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leptin receptor

Anna King, Anna Brain, Kelsey Hanson, Justin Dittmann, James Vickers, Carmen Fernandez-Martos
Disruption of leptin signalling has been implicated as playing a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Leptin has previously been shown to be affected by amyloid-beta (Aβ)-related signalling; however, pathways that link leptin to the disease pathogenesis have not been determined. To characterize the association between increasing age-dependent Aβ levels with leptin signalling and the vulnerable brain regions in AD, we assessed the mRNA and protein expression profile of leptin and leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) at 9 and 18-month-age in APP/PS1 mice...
March 15, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Hyangju Kang, Youngmin Park, Yongjik Lee, Yun-Joo Yoo, Inhwan Hwang
Plants represent promising systems for producing various recombinant proteins. One key area of focus for improving this technology is developing methods for producing recombinant proteins at high levels. Many methods have been developed to increase the transcript levels of recombinant genes. However, methods for increasing protein production involving steps downstream of transcription, including translation, have not been fully explored. Here, we investigated the effects of N-glycosylation on protein production and provide evidence that N-glycosylation greatly increases the expression levels of ER-targeted recombinant proteins...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tian-Xing Chen, Xiao-Ying Cheng, Yun Wang, Wu Yin
Toosendanin (TSN), a triterpenoid extracted from Melia toosendan, has been reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-arthritic activities. However, its anti-adipogenic effect remains unknown. Here, we found that TSN dose-dependently attenuated lipid accumulation in preadipocytes 3T3-L1 as evidenced by Oil Red O staining. TSN also significantly downregulated mRNA and protein levels of adipocytokines (adiponectin and leptin), CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ), fatty acid synthase, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in adipocytes...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mohammad Reza Dehghani, Mohammad Mehrjardi, Nafi Dilaver, Masoud Tajamolian, Samaneh Enayati, Pirooz Ebrahimi, Mahsa Amoli, Sadaf Farooqi, Reza Maroofian
Congenital Leptin receptor (LEPR) deficiency is a rare genetic cause of early-onset morbid obesity characterised by severe early onset obesity, major hyperphagia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and immune and neuroendocrine/metabolic dysfunction. We identified a homozygous loss-of-function mutation, NM_002303.5:c.464 T > G; p.(Tyr155*), in the LEPR in an extended consanguineous family with multiple individuals affected by early-onset severe obesity and hyperphagia. Interestingly, the LEPR-deficient adult females have extremely high body mass index (BMI) with hypogonadal infertility, the BMI of the affected males began to decline around the onset of puberty (13-15 years) with fertility being preserved...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Isadora C Furigo, Pryscila D S Teixeira, Thais T Zampieri, Frederick Wasinski, Daniella C Buonfiglio, Jose Donato
Several metabolic adaptations emerge during pregnancy and continue through lactation, including increases in food intake and body weight, as well as insulin and leptin resistance. These maternal adaptations are thought to play a role in offspring viability and success. Using a model of attenuated maternal metabolic adaptations induced by ablation of the Socs3 gene in leptin receptor expressing cells (SOCS3 KO mice), our study aimed to investigate whether maternal metabolic changes are required for normal offspring development, and if their absence causes metabolic imbalances in adulthood...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Margaret B Allison, Warren Pan, Alexander MacKenzie, Christa Patterson, Kimi Shah, Tammy Barnes, Wenwen Cheng, Alan Rupp, David P Olson, Martin G Myers
Leptin acts via its receptor (LepRb) to modulate gene expression in hypothalamic LepRb-expressing neurons, thereby controlling energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Despite the importance of the control of gene expression in hypothalamic LepRb neurons for leptin action, the transcriptional targets of LepRb signaling have remained undefined because LepRb cells contribute a small fraction to the aggregate transcriptome of the brain regions in which they reside. We thus employed Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification (TRAP) followed by RNA-seq to isolate and analyze mRNA from the hypothalamic LepRb neurons of wild-type or leptin-deficient ( Lep ob/ob ) mice treated with vehicle or exogenous leptin...
March 13, 2018: Diabetes
Cui Zhang, Liang Li, Yuanda Jiang, Cuicui Wang, Baoming Geng, Yanqiu Wang, Jianling Chen, Fei Liu, Peng Qiu, Guangjie Zhai, Ping Chen, Renfu Quan, Jinfu Wang
Bone formation is linked with osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the bone marrow. Microgravity in spaceflight is known to reduce bone formation. In this study, we used a real microgravity environment of the SJ-10 Recoverable Scientific Satellite to examine the effects of space microgravity on the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). hMSCs were induced toward osteogenic differentiation for 2 and 7 d in a cell culture device mounted on the SJ-10 Satellite...
