoz, Pablo García-Fernández, Noemí Serra-Paya, María Carmen Lozano Estevan, Pablo Veiga Herreros, Manuel Vicente Garnacho-Castaño
Athletes use nutritional supplementation to enhance the effects of training and achieve improvements in their athletic performance. Beetroot juice increases levels of nitric oxide (NO), which serves multiple functions related to increased blood flow, gas exchange, mitochondrial biogenesis and efficiency, and strengthening of muscle contraction. These biomarker improvements indicate that supplementation with beetroot juice could have ergogenic effects on cardiorespiratory endurance that would benefit athletic performance...
January 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050921/influence-of-dietary-acid-load-on-exercise-performance
#4
Catherine Applegate, Mackenzie Mueller, Krystle E Zuniga
Diet composition can affect systemic pH and acid-base regulation, which may in turn influence exercise performance. An acidic environment in the muscle impairs performance and contributes to fatigue; therefore, current trends in sports nutrition place importance on maximizing the alkalinity of the body with ergogenic aids and dietary strategies. This review examines the evidence on the effects of dietary manipulations on acid load and exercise performance. Ten studies that investigated the effect of high versus low dietary acid loads on athletic performance generally identified that low dietary acid loads increased plasma pH, but did not consistently improve exercise performance at maximal or submaximal exercise intensities...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019093/creatine-and-creatine-forms-intended-for-sports-nutrition
#5
REVIEW
Susanne Andres, Rainer Ziegenhagen, Iris Trefflich, Sophie Pevny, Katharina Schultrich, Hans Braun, Wilhelm Schänzer, Karen Ildico Hirsch-Ernst, Bernd Schäfer, Alfonso Lampen
Creatine is a popular ergogenic supplement in sports nutrition. Yet, supplementation of creatine occasionally caused adverse effects such as gastrointestinal complaints, muscle cramps and an increase in body weight. Creatine monohydrate has already been evaluated by different competent authorities and several have come to the conclusion that a daily intake of 3 g creatine per person is unlikely to pose safety concerns, focusing on healthy adults with exclusion of pregnant and breastfeeding women. Possible vulnerable subgroups were also discussed in relation to the safety of creatine...
December 25, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990227/effects-of-a-pre-workout-energy-drink-supplement-on-upper-body-muscular-endurance-performance
#6
Mitchel A Magrini, Ryan J Colquhoun, J Jay Dawes, Doug B Smith
The use of pre-workout beverages is becoming an increasingly common method of improving performance during exercise in athletic and recreationally active populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a commercially available energy drink on exercise performance. Thirty-one healthy males (n=23) and females (n=8) participated in this study and were separated into two groups: supplement (SU; n=16) or placebo (PL; n=15). Subjects visited the laboratory on 2 occasions separated by no more than 7 days...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938033/long-term-leucine-supplementation-improves-metabolic-but-not-molecular-responses-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-trained-rats-submitted-to-exhaustive-exercise
#7
Gustavo Barbosa Dos Santos, André Gustavo de Oliveira, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes Marcondes, Miguel Arcanjo Areas
AIM: Although there is some evidence of an ergogenic effect of leucine supplementation on acute response to exercise, there is a paucity of information on whether long-term leucine supplementation influences the adaptive response to chronic endurance training and performance. The main aim of our study was to assess the role of long-term leucine supplementation on molecular and metabolic response in skeletal muscle of trained rats after an exhaustion test. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 4 groups...
