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somatic growth regulates reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920157/two-serk-receptor-like-kinases-interact-with-the-receptor-like-kinase-ems1-in-anther-cell-fate-determination
#1
Zhiyong Li, Yao Wang, Jian Huang, Nagib Ahsan, Gabriel Biener, Joel Paprocki, Jay J Thelen, Valerica Raicu, Dazhong Zhao
Cell signaling pathways mediated by leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLK) are essential for plant growth, development and defense. The EMS1 (EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES1) LRR-RLK and its small protein ligand TPD1 (TAPETUM DETERMINANT1) play a fundamental role in somatic and reproductive cell differentiation during early anther development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, it is unclear whether other cell surface molecules serve as co-regulators of EMS1. Here, we show that SERK1 (SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE1) and SERK2 LRR-RLKs act redundantly as co-regulatory and physical partners of EMS1...
December 5, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910069/lkb1-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-uterine-cancer-mouse-models-and-translational-studies
#2
Christopher G Peña, Diego H Castrillón
The LKB1 tumor suppressor was identified in 1998 as the gene mutated in the Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS), a hereditary cancer predisposition characterized by gastrointestinal polyposis and a high incidence of cancers, particularly carcinomas, at a variety of anatomic sites including the gastrointestinal tract, lung, and female reproductive tract. Women with PJS have a high incidence of carcinomas of the uterine corpus (endometrium) and cervix. The LKB1 gene is also somatically mutated in human cancers arising at these sites...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797914/oocyte-somatic-cell-interactions-in-the-human-ovary-novel-role-of-bone-morphogenetic-proteins-and-growth-differentiation-factors
#3
REVIEW
Hsun-Ming Chang, Jie Qiao, Peter C K Leung
BACKGROUND: Initially identified for their capability to induce heterotopic bone formation, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional growth factors that belong to the transforming growth factor β superfamily. Using cellular and molecular genetic approaches, recent studies have implicated intra-ovarian BMPs as potent regulators of ovarian follicular function. The bi-directional communication of oocytes and the surrounding somatic cells is mandatory for normal follicle development and oocyte maturation...
October 26, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750442/inside-the-granulosa-transcriptome
#4
Marco D'Aurora, Samantha Sperduti, Giovanna Di Emidio, Liborio Stuppia, Paolo Giovanni Artini, Valentina Gatta
The somatic component of follicular structure is a mixture of different cell types, represented by Granulosa cells (GCs) that are the paracrine regulators of the oocyte growth. GCs finely support this process by a continuous bidirectional talk with oocyte, which ensure oocyte quality and competence. Specific pathways are involved in the cross-talk and in both GCs and oocyte development. This review summarizes data from GCs gene expression analysis concerning both their physiological role and their interaction with oocyte...
October 18, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27300184/a-role-of-micrornas-in-cell-differentiation-during-gonad-development
#5
Hadas Grossman, Ruth Shalgi
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small noncoding RNA molecules that play a major role in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression and are expressed in an organ-specific manner. One miRNA can potentially regulate the expression of several genes, depending on cell type and differentiation stage. miRNAs are differentially expressed in the male and female gonads and have an organ-specific reproductive function. Exerting their affect through germ cells and gonadal somatic cells, miRNAs regulate key proteins necessary for gonad development...
2016: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27229510/bac-mediated-transgenic-large-white-boars-with-fsh%C3%AE-%C3%AE-genes-from-chinese-erhualian-pigs
#6
Pan Xu, Qiuyan Li, Kai Jiang, Qiang Yang, Mingjun Bi, Chao Jiang, Xiaopeng Wang, Chengbin Wang, Longyun Li, Chuanmin Qiao, Huanfa Gong, Yuyun Xing, Jun Ren
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a critical hormone regulating reproduction in mammals. Transgenic mice show that overexpression of FSH can improve female fecundity. Using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system and somatic cell nuclear transfer, we herein generated 67 Large White transgenic (TG) boars harboring FSHα/β genes from Chinese Erhualian pigs, the most prolific breed in the world. We selected two F0 TG boars for further breeding and conducted molecular characterization and biosafety assessment for F1 boars...
October 2016: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27118516/alteration-of-gene-expression-by-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-or%C3%A2-zinc-sulfate-in%C3%A2-vivo-and-comparison-with-in%C3%A2-vitro-data-a%C3%A2-harmonious-case
#7
Wei-Dong Zhang, Yong Zhao, Hong-Fu Zhang, Shu-Kun Wang, Zhi-Hui Hao, Jing Liu, Yu-Qing Yuan, Peng-Fei Zhang, Hong-Di Yang, Wei Shen, Lan Li
Granulosa cells (GCs) are those somatic cells closest to the female germ cell. GCs play a vital role in oocyte growth and development, and the oocyte is necessary for multiplication of a species. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) readily cross biologic barriers to be absorbed into biologic systems that make them promising candidates as food additives. The objective of the present investigation was to explore the impact of intact NPs on gene expression and the functional classification of altered genes in hen GCs in vivo, to compare the data from in vivo and in vitro studies, and finally to point out the adverse effects of ZnO NPs on the reproductive system...