March 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Alexandre Caron, Heather M Dungan Lemko, Carlos M Castorena, Teppei Fujikawa, Syann Lee, Caleb C Lord, Newaz Ahmed, Charlotte E Lee, William L Holland, Chen Liu, Joel K Elmquist
Leptin is critical for energy balance, glucose homeostasis, and for metabolic and neuroendocrine adaptations to starvation. A prevalent model predicts that leptin's actions are mediated through pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons that express leptin receptors (LEPRs). However, previous studies have used prenatal genetic manipulations, which may be subject to developmental compensation. Here, we tested the direct contribution of POMC neurons expressing LEPRs in regulating energy balance, glucose homeostasis and leptin secretion during fasting using a spatiotemporally controlled Lepr expression mouse model...
March 12, 2018: ELife
Warren Pan, Jessica M Adams, Margaret B Allison, Christa Patterson, Jonathan N Flak, Justin Jones, Garth Strohbehn, James Trevaskis, Christopher J Rhodes, David P Olson, Martin G Myers
The adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin, acts via its receptor (LepRb) on central nervous system neurons to communicate the repletion of long-term energy stores, to decrease food intake and promote energy expenditure. We generated mice that express cre recombinase from the calcitonin receptor (Calcr) locus (Calcrcre mice) to study Calcr-expressing LepRb (LepRbCalcr) neurons, which reside predominantly in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Calcrcre-mediated ablation of LepRb in LepRbCalcrKO mice caused hyperphagic obesity...
March 7, 2018: Endocrinology
Dorota Różańska, Bożena Regulska-Ilow
Anthocyanins are food compounds which belong to polyphenols and can mainly be found in dark fruits (e.g., blueberries, black currants, cranberries) and vegetables (e.g., red cabbage, radish, eggplant). The results of large research have shown that these compounds play an important role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In rodent studies and in studies with isolated omental adipocytes, it was observed that anthocyanins regulated the carbohydrate metabolism in the body due to the upregulation of GLUT4 (insulinregulated glucose transporter) translocation, increased activation of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) in adipose tissue and skeletal muscles as well as increased secretion of adiponectin and leptin...
January 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Paula P Perissinotti, María Celeste Rivero-Echeto, Edgar Garcia-Rill, Verónica Bisagno, Francisco J Urbano
Leptin is an adipose-derived hormone that controls appetite and energy expenditure. Leptin receptors are expressed on extra-hypothalamic ventrobasal (VB) and reticular thalamic (RTN) nuclei from embryonic stages. Here, we studied the effects of pressure-puff, local application of leptin on both synaptic transmission and action potential properties of thalamic neurons in thalamocortical slices. We used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of thalamocortical VB neurons from wild-type (WT) and leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob) mice...
March 8, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Cristina Salmerón
White adipose tissue (AT) is the main lipid storage depot in vertebrates. Initially considered to be a simple lipid store, AT has recently been recognized as playing a role as an endocrine organ that is implicated in processes such as energy homeostasis and as a rich source of stem cells. Interest in adipogenesis has increased not only because of the prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in humans, but also in aquaculture because of the excessive fat deposition experienced in some cultured fish species, which may compromise both their welfare and their final product quality...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
V G C Ribeiro, V A Mendonça, A L C Souza, S F Fonseca, A C R Camargos, V K S Lage, C D C Neves, J M Santos, L A C Teixeira, E L M Vieira, A L Teixeira Junior, B Mezêncio, J S C Fernandes, H R Leite, J R Poortmans, A C R Lacerda
The aims of this study were 1) to characterize the intensity of the vibration stimulation in women diagnosed with fibromyalgia (FM) compared to a control group of healthy women (HW) matched by age and anthropometric parameters, and 2) to investigate the effect of a single session of whole body vibration (WBV) on inflammatory responses. Levels of adipokines, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors (sTNFr1, sTNFr2), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
March 1, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Laís Bhering Martins, Marina Chaves de Oliveira, Zélia Menezes-Garcia, Débora Fernandes Rodrigues, Jaqueline Pereira Lana, Leda Quercia Vieira, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Adaliene Versiani Matos Ferreira
OBJECTIVES: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a well-known cytokine that triggers insulin resistance during obesity development. On the other hand, it is also known that TNF induces a fat mass loss during acute diseases. However, whether TNF has a protective and physiological role to control adipose tissue expansion during obesity still needs to be verified. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the ablation of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) alters fat mass and insulin resistance induced by a highly refined carbohydrate-containing (HC) diet...
