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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914036/prolactin-regulatory-element-binding-protein-is-involved-in-suppression-of-the-adiponectin-gene-in-vivo
#1
X Z Zhang, H Imachi, J Y Lyu, K Fukunaga, S Sato, T Ibata, T Kobayashi, T Yoshimoto, F Kikuchi, T Dong, K Murao
PURPOSE: Prolactin regulatory element-binding protein (PREB), a member of the WD-repeat protein family, has been recognized as a transcriptional factor that regulates prolactin promoter activity in the anterior pituitary of rats. PREB is expressed not only in the pituitary but also in various other tissues, including the adipose tissue. Previous studies have shown that PREB acts as a transcriptional regulator and suppresses the expression of the adiponectin gene in cultured 3T3L1 preadipocytes...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908803/pericytes-integral-components-of-adult-hematopoietic-stem-cell-niches
#2
REVIEW
D Sá da Bandeira, J Casamitjana, M Crisan
The interest in perivascular cells as a niche for adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is significantly growing. In the adult bone marrow (BM), perivascular cells and HSCs cohabit. Among perivascular cells, pericytes are precursors of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) that are capable of differentiating into osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. In situ, pericytes are recognised by their localisation to the abluminal side of the blood vessel wall, closely associated with endothelial cells in combination with the expression of markers such as CD146, neural glial 2 (NG2), platelet derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), nestin (Nes) and/or leptin receptor (LepR)...
November 28, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907172/neuroendocrine-inflammatory-responses-in-overweight-obese-infants
#3
Ana Cristina Resende Camargos, Vanessa Amaral Mendonça, Camila Alves de Andrade, Katherine Simone Caires Oliveira, Rosalina Tossige-Gomes, Etel Rocha-Vieira, Camila Danielle Cunha Neves, Érica Leandro Marciano Vieira, Hércules Ribeiro Leite, Murilo Xavier Oliveira, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira Júnior, Cândido Celso Coimbra, Ana Cristina Rodrigues Lacerda
Childhood obesity is related to a cascade of neuroendocrine inflammatory changes. However, there remains a gap in the current literature regarding the possible occurrence of these changes in overweight/obese infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate adipokines, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and redox status in overweight/obese infants versus normal-weight peers. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 50 infants (25 in the overweight/obese group and 25 in the normal-weight group) between 6 and 24 months...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906690/the-long-road-to-leptin
#4
Jeffrey Friedman
Leptin is an adipose tissue hormone that functions as an afferent signal in a negative feedback loop that maintains homeostatic control of adipose tissue mass. This endocrine system thus serves a critical evolutionary function by protecting individuals from the risks associated with being too thin (starvation) or too obese (predation and temperature dysregulation). Mutations in leptin or its receptor cause massive obesity in mice and humans, and leptin can effectively treat obesity in leptin-deficient patients...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893788/effects-of-high-fat-diet-on-stress-response-in-male-and-female-wildtype-and-prolactin-knockout-mice
#5
Manu Kalyani, Kathryn Hasselfeld, James M Janik, Phyllis Callahan, Haifei Shi
Prolactin (PRL) is well characterized for its roles in initiation and maintenance of lactation, and it also suppresses stress-induced responses. Feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) disrupts activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Whether PRL regulates HPA axis activation under HFD feeding is not clear. Male and female wildtype (WT) and PRL knockout (KO) mice were fed either a standard low-fat diet (LFD) or HFD for 12 weeks. Circulating corticosterone (CORT) levels were measured before, during, and after mice were subjected to an acute restraint stress or remained in their home cages as no stress controls...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889607/leptin-ob-r-signaling-is-elevated-in-mice-with-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-and-is-implicated-in-disease-pathogenesis
#6
Ting Xu, Wen Xie, Yingchun Ma, Shiliang Zhou, Lu Zhang, Jinyun Chen, Mingyuan Cai, Rurong Sun, Peirong Zhang, Shaobo Yu, Zheng Xu, Wanlan Jiang, Min Wu
Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) is a systemic autoimmune disease resulting in a severe dry mouth and dry eyes. Currently, care for patients with SjS is palliative, as no established therapeutics target the disease directly, and its pathogenetic mechanisms are uncertain. Leptin activates B cells to induce the secretion of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and is elevated in several autoimmune diseases. In this study, we found the expression of leptin and its receptor OB-R in mouse models of SjS are elevated both locally and systemically during SjS progression...
