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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633142/multifactorial-analysis-of-a-biomarker-pool-for-alzheimer-disease-risk-in-a-north-indian-population
#1
Puneet Talwar, Sandeep Grover, Juhi Sinha, Puneet Chandna, Rachna Agarwal, Suman Kushwaha, Ritushree Kukreti
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with a complex multifactorial etiology. Here, we aim to identify a biomarker pool comprised of genetic variants and blood biomarkers as predictor of AD risk. METHODS: We performed a case-control study involving 108 cases and 159 non-demented healthy controls to examine the association of multiple biomarkers with AD risk. RESULTS: The APOE genotyping revealed that ε4 allele frequency was significantly high (p value = 0...
June 21, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630637/evaluation-of-circulating-srage-in-osteoporosis-according-to-bmi-adipokines-and-fracture-risk-a-pilot-observational-study
#2
Emanuela Galliera, Monica Gioia Marazzi, Carmine Gazzaruso, Pietro Gallotti, Adriana Coppola, Tiziana Montalcini, Arturo Pujia, Massimiliano M Corsi Romanelli
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a systemic metabolic disease based on age-dependent imbalance between the rates of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent studies on the pathogenesis of this disease identified that bone remodelling impairment, at the base of osteoporotic bone fragility, could be related to protein glycation, in association to oxidative stress. The glycation reactions lead to the generation of glycation end products (AGEs) which, in turn, accumulates into bone, where they binds to the receptor for AGE (RAGE)...
2017: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628399/polymorphisms-in-lep-and-lepr-genes-in-infants-correlation-with-serum-leptin-values-in-the-first-6-months-of-life
#3
Francesco Savino, Allegra Sardo, Paola Montanari, Ilaria Galliano, Liliana Di Stasio, Massimiliano Bergallo, Leandra Silvestro
OBJECTIVE: Because several studies indicate that polymorphisms in leptin (Lep) and leptin receptor (Lepr) genes play a central role in determining obesity, we analyzed 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Lep gene (Lep G2548A and A19G) and one in the Lepr gene (Lepr A668G) to verify the effect of the 3 SNPs on leptin concentrations in infancy. METHODS: We enrolled 80 healthy Caucasian infants under 6 months of age, who were genotyped for the 3 SNPs with amplification refractory mutation system-mismatch amplification mutation assay (ARMS-MAMA) real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626366/current-developments-in-mobilization-of-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-and-their-interaction-with-niches-in-bone-marrow
#4
REVIEW
Rudolf Richter, Wolfgang Forssmann, Reinhard Henschler
The clinical application of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) has evolved from a highly experimental stage in the 1980s to a currently clinically established treatment for more than 20,000 patients annually who suffer from hematological malignancies and other severe diseases. Studies in numerous murine models have demonstrated that HSPCs reside in distinct niches within the bone marrow environment. Whereas transplanted HSPCs travel through the bloodstream and home to sites of hematopoiesis, HSPCs can be mobilized from these niches into the blood either physiologically or induced by pharmaceutical drugs...
June 2017: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623929/the-potential-regulatory-mechanisms-of-the-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-in-gonadotropin-transcriptions-identified-with-bioinformatics-analyses
#5
Wei Xiang, Baoyun Zhang, Fenglin Lv, Guangde Feng, Long Chen, Fang Yang, Ke Zhang, Chunyu Cao, Pingqing Wang, Mingxing Chu
BACKGROUND: The regulation of gonadotropin synthesis and release by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays an essential role in the neuroendocrine control of reproduction. However, the mechanisms underlying gonadotropin regulation by GnRH pulse frequency and amplitude are still ambiguous. This study aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms and biological pathways associated with gonadotropin synthesis by GnRH pulse frequencies and amplitudes. METHODS: Using GSE63251 datasets downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened by comparing the RNA expression from the GnRH pulse group, the GnRH tonic group and the control group...
