Read by QxMD icon Read

somatic growth regulates reproduction

Valeria Maselli, Antonietta Siciliano, Antonella Giorgio, Annarita Falanga, Stefania Galdiero, Marco Guida, Domenico Fulgione, Emilia Galdiero
The complex QDs-Indolicidin (QDs-Ind) has been previously shown to be a good antimicrobial system with a low acute toxicity on Daphnia magna (D. magna). However, multigenerational effects caused by exposure to QDs-Ind and after subsequent recovery are still unknown. In this study, we performed multigenerational exposure tests and we evaluated individual fitness, population growth, DNA alteration, expression of Dhb (haemoglobin), Vtg (vitellogenin), CYP4 (cytochrome P450s CYP4 family), and CYP314 (cytochrome P450s mitochondrial family 314) genes on three generation of D...
February 24, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Brian M Farley, Kathleen Collins
Transgenerational transmission of genome-regulatory epigenetic information can determine phenotypes in the progeny of sexual reproduction. Sequence specificity of transgenerational regulation derives from small RNAs assembled into Piwi-protein complexes. Known targets of transgenerational regulation are primarily transposons and transposon-derived sequences. Here, we extend the scope of Piwi-mediated transgenerational regulation to include unique noncoding RNA loci. Ciliates such as Tetrahymena have a phenotypically silent germline micronucleus and an expressed somatic macronucleus, which is differentiated anew from a germline genome copy in sexual reproduction...
April 2017: RNA
Suzy C P Renn, Cynthia F O'Rourke, Nadia Aubin-Horth, Eleanor J Fraser, Hans A Hofmann
In many species, under varying ecological conditions, social interactions among individuals result in the formation of dominance hierarchies. Despite general similarities, there are robust differences among dominance hierarchies across species, populations, environments, life stages, sexes, and individuals. Understanding the proximate mechanisms underlying the variation is an important step toward understanding the evolution of social behavior. However, physiological changes associated with dominance, such as gonadal maturation and somatic growth, often complicate efforts to identify the specific underlying mechanisms...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Zhiyong Li, Yao Wang, Jian Huang, Nagib Ahsan, Gabriel Biener, Joel Paprocki, Jay J Thelen, Valerica Raicu, Dazhong Zhao
Cell signaling pathways mediated by leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) are essential for plant growth, development, and defense. The EMS1 (EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES1) LRR-RLK and its small protein ligand TPD1 (TAPETUM DETERMINANT1) play a fundamental role in somatic and reproductive cell differentiation during early anther development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, it is unclear whether other cell surface molecules serve as coregulators of EMS1. Here, we show that SERK1 (SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE1) and SERK2 LRR-RLKs act redundantly as coregulatory and physical partners of EMS1...
January 2017: Plant Physiology
Christopher G Peña, Diego H Castrillón
The LKB1 tumor suppressor was identified in 1998 as the gene mutated in the Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS), a hereditary cancer predisposition characterized by gastrointestinal polyposis and a high incidence of cancers, particularly carcinomas, at a variety of anatomic sites including the gastrointestinal tract, lung, and female reproductive tract. Women with PJS have a high incidence of carcinomas of the uterine corpus (endometrium) and cervix. The LKB1 gene is also somatically mutated in human cancers arising at these sites...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Hsun-Ming Chang, Jie Qiao, Peter C K Leung
BACKGROUND: Initially identified for their capability to induce heterotopic bone formation, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional growth factors that belong to the transforming growth factor β superfamily. Using cellular and molecular genetic approaches, recent studies have implicated intra-ovarian BMPs as potent regulators of ovarian follicular function. The bi-directional communication of oocytes and the surrounding somatic cells is mandatory for normal follicle development and oocyte maturation...
December 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Marco D'Aurora, Samantha Sperduti, Giovanna Di Emidio, Liborio Stuppia, Paolo Giovanni Artini, Valentina Gatta
The somatic component of follicular structure is a mixture of different cell types, represented by Granulosa cells (GCs) that are the paracrine regulators of the oocyte growth. GCs finely support this process by a continuous bidirectional talk with oocyte, which ensure oocyte quality and competence. Specific pathways are involved in the cross-talk and in both GCs and oocyte development. This review summarizes data from GCs gene expression analysis concerning both their physiological role and their interaction with oocyte...
