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(Sean C. Lucan)

Sean C Lucan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
James J DiNicolantonio, Sean C Lucan, James H O'Keefe
Dietary guidelines continue to recommend restricting intake of saturated fats. This recommendation follows largely from the observation that saturated fats can raise levels of total serum cholesterol (TC), thereby putatively increasing the risk of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD). However, TC is only modestly associated with CHD, and more important than the total level of cholesterol in the blood may be the number and size of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles that contain it. As for saturated fats, these fats are a diverse class of compounds; different fats may have different effects on LDL and on broader CHD risk based on the specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) they contain...
March 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
James J DiNicolantonio, Sean C Lucan
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a condition that may be marked by abdominal pain, bloating, fullness, indigestion, belching, constipation and/or diarrhea. IBS symptoms can result from malabsorption of fructose. Fructose is a monosaccharide found naturally in small quantities in fruits and some vegetables, and in much larger quantities in industrially manufactured sweets with added sugars (e.g. sucrose and high fructose corn syrup). Fructose malabsorption leads to osmotic diarrhea as well as gas and bloating due to fermentation in the colon...
September 2015: Medical Hypotheses
Lenard I Lesser, Mary Carol Mazza, Sean C Lucan
Healthy dietary intake is important for the maintenance of general health and wellness, the prevention of chronic illness, the optimization of life expectancy, and the clinical management of virtually all disease states. Dietary myths (i.e., concepts about nutrition that are poorly supported or contradicted by scientific evidence) may stand in the way of healthy dietary intake. Dietary myths exist about micronutrients, macronutrients, non-nutrients, and food energy. Representative myths of each type include that patients need to focus on consuming enough calcium to ensure bone health, dietary fat leads to obesity and is detrimental to vascular health, all fiber (whether naturally occurring or artificially added) is beneficial, and food calories translate to pounds of body weight through a linear relationship and simple arithmetic...
May 1, 2015: American Family Physician
Sean C Lucan, Andrew R Maroko, Omar Sanon, Rafael Frias, Clyde B Schechter
Most food-environment research has focused narrowly on select stores and restaurants. There has been comparatively less attention to non-storefront food sources like farmers' markets (FMs), particularly in urban communities. The objective of the present study was to assess FMs' potential contribution to an urban food environment in terms of specific foods offered, and compare FM accessibility as well as produce variety, quality, and price to that of nearby stores. Investigators conducted a detailed cross-sectional assessment of all FMs in Bronx County, NY, and of the nearest store(s) selling produce within a half-mile walking distance (up to two stores per FM)...
July 2015: Appetite
James J DiNicolantonio, Sean C Lucan
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of premature mortality in the developed world, and hypertension is its most important risk factor. Controlling hypertension is a major focus of public health initiatives, and dietary approaches have historically focused on sodium. While the potential benefits of sodium-reduction strategies are debatable, one fact about which there is little debate is that the predominant sources of sodium in the diet are industrially processed foods. Processed foods also happen to be generally high in added sugars, the consumption of which might be more strongly and directly associated with hypertension and cardiometabolic risk...
2014: Open Heart
James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe, Sean C Lucan
Data from animal experiments and human studies implicate added sugars (eg, sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup) in the development of diabetes mellitus and related metabolic derangements that raise cardiovascular (CV) risk. Added fructose in particular (eg, as a constituent of added sucrose or as the main component of high-fructose sweeteners) may pose the greatest problem for incident diabetes, diabetes-related metabolic abnormalities, and CV risk. Conversely, whole foods that contain fructose (eg, fruits and vegetables) pose no problem for health and are likely protective against diabetes and adverse CV outcomes...
March 2015: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Sean C Lucan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2015: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Sean C Lucan, James J DiNicolantonio
Prevailing thinking about obesity and related diseases holds that quantifying calories should be a principal concern and target for intervention. Part of this thinking is that consumed calories - regardless of their sources - are equivalent; i.e. 'a calorie is a calorie'. The present commentary discusses various problems with the idea that 'a calorie is a calorie' and with a primarily quantitative focus on food calories. Instead, the authors argue for a greater qualitative focus on the sources of calories consumed (i...
March 2015: Public Health Nutrition
Sean C Lucan, Amy Hillier, Clyde B Schechter, Karen Glanz
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have assessed how people's perceptions of their neighborhood environment compare with objective measures or how self-reported and objective neighborhood measures relate to consumption of fruits and vegetables. METHODS: A telephone survey of 4,399 residents of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, provided data on individuals, their households, their neighborhoods (self-defined), their food-environment perceptions, and their fruit-and-vegetable consumption...
2014: Preventing Chronic Disease
Sean C Lucan, Andrew R Maroko, Joel Bumol, Monica Varona, Luis Torrens, Clyde B Schechter
This study describes mobile food vendors (street vendors) in Bronx, NY, considering neighborhood-level correlations with demographic, diet, and diet-related health measures from City data. Vendors offering exclusively "less-healthy" foods (e.g., chips, processed meats, sweets) outnumbered vendors offering exclusively "healthier" foods (e.g., produce, whole grains, nuts). Wet days and winter months reduced all vending on streets, but exclusively "less-healthy" vending most. In summer, exclusively "less-healthy" vending per capita inversely correlated with neighborhood-mean fruit-and-vegetable consumption and directly correlated with neighborhood-mean BMI and prevalences of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia (Spearman correlations 0...