November 23, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884680/caloric-restriction-ameliorates-cardiomyopathy-in-animal-model-of-diabetes
#7
Keren Cohen, Maayan Waldman, Nader G Abraham, Michal Laniado-Schwartzman, Danny Gurfield, Dan Aravot, Michael Arad, Edith Hochhauser
BACKGROUND: The db/db mouse is an animal model of diabetes in which leptin receptor activity is deficient resulting accelerated cardiomyopathy when exposed to angiotensin (AT). Toll-like receptors 4 and 2 (TLR4, TLR2) are pattern recognition receptors, that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and exacerbate and release inflammatory cytokines. Fetuin A (Fet A) is a fatty acid carrier which affects inflammation and insulin resistance in obese humans and animals through TLRs...
November 21, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882166/galanin-receptor-2-mediates-antifibrogenic-effects-of-galanin-on-hepatic-stellate-cells
#8
Lingnan He, Zhenghong Li, Da Zhou, Yongnian Ding, Leiming Xu, Yuanwen Chen, Jiangao Fan
Galanin is an endogenous factor involved in the negative regulation of the biological effects of leptin in bioenergetic metabolism. Leptin promotes fibrogenic effects in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), however, little is known about the effects of galanin on HSCs. In the present study, the biological functions of galanin and its receptors (GalRs) in HSCs were investigated using cell culture in vitro. It was found that galanin and GalR3 mRNA are expressed in quiescent and activated HSCs. GalR2 expression was undetectable in quiescent HSCs but was markedly induced in activated HSCs...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881962/cigarette-smoking-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-vascular-inflammation-and-injury-are-attenuated-by-antioxidant-supplementation-in-an-animal-model
#9
Moustafa Al Hariri, Kazem Zibara, Wissam Farhat, Yasmine Hashem, Nadia Soudani, Farah Al Ibrahim, Eva Hamade, Asad Zeidan, Ahmad Husari, Firas Kobeissy
Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cigarette smoking remains a global health epidemic with associated detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. In this work, we investigated the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on cardiovascular system in an animal model. The study then evaluated the effects of antioxidants (AO), represented by pomegranate juice, on cigarette smoke induced cardiovascular injury. This study aims at evaluating the effect of pomegranate juice supplementation on the cardiovascular system of an experimental rat model of smoke exposure...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881195/the-involvement-of-runx2-and-sparc-genes-in-the-bacterial-chondronecrosis-with-osteomyelitis-in-broilers
#10
E Paludo, A M G Ibelli, J O Peixoto, F C Tavernari, C A V Lima-Rosa, J R C Pandolfi, M C Ledur
Economic losses due to an increase of leg disorders in broilers have become a major concern of the poultry industry. Despite the efforts to reduce skeletal abnormalities in chickens, insufficient progress has been made. Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) is one of the main disorders that affect bone integrity in broilers. However, the genetic pathways and genes involved in most bone problems, including BCO, remains unclear. In this study, femoral samples from male broilers with 45 days of age affected or not with BCO were used to compare the relative expression with a reverse transcription real time PCR approach of 13 candidate genes: SPP1 (osteopontin), TNFRSF11B (osteoprotegerin), SPARC (osteonectin), CALB1 (calbidin 1), CALM (Calmodulin 2), IBSP (sialoprotein), COL1A2 (collagen, type I, α 2), BMP2 (bone morphogenetic protein 2), BMP3 (bone morphogenetic protein 3), RANKL (κ-B nuclear factor ligand), SMAD1 (SMAD family member 1), LEPR (leptin receptor) and RUNX2 (related transcription factor Runt 2)...