June 17, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622065/leptin-gene-transfer-improves-symptoms-of-type-2-diabetic-mice-by-regulating-leptin-signaling-pathway-and-insulin-resistance-of-peripheral-tissues
#6
Lan Xiang, Jing Li, Qian Wang, Ruiqi Tang, Jianhua Qi
The leptin gene was transferred into the liver of streptozocin- and high fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice by hydrodynamic-based gene delivery. The food intake, water consumption, glucose concentration, and triglyceride, total cholesterol levels of T2D mice were significantly decreased. Meanwhile, plasma leptin was remarkably increased after gene transfer for 2, 3, 5, and 7 days, while plasma adiponectin was also significantly increased at day 2. To understand the mechanism of action of leptin on T2D mice, gene expressions related to glycometabolism and energy metabolism in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, hypothalamus, and muscle were measured...
June 16, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621759/a-high-fructose-high-coconut-oil-diet-induces-dysregulating-expressions-of-hippocampal-leptin-and-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-and-spatial-memory-deficits-in-rats
#7
Ching-I Lin, Chu-Fu Shen, Tsui-Han Hsu, Shyh-Hsiang Lin
We investigated the effects of high-fructose-high-fat diets with different fat compositions on metabolic parameters, hippocampal-dependent cognitive function, and brain leptin (as well as stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) mRNA expressions). Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups, a control group (n = 8), a high-fructose soybean oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12), and a high-fructose coconut oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12) for 20 weeks. By the end of the study, the coconut oil group exhibited significantly higher serum fasting glucose, fructosamine, insulin, leptin, and triglyceride levels compared to those of the control and soybean oil groups...
June 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617052/neotomodon-alstoni-mice-present-sex-differences-between-lean-and-obese-in-daily-hypothalamic-leptin-signaling
#8
Moisés Pérez-Mendoza, Dalia Luna-Moreno, Agustín Carmona-Castro, Hugo A Rodríguez-Guadarrama, Luis M Montoya-Gómez, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz, Manuel Miranda-Anaya
This article compared the effects of spontaneous obesity on the daily profile in the relative amount of the leptin receptor (LepRb), and its output. That is the precursor Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) over a 24-hour period and compared with differences in locomotion and food intake in periods of artificial light. Differences between lean and obese mice were examined, as were sex differences. Body weight, food intake and locomotor activity were monitored in freely moving lean and obese mice. Hypothalamic tissue was collected at 5 h, 10 h, 15 h, 19 h and 24 h...
June 15, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611581/glial-endozepines-inhibit-feeding-related-autonomic-functions-by-acting-at-the-brainstem-level
#9
Florent Guillebaud, Clémence Girardet, Anne Abysique, Stéphanie Gaigé, Rym Barbouche, Jérémy Verneuil, André Jean, Jérôme Leprince, Marie-Christine Tonon, Michel Dallaporta, Bruno Lebrun, Jean-Denis Troadec
Endozepines are endogenous ligands for the benzodiazepine receptors and also target a still unidentified GPCR. The endozepine octadecaneuropeptide (ODN), an endoproteolytic processing product of the diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) was recently shown to be involved in food intake control as an anorexigenic factor through ODN-GPCR signaling and mobilization of the melanocortinergic signaling pathway. Within the hypothalamus, the DBI gene is mainly expressed by non-neuronal cells such as ependymocytes, tanycytes, and protoplasmic astrocytes, at levels depending on the nutritional status...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609678/glucocorticoid-mediated-activation-of-gsk3%C3%AE-promotes-tau-phosphorylation-and-impairs-memory-in-type-2-diabetes
#10
Aditi Dey, Shuai Hao, Marlena Wosiski-Kuhn, Alexis M Stranahan
Type 2 diabetes is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Hyperphosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau has been reported in rodent models of diabetes, including db/db mice, which exhibit insulin resistance and chronically elevated glucocorticoids due to leptin receptor insufficiency. In this report, we investigated endocrine mechanisms for hippocampal tau phosphorylation in db/db and wild-type mice. By separately manipulating peripheral and intrahippocampal corticosterone levels, we determined that hippocampal corticosteroid exposure promotes tau phosphorylation and activates glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β)...
