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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209485/effects-of-clozapine-on-adipokine-secretions-productions-and-lipid-droplets-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#1
Tomomi Tsubai, Akira Yoshimi, Yoji Hamada, Makoto Nakao, Hiroshi Arima, Yutaka Oiso, Yukihiro Noda
Clozapine, a second-generation antipsychotic (SGA), is a cause of side effects related to metabolic syndrome. The participation of serotonin 5-HT2C and histamine H1 receptors in the central nervous system has been reported as a mechanism of the weight gain caused by clozapine. In the present study, we investigated the direct pharmacological action of clozapine on the 3T3-L1 adipocytes and compared it to that of blonanserin, an SGA with low affinity for both receptors. Short-term exposure to clozapine decreased secretion and mRNA expression of leptin...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195351/association-of-adipoq-leptin-lepr-and-resistin-polymorphisms-with-obesity-parameters-in-hammam-sousse-sahloul-heart-study
#2
Nesrine Zayani, Asma Omezzine, Imen Boumaiza, Ons Achour, Lamia Rebhi, Jihen Rejeb, Nabila Ben Rejeb, Ahmed Ben Abdelaziz, Ali Bouslama
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of adipokines, such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ), leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR), and resistin (RETN) which may be implicated in obesity. Some adipokines' polymorphisms of genes might influence their concentrations and/or activities. Our aim was to study the relationship between seven SNPs in ADIPOQ (+45T<G (rs2241766); +276G<T (rs1501299); -4255C<T (rs822393); -395G<T (rs17366568)), LEP (2548G<A (rs7799039)), LEPR (223Q<R (rs1137101)), and RETN (-420C<G (rs1862513)) and obesity in Hammam Sousse Sahloul Heart Study (HSHS)...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194261/gelidium-amansii-extract-ameliorates-obesity-by-down-regulating-adipogenic-transcription-factors-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#3
Ji-Hye Kang, Hyun-Ah Lee, Hak-Ju Kim, Ji-Sook Han
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated whether Gelidium amansii extract (GAE) ameliorates obesity in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. MATERIALS/METHODS: The mice were maintained on a high-fat diet (HD) for 5 weeks to generate the DIO mouse model. And then mice fed HD plus 0.5% (GAE1), 1% (GAE2) or 2% (GAE3) for 8 weeks. RESULTS: After the experimental period, GAE-supplemented groups were significantly lower than the HD group in body weight gain and liver weight...
February 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193789/enriching-islet-phospholipids-with-eicosapentaenoic-acid-reduces-prostaglandin-e2-signaling-and-enhances-diabetic-%C3%AE-cell-function
#4
Joshua C Neuman, Michael D Schaid, Allison L Brill, Rachel J Fenske, Carly R Kibbe, Danielle A Fontaine, Sophia M Sdao, Harpreet K Brar, Kelsey M Connors, Haley N Wienkes, Kevin W Eliceiri, Matthew J Merrins, Dawn B Davis, Michelle E Kimple
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is derived from arachidonic acid, while PGE3 is derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) using the same downstream metabolic enzymes. Little is known about the impact of EPA and PGE3 on β-cell function, particularly in the diabetic state. In this work, we determined PGE3 elicits a 10-fold weaker reduction in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through the EP3 receptor as compared to PGE2 We tested the hypothesis that enriching pancreatic islet cell membranes with EPA, thereby reducing arachidonic acid abundance, would positively impact β-cell function in the diabetic state...
February 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192604/dapagliflozin-lowered-blood-glucose-reduces-respiratory-p-aeruginosa-infection-in-diabetic-mice
#5
Annika Åstrand, Cecilia Wingren, Audra Benjamin, John S Tregoning, James P Garnett, Helen Groves, Simren Gill, Maria Orogo-Wenn, Anders J Lundqvist, Dafydd Walters, David M Smith, John D Taylor, Emma H Baker, Deborah L Baines
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hyperglycaemia increases glucose concentrations in airway surface liquid (ASL) and increases the risk of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. We determined whether reduction of blood and airway glucose concentrations by the anti-diabetic drug dapagliflozin could reduce P. aeruginosa growth/survival in the lungs of diabetic mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effect of dapagliflozin on blood and airway glucose concentration, the inflammatory response and infection were investigated in C57BL/6 J (wild type, WT) or db/db (leptin receptor-deficient) mice, treated orally with dapagliflozin prior to intranasal dosing with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or inoculation with P...