July 17, 2017: Nutrition
Bianca A Trombetta, Becky C Carlyle, Aaron M Koenig, Leslie M Shaw, John Q Trojanowski, David A Wolk, Joseph J Locascio, Steven E Arnold
OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease driven by multiple interacting pathophysiological processes that ultimately results in synaptic loss, neuronal death, and dementia. We implemented a fit-for-purpose modeled approach to qualify a broad selection of commercially available immunoassays and evaluate the biotemporal stability of analytes across five pathophysiological domains of interest in AD, including core amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau AD biomarkers, neurodegeneration, inflammation/immune modulation, neurovascular injury, and metabolism/oxidative stress...
2018: PloS One
Gitanjali Srivastava, Caroline Apovian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is a global health crisis with detrimental effects on all organ systems leading to worsening disease state and rising costs of care. Persons with obesity failing lifestyle therapies need to be escalated to appropriate pharmacological treatment modalities, medical devices, and/or bariatric surgery if criteria are met and more aggressive intervention is needed. The progression of severe obesity in the patient population coupled with related co-morbidities necessitates the development of novel therapies for the treatment of obesity...
March 5, 2018: Current Obesity Reports
Abdulkerim Kasım Baltaci, Rasim Mogulkoc
Background Melatonin, an important neurohormone released from the pineal gland, is generally accepted to exercise an inhibitor effect on the thyroid gland. Zinc mediates the effects of many hormones and is found in the structure of numerous hormone receptors. Aim The present study aims to examine the effect of melatonin supplementation and pinealectomy on leptin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), melatonin and zinc levels in rats with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Methods This study was performed on the 70 male rats...
March 2, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Milton Packer
Among patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection (HFpEF), obesity is associated with a distinct phenotype that is characterized by adiposity-driven plasma volume expansion and cardiac overfilling, which is coupled with an impairment of ventricular distensibility. These pathophysiological abnormalities may be related to the increased actions of specific adipocyte-derived signalling molecules (aldosterone, neprilysin and leptin) that work in concert with increased renal sympathetic nerve traffic and activated beta2 -adrenergic receptors to promote sodium retention, microvascular rarefaction, cardiac fibrosis and systemic inflammation...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Heart Failure
Sarmila Nepali, Do-Kuk Kim, Hoon-Yeon Lee, Hyeon-Hui Ki, Bo-Ram Kim, Sung-Woo Hwang, Min Park, Dae-Ki Kim, Young-Mi Lee
The present study was undertaken to investigate the anti‑obesity effect of a 50% ethanol extract of Euphorbia supina (ESEE) in high‑fat‑diet (HFD)‑induced obese C57BL/6J mice. Mice were fed a HFD with or without ESEE (2, 10, or 50 mg/kg) or with Garcinia cambogia (positive control) for 6 weeks. ESEE supplementation significantly reduced body, epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), and organ weights (P<0.05). ESEE also reduced hepatic steatosis and improved serum lipid profiles. In addition, ESEE significantly reduced serum leptin levels and increased adiponectin levels, and significantly downregulated the mRNA and protein levels of proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer‑binding protein alpha (C/EPBα) in eWAT and liver tissues (all P<0...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Shin-Ichi Chisada, Ayano Hirako, Akihiko Sugiyama
Ocular lesions in leptin receptor-deficient medaka were examined histopathologically at 10, 28, and 37 weeks post hatching. Leptin receptor-deficient medaka at 28 and 37 weeks old showed hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. Histopathologically, vacuolation, swelling, fragmentation, and liquefaction of the lens fibers and dilatation of the retinal central veins, retinal capillaries, iridal veins and capillaries, and choroidal veins were observed in leptin receptor-deficient medaka at 28 and 37 weeks old. Thinning of the total retina, pigment epithelial layer, layer of rods and cones, outer granular layer, outer plexiform layer, inner granular layer, and inner plexiform layer was observed in leptin receptor-deficient medaka at 28 and 37 weeks compared with in control medaka...
January 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
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