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somatic growth regulates reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755335/direct-organogenesis-and-indirect-somatic-embryogenesis-by-in-vitro-reversion-of-mature-female-floral-buds-to-a-vegetative-state
#1
Eman M M Zayed
This protocol describes in vitro plant regeneration from mature female inflorescence explants of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by reversion of floral state (reproductive phase) to the vegetative state. The mature female inflorescence (fully developed) is cultured on MS induction medium containing 10 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 3 mg/L 2-isopentenyladenine (2iP), and 2 mg/L paclobutrazol (PBZ) or 2 mg/L abscisic acid (ABA). The basal part of the petals has meristematic cells, which can be induced to initiate callus or direct shoot formation depending on the plant growth regulator amendments...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561756/local-actions-of-melatonin-in-somatic-cells-of-the-testis
#2
REVIEW
Mónica Beatriz Frungieri, Ricardo Saúl Calandra, Soledad Paola Rossi
The pineal hormone melatonin regulates testicular function through the hypothalamic-adenohypophyseal axis. In addition, direct actions of melatonin in somatic cells of the testis have been described. Melatonin acts as a local modulator of the endocrine activity in Leydig cells. In Sertoli cells, melatonin influences cellular growth, proliferation, energy metabolism and the oxidation state, and consequently may regulate spermatogenesis. These data pinpoint melatonin as a key player in the regulation of testicular physiology (i...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553318/non-coding-rnas-in-the-ovarian-follicle
#3
Rosalia Battaglia, Maria E Vento, Placido Borzì, Marco Ragusa, Davide Barbagallo, Desirée Arena, Michele Purrello, Cinzia Di Pietro
The mammalian ovarian follicle is the complex reproductive unit comprising germ cell, somatic cells (Cumulus and Granulosa cells), and follicular fluid (FF): paracrine communication among the different cell types through FF ensures the development of a mature oocyte ready for fertilization. This paper is focused on non-coding RNAs in ovarian follicles and their predicted role in the pathways involved in oocyte growth and maturation. We determined the expression profiles of microRNAs in human oocytes and FF by high-throughput analysis and identified 267 microRNAs in FF and 176 in oocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522549/carbonic-anhydrases-function-in-anther-cell-differentiation-downstream-of-the-receptor-like-kinase-ems1
#4
Jian Huang, Zhiyong Li, Gabriel Biener, Erhui Xiong, Shikha Malik, Nathan Eaton, Catherine Z Zhao, Valerica Raicu, Hongzhi Kong, Dazhong Zhao
Plants extensively employ leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs), the largest family of RLKs, to control a wide range of growth and developmental processes as well as defense responses. To date, only a few direct downstream effectors for LRR-RLKs have been identified. We previously showed that the LRR-RLK EMS1 (EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES1) and its ligand TPD1 (TAPETUM DETERMINANT1) are required for the differentiation of somatic tapetal cells and reproductive microsporocytes during early anther development in Arabidopsis thaliana Here, we report the identification of β-carbonic anhydrases (βCAs) as the direct downstream targets of EMS1...
June 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338722/dissecting-the-transcriptional-patterns-of-social-dominance-across-teleosts
#5
Suzy C P Renn, Cynthia F O'Rourke, Nadia Aubin-Horth, Eleanor J Fraser, Hans A Hofmann
In many species, under varying ecological conditions, social interactions among individuals result in the formation of dominance hierarchies. Despite general similarities, there are robust differences among dominance hierarchies across species, populations, environments, life stages, sexes, and individuals. Understanding the proximate mechanisms underlying the variation is an important step toward understanding the evolution of social behavior. However, physiological changes associated with dominance, such as gonadal maturation and somatic growth, often complicate efforts to identify the specific underlying mechanisms...
December 16, 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242252/multigenerational-effects-and-dna-alterations-of-qds-indolicidin-on-daphnia-magna
#6
Valeria Maselli, Antonietta Siciliano, Antonella Giorgio, Annarita Falanga, Stefania Galdiero, Marco Guida, Domenico Fulgione, Emilia Galdiero
The complex QDs-Indolicidin (QDs-Ind) has been previously shown to be a good antimicrobial system with a low acute toxicity on Daphnia magna (D. magna). However, multigenerational effects caused by exposure to QDs-Ind and after subsequent recovery are still unknown. In this study, we performed multigenerational exposure tests and we evaluated individual fitness, population growth, DNA alteration, expression of Dhb (haemoglobin), Vtg (vitellogenin), CYP4 (cytochrome P450s CYP4 family), and CYP314 (cytochrome P450s mitochondrial family 314) genes on three generation of D...