December 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Hadas Grossman, Ruth Shalgi
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small noncoding RNA molecules that play a major role in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression and are expressed in an organ-specific manner. One miRNA can potentially regulate the expression of several genes, depending on cell type and differentiation stage. miRNAs are differentially expressed in the male and female gonads and have an organ-specific reproductive function. Exerting their affect through germ cells and gonadal somatic cells, miRNAs regulate key proteins necessary for gonad development...
2016: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Pan Xu, Qiuyan Li, Kai Jiang, Qiang Yang, Mingjun Bi, Chao Jiang, Xiaopeng Wang, Chengbin Wang, Longyun Li, Chuanmin Qiao, Huanfa Gong, Yuyun Xing, Jun Ren
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a critical hormone regulating reproduction in mammals. Transgenic mice show that overexpression of FSH can improve female fecundity. Using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system and somatic cell nuclear transfer, we herein generated 67 Large White transgenic (TG) boars harboring FSHα/β genes from Chinese Erhualian pigs, the most prolific breed in the world. We selected two F0 TG boars for further breeding and conducted molecular characterization and biosafety assessment for F1 boars...
October 2016: Transgenic Research
Wei-Dong Zhang, Yong Zhao, Hong-Fu Zhang, Shu-Kun Wang, Zhi-Hui Hao, Jing Liu, Yu-Qing Yuan, Peng-Fei Zhang, Hong-Di Yang, Wei Shen, Lan Li
Granulosa cells (GCs) are those somatic cells closest to the female germ cell. GCs play a vital role in oocyte growth and development, and the oocyte is necessary for multiplication of a species. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) readily cross biologic barriers to be absorbed into biologic systems that make them promising candidates as food additives. The objective of the present investigation was to explore the impact of intact NPs on gene expression and the functional classification of altered genes in hen GCs in vivo, to compare the data from in vivo and in vitro studies, and finally to point out the adverse effects of ZnO NPs on the reproductive system...
August 2016: Theriogenology
Jonathan C K Wells, Pallas Yao, Jane E Williams, Rebecca Gayner
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patterns of development predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and ethnic differences therein, but it remains unclear why apparently 'adaptive plasticity' in early life should generate health costs in later life. We hypothesized that offspring receiving low maternal investment during fetal life, the primary period of organogenesis, should predict a shorter reproductive career and develop a fast life-history strategy, prioritizing reproduction over growth and homeostatic maintenance...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Lan Li, Jing-Cai Liu, Fang-Nong Lai, Huan-Qi Liu, Xi-Feng Zhang, Paul W Dyce, Wei Shen, Hong Chen
Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a widely used plastic additive. As an environmental endocrine disruptor, it has been shown to be harmful to the mammalian reproductive system. Previous studies indicated that DEHP inhibited the development of mouse ovarian follicles. However, the mechanisms by which DEHP affects ovarian antral follicle development during the pre-puberty stage are poorly understand. Thus, we investigated the effects of direct DEHP exposure on antral follicle growth in pre-pubescent mice by use of intraperitoneal injection...
2016: PloS One
Yuqin Shu, Qiyong Lou, Ziru Dai, Xiangyan Dai, Jiangyan He, Wei Hu, Zhan Yin
Prolactin (PRL) is an anterior pituitary hormone with a broad range of functions. Its ability to stimulate lactogenesis, maternal behavior, growth and development, osmoregulation, and epithelial ion transport has been reported in many vertebrates. In our present study, we have targeted the zebrafish prl locus via transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). Two independent targeted mutant lines with premature termination of the putative sequence of PRL peptides were generated. All prl-deficient zebrafish progeny died at 6-16 days post-fertilization stage (dpf) in egg water...