December 12, 2016: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935992/intense-exercise-and-aerobic-conditioning-associated-with-chromium-or-l-carnitine-supplementation-modified-the-fecal-microbiota-of-fillies
#8
Maria Luiza Mendes de Almeida, Walter Heinz Feringer, Júlia Ribeiro Garcia Carvalho, Isadora Mestriner Rodrigues, Lilian Rezende Jordão, Mayara Gonçalves Fonseca, Adalgiza Souza Carneiro de Rezende, Antonio de Queiroz Neto, J Scott Weese, Márcio Carvalho da Costa, Eliana Gertrudes de Macedo Lemos, Guilherme de Camargo Ferraz
Recent studies performed in humans and rats have reported that exercise can alter the intestinal microbiota. Athletic horses perform intense exercise regularly, but studies characterizing horse microbiome during aerobic conditioning programs are still limited. Evidence has indicated that this microbial community is involved in the metabolic homeostasis of the host. Research on ergogenic substances using new sequencing technologies have been limited to the intestinal microbiota and there is a considerable demand for scientific studies that verify the effectiveness of these supplements in horses...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934546/sodium-bicarbonate-ingestion-and-individual-variability-in-time-to-peak-ph
#9
Andy Sparks, Emily Williams, Amy Robinson, Peter Miller, David J Bentley, Craig Bridge, Lars R Mc Naughton
This study determined variability in time-to-peak pH after consumption of 300 mg kg(-)(1) of sodium bicarbonate. Seventeen participants (mean ± SD: age 21.38 ± 1.5 years; mass 75.8 ± 5.8 kg; height 176.8 ± 7.6 cm) reported to the laboratory where a resting capillary sample was taken. Then, 300 mg kg(-1) of NaHCO3 in 450 ml of flavoured water was ingested. Participants rested for 90 min and repeated blood samples were procured at 10 min intervals for 60 min and then every 5 min until 90 min...
January 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932993/effect-of-permissive-dehydration-on-induction-and-decay-of-heat-acclimation-and-temperate-exercise-performance
#10
Rebecca A Neal, Heather C Massey, Michael J Tipton, John S Young, Jo Corbett
Purpose: It has been suggested that dehydration is an independent stimulus for heat acclimation (HA), possibly through influencing fluid-regulation mechanisms and increasing plasma volume (PV) expansion. There is also some evidence that HA may be ergogenic in temperate conditions and that this may be linked to PV expansion. We investigated: (i) the influence of dehydration on the time-course of acquisition and decay of HA; (ii) whether dehydration augmented any ergogenic benefits in temperate conditions, particularly those related to PV expansion...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930449/quantifying-the-effect-of-carbohydrate-mouth-rinsing-on-exercise-performance
#11
Daniel J Peart
The purpose of this study was to review the existing literature investigating carbohydrate mouth rinsing (CMR) as an ergogenic aid by using the effect sizes and percentage change in performance of the respective studies as outcome measures. A trivial-small average overall effect size was present for the 25 studies included in the review (0.18, 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.27). Effect sizes for the sub-groups were; ≥25-min (0.25, 95% CI = 0.14 to 0.36), ≤ 180 seconds (0.06, 95% CI = -0.03 to 0.15), resistance exercise (-0...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930447/carbohydrate-and-caffeine-improves-high-intensity-running-of-elite-rugby-league-interchange-players-during-simulated-match-play
#12
Jon S Clarke, Jamie Highton, Graeme L Close, Craig Twist
The study examined the effects of carbohydrate and caffeine ingestion on simulated rugby league interchange performance. Eight male elite rugby league forwards completed two trials of a rugby league simulation protocol for interchange players seven days apart in a randomized crossover design, ingesting either carbohydrate (CHO; 40 g·h-1) or carbohydrate and caffeine (CHO-C) (40 g·h-1 + 3 mg·kg-1) drink. Movement characteristics, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and countermovement jump height (CMJ) were measured during the protocol...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930383/effect-of-e-oj-01-on-cardiac-conditioning-in-young-exercising-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Robert N Girandola, Shalini Srivastava
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Cardiac health is a determinant of athletic performance. A body of data suggests that in healthy young adults, an increase in maximal cardiac output leads to an increase in endurance. Terminalia arjuna (TA) has been studied for multiple benefits in cardiovascular health although its effects as a cardioprotective ergogenic aid require further exploration. The current trial was planned to study the effect of the proprietary TA extract (E-OJ-01) on the markers of cardiac conditioning in healthy young adults...
November 29, 2016: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882611/chronic-lactate-supplementation-does-not-improve-blood-buffering-capacity-and-repeated-high-intensity-exercise
#14
L F Oliveira, V de Salles Painelli, K Nemezio, L S Gonçalves, G Yamaguchi, B Saunders, B Gualano, G G Artioli
Since there is conflicting data on the buffering and ergogenic properties of calcium lactate (CL), we investigated the effect of chronic CL supplementation on blood pH, bicarbonate, and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance. Sodium bicarbonate (SB) was used as a positive control. Eighteen athletes participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, fully counterbalanced study. All participants underwent three different treatments: placebo (PL), CL, and SB. The dose was identical in all conditions: 500 mg/kg BM divided into four daily individual doses of 125 mg/kg BM, for five consecutive days, followed by a 2-7-day washout period...