May 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053272/transgenerational-function-of-tetrahymena-piwi-protein-twi8p-at-distinctive-noncoding-rna-loci
#7
Brian M Farley, Kathleen Collins
Transgenerational transmission of genome-regulatory epigenetic information can determine phenotypes in the progeny of sexual reproduction. Sequence specificity of transgenerational regulation derives from small RNAs assembled into Piwi-protein complexes. Known targets of transgenerational regulation are primarily transposons and transposon-derived sequences. Here, we extend the scope of Piwi-mediated transgenerational regulation to include unique noncoding RNA loci. Ciliates such as Tetrahymena have a phenotypically silent germline micronucleus and an expressed somatic macronucleus, which is differentiated anew from a germline genome copy in sexual reproduction...
April 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940616/dissecting-the-transcriptional-patterns-of-social-dominance-across-teleosts
#8
Suzy C P Renn, Cynthia F O'Rourke, Nadia Aubin-Horth, Eleanor J Fraser, Hans A Hofmann
In many species, under varying ecological conditions, social interactions among individuals result in the formation of dominance hierarchies. Despite general similarities, there are robust differences among dominance hierarchies across species, populations, environments, life stages, sexes, and individuals. Understanding the proximate mechanisms underlying the variation is an important step toward understanding the evolution of social behavior. However, physiological changes associated with dominance, such as gonadal maturation and somatic growth, often complicate efforts to identify the specific underlying mechanisms...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920157/two-serk-receptor-like-kinases-interact-with-ems1-to-control-anther-cell-fate-determination
#9
Zhiyong Li, Yao Wang, Jian Huang, Nagib Ahsan, Gabriel Biener, Joel Paprocki, Jay J Thelen, Valerica Raicu, Dazhong Zhao
Cell signaling pathways mediated by leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) are essential for plant growth, development, and defense. The EMS1 (EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES1) LRR-RLK and its small protein ligand TPD1 (TAPETUM DETERMINANT1) play a fundamental role in somatic and reproductive cell differentiation during early anther development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, it is unclear whether other cell surface molecules serve as coregulators of EMS1. Here, we show that SERK1 (SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE1) and SERK2 LRR-RLKs act redundantly as coregulatory and physical partners of EMS1...
January 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910069/lkb1-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-uterine-cancer-mouse-models-and-translational-studies
#10
REVIEW
Christopher G Peña, Diego H Castrillón
The LKB1 tumor suppressor was identified in 1998 as the gene mutated in the Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS), a hereditary cancer predisposition characterized by gastrointestinal polyposis and a high incidence of cancers, particularly carcinomas, at a variety of anatomic sites including the gastrointestinal tract, lung, and female reproductive tract. Women with PJS have a high incidence of carcinomas of the uterine corpus (endometrium) and cervix. The LKB1 gene is also somatically mutated in human cancers arising at these sites...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797914/oocyte-somatic-cell-interactions-in-the-human-ovary-novel-role-of-bone-morphogenetic-proteins-and-growth-differentiation-factors
#11
REVIEW
Hsun-Ming Chang, Jie Qiao, Peter C K Leung
BACKGROUND: Initially identified for their capability to induce heterotopic bone formation, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional growth factors that belong to the transforming growth factor β superfamily. Using cellular and molecular genetic approaches, recent studies have implicated intra-ovarian BMPs as potent regulators of ovarian follicular function. The bi-directional communication of oocytes and the surrounding somatic cells is mandatory for normal follicle development and oocyte maturation...
December 2016: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750442/inside-the-granulosa-transcriptome
#12
REVIEW
Marco D'Aurora, Samantha Sperduti, Giovanna Di Emidio, Liborio Stuppia, Paolo Giovanni Artini, Valentina Gatta
The somatic component of follicular structure is a mixture of different cell types, represented by Granulosa cells (GCs) that are the paracrine regulators of the oocyte growth. GCs finely support this process by a continuous bidirectional talk with oocyte, which ensure oocyte quality and competence. Specific pathways are involved in the cross-talk and in both GCs and oocyte development. This review summarizes data from GCs gene expression analysis concerning both their physiological role and their interaction with oocyte...
December 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27300184/a-role-of-micrornas-in-cell-differentiation-during-gonad-development
#13
REVIEW
Hadas Grossman, Ruth Shalgi
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small noncoding RNA molecules that play a major role in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression and are expressed in an organ-specific manner. One miRNA can potentially regulate the expression of several genes, depending on cell type and differentiation stage. miRNAs are differentially expressed in the male and female gonads and have an organ-specific reproductive function. Exerting their affect through germ cells and gonadal somatic cells, miRNAs regulate key proteins necessary for gonad development...
2016: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27229510/bac-mediated-transgenic-large-white-boars-with-fsh%C3%AE-%C3%AE-genes-from-chinese-erhualian-pigs
#14
Pan Xu, Qiuyan Li, Kai Jiang, Qiang Yang, Mingjun Bi, Chao Jiang, Xiaopeng Wang, Chengbin Wang, Longyun Li, Chuanmin Qiao, Huanfa Gong, Yuyun Xing, Jun Ren
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a critical hormone regulating reproduction in mammals. Transgenic mice show that overexpression of FSH can improve female fecundity. Using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system and somatic cell nuclear transfer, we herein generated 67 Large White transgenic (TG) boars harboring FSHα/β genes from Chinese Erhualian pigs, the most prolific breed in the world. We selected two F0 TG boars for further breeding and conducted molecular characterization and biosafety assessment for F1 boars...