November 24, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878121/corrigendum-designer-leptin-receptor-antagonist-allo-aca-inhibits-vegf-effects-in-ophthalmic-neoangiogenesis-models
#11
Roberta Coroniti, Rafal Farjo, Didier J Nuno, Laszlo Otvos, Laura Scolaro, Eva Surmacz
[This corrects the article on p. 67 in vol. 3, PMID: 27790618.].
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877104/sweet-taste-receptor-serves-to-activate-glucose-and-leptin-responsive-neurons-in-the-hypothalamic-arcuate-nucleus-and-participates-in-glucose-responsiveness
#12
Daisuke Kohno, Miho Koike, Yuzo Ninomiya, Itaru Kojima, Tadahiro Kitamura, Toshihiko Yada
The hypothalamic feeding center plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In the feeding center, whole-body energy signals including hormones and nutrients are sensed, processed, and integrated. As a result, food intake and energy expenditure are regulated. Two types of glucose-sensing neurons exist in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC): glucose-excited neurons and glucose-inhibited neurons. While some molecules are known to be related to glucose sensing in the hypothalamus, the mechanisms underlying glucose sensing in the hypothalamus are not fully understood...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871914/neonatal-levels-of-adiponectin-interleukin-10-and-interleukin-12-are-associated-with-the-risk-of-developing-type-1-diabetes-in-childhood-and-adolescence-a-nationwide-danish-case-control-study
#13
Steffen U Thorsen, Christian B Pipper, Stefanie Eising, Kristin Skogstrand, David M Hougaard, Jannet Svensson, Flemming Pociot
BACKGROUND/AIM: An in-depth understanding of the early phase of type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis is important for targeting primary prevention. We examined if 14 preselected mediators of immune responses differed in neonates that later developed T1D compared to control neonates. METHODS: The study is a case-control study with a 1:2 matching. The individuals were born between 1981 through 2002. Cases were validated using the National Patient Register and the Danish Childhood Diabetes Register...
November 15, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868312/effect-of-chicken-leptin-recptor-short-hairpin-rna-on-expression-of-jak2-stat3-socs3-and-cpt1-genes-in-chicken-preadipocytes
#14
Qian Ban, Wenqiao Hui, Fei Cheng, Dahai Liu, Xiaojun Liu
In this study, we detect depressive effect on leptin receptor (LEPR) by LEPR-specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression plasmids in chicken preadipocytes, and effect on messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of genes related to signal transduction, including JAK2, STAT3, SOCS3 as well as CPT1, which is associated with fatty acid metabolism. shRNA expression vectors targeting LEPR were constructed and transfected into chicken preadipocytes. The transfection efficiency was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy...
November 21, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867249/elevated-omentin-serum-levels-predict-long-term-survival-in-critically-ill-patients
#15
Mark Luedde, Fabian Benz, Jennifer Niedeggen, Mihael Vucur, Hans-Joerg Hippe, Martina E Spehlmann, Florian Schueller, Sven Loosen, Norbert Frey, Christian Trautwein, Alexander Koch, Tom Luedde, Frank Tacke, Christoph Roderburg
Introduction. Omentin, a recently described adipokine, was shown to be involved in the pathophysiology of inflammatory and infectious diseases. However, its role in critical illness and sepsis is currently unknown. Materials and Methods. Omentin serum concentrations were measured in 117 ICU-patients (84 with septic and 33 with nonseptic disease etiology) admitted to the medical ICU. Results were compared with 50 healthy controls. Results. Omentin serum levels of critically ill patients at admission to the ICU or after 72 hours of ICU treatment were similar compared to healthy controls...