May 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604943/adipokine-profile-in-patients-with-anorexia-nervosa
#11
Agnieszka Baranowska-Bik, Bogusława Baranowska, Lidia Martyńska, Anna Litwiniuk, Małgorzata Kalisz, Jan Kochanowski, Wojciech Bik
INTRODUCTION: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterised with extremely low weight. Adipokines are adipose tissue-derived substances that show a wide spectrum of biological activities. We aimed to assess selected adipokine levels in women with AN before and after nutritional intervention. We also sought to examine whether BMI is the only confounding factor influencing adipokine assessment in AN. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-five women participated in the study: 20 individuals with AN before any treatment, 18 AN patients after nutritional intervention lasting for at least six months, and 27 women as controls...
June 12, 2017: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602634/dp1-receptor-agonist-bw245c-inhibits-diet-induced-obesity-in-apoe-mice
#12
Sunil Kumar, Thomas Palaia, Christopher Hall, Louis Ragolia
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Lipocalin Prostaglandin D2 synthase (LPGDS) contributes to the production of PGD2, which has been associated with adipogenesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of PGD2 on obesity through its DP1 and DP2 receptor signaling using intraperitoneal injection of their respective agonists and antagonists. METHODS: ApoE(-/-) mice were divided into five groups: vehicle control (n=5), DP1 receptor agonist (n=5), DP1 receptor antagonist (n=5), DP2 receptor agonist (n=5), and DP2 receptor antagonist (n=5), and the study was carried out for 10 weeks...
June 8, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602513/glycolipids-essential-regulator-of-neuro-inflammation-metabolism-and-gliomagenesis
#13
REVIEW
Koichi Furukawa, Yuhsuke Ohmi, Shuting Ji, Pu Zhang, Robiul H Bhuiyan, Yuki Ohkawa, Orie Tajima, Noboru Hashimoto, Keiko Furukawa
Gene knockout mice of glycosyltransferases have clearly showed roles of their products in the bodies, while there are examples where phenotype of knockout was much less severe than expected probably due to functional redundancy. The most striking novel finding obtained from ganglioside-deficient mice was that progressive inflammatory reaction took place, leading to neurodegeneration. In particular, dysfunction of complement-regulatory proteins due to deteriorated architecture of lipid rafts seemed to be essential mechanisms for the inflammation...
June 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596541/association-of-maternal-and-fetal-lepr-common-variants-with-maternal-glycemic-traits-during-pregnancy
#14
Rong Lin, Hongfang Ju, Ziyu Yuan, Liangliang Zeng, Yuantian Sun, Zhenyu Su, Yajun Yang, Yi Wang, Li Jin
Recent studies suggested that maternal and placental leptin receptor (LEPR) may be involved in maternal glucose metabolism in pregnancy. To identify maternal and fetal LEPR common variants influencing gestational glycemic traits, we performed association study of 24-28-week maternal fasting glucose, glucose 1 hour after the consumption of a 50-g oral glucose load, fasting insulin and indices of beta-cell function (HOMA-β) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 1,112 unrelated women and their children. Follow-up of 36 LEPR loci identified 3 maternal loci (rs10889567, rs1137101 and rs3762274) associated with fasting glucose, these 3 fetal loci associated with fasting insulin and HOMA1-IR, as well as these 3 maternal-fetal loci combinations associated with HOMA2-β...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596183/leptogenic-effects-of-n-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-nape-requires-activity-of-n-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing-phospholipase-d-nape-pld
#15
Zhongyi Chen, Yongqin Zhang, Lilu Guo, Noura Dosoky, Lorenzo De Ferra, Scott Peters, Kevin D Niswender, Sean S Davies