November 23, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858306/menthol-a-fresh-ergogenic-aid-for-athletic-performance
#15
Christopher J Stevens, Russ Best
The application of menthol has recently been researched as a performance-enhancing aid for various aspects of athletic performance including endurance, speed, strength and joint range of motion. A range of application methods has been used including a mouth rinse, ingestion of a beverage containing menthol or external application to the skin or clothing via a gel or spray. The majority of research has focussed on the use of menthol to impart a cooling sensation on athletes performing endurance exercise in the heat...
November 17, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851893/caffeine-influences-cadence-at-lower-but-not-higher-intensity-rpe-regulated-cycling
#16
J Matt Green, Alyssa Olenick, Caroline Eastep, Lee Winchester
: Caffeine blunts RPE estimations but effects on selected cycling cadence are unclear. PURPOSE: This study examined influence of caffeine on cycling cadence with intensities prescribed at RPE 4 and 7 (OMNI Scale). METHODS: College-aged (20.5±2.0y) male and female volunteers (n=15) (VO2 peak=40.3±4.0,) completed a maximal cycling test followed by trials where they adjusted cadence (CAD) (clamped resistances) to produce overall feelings equivalent to RPE 4 (RPE4) and RPE 7 (RPE7) (10min each) following caffeine (CAF) (6mg·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and placebo (PLA) (counterbalanced) ingestion...
February 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834492/single-and-combined-effects-of-beetroot-crystals-and-sodium-bicarbonate-on-4-km-cycling-time-trial-performance
#17
Marcus J Callahan, Evelyn B Parr, John A Hawley, Louise M Burke
When ingested alone, beetroot juice and sodium bicarbonate are ergogenic for high-intensity exercise performance. This study sought to determine the independent and combined effects of these supplements. Eight endurance trained (V̇O2max 65 mL·kg·min(-1)) male cyclists completed four x 4-km time trials (TT) in a double-blind Latin square design supplementing with beetroot crystals (BC) for 3 days (15 g.day(-1) + 15 g 1 h prior to TT, containing 300 mg nitrate per 15 g), bicarbonate (Bi 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass [BM] in 5 doses every 15 min from 2...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832548/mouth-rinsing-with-a-sweet-solution-increases-energy-expenditure-and-decreases-appetite-during-60-min-of-self-regulated-walking-exercise
#18
Kevin Deighton, Lauren Duckworth, Jamie Matu, Matthew Suter, Charlotte Fletcher, Samuel Stead, Shaho Ali, Neil Gunby, Keelie Korsness
Carbohydrate mouth rinsing can improve endurance exercise performance and is most ergogenic when exercise is completed in the fasted state. This strategy may also be beneficial to increase exercise capacity and the energy deficit achieved during moderate-intensity exercise relevant to weight control when performed after an overnight fast. Eighteen healthy men (mean (SD); age, 23 (4) years; body mass index, 23.1 (2.4) kg·m(-2)) completed a familiarisation trial and 3 experimental trials. After an overnight fast, participants performed 60 min of treadmill walking at a speed that equated to a rating of perceived exertion of 13 ("fairly hard")...
December 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815369/could-small-diameter-muscle-afferents-be-responsible-for-the-ergogenic-effect-of-limb-ischemic-preconditioning
#19
Rogério Santos de Oliveira Cruz, Kayo Leonardo Pereira, Felipe Domingos Lisbôa, Fabrizio Caputo
N/A.
November 4, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797728/%C3%AE-alanine-supplementation-to-improve-exercise-capacity-and-performance-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Bryan Saunders, Kirsty Elliott-Sale, Guilherme G Artioli, Paul A Swinton, Eimear Dolan, Hamilton Roschel, Craig Sale, Bruno Gualano
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence on the effects of β-alanine supplementation on exercise capacity and performance. DESIGN: This study was designed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. A 3-level mixed effects model was employed to model effect sizes and account for dependencies within data. DATA SOURCES: 3 databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science) were searched using a number of terms ('β-alanine' and 'Beta-alanine' combined with 'supplementation', 'exercise', 'training', 'athlete', 'performance' and 'carnosine')...
October 18, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
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