2016: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866828/high-fat-western-diet-induced-obesity-contributes-to-increased-tumor-growth-in-mouse-models-of-human-colon-cancer
#16
Ann Marie O'Neill, Christine M Burrington, Erin A Gillaspie, Darin T Lynch, Melissa J Horsman, Michael W Greene
Strong epidemiologic evidence links colon cancer to obesity. The increasing worldwide incidence of colon cancer has been linked to the spread of the Western lifestyle, and in particular consumption of a high-fat Western diet. In this study, our objectives were to establish mouse models to examine the effects of high-fat Western diet-induced obesity on the growth of human colon cancer tumor xenografts, and to examine potential mechanisms driving obesity-linked human colon cancer tumor growth. We hypothesize that mice rendered insulin resistant due to consumption of a high-fat Western diet will show increased and accelerated tumor growth...
October 20, 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864352/single-cell-transcriptomes-identify-human-islet-cell-signatures-and-reveal-cell-type-specific-expression-changes-in-type-2-diabetes
#17
Nathan Lawlor, Joshy George, Mohan Bolisetty, Romy Kursawe, Lili Sun, Sivakamasundari V, Ina Kycia, Paul Robson, Michael L Stitzel
Blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by the coordinated action of at least four cell types constituting pancreatic islets. Changes in the proportion and/or function of these cells are associated with genetic and molecular pathophysiology of monogenic, type 1, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Cellular heterogeneity impedes precise understanding of the molecular components of each islet cell type that govern islet dysfunction, particularly the less abundant delta and gamma/pancreatic polypeptide (PP) cells. Here, we report single cell transcriptomes for 638 cells from non-diabetic (ND) and T2D human islet samples...
November 18, 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855316/a-high-fat-diet-temporarily-renders-sod1-deficient-mice-resistant-to-an-oxidative-insult
#18
Junitsu Ito, Naoki Ishii, Ryusuke Akihara, Jaeyong Lee, Toshihiro Kurahashi, Takujiro Homma, Ryo Kawasaki, Junichi Fujii
Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease may subsequently develop nonalcoholic steatohepatitis after suffering from a second insult, such as oxidative stress. Aim of this study was to investigate the pathogenesis of the liver injury caused when lipids accumulate under conditions of intrinsic oxidative stress using mice that are deficient in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and the leptin receptor (Lepr). We established Sod1(-/-)::Lepr(db/db) mice and carried out analyses of four groups of genetically modified mice, namely, wild type, Sod1(-/-), Lepr(db/db) and Sod1(-/-)::Lepr(db/db) mice...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842582/leptin-and-insulin-up-regulate-mir-4443-to-suppress-ncoa1-and-traf4-and-decrease-the-invasiveness-of-human-colon-cancer-cells
#19
Ari Meerson, Hila Yehuda
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Normal and tumor cells respond to metabolic hormones, such as leptin and insulin. Thus, obesity-associated resistance to these hormones likely leads to changes in gene expression and behavior of tumor cells. However, the mechanisms affected by leptin and insulin signaling in CRC cells remain mostly unknown. METHODS: We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of tumorigenesis-related gene expression in CRC cells by leptin and insulin...
November 14, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831918/17%C3%AE-estradiol-suppresses-visceral-adipogenesis-and-activates-brown-adipose-tissue-specific-gene-expression
#20
Saad Misfer Al-Qahtani, Galyna Bryzgalova, Ismael Valladolid-Acebes, Marion Korach-André, Karin Dahlman-Wright, Suad Efendić, Per-Olof Berggren, Neil Portwood
Both functional ovaries and estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Understanding the mechanisms underlying the antidiabetic effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) may permit the development of a molecular targeting strategy for the treatment of metabolic disease. This study examines how the promotion of insulin sensitivity and weight loss by E2 treatment in high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed mice involve several anti-adipogenic processes in the visceral adipose tissue. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed specific reductions in visceral adipose tissue volume in HFD+E2 mice, compared with HFD mice...
November 10, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
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