May 2014: Health & Place
Anjani T Reddy, Sonia A Lazreg, Robert L Phillips, Andrew W Bazemore, Sean C Lucan
BACKGROUND: Since 1965, Medicare has publically financed graduate medical education (GME) in the United States. Given public financing, various advisory groups have argued that GME should be more socially accountable. Several efforts are underway to develop accountability measures for GME that could be tied to Medicare payments, but it is not clear how to measure or even define social accountability. OBJECTIVE: We explored how GME stakeholders perceive, define, and measure social accountability...
September 2013: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
James J DiNicolantonio, Asfandyar K Niazi, Rizwana Sadaf, James H O' Keefe, Sean C Lucan, Carl J Lavie
The American Heart Association recently strongly recommended a dietary sodium intake of <1500 mg/d for all Americans to achieve "Ideal Cardiovascular Health" by 2020. However, low sodium diets have not been shown to reduce cardiovascular events in normotensive individuals or in individuals with pre-hypertension or hypertension. Moreover, there is evidence that a low sodium diet may lead to a worse cardiovascular prognosis in patients with cardiometabolic risk and established cardiovascular disease. Low sodium diets may adversely affect insulin resistance, serum lipids, and neurohormonal pathways, leading to increases in the incidence of new cardiometabolic disease, the severity of existing cardiometabolic disease, and greater cardiovascular and all-cause mortality...
November 2013: American Journal of Medicine
James H O'Keefe, Salman K Bhatti, Harshal R Patil, James J DiNicolantonio, Sean C Lucan, Carl J Lavie
Coffee, after water, is the most widely consumed beverage in the United States, and is the principal source of caffeine intake among adults. The biological effects of coffee may be substantial and are not limited to the actions of caffeine. Coffee is a complex beverage containing hundreds of biologically active compounds, and the health effects of chronic coffee intake are wide ranging. From a cardiovascular (CV) standpoint, coffee consumption may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, as well as other conditions associated with CV risk such as obesity and depression; but it may adversely affect lipid profiles depending on how the beverage is prepared...
September 17, 2013: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Sean C Lucan, Andrew R Maroko, Joel Bumol, Luis Torrens, Monica Varona, Ethan M Berke
In food-environment research, an alternative to resource-intensive direct observation on the ground has been the use of commercial business lists. We sought to determine how well a frequently used commercial business list measures a dense urban food environment like the Bronx, NY. On 155 Bronx street segments, investigators compared two different levels for matches between the business list and direct ground observation: lenient (by business type) and strict (by business name). For each level of matching, researchers calculated sensitivities and positive predictive values (PPVs) for the business list overall and by broad business categories: General Grocers (eg, supermarkets), Specialty Food Stores (eg, produce markets), Restaurants, and Businesses Not Primarily Selling Food (eg, newsstands)...
October 2013: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Justin J Sanders, Robert J Roose, Michael C Lubrano, Sean C Lucan
OBJECTIVES: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) effectively reduces illicit opioid use and its negative consequences when patients participate in and adhere to treatment. Patients' participation and adherence may relate to their perceptions about methadone doses and dose adjustments and the meanings that patients associate with treatment. This study assessed patient perceptions about methadone dosing and the meanings associated with methadone treatment to better support patient adherence to and success in MMT...
September 2013: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Lenard I Lesser, Sean C Lucan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2013: Virtual Mentor: VM
Sean C Lucan, Frances K Barg, Alison Karasz, Christina S Palmer, Judith A Long
OBJECTIVES: To understand perceived influences on consumption of fruits, vegetables, and fast foods for urban, low-income African Americans. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with 33 African American adults from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, using continuous, iterative, thematic analysis. RESULTS: Influences on dietary behaviors that emerged included economic considerations; food characteristics; health concerns and health effects; participants' personal influences; social and cultural influences; neighborhood, home, and work environments; and broader contextual influences...
September 2012: American Journal of Health Behavior
Sean C Lucan, Frances K Barg, Alison Karasz, Christina S Palmer, Judith A Long
We sought to explore concepts of healthy diet and to elicit recommendations to support healthier eating among urban, low-income, African Americans. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 33 self-identified African American adults (18-81 years of age, 15 male participants) from a low-income neighborhood in west Philadelphia, PA, during summer and fall 2008. Our qualitative approach was continuous, iterative and thematic considering gender, age category, and participants' "mentions" of fast-food and fruit-and-vegetable intake from the preceding day...
August 2012: Journal of Community Health
Sean C Lucan, Nandita Mitra
OBJECTIVES: Diets low in fruits and vegetables and/or high in fast foods are associated with obesity and chronic diseases. Such diets may relate to different aspects of neighborhood food environments. We sought to evaluate if people's perceptions of their neighborhood food environment are associated with reported fruit-and-vegetable and fast-food consumption. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of a community health survey from Philadelphia, PA and four surrounding suburban counties (n = 10,450 individuals)...
June 2012: International Journal of Public Health
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