Food intake induces synthesis of N-acylphosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs) in the intestinal tract. While NAPEs exert leptin-like (leptogenic) effects including reduced food intake and weight gain, the mechanisms by which NAPEs induce these leptogenic effects remain unclear. One key question is whether intestinal NAPEs act directly on cognate receptors or first require conversion to N-acylethanolamides (NAEs) by NAPE-hydrolyzing phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD). Previous studies using Nape-pld-/- mice were equivocal because intraperitoneal injection of NAPEs led to non-specific, aversive effects...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592099/-study-of-the-association-between-polymorphism-of-persistent-obesity-human-leptin-gene-leptin-receptor-gene-and-molecular-subtypes-of-breast-cancer
#16
X L Yuan, Z P Xu, C R Liu, L P Yan, P Tao, P Xiong, Q Li, M Zhou, H Li, M Zhao, J Y Li
Objectives: To explore the association between the polymorphism of persistent obesity and genetic variations in the LEP (human leptin gene, LEP) and LEPR (leptin receptor gene, LEPR) genes and different molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Methods: All 703 female patients of breast cancer diagnosed by histopathology in the Sichuan Cancer Hospital or the West China Hospital, excluding patients with metastatic breast cancer or mental disease, were selected as cases from April 2014 to May 2015. At the same time, 805 healthy women received physical examination in medical examination center of Sichuan People Hospital or Shuangliu maternal and child health care hospital, excluding those with therioma, breast disease, and mental disease, were enrolled in control group...
June 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591164/alamandine-reduces-leptin-expression-through-the-c-src-p38-map-kinase-pathway-in-adipose-tissue
#17
Tsuyoshi Uchiyama, Fumikazu Okajima, Chihiro Mogi, Ayaka Tobo, Shoichi Tomono, Koichi Sato
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and renal dysfunction. Angiotensin 1-7 and alamandine are heptameric renin angiotensin system peptide hormones. Further, alamandine levels increase with renal dysfunction. In the cardiovascular system, angiotensin 1-7 and alamandine produce similar improvements and counterbalance angiotensin II in regulating vascular function. We aimed to determine whether the effect of alamandine on leptin expression and secretion in adipocytes was similar to that of angiotensin 1-7...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586412/high-fat-diet-and-female-fertility
#18
Natalie M Hohos, Malgorzata E Skaznik-Wikiel
The prevalence of obesity is high among reproductive age women and is associated with impaired reproductive function. Obesity is multifactorial in origin, yet many cases of obesity result from overconsumption of a diet high in fat. Excess dietary fat increases both adipose and non-adipose tissue lipid content, and through lipotoxicity leads to cell dysfunction and death. High dietary fat intake, with or without the development of obesity, impairs female hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis functionality and fertility...
June 6, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585210/adiponectin-resistance-in-obesity
#19
Atilla Engin
The decrease in adiponectin levels are negatively correlated with chronic subclinical inflammation markers in obesity. The hypertrophic adipocytes cause obesity-linked insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, macrophage polarization is a key determinant regulating adiponectin receptor (AdipoR1/R2) expression and differential adiponectin-mediated macrophage inflammatory responses in obese individuals. In addition to decrease in adiponectin concentrations, the decline in AdipoR1/R2 mRNA expression leads to a decrement in adiponectin binding to cell membrane, and this turns into attenuation in the adiponectin effects...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585208/diet-induced-obesity-and-the-mechanism-of-leptin-resistance
#20
Atilla Engin
Leptin signaling blockade by chronic overstimulation of the leptin receptor or hypothalamic pro-inflammatory responses due to elevated levels of saturated fatty acid can induce leptin resistance by activating negative feedback pathways. Although, long form leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) initiates leptin signaling through more than seven different signal transduction pathways, excessive suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3) activity is a potential mechanism for the leptin resistance that characterizes human obesity...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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