February 13, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191524/renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-in-insulin-resistance-and-metabolic-syndrome
#6
Undurti N Das
Obesity and its consequent complications such as hypertension and metabolic syndrome are increasing in incidence in almost all countries. Insulin resistance is common in obesity. Renin- angiotensin system (RAS) is an important target in the treatment of hypertension and drugs that act on RAS improve insulin resistance and decrease the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, explaining the close association between hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. RAS influences food intake by modulating the hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y and orexins via AMPK dephosphorylation...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190851/circulating-leptin-soluble-leptin-receptor-free-leptin-index-visfatin-and-selected-leptin-and-leptin-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-in-sporadic-breast-cancer
#7
Chrishani Rodrigo, Kamani Hemamala Tennekoon, Eric Hamilton Karunanayake, Kanishka De Silva, Indrani Amarasinghe, Ananda Wijayasiri
Leptin and visfatin are implicated in breast cancer risk but studies accounting for bioavailability of leptin are sparse. Reports on the association of leptin gene (LEP) and leptin receptor gene (LEPR) polymorphisms with breast cancer are also inconsistent. Only a very few studies have examined biochemical and genetic variables concomitantly in the same cohort. A matched pairs study was carried out to ascertain whether plasma leptin, soluble leptin receptor, free leptin index (leptin/soluble leptin receptor), serum visfatin and selected LEP and LEPR polymorphisms are risk factors for sporadic breast cancer...
February 11, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190775/drp1-suppresses-leptin-and-glucose-sensing-of-pomc-neurons
#8
Anna Santoro, Michela Campolo, Chen Liu, Hiromi Sesaki, Rosaria Meli, Zhong-Wu Liu, Jung Dae Kim, Sabrina Diano
Hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons regulate energy and glucose metabolism. Intracellular mechanisms that enable these neurons to respond to changes in metabolic environment are ill defined. Here we show reduced expression of activated dynamin-related protein (pDRP1), a mitochondrial fission regulator, in POMC neurons of fed mice. These POMC neurons displayed increased mitochondrial size and aspect ratio compared to POMC neurons of fasted animals. Inducible deletion of DRP1 of mature POMC neurons (Drp1(fl/fl)-POMC-cre:ER(T2)) resulted in improved leptin sensitivity and glucose responsiveness...
January 30, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188048/prognostic-value-of-leptin-receptor-overexpression-in-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinomas-in-taiwan
#9
Yi-Chen Lee, Wen-Jeng Wu, Hui-Hui Lin, Wei-Ming Li, Chun-Nung Huang, Wei-Chi Hsu, Lin-Li Chang, Ching-Chia Li, Hsin-Chih Yeh, Chien-Feng Li, Hung-Lung Ke
OBJECTIVES: Leptin and its receptor (LEPR) are key players in the regulation of energy balance and body weight control and act as a growth factor for specific organs in both normal and disease states. However, LEPR accumulation may be involved in carcinogenesis, progression, and metastasis in many cancers. This study evaluated the clinical significance of LEPR expression in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: LEPR expression was examined in 110 tissue samples from patients with UTUC, using immunohistochemistry, and an analysis was performed to identify evidence of association between LEPR expression and different clinicopathologic variables...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186389/the-role-of-5-ht2c-receptor-on-corticosterone-mediated-food-intake
#10
Tongtong Ge, Zhuo Zhang, Jiayin Lv, Yunong Song, Jie Fan, Wei Liu, Xuefeng Wang, F Scott Hall, Bingjin Li, Ranji Cui
Corticosterone plays an important role in feeding behavior. However, its mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of corticosterone on feeding behavior. In this study, cumulative food intake was increased by acute corticosterone administration in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of the 5-HT2c receptor agonist m-chlorophenylpiperazin (mCPP) reversed the effect of corticosterone on food intake. The anorectic effects of mCPP were also blocked by the 5-HT2c receptor antagonist RS102221 in corticosterone-treated mice...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183093/putative-effects-of-obesity-on-linear-growth-and-puberty%C3%A2
#11
Shlomit Shalitin, Wieland Kiess
Childhood obesity is a major public health problem that has grown to epidemic proportions throughout the world. Obesity is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The nutritional status plays an important role in growth and body weight regulation. Excess adiposity during childhood can affect the process of growth and puberty. Obese children are frequently tall for their age, with accelerated epiphyseal growth plate maturation despite low growth hormone levels. Several regulatory hormones may affect the process of linear growth in the constellation of obesity, as high levels of insulin and leptin are observed in obese children...