August 2016: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26988862/maternal-investment-life-history-strategy-of-the-offspring-and-adult-chronic-disease-risk-in-south-asian-women-in-the-uk
#8
Jonathan C K Wells, Pallas Yao, Jane E Williams, Rebecca Gayner
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patterns of development predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and ethnic differences therein, but it remains unclear why apparently 'adaptive plasticity' in early life should generate health costs in later life. We hypothesized that offspring receiving low maternal investment during fetal life, the primary period of organogenesis, should predict a shorter reproductive career and develop a fast life-history strategy, prioritizing reproduction over growth and homeostatic maintenance...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26845775/di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-exposure-impairs-growth-of-antral-follicle-in-mice
#9
Lan Li, Jing-Cai Liu, Fang-Nong Lai, Huan-Qi Liu, Xi-Feng Zhang, Paul W Dyce, Wei Shen, Hong Chen
Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a widely used plastic additive. As an environmental endocrine disruptor, it has been shown to be harmful to the mammalian reproductive system. Previous studies indicated that DEHP inhibited the development of mouse ovarian follicles. However, the mechanisms by which DEHP affects ovarian antral follicle development during the pre-puberty stage are poorly understand. Thus, we investigated the effects of direct DEHP exposure on antral follicle growth in pre-pubescent mice by use of intraperitoneal injection...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26726070/the-basal-function-of-teleost-prolactin-as-a-key-regulator-on-ion-uptake-identified-with-zebrafish-knockout-models
#10
Yuqin Shu, Qiyong Lou, Ziru Dai, Xiangyan Dai, Jiangyan He, Wei Hu, Zhan Yin
Prolactin (PRL) is an anterior pituitary hormone with a broad range of functions. Its ability to stimulate lactogenesis, maternal behavior, growth and development, osmoregulation, and epithelial ion transport has been reported in many vertebrates. In our present study, we have targeted the zebrafish prl locus via transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). Two independent targeted mutant lines with premature termination of the putative sequence of PRL peptides were generated. All prl-deficient zebrafish progeny died at 6-16 days post-fertilization stage (dpf) in egg water...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26680576/consequences-of-early-life-programing-by-genetic-and-environmental-influences-a-synthesis-regarding-pubertal-timing
#11
REVIEW
Christian L Roth, Sara DiVall
Sexual maturation is closely tied to growth and body weight gain, suggesting that regulative metabolic pathways are shared between somatic and pubertal development. The pre- and postnatal environment affects both growth and pubertal development, indicating that common pathways are affected by the environment. Intrauterine and early infantile developmental phases are characterized by high plasticity and thereby susceptibility to factors that affect metabolic function as well as related reproductive function throughout life...
2016: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26653334/fsh-regulates-mrna-translation-in-mouse-oocytes-and-promotes-developmental-competence
#12
Federica Franciosi, Shila Manandhar, Marco Conti
A major challenge in assisted reproductive technology is to develop conditions for in vitro oocyte maturation yielding high-quality eggs. Efforts are underway to assess whether known hormonal and local factors play a role in oocyte developmental competence and to identify the molecular mechanism involved. Here we have tested the hypothesis that FSH improves oocyte developmental competence by regulating the translational program in the oocyte. Accumulation of oocyte proteins (targeting protein for the Xenopus kinesin xklp2 and IL-7) associated with improved oocyte quality is increased when cumulus-oocyte complexes are incubated with FSH...
February 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26512412/environmentally-relevant-concentrations-of-the-flame-retardant-tris-1-3-dichloro-2-propyl-phosphate-inhibit-growth-of-female-zebrafish-and-decrease-fecundity
#13
Ya Zhu, Xufa Ma, Guanyong Su, Liqin Yu, Robert J Letcher, Jie Hou, Hongxia Yu, John P Giesy, Chunsheng Liu
Bioconcentrations of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) in brain, gonad, and liver as well as effects on fecundity and development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were determined. Zebrafish (1-month old) were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of 29 ± 2.1, 600 ± 21, or 6300 ± 130 ng TDCIPP/L. After 120 days of exposure, TDCIPP accumulated in the brain, gonad, and liver with bioconcentration factors of 460, 38, and 87 in females and 26, 55, and 110 in males, respectively. TDCIPP accumulated to a greater extent in brains of females than those of males...
December 15, 2015: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26428495/genomic-imprinting-in-the-human-placenta
#14
REVIEW
David Monk
With the launch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development/National Institutes of Health Human Placenta Project, the anticipation is that this often-overlooked organ will be the subject of much intense research. Compared with somatic tissues, the cells of the placenta have a unique epigenetic profile that dictates its transcription patterns, which when disturbed may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. One major class of genes that is dependent on strict epigenetic regulation in the placenta is subject to genomic imprinting, the parent-of-origin-dependent monoallelic gene expression...