January 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Christian L Roth, Sara DiVall
Sexual maturation is closely tied to growth and body weight gain, suggesting that regulative metabolic pathways are shared between somatic and pubertal development. The pre- and postnatal environment affects both growth and pubertal development, indicating that common pathways are affected by the environment. Intrauterine and early infantile developmental phases are characterized by high plasticity and thereby susceptibility to factors that affect metabolic function as well as related reproductive function throughout life...
2016: Endocrine Development
Federica Franciosi, Shila Manandhar, Marco Conti
A major challenge in assisted reproductive technology is to develop conditions for in vitro oocyte maturation yielding high-quality eggs. Efforts are underway to assess whether known hormonal and local factors play a role in oocyte developmental competence and to identify the molecular mechanism involved. Here we have tested the hypothesis that FSH improves oocyte developmental competence by regulating the translational program in the oocyte. Accumulation of oocyte proteins (targeting protein for the Xenopus kinesin xklp2 and IL-7) associated with improved oocyte quality is increased when cumulus-oocyte complexes are incubated with FSH...
February 2016: Endocrinology
Ya Zhu, Xufa Ma, Guanyong Su, Liqin Yu, Robert J Letcher, Jie Hou, Hongxia Yu, John P Giesy, Chunsheng Liu
Bioconcentrations of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) in brain, gonad, and liver as well as effects on fecundity and development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were determined. Zebrafish (1-month old) were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of 29 ± 2.1, 600 ± 21, or 6300 ± 130 ng TDCIPP/L. After 120 days of exposure, TDCIPP accumulated in the brain, gonad, and liver with bioconcentration factors of 460, 38, and 87 in females and 26, 55, and 110 in males, respectively. TDCIPP accumulated to a greater extent in brains of females than those of males...
December 15, 2015: Environmental Science & Technology
David Monk
With the launch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development/National Institutes of Health Human Placenta Project, the anticipation is that this often-overlooked organ will be the subject of much intense research. Compared with somatic tissues, the cells of the placenta have a unique epigenetic profile that dictates its transcription patterns, which when disturbed may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. One major class of genes that is dependent on strict epigenetic regulation in the placenta is subject to genomic imprinting, the parent-of-origin-dependent monoallelic gene expression...
October 2015: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Onder Celik, Nilufer Celik, Sami Gungor, Esra Tustas Haberal, Suleyman Aydin
Following early embryonic germ cell migration, oocytes are surrounded by somatic cells and remain arrested at diplotene stage until luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. Strict regulation of both meiotic arrest and meiotic resumption during dormant stage are critical for future fertility. Inter-cellular signaling system between the somatic compartment and oocyte regulates these meiotic events and determines the follicle quality. As well as the collected number of eggs, their qualities are also important for in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome...
2015: Biochemistry Insights
David G Mottershead, Satoshi Sugimura, Sara L Al-Musawi, Jing-Jie Li, Dulama Richani, Melissa A White, Georgia A Martin, Andrew P Trotta, Lesley J Ritter, Junyan Shi, Thomas D Mueller, Craig A Harrison, Robert B Gilchrist
Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are oocyte-specific growth factors with central roles in mammalian reproduction, regulating species-specific fecundity, ovarian follicular somatic cell differentiation, and oocyte quality. In the human, GDF9 is produced in a latent form, the mechanism of activation being an open question. Here, we produced a range of recombinant GDF9 and BMP15 variants, examined their in silico and physical interactions and their effects on ovarian granulosa cells (GC) and oocytes...
September 25, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Zhengpin Wang, Wanbao Niu, Yijing Wang, Zhen Teng, Jia Wen, Guoliang Xia, Chao Wang
In mammals, the primordial follicle pool represents the entire reproductive potential of a female. The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family member activin (ACT) contributes to folliculogenesis, although the exact mechanism is not known. The role of FST288, the strongest ACT-neutralizing isoform of follistatin (FST), during cyst breakdown and primordial follicle formation in the fetal mice ovary was assessed using an in vitro culture system. FST was continuously expressed in the oocytes as well as the cuboidal granulosa cells of growing follicles in perinatal mouse ovaries...
2015: PloS One
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"