October 2016: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27118516/alteration-of-gene-expression-by-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-or%C3%A2-zinc-sulfate-in%C3%A2-vivo-and-comparison-with-in%C3%A2-vitro-data-a%C3%A2-harmonious-case
#15
Wei-Dong Zhang, Yong Zhao, Hong-Fu Zhang, Shu-Kun Wang, Zhi-Hui Hao, Jing Liu, Yu-Qing Yuan, Peng-Fei Zhang, Hong-Di Yang, Wei Shen, Lan Li
Granulosa cells (GCs) are those somatic cells closest to the female germ cell. GCs play a vital role in oocyte growth and development, and the oocyte is necessary for multiplication of a species. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) readily cross biologic barriers to be absorbed into biologic systems that make them promising candidates as food additives. The objective of the present investigation was to explore the impact of intact NPs on gene expression and the functional classification of altered genes in hen GCs in vivo, to compare the data from in vivo and in vitro studies, and finally to point out the adverse effects of ZnO NPs on the reproductive system...
August 2016: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26988862/maternal-investment-life-history-strategy-of-the-offspring-and-adult-chronic-disease-risk-in-south-asian-women-in-the-uk
#16
Jonathan C K Wells, Pallas Yao, Jane E Williams, Rebecca Gayner
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patterns of development predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and ethnic differences therein, but it remains unclear why apparently 'adaptive plasticity' in early life should generate health costs in later life. We hypothesized that offspring receiving low maternal investment during fetal life, the primary period of organogenesis, should predict a shorter reproductive career and develop a fast life-history strategy, prioritizing reproduction over growth and homeostatic maintenance...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26845775/di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-exposure-impairs-growth-of-antral-follicle-in-mice
#17
Lan Li, Jing-Cai Liu, Fang-Nong Lai, Huan-Qi Liu, Xi-Feng Zhang, Paul W Dyce, Wei Shen, Hong Chen
Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a widely used plastic additive. As an environmental endocrine disruptor, it has been shown to be harmful to the mammalian reproductive system. Previous studies indicated that DEHP inhibited the development of mouse ovarian follicles. However, the mechanisms by which DEHP affects ovarian antral follicle development during the pre-puberty stage are poorly understand. Thus, we investigated the effects of direct DEHP exposure on antral follicle growth in pre-pubescent mice by use of intraperitoneal injection...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26726070/the-basal-function-of-teleost-prolactin-as-a-key-regulator-on-ion-uptake-identified-with-zebrafish-knockout-models
#18
Yuqin Shu, Qiyong Lou, Ziru Dai, Xiangyan Dai, Jiangyan He, Wei Hu, Zhan Yin
Prolactin (PRL) is an anterior pituitary hormone with a broad range of functions. Its ability to stimulate lactogenesis, maternal behavior, growth and development, osmoregulation, and epithelial ion transport has been reported in many vertebrates. In our present study, we have targeted the zebrafish prl locus via transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). Two independent targeted mutant lines with premature termination of the putative sequence of PRL peptides were generated. All prl-deficient zebrafish progeny died at 6-16 days post-fertilization stage (dpf) in egg water...
January 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26680576/consequences-of-early-life-programing-by-genetic-and-environmental-influences-a-synthesis-regarding-pubertal-timing
#19
REVIEW
Christian L Roth, Sara DiVall
Sexual maturation is closely tied to growth and body weight gain, suggesting that regulative metabolic pathways are shared between somatic and pubertal development. The pre- and postnatal environment affects both growth and pubertal development, indicating that common pathways are affected by the environment. Intrauterine and early infantile developmental phases are characterized by high plasticity and thereby susceptibility to factors that affect metabolic function as well as related reproductive function throughout life...
2016: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26653334/fsh-regulates-mrna-translation-in-mouse-oocytes-and-promotes-developmental-competence
#20
Federica Franciosi, Shila Manandhar, Marco Conti
A major challenge in assisted reproductive technology is to develop conditions for in vitro oocyte maturation yielding high-quality eggs. Efforts are underway to assess whether known hormonal and local factors play a role in oocyte developmental competence and to identify the molecular mechanism involved. Here we have tested the hypothesis that FSH improves oocyte developmental competence by regulating the translational program in the oocyte. Accumulation of oocyte proteins (targeting protein for the Xenopus kinesin xklp2 and IL-7) associated with improved oocyte quality is increased when cumulus-oocyte complexes are incubated with FSH...
February 2016: Endocrinology
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