February 9, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179125/exercise-increases-leptin-levels-correlated-with-igf-1-in-hippocampus-and-prefrontal-cortex-of-adolescent-male-and-female-rats
#12
Nazan Uysal, Sinem Agilkaya, Ali Riza Sisman, Ulas Mehmet Camsari, Celal Gencoglu, Ayfer Dayi, Ilkay Aksu, Basak Baykara, Sultan Cingoz, Muge Kiray
It is known that regular aerobic exercise has positive effects on hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. We have previously have been able to demonstrate that aerobic exercise increased IGF-1 in hippocampus. Leptin, which is associated with cognitive functions, is also involved in fat metabolism and stimulates energy consumption. While it is known that leptin stimulates IGF-1 production in hepatocytes, little known is on the link between IGF-1 and leptin in brain during aerobic exercise. In this study, we investigated the effects of regular aerobic exercise on leptin, leptin receptor expression levels in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169194/gln223arg-polymorphism-in-the-caucasian-population-and-pro1019pro-polymorphism-in-the-chinese-population-are-risk-factors-for-osas-an-updated-meta-analysis-of-1159-subjects
#13
B Xu, J Liu, T Li, S Liu
BACKGROUND: We conducted a meta-analysis of published literature to identify the correlation between leptin receptor gene polymorphisms and the risk of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). METHODS: Five different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were studied. Only Gln223Arg and Pro1019Pro had multiple studies. Nine studies focused on the correlation between Gln223Arg and Pro1019Pro polymorphisms and OSAS risk. Fixed-effects model or random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled odds ratio (ORs) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI)...
February 3, 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157487/comparison-of-body-composition-and-adipokine-levels-between-thin-and-normal-weight-prepubertal-children
#14
Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz, Joanna Gajewska, Katarzyna Szamotulska, Grażyna Rowicka, Witold Klemarczyk, Magdalena Chełchowska
OBJECTIVE: Thinness can have substantial consequences for child development and health. Adipokines, including leptin and adiponectin, play a significant role in the regulation of important metabolic functions. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between body composition and serum leptin and adiponectin levels in thin and normal-weight children. METHODS: The authors examined 100 healthy prepubertal children, who were divided into two subgroups: thin (n=50) and normal-weight children (n=50)...
February 1, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154537/odor-induced-neuronal-rhythms-in-the-olfactory-bulb-are-profoundly-modified-in-ob-ob-obese-mice
#15
Yan Chelminski, Christophe Magnan, Serge H Luquet, Amandine Everard, Nicolas Meunier, Hirac Gurden, Claire Martin
Leptin, the product of the Ob(Lep) gene, is a peptide hormone that plays a major role in maintaining the balance between food intake and energy expenditure. In the brain, leptin receptors are expressed by hypothalamic cells but also in the olfactory bulb, the first central structure coding for odors, suggesting a precise function of this hormone in odor-evoked activities. Although olfaction plays a key role in feeding behavior, the ability of the olfactory bulb to integrate the energy-related signal leptin is still missing...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152402/molecular-cloning-tissue-distribution-and-pharmacological-characterization-of-melanocortin-4-receptor-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#16
L Li, Z Yang, Y-P Zhang, S He, X-F Liang, Y-X Tao
Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays a pivotal role in the mediation of leptin action on food intake and energy expenditure in mammals. The MC4R has also been identified in several teleosts, and its importance in the regulation of fish energy homeostasis is emerging. We herein reported on the molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and pharmacological characterization of MC4R in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an economically and ecologically important fish. We showed that grass carp MC4R (ciMC4R) consisted of a 981 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 326 amino acids, highly homologous (>95%) to several teleost MC4Rs...