October 2015: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26417205/selective-regulation-of-oocyte-meiotic-events-enhances-progress-in-fertility-preservation-methods
#15
REVIEW
Onder Celik, Nilufer Celik, Sami Gungor, Esra Tustas Haberal, Suleyman Aydin
Following early embryonic germ cell migration, oocytes are surrounded by somatic cells and remain arrested at diplotene stage until luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. Strict regulation of both meiotic arrest and meiotic resumption during dormant stage are critical for future fertility. Inter-cellular signaling system between the somatic compartment and oocyte regulates these meiotic events and determines the follicle quality. As well as the collected number of eggs, their qualities are also important for in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome...
2015: Biochemistry Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26254468/cumulin-an-oocyte-secreted-heterodimer-of-the-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-family-is-a-potent-activator-of-granulosa-cells-and-improves-oocyte-quality
#16
David G Mottershead, Satoshi Sugimura, Sara L Al-Musawi, Jing-Jie Li, Dulama Richani, Melissa A White, Georgia A Martin, Andrew P Trotta, Lesley J Ritter, Junyan Shi, Thomas D Mueller, Craig A Harrison, Robert B Gilchrist
Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are oocyte-specific growth factors with central roles in mammalian reproduction, regulating species-specific fecundity, ovarian follicular somatic cell differentiation, and oocyte quality. In the human, GDF9 is produced in a latent form, the mechanism of activation being an open question. Here, we produced a range of recombinant GDF9 and BMP15 variants, examined their in silico and physical interactions and their effects on ovarian granulosa cells (GC) and oocytes...
September 25, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26076381/follistatin288-regulates-germ-cell-cyst-breakdown-and-primordial-follicle-assembly-in-the-mouse-ovary
#17
Zhengpin Wang, Wanbao Niu, Yijing Wang, Zhen Teng, Jia Wen, Guoliang Xia, Chao Wang
In mammals, the primordial follicle pool represents the entire reproductive potential of a female. The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family member activin (ACT) contributes to folliculogenesis, although the exact mechanism is not known. The role of FST288, the strongest ACT-neutralizing isoform of follistatin (FST), during cyst breakdown and primordial follicle formation in the fetal mice ovary was assessed using an in vitro culture system. FST was continuously expressed in the oocytes as well as the cuboidal granulosa cells of growing follicles in perinatal mouse ovaries...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25957488/tissue-specific-response-to-dna-damage-c-elegans-as-role-model
#18
REVIEW
Hannes Lans, Wim Vermeulen
The various symptoms associated with hereditary defects in the DNA damage response (DDR), which range from developmental and neurological abnormalities and immunodeficiency to tissue-specific cancers and accelerated aging, suggest that DNA damage affects tissues differently. Mechanistic DDR studies are, however, mostly performed in vitro, in unicellular model systems or cultured cells, precluding a clear and comprehensive view of the DNA damage response of multicellular organisms. Studies performed in intact, multicellular animals models suggest that DDR can vary according to the type, proliferation and differentiation status of a cell...
August 2015: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25903688/chemoablated-mouse-seminiferous-tubular-cells-enriched-for-very-small-embryonic-like-stem-cells-undergo-spontaneous-spermatogenesis-in-vitro
#19
Sandhya Anand, Hiren Patel, Deepa Bhartiya
BACKGROUND: Extensive research is ongoing to empower cancer survivors to have biological parenthood. For this, sperm are cryopreserved prior to therapy and in younger children testicular biopsies are cryopreserved with a hope to mature the germ cells into sperm later on for assisted reproduction. In addition, lot of hope was bestowed on pluripotent embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells to differentiate into sperm and oocytes. However, obtaining functional gametes from pluripotent stem cells still remains a distant dream and major bottle-neck appears to be their inefficient differentiation into primordial germ cells (PGCs)...
2015: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25892958/the-histone-h3k9-demethylase-kdm3b-is-required-for-somatic-growth-and-female-reproductive-function
#20
Zhaoliang Liu, Xian Chen, Suoling Zhou, Lan Liao, Rui Jiang, Jianming Xu
Kdm3b is a Jumonji C domain-containing protein that demethylates mono- and di-methylated lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me1 and H3K9me2). Although the enzyme activity of Kdm3b is well characterized in vitro, its genetic and physiological function remains unknown. Herein, we generated Kdm3b knockout (Kdm3bKO) mice and observed restricted postnatal growth and female infertility in these mice. We found that Kdm3b ablation decreased IGFBP-3 expressed in the kidney by 53% and significantly reduced IGFBP-3 in the blood, which caused an accelerated degradation of IGF-1 and a 36% decrease in circulating IGF-1 concentration...
2015: International Journal of Biological Sciences
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