November 21, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146130/effects-of-natural-products-on-fructose-induced-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld
#17
REVIEW
Qian Chen, Tingting Wang, Jian Li, Sijian Wang, Feng Qiu, Haiyang Yu, Yi Zhang, Tao Wang
As a sugar additive, fructose is widely used in processed foods and beverages. Excessive fructose consumption can cause hepatic steatosis and dyslipidemia, leading to the development of metabolic syndrome. Recent research revealed that fructose-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is related to several pathological processes, including: (1) augmenting lipogenesis; (2) leading to mitochondrial dysfunction; (3) stimulating the activation of inflammatory pathways; and (4) causing insulin resistance...
January 31, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144709/glucagon-increase-after-chronic-at1-blockade-is-more-likely-related-to-an-indirect-leptin-dependent-than-to-a-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-dependent-mechanism
#18
Martin Mildner, Helge Müller-Fielitz, Ines Stölting, Olaf Jöhren, Muscha Steckelings, Walter Raasch
AT1 blockers (ARB) prevent diabetes by improving pancreatic β cell function. Less is known about whether α cells are affected although they express angiotensin II (AngII) receptors. We aimed to investigate glucagon release upon AngII stimulation. We determined glucagon release after AngII stimulation (0.01-100 μM) in α cells (InR1G9) and isolated murine islets. We determined plasma glucagon in rats that were chronically treated with AngII (9 μg/h) or the ARBs telmisartan (8 mg/kg/day) and candesartan (16 mg/kg/day) and correlated glucagon with additional hormones (e...
January 31, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144276/leptin-receptor-expression-during-the-progression-of-endometrial-carcinoma-is-correlated-with-estrogen-and-progesterone-receptors
#19
Luis Fernando Méndez-López, Angel Zavala-Pompa, Elva I Cortés-Gutiérrez, Ricardo M Cerda-Flores, Martha I Davila-Rodriguez
INTRODUCTION: The hormone leptin, which is produced in the adipose tissue, may influence tumorigenesis directly via its receptor (Ob-R). Thus, a role for Ob-R in endometrial carcinogenesis has been proposed. However, most studies neither included samples of the entire histological progression of endometrial carcinoma nor examined Ob-R jointly with the estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR, respectively). MATERIAL AND METHODS: To determine the fluctuations of Ob-R, ER, and PR during the histological progression of endometrial carcinoma, we assessed their expression via immunohistochemistry (IHC) in six histological types of endometrium (proliferative, secretory, nonatypical and atypical hyperplasia, and endometrioid and nonendometrioid endometrial carcinoma), in which we performed histopathological and digital scoring for the quantification of receptors...
February 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143489/obesity-and-neuroinflammatory-phenotype-in-mice-lacking-endothelial-megalin
#20
Fernando Bartolome, Desiree Antequera, Eva Tavares, Consuelo Pascual, Rosario Maldonado, Antoni Camins, Eva Carro
BACKGROUND: The multiligand receptor megalin controls the brain uptake of a number of ligands, including insulin and leptin. Despite the role of megalin in the transport of these metabolically relevant hormones, the role of megalin at the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) has not yet been explored in the context of metabolic regulation. METHODS: Here we investigate the role of brain endothelial megalin in energy metabolism and leptin signaling using an endothelial cell-specific megalin deficient (EMD) mouse model...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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